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					     Airports And ATC




Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative
       By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame

    “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
             History of Airports
Flying Circles
  Circular fields
  Allowed for takeoff and landings in any
   direction
White gravel circle 50 to 100 ft in
 diameter marked middle of airfield
  Distinguished it from field used for livestock
Airport names painted on the tops of
 buildings
     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                   Airport Lighting
 Runway Edge lights
    Single row of white lights on either side of runway edge
       If Instrument Runway
             Yellow for last 2,000 feet (or half, whichever is less)
    Three types:
       HIRLs
       MIRLs
       LIRLs
 Three ways to ID runway at night:
    Displaced threshold lighting – green lights on either side to
     indicate beginning of runway
    Row of green lights
    Row of red lights
 REILs

       “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                 Airport Lighting
In – Runway Lighting
   Centerline, touchdown zone, and taxiway turnoff
    lights
   Centerline Lights
     White until 3,000 ft
     3,000 – 1,000 ft. alternating red and white
     Last 1,000 ft. RED
Taxiway Lighting
   Blue lights that line both side of taxiway
   Omni directional
   Can be green

     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            Airport Lighting




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
   Lighting Continued…




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
     Pilot Controlled Lighting
System by which pilot activates airport
 lighting from aircraft’s PTT switch or mike.

Used at non-controlled airports
   Keyed mike 7 times – high intensity
   5 times - medium
   3 times – low

Can control VASI and PAPI systems along
 with the REILS and the Approach lighting
 system.

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                  VASI and PAPI
 Visual Approach Path
  Indicator (VASI)
 Precision Approach
  Path Indicator (PAPI)
 2 or 3 bar
  configurations and tri-
  color
 Safe obstruction
  clearance within 10° of
  runway centerline and 4
  nm from threshold

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            Light Gun Signals
Color and Type            Aircraft on Surface                Aircraft in Flight
Steady Green                Cleared for takeoff                 Cleared to Land

Flashing Green                 Cleared to taxi                Return for Landing

                                                              Give way to other
 Steady Red                          Stop                    aircraft and continue
                                                                     circling
                                                           Airport unsafe – do not
Flashing Red               Taxi clear of runway
                                                                     land
                          Return to starting point
Flashing White                                                          N/A
                                on airport
 Alternating                 Exercise Extreme                  Exercise Extreme
 Red/Green                       Caution                           Caution
    “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                Airport Beacons
Four Types
   Civilian
   Water
   Military Airport
   Heliport
Used to ID airports
 at night
Daylight Operation
   <1,000 ft. and 3
    miles visibility –
    which is what???
     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
       Airport Traffic Pattern
Established to ensure proper traffic flow
 in and out of the airport
Standard Pattern
  5 legs
  Always left hand traffic pattern – unless
   stated otherwise




     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                Traffic Pattern




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
       Wind Direction Indicators
   Calm Wind Runway
      Preferred runway when wind less than 5 kts

   Wind Sock
      Most common wind indicator

      Wind intensity indicated by straightness of sock

   Wind Tee
      Sometimes locked in place to show active runway

      Unable to indicate wind intensity

   Tetrahedron
      Sometimes locked in place to show active runway

      Unable to indicate wind intensity


         “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
Wind Direction Indicators




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
           Segmented Circle
Right Traffic                                                   Left Traffic
for runway 5                                                    for runway 23
            Final                                                  Final

     Base                                                                  Base


           Elephant Path Airport, Perkasie, PA (PS03)

       5                                                                     23

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        Segmented Circle




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Land and Hold Short Operations
          (LAHSO)
Includes landings and holding short of
 intersecting runways, taxiways, or some
 other designated point on a runway.
Controlled Airports
  Clearance given by ATC
  Can decline LAHSO clearance
SAFETY FIRST


    “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                        LAHSO
                             18




                                                                            27
  9




                             36
“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                        LAHSO




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
            Wake Turbulence




Wingtip vortices are created only when
 an airplane develops lift
Greatest strength: heavy, clean & slow
    “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
             Wake Turbulence



Tend to sink and drift with wind
  Fly above and upwind of flight path of large
   jet/aircraft
     Most dangerous is light, quartering tailwind


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
        Wake Turbulence




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
           Taxiing in the Wind
Proper use of aileron and elevators helps
 maintain control of airplane
Taxiing in quarter headwind
   Aileron up on side from which wind is blowing,
    neutral elevator
Taxiing in quartering tailwind
   Hold aileron down on the side from which the wind
    is blowing, and hold elevator down
   Most critical for tail wheel aircraft


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
       Taxing in the Wind




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
              Taxiing in Wind




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
           Collision Avoidance
Risk of collision exists for all pilots – MUST
 TAKE PRECAUTIONS
Most mid-air collisions take place when?
    5NM airport on clear VFR days
Scanning techniques
    Short 10° spaced sectored eye movements
    Clock positions
Aircraft lighting (day/night)
Aircraft blind spots
    High wing
    Low wing

      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                Aircraft Lighting
Navigation Lights
  Red – Left Wing
  Green – Right Wing
  White – Tail
Anti-Collision Lights
  Red rotating beacon - Fuselage
  White strobe lights – Wings


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
                 Aircraft Lighting




*Note: cannot see green/red nav lights from rear



      “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
    Airplane Blind Spots




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
        Other Blind Spots




“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”
          Collision Avoidance
ATC Services
  Flight following
Airport Operations
  Operation Lights On –FAA
    Landing lights on for DEP and ARR
    Operating within 10 nm day and night
  Clearing Turns


     “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!”

				
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posted:9/9/2011
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