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					AARHUS
UNIVERSITY


              The essential quality factors to
             achieve excellence in university
                                    education
                     Rector Lauritz B. Holm-Nielsen




                                                          Santander July 8,
AARHUS                   RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
UNIVERSITY
                                                                          1
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                          2
A global market for education and research

                  Distance has disappeared and now
                  the challenge is for universities to
                  stay competitive in a developing
                  global market for higher education
                  and research




                                                             Santander July 8,
   AARHUS                   RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
   UNIVERSITY
                                                                             3
Student mobility increasing




                                                           Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
Foreign students in tertiary education




             % of international students enrolled
             Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2005
Global challenges for universities

•   Increased mobility and competition to
    attract the best
•   Increased liberalization and trading in
    educational programs (WTO-GATS)
•   Increased competition for funding
•   Increased convergence of national higher
    education systems
    (Bologna, ECTS, EULAC etc.)



                                                                                Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                                  RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                                6
                                              Santander July 8,
AARHUS       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
UNIVERSITY
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                          8
Key principles of the Bologna declaration

Key principles adopted by Ministers of Education of 29 European
countries in Bologna, June 19, 1999:
 • Adoption of a system of readable and comparable degrees
 • Adoption of a system based on 2 cycles, undergraduate and graduate
 • Establishment of a system of credits (ECTS)
 • Promotion of mobility
 • Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance




                                                                             Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                                 RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
                                                                                             9
Bologna – how?

• A voluntary process
• Aided by the regional political/economic cooperation framework of the
 European Union, but not driven by the EU
• Emphasis on harmonisation and not homogenisation: Each country
 delivers their own reform in line with Bologna
• Emphasis on student centered learning: It is about what we learn, not
 the diploma
• A unique ‘stakeholder’ driven process

                                                                           Santander July 8,
      AARHUS                              RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
      UNIVERSITY
 Bologna achievements

• Massive legislative and institutional reform all over Europe
 • Three-cycle system
 • Tools for transparency and recognition
 • National and European qualifications frameworks that are learning outcome
   oriented
• A common language and framework for higher education has been
 created
• The Process itself is consolidated and recognized globally as a good
 example of regional co-operation


                                                                               Santander July 8,
        AARHUS                                RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
Bologna process – 3-cycle structure



Years
                     2007: 83% of HEIs have the 3-cycle
                     structure in place > using common
                     tools: (ECTS & DS)




                                                           Santander July 8,
        AARHUS            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
                                                                          12
 Is Bologna successful?

• Future of European HE not just a question of the Bologna process
 only
• Europe is not isolated: Increased international interdependencies
 • Communicating Bologna and relating it to other regions
 • Need to think and work in a global framework
• Global pressures + challenges
 •   Governance, autonomy and funding are still major questions
 •   Competition for brains, funding, resources
 •   Demographic changes
 •   Global issues such as energy, climate, health, economies, trade


                                                                                  Santander July 8,
          AARHUS                                 RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
          UNIVERSITY
Basismidler efter kvalitet




Thanks for
the attention
rector@au.d                  14
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        15
2009 Leuven Communiqué


• The 46 countries participating in the Bologna Process have adopted
 the Leuven/Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué, setting out the
 priorities for the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) for the
 next decade




                                                                       Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
                                                                                      16
Excerpts from the communiqué

 • Learning for the future - European higher education priorities for
  the decade to come:
    •   Social dimension: equitable access and completion
    •   Mobility: by 2020 20% of all students should have a study period abroad
    •   Mobility: facilitate mobility of early stage researchers
    •   Lifelong Learning
    •   International Openness

 • The organisational structure
    • Interaction with experts and policy makers from other policy areas - e.g.
      research, immigration, social security, employment


                                                                                Santander July 8,
        AARHUS                                 RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
                                                                                               17
                                              Santander July 8,
AARHUS       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN
                                                         18
                                                          2010
UNIVERSITY
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        19
Characteristics of the international
market for education

•Foreign students participating in national education
•Focus on joint–degrees
•Increased supply of educations abroad (off-shore)
•Virtual universities




                                                                  Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
The international market for higher
education

• OECD countries receive 90-95% of all foreign students

• 61% of the foreign students come from non-OECD countries

• 5 countries receive 70% of all foreign students in the OECD area:
  USA (28%), UK (12%), Tyskland (11%), Frankrig (10%), Australien
  (9%)



                                                   Source: OECD Education at a Glance
                                                   2005



                                                                                Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                          RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN                        2010
     UNIVERSITY
Instruments at the market for education

                          Quality assurance

      Financing –                                       Financing –
        Demand                                             Supply




 Institutional capacity
       locally &                                          Marketing
    internationally
                               Market
                            transparency


                                                                            Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                                RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
Case study: The World Bank strategy for
higher education in Latin America

     Pillar           Components                              Addressing

                      1. Institutional
  Improving
                     Capacity Building                          Relevance
  Public Sector’s
  Performance         2. PublicFunding
                                                                  Quality
                    3. Quality Assurance
                        Mechanisms
  Building a
  Market for          4. Labor Market                           Enrolment
  HigherEducation      Observatories

                     5. Student Finance                            Equity


                                                                            Santander July 8,
   AARHUS                                RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN                2010
   UNIVERSITY
                                              Santander July 8,
AARHUS       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
UNIVERSITY
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        25
ECTS Label – the case of Aarhus University




                                                         Santander July 8,
   AARHUS               RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
   UNIVERSITY
ECTS Label – University of Aarhus

• Decision by management in 2005 to apply for an ECTS Label
• Formalised and officialised in a contract with the The Ministry of
 Science, Technology and Innovation
• Awarded in 2009 for 2009-2013




                                                                         Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                             RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
Why ECTS label?

• Within the university
 • To organise and harmonise structure (programme, credit allocation etc.) and
   presentation of studies and courses
 • To promote internal flexibility (credit transfer etc.)
 • To create an internal market


• Between universities (national + international)
 • Full institutional and programme transparency
 • Quality assurance of administrative procedures concerning student mobility
 • Expressing international commitment



                                                                              Santander July 8,
      AARHUS                                 RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
      UNIVERSITY
                                                                                             28
ECTS Label


• An ECTS label can be awarded to institutions which apply ECTS
 correctly in all first and second cycle degree programmes

• The criteria for the ECTS label include:
 • an Information Package/Course Catalogue in the local/national language
   and in English (online or hard copy)
 • correct use of ECTS – also in Erasmus mobility (including samples of
   Learning Agreements, Transcripts of Records and proof of full academic
   recognition for Erasmus students)




                                                                            Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                                RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
Who has been awarded ECTS label?

• 2004: 91 applications, 11 awarded label
• 2005: 70 applications, 3 awarded label
• 2006: 49 applications, 7 awarded label
• 2009: 63 applications, 23 awarded label




                                                                       Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
 How did we organise the project:
 Project organization
                                  Project owner
                                  Management
                               (rectory and deans)



                      Project manager




                               Steering committee



                                                                       Working group:
   Working group:      Working group:      Working group:
                                                                       Application and
Information Package   Course Catalogue   Programme structure
                                                                       documentation
                                                                               Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                                 RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
Phase 1: Strategic/political

• project plan and project organization was established
• necessary changes in programme structure were pointed out
• management decided on general structure and general system
  standards
• project and general changes were introduced to institutional
  leaders and key members of staff




                                                                     Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                          RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
Phase 2: System development and support

• collective system for handling of study programmes was
  developed
• collective system for handling of dynamic course catalogue was
  developed
• homepage structure and form was decided
• graphic presentation of programmes was decided
• form and structure of course catalogue was decided
• process of documentation gathering was decided



                                                                      Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                          RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
Phase 3: Implementation and adaption of
standards
• programme structure was adapted (faculties)
• study regulations/ study programmes were adapted (board of
  studies)
• course descriptions were generated (board of studies, teachers)
• general information and presentations were produced
• translation of general information and presentations
• translation of study regulations / study programmes
• documentation was collected



                                                                      Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
Phase 4: Application and general launch

• the complete information package was published
• a dynamic course catalogue (for the coming two semesters) was
  published
• quality assurance check of all criteria and standards was made
• application was sent
• project evaluation
• day to day management of label criteria and standards was
  planned



                                                                      Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
Key issues concerning ECTS

• All study programmes consist of 30 ECTS each semester
• All students will acquire exactly 30 ECTS if they pass a semester
 in accordance with the study programme
• All courses/exams are multiply of 5 ECTS and none are smaller
 then 5 ECTS




                                                                       Santander July 8,
     AARHUS                           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
     UNIVERSITY
                                              Santander July 8,
AARHUS       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
UNIVERSITY
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        38
Increased external focus on quality


• ESD – European Standards and Guidelines
• The Danish University Act of 2003
• The Danish Accreditation Act of 2007




                                                                          Santander July 8,
      AARHUS                             RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
      UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        39
Principles for quality assurance work
- the case of Aarhus University
                      4.                 1.
                 Analysis and        Objectives
                  Follow-up         and resources




                       3.               2.
                    Evaluation    Performance of
                                    the activity




                                                                  Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
                                                                                40
6 focus areas and 1 cross-cutting theme

 Recruitment   Structure   Development       Study        Development        The relationship
    and            and      of teaching    environment      of degree        between degree
 enrolment     process     methodologies                  programmes         programmes and
                                                                              the job market




                                   Internationalisation




                                                                                      Santander July 8,
      AARHUS                                         RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
      UNIVERSITY
1. Objectives for recruitment and enrolment
• Make applicants familiar with degree programmes and
  student life through systematic information and
  guidance
• Special emphasis on the transparancy of the
  prerequisites that apply to international students
• Promote access to degree programmes for students
  with special needs
• Offer flexible access from Bachelor’s to Master’s
  degree programmes
• Focus on marketing and the use of contemporary
  media




                                                                                         Santander July 8,
          AARHUS                                        RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
          UNIVERSITY
2. Objectives for structure and process

• Create transparency in the planning, structure, content
  and coherence of the programmes
• Offer guidance to help clarifying choices and
  consequences of different options
• Organise degree programmes to ensure progress
• Awareness of the responsibilities for degree
  programmes
• Create possibilities for obtaining full credit for studies at
  international universities
• Offer intensive summer courses that enable students to
  catch up or get ahead of the study plan




                                                                                                   Santander July 8,
         AARHUS                                                   RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
         UNIVERSITY
3. Objectives for development of teaching
methodologies
• Ensure that an active researcher is
  responsible for the teaching offered
• Create effective motivational structures with
  clearly communicated learning goals and
  assessment criteria
• Develop contemporary forms of examination
• Ensure assesments according to publicly
  available criteria, rules and procedures
• Develop systematic teaching evaluations
  based on learning and evaluation theories




                                                                                   Santander July 8,
        AARHUS                                    RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
3. Objectives for development of teaching
methodologies (cont.)
• Build, maintain and further develop the
  didactic skills of the lecturers
• Focus on teaching competences when filling
  positions and increase the research
  component of teaching
• Strengthen the association of part-time
  lecturers with full-time academic staff
• Develop and strengthen the language skills of
  the lecturers
• Enable the lecturers to deal with differences of
  language and culture




                                                                                      Santander July 8,
         AARHUS                                      RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
         UNIVERSITY
4. Objectives for study environment

• Promote and strengthen the study environment
  in consultation with the students
• Promote the retention of students with special
  needs
• Offer academic guidance and feedback
• Facilitate social interaction
• Offer the best possible physical and aesthetic
  surroundings and technological aids
• Strengthen the academic and social integration
  of international students




                                                                                    Santander July 8,
          AARHUS                                   RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
          UNIVERSITY
5. Objectives for the development of degree
programmes
• Develop the academic profile by systematically
  evaluating degree programmes
• Develop new degree programmes that meet
  current and future needs in consultation with
  employers
• Enable students to get credits for completed
  components if changing to another degree
  programme
• Develop and offer international degree
  programmes in collaboration with internationally
  renowned partner universities




                                                                                      Santander July 8,
        AARHUS                                       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
6. Objectives for labour market relations
• Promote insight into and contact with the future
  job market and business community
• Offer information and career guidance
• Undertake regular surveys of the job situation
  and consult with both alumni and employers
• Develop external communication forms that
  contribute to the development of the degree
  programmes




                                                                                      Santander July 8,
        AARHUS                                       RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
        UNIVERSITY
[TITLE WITH CAPITAL LETTERS]




                                                     Santander July 8,
   AARHUS           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
   UNIVERSITY
Agenda


• A global market for education and research
• The Bologna process
• Beyond the Bologna process
• The functioning of the international market for education
• ECTS label as a tool in quality assurance
• Case study: A policy for quality assurance in education
• Closing remarks
                                                                          Santander July 8,
       AARHUS                            RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
       UNIVERSITY
                                                                                        50
The real challenge is not funding but competing for
the most advanced human capital




                 Nobel Laureate professor Jens Christian Skou, Aarhus University,
                               The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1997
                                                                                   Santander July 8,
    AARHUS                                        RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
    UNIVERSITY
 AARHUS
 UNIVERSITY




Muchas Gracias!
www.au.dk/en
rektor@au.dk

                                                   Santander July 8,
 AARHUS           RECTOR LAURITZ B. HOLM-NIELSEN              2010
 UNIVERSITY

				
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