Imperialism in Latin America and India by MikeJenny


									             Imperialism in Latin America and India

        Bartolomeu Dias: Portuguese explorer who wanted “to serve God and
        His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich
        as all men desire to do.” In 1488, he sailed to the southern tip of Africa
        and with the help of the storm, was moved to the other side of the
        Prince Henry: Prince of Portugal who had great interest in exploration.
        He set up a navigation school where mapmakers, instrument makers,
        shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains perfected their trade. His
        motives for exploration were spices and the expansion of the Christian
        Vasco da Gama: Portuguese explorer who, in 1498, sailed past the
        southern tip of Africa and all the way to Calicut, India. He brought back
        spices such as pepper and cinnamon and returned from their 27,000 mile
        journey in 1499.
        Treaty of Tordesillas: Treaty stating that Spain and Portugal had to
        honor the Line of Demarcation, which was set up stating lands east of the
        line were Portugal’s and lands west of the line were Spain’s.
        Colonies: Lands controlled by another nation.
        New World: Amerigo Vespucci claimed that the land the explorers had
        found was not Asia, but was a new world.
        Ferdinand Magellan: Backed by the Spanish, he took a fleet of five
        ships and 230 men around the southern tip of South America. Supplies
        ran low, but they reached the Philippines. Unfortunately, he was killed
        because of his involvement in a local war and only 18 men from the
        original crew survived and returned to Spain three years later.
        Reconquista: The Spanish recapture of Spain from the Muslims where
        the Spaniards lived among the Muslims and imposed upon them their
        Spanish culture.
        Peninsulares: Spanish settlers to the Americas. They were mostly men.
        Mestizo: A mixed Spanish and Native American race.
        Encomienda: This was a farming system where Spanish landlords
        received the rights to the natives’ labor from Spanish authorities. The
        natives would farm, ranch, or mine. The holders of these plots promised
        Spanish rulers that they would act fairly and respect the workers.
        Unfortunately, many did not follow this and they abused their workers.
        Bartolome de Las Casas: Dominican monk opposed to the use of
        natives in the encomienda system. They Spanish abolished this system
        in 1542 and used African slaves as he had said. Soon after, he realized
        his mistake and was also opposed to the use of Africans.
        Atlantic Slave Trade: The buying and selling of African slaves to work in
        the Americas.
        Triangular Trade: The transatlantic trading network where three different
        entities traded their most abundant item in return for something they
need. One example of triangular trade was between Europe, Africa, and
the West Indies. Europe would send manufactured goods to Africa, pick
up African slaves and bring them to the West Indies, and then pick up
sugar, coffee, and tobacco and bring them back to Europe. Another
triangular trade was between the New England Colonies, Africa, and the
West Indies. Rum and other goods were traded from New England to
Africa, where slaves were picked up and dropped off in the West Indies,
and finally, where sugar and molasses were sent back to the New
England colonies.
Middle Passage: The voyage from Africa to the West Indies trading
African slaves. This was considered the middle passage because it was
considered the middle leg of the transatlantic trade triangle.
Olaudah Equiano: An African man sent from West Africa to the West
Indies in 1756 when he was 11. He recounted his awful experience on
the ship, telling of the stench and how he was treated poorly. Eventually,
he was freed and went to England to rally against slavery.
Columbian Exchange: The global transfer of foods, plants, animals, and
diseases between the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe during the
colonization of the Americas.
Commercial Revolution: The culmination of new wealth through
colonization and trade during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Capitalism: An economic system based on private ownership and the
investment of wealth for profit.
Joint-Stock Company: A company owned by a number of people
pooling their wealth for a common purpose. Each individual pays a
certain share and profits are split accordingly.
Mercantilism: Theory that a country’s power depended mainly on its
wealth. A nation could increase wealth by obtaining as much gold and
silver as possible or establish a favorable balance of trade.
Favorable Balance of Trade: Trade where a country exports more
goods than it imports.
Robert Clive: Once an East India Company employee, he soon became
an army officer winning many victories over the French. In 1756, he was
called in to defeat Muslim forces at Plassey. He then moved on to drive
the Dutch and French from Bengal, which eventually lead to his
appointment as governor of Bengal. In Bengal, he believed the company
would have to take direct control, and so it did.
Diwan: Officials responsible for tax collection. They would bribe
company officials to stay in office, and put pressure on zamindars to
collect larger sums of money from the peasants.
Zamindar: Person who actually collected taxes from peasants and were
allowed to keep a portion of the money they collected.
Princely States: Area controlled by Native rulers spanning 562 states
ranging in size from a few hundred acres to as large as Hyderabad State
(as large as France).
      Suttee: Hindu custom allowing a widow to commit ritual suicide by
      throwing herself on the funeral pyre of her husband.
      Thugee: The practice of offering human sacrifice to Kali, Shiva’s wife and
      the goddess of destruction.
      East India Company: Trading Company set up by the British centered
      on trade in the east (India). They eventually moved into politics and
      came to control parts of India.
      Sepoy: Indian soldiers.
      “Jewel in the crown”: What Britain considered India to be, the most
      valuable of all of its colonies.
      Sepoy Mutiny: Rebellion of the sepoy (Hindu and Muslim) after they
      learned that the cartridges of their new Enfield rifles were sealed with
      beef and pork fat and that they would have to bite of the seal to use these
      cartridges. When the British jailed the soldiers who refused to use these
      cartridges rebellion stirred and on May 10, 1857, it began by the sepoy
      marching into Delhi and capturing it. Their rebellion soon moved to
      northern and central India as well. This rebellion was eventually put
      down by the inability of the Hindus and Muslims to unite.
      Raj: Parts of India under direct British rule. Also referring to the British
      rule over India from 1757-1947. During this time, India was divided into
      11 provinces and about 250 districts.
      Ram Mohun Roy: “Father of Modern India,” he pushed for a more
      modern India. He wanted to stop widow suicide because he saw it as a
      murderous act. He also wanted child marriages and the rigid caste
      system, two parts of religious life, separated so that India could be
      modernized. He felt that if they did not, India would continue to be
      controlled by outsiders. He was pushed to do many of this after
      witnessing his sister throw herself on the funeral pyre of her husband,
      burning alive.


                Motives                               Technology
  -   Heroes (Fame)                         -   Navigation school
  -   Fairy tale (Marco Polo)               -   Maps
  -   Trade (gold and spices)               -   Navigate winds
  -   Evade taxes and middlemen
  -   Christianity
Imperialism- a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries
politically, economically, and.or socially.

       Formal imperialism- Direct control  political control (colony) Ex:SPLA

       Informal imperialism- Indirect Control  economic/social (country stays
       independent) Ex: British East India Co.

Colony- a land controlled by a distant nation.

       Types of colonies
          1. Settlement colonies
              a. Temperate climate (moderate or mild)
              b. Low population densities before settlers arrived
              c. US, Canada, parts of Latin America, Australia, New Zealand,
                  South Africa
          2. Slave Plantation Colonies
              a. Hot- cash crops like sugar
              b. Small indigenous (native) population
              c. Brazil, Southern US, Caribbean
          3. Trading/tributary/monopoly colonies
              a. Hot
              b. Coastal, large population densities (trading posts)
              c. India, Southeast Asia, coastal Africa

Colonialism- the process of taking and having colonies

Monopoly- a group’s exclusive control over the production and distribution of
certain goods.

Cash crops- crops that are raised for export and for sale rather than for one’s
own use (coffee, tobacco, sugar, cotton)

Mercantilism- an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their
wealth and power by obtaining colonies. Large amounts of gold and silver and
by selling more goods than they bought (favorable balance of trade).
Government controlled the economy!

       Internal Slavery (Africa)                 External Slavery (America)
   -   Africans enslave Africans             -    Europeans enslave Africans
   -   Not hereditary                        -    Hereditary
   -   Not racial                            -    Racial
   -   Not as harsh                          -    Harsh punishments
   -   More like family                      -    Unfamiliar culture
   -   Familiar culture                      -    No rights
   -   Some rights
         -   Buy Freedom

      Impact on Africa
                                                               -   Weaken gov.- open to
        A Vicious Cycle                                            European colonization
           More slaves                                         -   Lose large part of pop, (best
                                                                   and brightest)
                                                               -   Economy focused on slave
                                  More guns                        trade, not on cash crops or
                                                                   industry- economically
        More Wars
                                                               -   Disrupt families and culture
      Triangular Trade


          Cotton, sugar, tobacco, molasses                         Manufactured
                                                                   goods (guns)

   Americas                                                         Africa

                                     (Middle Passage)

                      Protection, Manufactured goods
                     Raw materials (gold, silver, and sugar)          Can only trade
Favorable balance                                                     with mother
of trade                                                              country. No
Export > Import                                                       manufacturing.
       Impact: mother country gains wealth (gold/silver). Colony tries to smuggle.
       Colony depletes natural resources.
       Colonial Government

                                   Spanish King and Queen

                                   Council of Indes (in Spain)

                             Viceroy/Governor (peninsulares in LA)

                                    Administrators, Judges

                               Large Bureaucracy (taxes/tribute)

                                      Cacique (local ruler)

       Colonial Social Structure (Racial)

                                                                 Peninsulares- born in
                             Viceroy, Judges                     Spain (Iberian Peninsula)

                                                                       Social mobility through:
                                                                       b)child birth in Spain
                                      Creoles- Born in L. A.
                                      Priests, Lesser gov jobs

                                    Mestizos- mixed Sp & NA

Artisans, small merchants,
                                   Mulatto- mixed Sp & Africa

                                        Native American

                                           African Slaves
  Colonial Labor Systems

                                         Encomienda                                                                 A Spanish settler is
                                        (“entrustment”)                                                             given land and
                                                                                                                    entrusted with the
                                                                                                                    workers and labor.

                                                           c m
                                                       Q ui kTi e ™ an d a
                                              TI FF ( Unc om pr ess ed ) d eco m pr e ss or
                                                                           s c
                                                 ar e nee de d t o see t hi pi t ur e.

                                                         Forced labor

      After de Las Casas objections, ends in 1542.

                                      (“estate or ranch”)


                                                           c m
                                                       Q ui kTi e ™ an d a
                                              TI FF ( Unc om pr ess ed ) d eco m pr e ss or
                                                                           s c
                                                 ar e nee de d t o see t hi pi t ur e.

                                                                                                      $- wages, loans

                  family                                                                                      landowner
 Like sharecropping in US.
 Problem- debt (free wage labor turns to debt

                                                                                                                      Plantation Owner
No wages, no control over labor.                                                                      labor
                                                           c m
                                                       Q ui kTi e ™ an d a
                                              TI FF ( Unc om pr ess ed ) d eco m pr e ss or
                                                                           s c
                                                 ar e nee de d t o see t hi pi t ur e.

Sugar, sugar sugar- Brazil,
Caribbean. Ended in 1888 in
The Columbian Exchange

                Positive                                 Negative
   -   Spread of new foods to Europe,         -   Spread of disease to the Native
       Africa, and Asia                           American people.
   -   Spread of new foods to the
   -   Spread of new livestock to the
   -   Increased wealth for European
   -   Increased wealth for Joint-Stock

Catholic Church
             Advantages                                Disadvantages
   - Some priests (de Las Casas)              -   Unity of Church and State
      protested abuses of N.A.                        o No tolerance
   - Missions: Schools, hospitals,            -   Largest landowner in L.A.- N.A.
      help poor                                   worked land on haciendas
   - Christianity blended with native         -   Church allied with Spanish gov
      beliefs (syncretism) ex. Virgin of      -   Forced conversions
      Guadalupe, Day of Dead                      (Inquisitions) used methods of
                                                  Reconquissta when Christians
                                                  retook Spain from Muslims
Note: First inquisition during Reconquista.
INFROMAL                                                    FORMAL IMPERIALISM
IMPERIALISM                            (CRISIS)
Trading posts, joint stock
India                                                       India becomes formal colony
British East India                                          of Britain
Company                                  Crisis             Government structure:
Miniature Gov                                               King and Parliament (BR)
    - Governor                       Sepoy Mutiny           Viceroy
    - Legislative council               1857                11 provinces
    - Army                                                  250 districts
    - Collect taxes                                         civil service (British/Indians)
(Muhgals weaker)                                            sepoys

                                   British Strategy in India
   1. Divide and conquer
          a. Hindu/Muslim rivalries
          b. Caste/social rivalries
          c. Regional rivalries (princely states)
   2. Work with local rulers- rajas, Muhgal rulers, zamindars
          a. Give $, gifts, protection
   3. Weaker local rulers and take advantage of them
          a. Make them puppets
   4. Move in from coast to interior
   5. Economic investments- foster transportation and trade
          a. Railroads, machinery, roads
   6. Assimilate Indias
          a. Educate elite  civil service
            Positive Effects of Imperialism on   Negative Effects of Imperialism on
                      Latin America                        Latin America
            Unify L.A.                           Aztec & Inca Empires collapse
            Civil service                        Caciques weak
                                                 Spanish take land

            Columbian Exchange                   Encomienda and slavery- forced
                  -tech. like wheel              labor
                   - animals like horses         Haciendas – like sharecropping
                   -crops like sugar, bananas    Peasants in debt, no land
            Increased agricultural production    Mines – use up all gold, silver
                                                 Cash crop economy (not self
                                                 Mercantilism – no manufacturing,
                                                 can’t trade with anyone else

                                                 L.A.                            Spain
                                                            Raw materials
                                                           Gold, silver, sugar

                                                             Manufactured goods

Social      Missions – schools                   N.A. population declines – disease
                       Hospitals                 Assimilation
                        Help poor                   Sp. Culture
            Social mobility                         Christianity – forced conversions
            Assimilation                         &
            End human sacrifices                                     Inquisition
            New culture develops – mix N.A.,        Sp. Language
            Sp.                                     Loss of culture
                                    & African       Made to feel inferior

                                                 Harsh punishments and abuse of
                                                 N.A. and
                                                     African slaves

            Positive Effects of Imperialism on Negative Effects of Imperialism on
                             India                                   India
Political   British unified 2/3 of India           End of Mughal Empire
            Established an efficient civil service Muslim and local rulers lose power
            (best jobs to British)                 Abolish diwans
                                                   Zamindars become tax collectors and
                                                   landlords for British

Economic Develop infrastructure                  High taxes
         -RR, roads, etc.                        Cash crop economy
                                                 Lose local industry – esp. textiles
                                                 Artisans lose skills
                                                 No longer self sufficient

                                                 India                        Britain
                                                          Spices, cotton, silk,
                                                          (opium to China)

                                                          Manufactured goods, cloth/
                                                          Textiles, machines, metals,

Social      Education                              Assimilation
               – British language and culture      - European culture pushed on
               – Trained elite class                   Indians
            Civil service provided social mobility - Made to feel inferior
            Assimilation                           Increased tensions
            Abolish suttee (widow suicide)         -religious
            Abolish thugee (human sacrifice)       -caste
Spanish Explorers
(Columbus, Magellan)
Portuguese Explorers
(Dias, Da Gama, Cabral)

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