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Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces

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					Designing and Evaluating
DSS User Interfaces


   Why is the user interface the most
   important component of a DSS?




                                        1
  User Interface: An
  Overview

   A set of menus, icons, commands,
    graphics
   Hardware and software
   Provides cues for desired actions by the
    user
                                                            A User Interface
                                                            puzzle



Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power                      2
  User Interface: An
  Overview

   A well-designed user interface can:
             Increase human processing speed
             Reduce errors
             Increase productivity
             Create a sense of user control




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   3
Issues Related to Building an
Interface

User interface style
  Is the style or combination of styles
   appropriate? What styles are used in the user
   interface?
Screen design and layout
  Is the design easy to understand and
   attractive? Is the design symmetric and
   balanced?

                                               4
Issues Related to Building an
Interface

The human-software interaction sequence
  Is the interaction developed by the software
   logical and intuitive? Do people respond
   predictably to the interaction sequence?
Use of colors, lines and graphics
  Are colors used appropriately? Do graphics
   improve the design or distract the user?


                                                  5
Issues Related to Building an
Interface

Information density
  Is too much information presented on a
   screen? Can users control the information
   density?
Use of icons and symbols
  Are icons understandable?
Choice of input and output devices
  Do the devices fit the task?
                                               6
  User Interface Input Styles

   Command-line Interfaces
   Menu Interfaces
   Graphical User Interfaces
   Question and Answer Interfaces
   Voice, touch, immersive      Building Blocks

   Most DSS use a combination of styles


Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   7
  Command-Line
           a method of interacting with a computer via a text
           terminal. Commands are entered as typed characters
           from a keyboard and output is also received as text. The
           > carat is the command prompt.

                >RUN Analyzer
                >LOAD sales.dat
                >DISPLAY CHART




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power             8
                                                            a list of entries for the user to
  Menu                                                      choose from




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power                                       9
  Graphical User Interface
     A graphical user interface or GUI (pronounced "gooey")




                                                            use a
                                                            mouse
                                                            pointer to
                                                            act on
                                                            objects




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power           10
  Question and Answer




 A type of dialogue in which a
 computer displays questions, one at
 a time, for a user to answer.




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   11
  Voice, touch, immersive

    Voice Command Language
    Natural language
    Immersive 3D User Interface
    A CAVE with four sides (three walls
    and a floor) is used as a display and
    interaction space.


Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   12
  ROMC Design Approach

   Representations                                         100
                                                             80

   Operations                                               60
                                                             40
                                                                                          E ast
                                                                                          West


   Memory Aids
                                                             20                           North
                                                              0
                                                                  1st   2nd   3rd   4th


   Control Aids
                                                                  Qtr   Qtr   Qtr   Qtr




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power                                         13
  Innovative Representations




Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   14
Operations

Operations are specific tasks that a decision-
 maker can perform with a DSS
For example, a DSS may have operators to
 gather data, generate a report, retrieve
 alternatives, rate alternatives, add alternatives,
 etc.
Analysts need to decide how operations will be
 controlled from the user interface. Will menus
 be used? Icons?

                                                      15
Memory Aids

Support the use of representations and
 operations
Example: icon tips




                                          16
Control Aids

DSS control aids are intended to help
 decision-makers use representations,
 operations and memory aids
Control aids help decision-makers direct
 the use of the DSS
Generic control aids
  Save, edit, undo, and delete


                                            17
  Building the DSS User
  Interface

    Get started - identify the user,
    brainstorm capabilities
    Design screens and respond quickly to
    feedback
    Pay attention to the interaction -- try it,
    analyze it, simplify it, change it, try it ...



Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   18
  Design Elements

    Graphics are useful - communicate one
    main idea
    Color enhances the interface
    Symmetry -- balanced proportions,
    beauty of form
    Provide guidance to users


Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   19
  Guidelines

            Strive for consistency
            Provide informative feedback
            Design dialogs to create closure
            Permit easy reversal of actions
            Reduce information overload



Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power   20
  Factors influencing design
  success

           DSS speed
           Versatility of DSS -- multiple                  tasks
           Quality of on-line help
                                                             The design of user
           Adaptability of the DSS                          interface software is
           Uniformity of interface                          not only expensive
           Learning time                                    and time-consuming,
                                                             but it is also critical
           Ease of recall                                   for effective system
           Fun                                              performance.

Designing and Evaluating DSS User Interfaces, D. J. Power                              21

				
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