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Grammar-Ngu Phap tieng anh Can Ban-Nang Cao

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1.     Ch ng (subject). 7
= 1.1   Danh t     m      c và không    m       c.
= 1.2   Quán t a (an) và the
= 1.3   Cách s d ng Other và another.
= 1.4   Cách s d ng litter/ a litter, few/ a few
= 1.5   S h u cách
= 1.6   Some, any
2.        ng t ( verb)
= 2.1 Hi n t i (present)
­2.1.1     Hi nt i n gi n (simple present)
­2.1.2     Hi n t i ti p di n (present progressive)
­2.1.3     Present perfect ( hi n t i hoàn thành)
­2.1.4     Hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n ( preset perfect progressive)
= 2.2 Quá kh ( Past)
­2.2.1     Quá kh        n gi n (simple past)
­2.2.2     Quá kh ti p di n (Past progresive).
­2.2.3     Quá kh hoàn thành (past perfect).
­2.2.4     Quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n (past perfect progressive).
= 2.3 T ng lai
­2.3.1     T ng lai n gi n (simple future)
­2.3.2     T ng lai ti p di n ( future progressive)
­2.3.3     T ng lai hoàn thành (future perfect)
3.     S hoà h p gi a ch ng và        ng t .
= 3.1 Ch ng        ng tách kh i    ng t .
= 3.2 Các danh t luôn òi h i ng t và i t s it.
= 3.3 Cách s d ng none, no
= 3.4 Cách s d ng c u trúc either ... or và neither ... nor.
= 3.5 Các danh t t p th
= 3.6 Cách s d ng A number of/ the number of
= 3.7 Các danh t luôn dùng s nhi u.
= 3.8 Cách dùng các thành ng There is, there are
4.      it
= 4.1 i t      nhân x ng ch ng (Subject pronoun)
= 4.2 i t      nhân x ng tân ng
= 4.3 Tính t    s h u
= 4.4 i t      s h u
= 4.5 i t      ph n thân (reflexive pronoun)
5.      ng t dùng làm tân ng
= 5.1 ng t nguyên th làm tân ng
= 5.2 Ving dùng làm tân ng
= 5.3 3 ng t      c bi t
= 5.4 Các ng t       ng ng sau gi i t
= 5.5 V n      i t i tr c ng t nguyên th ho c Ving làm tân ng .
6.   Cách s d ng         ng t bán khi m khuy t need và dare
= 6.1 need
= 6.2 Dare
7.   Cách dùng        ng t to be + infinitive
8.   Câu h i
= 8.1 Câu h i yes và no
= 8.2 Câu h i thông báo
­8.2.1     who và what làm ch ng .
­8.2.2     Whom và what là tân ng c a câu h i
­8.2.3     Câu h i dành cho các b ng (when, where, why, how)
= 8.3 Câu h i gián ti p (embedded questions)
= 8.4 Câu h i có uôi
9.    L i nói ph ho kh ng            nh và ph    nh.
= 9.1 L i nói ph ho kh ng nh.
= 9.2 L i nói ph ho ph nh
10.   Câu ph      nh
11.   M nh l nh th c
= 11.1         M nh l nh th c tr c ti p.
= 11.2         M nh l nh th c gián ti p.
12.      ng t khi m khuy t.
= 12.1         Di n       t th i t   ng lai.
= 12.2         Di n       t câu i u ki n.
­12.2.1         i u ki n có th th c hi n          c     th i hi n t i.
­12.2.2         i u ki n không th th c hi n             c   th i hi n t i.
­12.2.3         i u ki n không th th c hi n             c   th i quá kh .
­12.2.4        Các cách dùng         c bi t c a Will, would và sould trong các
m nh      if
13.   Cách s d ng thành ng as if, as though.
= 13.1         Th i hi n t i.
= 13.2         Th i quá kh .
14.   Cách s d ng           ng t To hope và to wish.
= 14.1         Th i t      ng lai.
= 14.2         Th i hi n t i
= 14.3         Th i quá kh .
15.   Cách s d ng thành ng used to và get/be used to
= 15.1         used to.
= 15.2         get / be used to.
16.   Cách s d ng thành ng Would rather
= 16.1       Lo i câu có m t ch ng .
= 16.2       Lo i câu có 2 ch ng
17.   Cách s d ng Would Like
18.   Cách s d ng các       ng t khi m khuy t       di n   t các tr ng thái
hi n t i.
= 18.1       Could/may/might.
= 18.2       Should
= 18.3       Must
19.  Cách s d ng các        ng t khi m khuy t       di n   t các tr ng thái
th i quá kh .
20.   tính t và phó t (adjective and adverb).
21.     ng t n i.
22.   So sánh c a tính t và danh t
= 22.1       So sánh b ng.
= 22.2       So sánh h n, kém
= 22.3       So sánh h p lý
= 22.4       Các d ng so sánh      c bi t
= 22.5       So sánh a b
= 22.6       So sánh kép (càng ....thì càng)
= 22.7       No sooner ... than (v a m i ... thì; ch ng bao lâu ... thì)
23.   D ng nguyên, so sánh h n và so sánh h n nh t.
24.   Các danh t làm ch c n!ng tính t
25.   Enough v i tính t , phó t và danh t
26.   Các t n i ch" nguyên nhân
= 26.1       Because/ because of
= 26.2       M c ích và k t qu (so that-       )
= 26.3       Cause and effect
27.   M t s t n i mang tính i u ki n
28.   Câu b      ng
29.        ng t gây nguyên nhân
= 29.1         Have/ get / make
= 29.2         Let
= 29.3         Help
30.   Ba      ng t        c bi t
31.   C u trúc ph c h p và           i t quan h thay th
= 31.1         That và Which làm ch ng c a câu ph
= 31.2         That và wich làm tân ng c a câu ph
= 31.3         Who làm ch ng c a câu ph
= 31.4         Whom làm tân ng c a câu ph
= 31.5         M nh         ph b#t bu c và m nh        ph không b#t bu c
= 31.6         T$m quan tr%ng c a d u ph&y trong m nh           ph
= 31.7         Cách s d ng All / both/ several / most ... + of + whom / which
= 31.8         What và whose
32.   Cách lo i b các m nh            ph
33.   Cách s d ng phân t 1 trong m t s tr             ng h p   c bi t
34.   Cách s d ng nguyên m'u hoàn thành
35.   Nh ng cách s d ng khác c a that
= 35.1         That v i t cách c a m t liên t (r ng)
= 35.2         M nh         có that
36.   Câu gi         nh
= 36.1         Câu gi        nh dùng would rather that
= 36.2         Câu gi        nh dùng v i    ng t trong b ng.
= 36.3         Câu gi        nh dùng v i tính t
= 36.4         Dùng v i m t s tr         ng h p khác
= 36.5          Câu gi      nh dùng v i it is time
37.   L i nói bao hàm
= 37.1          Not only ... but also (không nh ng ... mà còn)
= 37.2          As well as (c(ng nh , c(ng nh là)
= 37.3          Both ... and ( c ... l'n )
38.   Cách s d ng to know và to know how
39.   M nh        nh      ng b
= 39.1          Despite / in spite of (m c dù)
= 39.2          although, even though, though
40.   Nh ng       ng t d gây nh$m l'n
41.   M ts         ng t      c bi t khác.
                                          Ph$n II
                                  Ti ng Anh vi t
I. Các l)i th      ng g p trong ti ng anh vi t
42.   S hoà h p c a th i          ng t
43.   Cách s d ng to say, to tell
44.   T    i tr    c      gi i thi u
45.       i t nhân x ng one và you
46.   Cách s d ng phân t m               $u cho m nh     ph
= 46.1          V+ing m       $u m nh        ph
= 46.2          Phân t 2 m        $u m nh         ph    ch" b   ng
= 46.3             ng t nguyên th ch" m c ích m             $u cho m nh     ph
= 46.4          Ng danh t ho c ng gi i t m              $u m nh      ph ch" s
t   ng ng
47.   Phân t dùng làm tính t
= 47.1          Dùng phân t 1 làm tính t
= 47.2          Dùng phân t 2 làm tính t
48.      Th a (redundancy)
49.      C u trúc câu song song
50.      Thông tin tr c ti p và thông tin gián ti p
= 50.1            Câu tr c ti p và câu gián ti p
= 50.2            Ph      ng pháp chuy n      i t câu tr c ti p sang câu gián ti p
= 50.3                 ng t v i tân ng tr c ti p và tân ng gián ti p
51.      Phó t        o lên $u câu
52.      Cách ch%n nh ng câu tr l i úng
53.      Nh ng t d gây nh$m l'n
54.      Cách s d ng gi i t
= 54.1            During - trong su t (hành        ng x y ra trong m t quãng th i
gian)
= 54.2            From (t ) >< to ( n)
= 54.3            Out of (ra kh i) >< into (di vào)
= 54.4            by
= 54.5            In ( trong,       t i) - ngh*a xác       nh h n at
= 54.6            on
= 54.7            at -    t i (th    ng là bên ngoài, không xác          nh b ng in)
55.      Ng       ng t
56.      S k t h p c a các danh t ,           ng t và tính t v i các gi i t




                                    GRAMMAR REVIEW
C u trúc câu ti ng Anh
Subject + Verb as predicate + Complement + Modifier.
  Ch ng                       ng t v ng           tân ng          b ng
1. Ch ng (subject)
+    ng $u câu làm ch ng và quy t                nh vi c chia     ng t .
+ Ch ng có th là 1 c m t , 1 ng t nguyên th (có to), 1 V+ing, song nhi u nh t v'n là 1
  danh t vì 1 danh t có liên quan t i nh ng v n sau:

1.1 Danh t         m          c và không       m      c.
- Danh t    m     c có th       c dùng v i s            m do ó có hình thái s ít, s nhi u. Nó có th
dùng     c dùng v i a (an) và the.
- Danh t không m              c không dùng         cv is         m do ó nó không có hình thái s nhi u.
Do ó, nó không dùng           c v i a (an).
- M t s các danh t        m       c có hình thái s nhi u        c bi t ví d :


                               person - people             woman – women
                               mouse - mice                foot – feet
                               tooth - teeth               man - men.


-Sau ây là m t s danh t không              m     c mà ta c$n bi t.

                   Sand             soap               physics              mathematics
                   News             mumps              Air                  politics
                   measles          information        Meat                 homework
                   food             economics          advertising*         money

* M c dù advertising là danh t không           m      c, nh ng advertisement l i là danh t    m     c.
Ví d :
There are too many advertisements during television shows.
There is too much advertising during television shows.
- M t s danh t không m      c nh food, meat, money, sand, water, ôi lúc                      c dùng nh
các danh t m     c ch" các d ng khác nhau c a lo i danh t ó.
Ví d :
This is one of the foods that my doctor has forbidden me to eat.
        (ch" ra m t lo i th c !n c bi t nào ó)
He studies meats
( ch ng h n pork, beef, lamb. vv...)
       B ng sau là các       nh ng dùng          c v i danh t       m       c và không   m      c.

  Danh t        m      c (with count noun)            Danh t không          m     c (with non-count noun)

a (an), the, some, any                           the, some, any
this, that, these, those,                        this, that
none,one,two,three,...                           non
many                                             much (th ng dùng trong câu ph           nh ho c câu h i
a lot of                                         a lot of
plenty of
a large number of                                a large amount of
a great number of, a great many of.              a great deal of
(a) few                                          (a) little
few ... than                                     less ... than
more ... than                                    more ... than


- Danh t time n u dùng v i ngh*a th i gian là không             m       c nh ng n u dùng v i ngh*a s l$n
ho c th i i l i là danh t  m      c.
Ví d :
We have spent too much time on this homework.
She has been late for class six times this semester.

1.2 Quán t a (an) và the
1- a vÀ an
an -     c dùng:
        - tr c 1 danh t s ít        m       c b#t $u b ng 4 nguyên âm (vowel) a, e, i, o
        - hai bán nguyên âm u, y
        - các danh t b#t $u b ng h câm.
          ví d : u : an uncle.
                 h : an hour
        - ho c tr c các danh t vi t t#t          c %c nh 1 nguyên âm.
            Ví d : an L-plate, an SOS, an MP
a:     c dùng:
        - tr c 1 danh t b#t $u b ng ph âm (consonant).
        - dùng tr     c m t danh t b#t $u b ng uni.
          a university, a uniform, a universal, a union.
        - tr c 1 danh t s ít m           c, tr c 1 danh t không xác             nh c th v m t        c i m,
          tính ch t, v trí ho c     c nh#c n l$n $u trong câu.
        -       c dùng trong các thành ng ch" s l      ng nh t      nh.
            Ví d : a lot of, a couple, a dozen, a great many, a great deal of.
        - dùng tr     c nh ng s     m nh t     nh,   c bi t là ch" hàng tr!m, hàng ngàn.
            Ví d : a hundred, a thousand.
        - tr c half khi nó theo sau 1 n v nguyên v,n.
          Ví d : a kilo and a half và c(ng có th %c là one and a half kilos.
Chú ý: 1 /2 kg = half a kilo ( không có a tr     c half).
        - dùng tr     c half khi nó i v i 1 danh t khác t o thành t ghép.
          Ví d : a half-holiday n a k- ngh", a half-share : n a c ph$n.
        - dùng tr c các t. s nh 1/3, 1 /4, 1/5, = a third, a quarter, a fifth hay one third, one
          fourth, one fifth .
        - Dùng trong các thành ng ch" giá c , t c           , t. l .
            Ví d : five dolars a kilo; four times a day.
        - Dùng trong các thành ng tr         c các danh t s ít         m         c, dùng trong câu c m thán.
            Ví d : Such a long queue! What a pretty girl!
            Nh ng: such long queues! What pretty girls.
        - a có th        c   t tr   c Mr/Mrs/Miss + tên h% (surname):
            Ví d : a Mr Smith, a Mrs Smith, a Miss Smith.
            a Mr Smith ngh*a là ‘ ng i àn ông       c g i là Smith’ và ng ý là ông ta là ng                  il
              i v i ng i nói. Còn n u không có a t c là ng i nói bi t ông Smith.
2- The
-     c s d ng khi danh t            c xác    nh c th v tính ch t,           c i m, v trí ho c           c nh#c
    n l$n th 2 trong câu.
- The + noun + preposition + noun.
  Ví d : the girl in blue; the man with a banner; the gulf of Mexico; the United States of
America.
- The + danh t + i t quan h + m nh ph
  Ví d : the boy whom I met; the place where I met him.
- Tr   c 1 danh t ng ý ch" m t v t riêng bi t.
  Ví d : She is in the garden.
- The + tính t so sánh b c nh t ho c s t th t ho c only way.
 Ví d : The first week; the only way.
- The + dt s ít t     ng tr ng cho m t nhóm thú v t ho c / v t thì có th b the và                      i danh t
  sang s nhi u.
 Ví d : The whale = Whales, the shark = sharks, the deep-freeze = deep - freezes.
 Nh ng       i v i danh t man (ch" loài ng      i) thì không có quán t (a, the)           ng tr   c.
 Ví d : if oil supplies run out, man may have to fall back on the horse.
- The + danh t s ít ch" thành viên c a m t nhóm ng              i nh t     nh.
 Ví d : the small shopkeeper is finding life increasingly difficult.
- The + adj i di n cho 1 l p ng         i, nó không có hình thái s nhi u nh ng               c coi là 1 danh t
  s nhi u và ng t sau nó ph i              c chia ngôi th 3 s nhi u.
 Ví d : the old = ng i già nói chung; The disabled = nh ng ng                     i tàn t t; The unemployed =
 nh ng ng i th t nghi p.
- Dùng tr     c tên các khu v c, vùng ã n i ti ng v m t          a lý ho c l ch s .
  Ví d : The Shahara. The Netherlands. The Atlantic.
- The + East / West/ South/ North + noun.
 Ví d : the East/ West end.
 The North / South Pole.
 Nh ng không          c dùng the tr   c các t ch" ph   ng h   ng này, n u nó i kèm v i tên c a m t
 khu v c a lý.
 Ví d : South Africal, North Americal, West Germany.
- The + tên các    h p x ng, các dàn nh c c i n, các ban nh c ph thông.
  Ví d : the Bach choir, the Philadenphia Orchestra, the Beatles.
- The + tên các t báo l n/ các con t u bi n/ khinh khí c u.
 Ví d : The Titanic, the Time, the Great Britain.
- The + tên h       s nhi u có ngh*a là gia ình h% nhà ...
 Ví d : the Smiths = Mr and Mrs Smith (and their children) hay còn g%i là gia ình nhà Smith.
- The + Tên s ít + c m t / m nh             có th      c s d ng     phân bi t ng   i này v i ng   i
  khác cùng tên.
 Ví d : We have two Mr Smiths. Which do you want? I want the Mr Smith who signed this
letter.
- Không dùng the tr c 1 s danh t nh Home, church, bed, court, hospital, prison, school,
  college, university khi nó i v i ng t và gi i t ch" chuy n ng (ch" i t i ó làm m c ích
  chính).
 Ví d : He is at home. I arrived home before dark. I sent him home.
 to bed (    ng )

                 to church ( c$u nguy n)
                 to court ( ki n t ng)
  We go          to hospital (ch a b nh)
                to prison ( i tù)
                to school / college/ university (   h%c)

 T   ng t
                  in bed
                  at church
 We can be       in court
                in hospital
                at school/ college/ university

 We can be / get back (ho c be/ get home) from school/ college/university.

             leave school
 We can      leave hospital
             be released from prison.

 V i m c ích khác thì ph i dùng the.
 Ví d :
 I went to the church to see the stained glass.
 He goes to the prison sometimes to give lectures.
 Student go to the university for a class party.


+ Sea
Go to sea (th y th     i bi n)
to be at the sea (hành khách/ thu. th i trên bi n)
Go to the sea / be at the sea = to go to/ be at the seaside : i t#m bi n, ngh" mát.
We can live by / near the sea.
+ Work and office.
Work (n i làm vi c)         c s d ng không có the    tr   c.
Go to work.
nh ng office l i ph i có the.
Go to the office.
Ví d :
He is at / in the office.
N u to be in office (không có the) ngh*a là ang gi ch c.
To be out of office - thôi gi ch c.
+ Town
The có th b      i khi nói v th tr n c a ng   i nói ho c c a ch th .
Ví d :
We go to town sometimes to buy clothes.
We were in town last Monday.
Go to town / to be in town - V i m c ích chính là i mua hàng.
               B ng dùng the và không dùng the trong m t s tr          ng h p    c bi t.

                      Dùng the                                           Không dùng the
+ Tr c các i d ng, sông ngòi, bi n, v nh và + Tr c tên 1 h/ (hay các h/ s ít).
  các h/ s nhi u.                                  Ví d :
   Ví d :                                          Lake Geneva, Lake Erie
   The Red sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Persian
   Gulf, the Great Lackes.
+ Tr c tên các dãy núi.                         + Tr c tên 1 ng%n núi
   Ví d :                                         Ví d :
   The Rockey Moutains.                           Mount Mckinley
+ Tr c tên 1 v t th duy nh t trên th gi i ho c + Tr c tên các hành tinh ho c các chùm sao
  v( tr .                                         Ví d :
  Ví d :                                          Venus, Mars, Earth, Orion.
  The earth, the moon, the Great Wall
+ Tr c School/college/university + of + noun    + Tr c tên các tr ng này khi tr c nó là 1 tên
   Ví d :                                         riêng.
  The University of Florida.                      Ví d :
  The college of Arts and Sciences.               Cooper’s Art school, Stetson University.
+ Tr c các s th t + noun.                       + Tr c các danh t mà sau nó là 1 s       m.
Ví d :                                               Ví d :
The first world war.                                 World war one
The third chapter.                                   chapter three.
+ Tr c các cu c chi n tranh khu v c v i i u          + Không nên dùng tr c tên các cu c chi n
    ki n tên các khu v c ó ph i c tính t hoá.            tranh khu v c n u tên khu v c nguyên.
    Ví d :
    The Korean war.
+ Tr c tên các n c có t 2 t tr lên. Ngo i
    tr Great Britain.                                + Tr c tên các n c có 1 t nh : Sweden,
                                                       Venezuela và các n c     c ng tr c b i
                                                       new ho c tính t ch" ph ng h ng.
  Ví d :
  The United States, the United Kingdom, the     Ví d : New Zealand, South Africa.
  Central Africal Republic.
+ Tr c tên các n c          c coi là 1 qu$n o.
   Ví d : The Philipin.                        + Tr c tên các l c a, ti u bang, t"nh, thành
                                                 ph , qu n, huy n.
+ Tr c các tài li u ho c s ki n mang tính l ch   Ví d : Europe, California.
   s .                                         + Tr c tên b t c môn th thao nào.
  Ví d : The constitution, the Magna Carta.      Ví d :
+ Tr c tên các nhóm dân t c thi u s .            Base ball, basket ball.
   Ví d :                                      + Tr c tên các danh t mang tính tr u t ng
   The Indians, the Aztecs.                      tr nh ng tr ng h p c bi t.
+ Nên dùng tr c tên các nh c c .                 Ví d : Freedom, happiness.
  Ví d :                                       + Tr c tên các môn h%c chung.
  To play the piano.                             Ví d :
+ Tr c tên các môn h%c c th .                    Mathematics, Sociology.
  Ví d :                                       + Tr c tên các ngày l , t t.
  The applied Math.                              Ví d :
  The theoretical Physics.                       Christmas, thanksgiving.


1.3 Cách s d ng Other và another.
Hai t này tuy gi ng nhau v m t ng ngh*a nh ng khác nhau v m t ng pháp.

           Dùng v i danh t     m     c                      Dùng vói danh t không     m     c
+ another + dt 2 s it = 1 cái n a, 1 cái khác, 1     + the other + dt 2s ít = ng i cu i cùng, cái
   ng i n a, 1 ng i khác.                                cu i cùng c a 1 b , 1 nhóm.
  Ví d : another pencil                              + other + dt không 2 = 1 chút n a.
+ other + dt 2 s nhi u = m y cái n a, m y cái           Ví d : other water = some more water.
   khác, m y ng i n a, m y ng i khác.                          other beer = some more beer.
  Ví d : other pencils = some more.                  + the other + dt không 2 = ch) còn sót l i.
+ the other + dt 2 s nhi u = nh ng cái cu i             Ví d :
   cùng, nh ng ng i cu i cùng còn l i.                  The other beer = the remaining beer. (ch) bia
  Ví d : the other pencils = all remaining pencils   còn l i)


- Another và other là không xác nh trong khi the other là xác nh. N u danh t ho c ch ng
trên ã     c hi u ho c     c nh#c n, ch" c$n dùng another và other nh 1 i t là .
Ví d :
I don’t want this book. Please give me another.
- N u danh t     c thay th là s nhi u thì other  c s d ng theo 1 trong 2 cách (other + nouns
ho c others) mà không bao gi     c s d ng (others + DTSN).
- Có th dùng i t thay th one ho c ones cho danh t sau another, the other và other.
L u ý r ng this và that có th dùng v i            i t one nh ng these và those tuy t         i không dùng v i
ones.

1.4 Cách s d ng litter/ a litter, few/ a few
- Little + dt không     m      c : r t ít, h$u nh không.
Ví d :
There is little water in the bottle.
I have little money, not enough to buy groceries.
- A little + dt không    m      c: có 1 chút,           dùng.
Ví d :
I have a little money, enough to buy a ticket.
- few + dt     m      c s nhi u : có r t ít, không          .
Ví d :
She has few books, not enough for references.
- a few + dt   m        c s nhi u : có m t ít,          .
Ví d :
She has a few books, enough to read.
- N u danh t       trên ã     c nh#c      n thì     d   i ch" c$n dùng (a) few và (a) little nh 1        i t là
   .
Ví d :
Are you ready in money? Yes, a little.
- quite a few = quite a lot = quite a bit = khá nhi u.
- only a few = only a little = có r t ít ( nh n m nh).

1.5 S h u cách
The + noun’s + noun.
- Ch"     c dùng trong các danh t ch" ng           i ho c       ng v t, không dùng cho b t     ng v t.
Ví d :
The student’s book.
The cat’s legs.
- N u có 2 danh t cùng        ng       s h u cách thì danh t nào              ng g$n danh t b s h u nh t s0
mang d u s h u.
Ví d :
Tom and Mark’s house.
-   i v i nh ng danh t s nhi u ã có s thì ch" c$n                t d u ‘ là    .
Ví d :
The students’ books.
- Nh ng i v i nh ng danh t có s nhi u             c bi t không có s t i uôi v'n ph i dùng nguyên
d u s h u.
Ví d :
The children’s toys.
- Nó     c dùng cho th i gian (n!m tháng, th k., thiên niên k..)
Ví d :
The 1980’ events.
The 21 st century’s prospect.
- Nó    c dùng cho các mùa trong n!m ngo i tr mùa Xuân và mùa Thu. N u dùng s h u cách
cho mùa Xuân và mùa Thu t c là ta ang nhân cách hoá mùa ó.
Ví d :
The summer’s hot days.
The winter’s cold days.
The spring’s coming back = Nàng Xuân ang tr v .
The autunm’s leaving = s ra i c a Nàng Thu.
Tr ng h p này hi n nay ít dùng. i v i m t s danh t b t           ng v t ch" dùng trong 1 s tr   ng
h p th t c bi t khi danh t ó n m trong các thành ng .
Ví d :
A stone’s throw.
- ôi khi i v i nh ng danh t ch" n i ch n ho c          a i m ch" c$n dùng s h u cách cho danh t
 ó mà không c$n danh t theo sau.
Ví d :
At the hairdresser’s
At the butcher’s

1.6 Some, any
some và any ngh*a là “1 s ho c 1 l ng nh t nh”. Chúng               c s d ng v i (ho c thay th )
các danh t s nhi u ho c danh t không m     c.
+ Some là d ng s nhi u c a a/an và one:
Ví d : Have a biscuit/some biscuits. I ate a date/ some dates.
+ some, any of + the/ this/ these/ those/ i t riêng/       i t s h u.
Ví d : Some of the staff can speak Japaneses.
       Did any of your photos come out well?
+ some    c s d ng v i :
         - Các     ng t   th kh ng    nh.
          Ví d :
          They bought some honey.
         - Trong các câu h i mà có câu tr l i là ‘yes’ .
           Ví d :
           Did some of you sleep on the floor? ( Ng          i nói ch   i câu tr l i là yes)
         - Trong các câu        ngh và yêu c$u:
           Ví d :
           Would you like some wine?
           Could you do some typing for me?
+ any         c s d ng:
         -V i         ng t   th ph    nh
           Ví d :
           I haven’ t any matches.
         - V i hardly, barely, scarely ( các phó t này           u mang ngh*a ph      nh)
           Ví d :
           I have hardly any spare time.
         - V i without khi without any ... = with no ...
           Ví d :
           He crossed the frontier without any difficulty/ with no difficulty.
         - V i các câu h i
           Have you got any fish?
           Did he catch any fish?
         - Sau if/ whether các thành ng mang tính nghi ng .
           Ví d :
           If you need any more money, please let me know.
           I don’ t think there is any petrol in the tank.

2.       ng t ( verb)
   ng t trong ti ng Anh chia làm 3 th i chính:
- Quá kh .
- Hi n t i.
-T    ng lai.
M)i th i chính l i chia ra làm nhi u th i nh         xác      nh chính xác th i gian c a hành   ng.

2.1 Hi n t i (present)

2.1.1 Hi nt i           n gi n (simple present)
Khi chia       ng t     ngôi th 3 s ít, ph i có s    uôi và v$n ó ph i           c
                                                                              c % lên.
Ví d :
John walks to school everyday.
- Nó dùng di n t 1 hành ng x y ra th i i m hi n t i, không xác                      nh c th v m t th i
gian và hành ng l p i l p l i có tính quy lu t.
- Nó th ng dùng v i 1 s phó t nh : now, present day, nowadays.                c bi t là1 s phó t ch"
t$n su t ho t ng: often, sometimes, always, frequently.
Ví d :
They understand the problem now.
Henry always swims in the evening. (thói quen)
We want to leave now.
Your cough sounds bad.

2.1.2 Hi n t i ti p di n (present progressive)

                                        am
                            Subject +    is     + [verb +ing ]...
                                        are
- Nó dùng     di n t 1 hành ng ang x y ra              th i hi n t i. Th i gian       c xác   nh c th
b ng các phó t nh now, right now, presently.
- Nó dùng thay th cho th i t ng lai g$n.
Ví d :
He is learning in the US.
L u ý:     phân bi t t   ng lai g$n và hành      ng ang x y ra c$n c!n c vào phó t trong câu)
Ví d :
The committee members are examining the material now. ( hi n t i ang ki m tra)
George is leaving for France tomorrow. (t       ng lai g$n - s0 r i t i Pháp vào ngày mai)

2.1.3 Present perfect ( hi n t i hoàn thành)
        Have + P2
- Dùng     di n t 1 hành ng ã x y ra trong 1 quá kh kéo dài và ch m d t                  hi n t i. Th i
gian trong câu hoàn toàn không xác nh.
- Ch" 1 hành ng x y ra nhi u l$n trong quá kh kéo dài t i hi n t i.
- Dùng v i 2 gi i t for và since + th i gian.
- Dùng v i already trong câu kh ng        nh, already có th         ng sau have nh ng nó c(ng có th
   ng cu i câu.

                                        have
                            Subject +            + already + P2
                                        has

Ví d :
We have already written our reports.
I have already read the entire book.
Sam has already recorded the results of the experiment.
- Dùng v i yet trong câu ph       nh và câu nghi v n ph       nh, yet th   ng xuyên     ng    cu i câu,
công th c sau:
                                       have
                        Subject +                not + P2 ...+ yet ...
                                       has

Ví d :
John hasn’ t written his report yet.
The president hasn’ t decided what to do yet.
We haven’ t called on our teacher yet.
- Trong 1 s tr ng h p yet có th  o lên             ng sau to have và ng pháp có thay   i. Not m t i
và phân t 2 tr v d ng nguyên th có to.

                                  have
                     Subject +                + yet + [verb in simple form] ...
                                  has


Ví d :
John has yet to learn the material. = John hasn’ t learned the material yet.
We have yet to decide what to do with the money. = We haven’ t decided what to do with the
money yet.
Chú ý: C&n th n s d ng yet trong m'u câu k1o nh$m v i yet trong m'u câu có yet làm t n i
mang ngh*a “nh ng”
Ví d :
I don’ t have the money, yet I really need the computer.
My neighbors never have the time, yet they always want to do something on Saturday nights.

2.1.4 Hi n t i hoàn thành ti p di n ( preset perfect progressive)
         Have been + verbing.
- Dùng gi ng h t nh present perfect nh ng hành ng không ch m d t hi n t i mà v'n ang
ti p t c x y ra. Nó th ng xuyên   c dùng v i 2 gi i t for, since + time.
Ví d :
John has been living in the same house for ten years. = John has live in the same house for ten
years.


                                               M t s thí d
Jorge has already walked to school. (th i gian không xác         nh)
He has been to California three times. (h n 1 l$n)
Mary has seen this movie before. (th i gian không xác          nh)
They have been at home all day.
We haven’ t gone to the store yet. (th i gian không xác        nh).
John has worked in Washington for three years.
                              Ho c
John has been working in Washington for three years.
(v'n ch a k t thúc - John v'n ang làm vi c             Washington).




                                       Phân bi t cách dùng gi a 2 th i

                     Present perfect                                   Present perfect progressive

+ Hành ng ch m d t                hi n t i, do ó có k t + Hành ng v'n ti p t c ti p di n             hi n t i do
   qu rõ r t.                                              v y không có k t qu rõ r t.
  Ví d :                                                  Ví d :
     I have waited for you for half an hour (now I             I have been waiting for you for half an hour.
     stop waiting)                                            (and continue waiting hoping that you will
                                                            come)

2.2 Quá kh ( Past)
2.2.1 Quá kh   n gi n (simple past)

                           Verb + ed

-M ts          ng t trong ti ng Anh có quá kh           c bi t và /ng th i c(ng có phân t 2   c bi t.
- M t s các       ng t có c 2 d ng:
Ví d :
Light - lighted - lighted
         lit       - lit
Ng     i Anh a dùng quá kh th            ng khi chia    ng t và phân t 2    c bi t.
Ví d :
He lighted the candle on his birthday cake.
Nó th#p ng%n n n trên chi c bánh sinh nh t
Nh ng
I can see the lit house from a distance.
Tôi có th nhìn th y t xa ngôi nhà sáng ánh i n.
+ Nó dùng            di n     t 1 hành     ng ã x y ra d t i m trong quá kh , không liên quan gì t i
  hi n t i.
+ Th i gian hành ng trong câu là r t rõ ràng, nó th ng dùng v i m t s phó t ch" th i gian
    nh : yesterday, at that moment, last + th i gian nh :
Last night
          month
          week vv...
L u ý: N u th i gian trong câu là không rõ ràng thì ph i dùng present perfect.
Ví d :
John went to Spain last year.

Bob bought a new bicycle yesterday.

Maria did her homework last night.

Mark washed the dishes after dinner.

We drove to grocery store this afternoon.

George cooked dinner for his family Saturday night.

2.2.2 Quá kh ti p di n (Past progresive).


                 Was / were + Ving


- Nó     c dùng   di n t 1 hành ng ang x y ra vào 1 th i i m nh t nh trong quá kh
không liên h gì t i hi n t i. Th i i m trong câu c xác nh b ng các phó t ch" th i gian
nh :
At + th i gian quá kh .
Ví d :
He was eating dinner at 7 P.M Last night.
- Nó     c dùng k t h p v i 1 simple past thông qua 2 liên t When và while          ch" 1 hành ng
  ang x y ra trong quá kh thì 1 hành ng khác t ng t xen vào (t ng                  ng v i câu Ti ng
Vi t “ Khi ang ... thì b ng”).
                                                                                     *
                  Subject1 + simple past + while + subject 2 + past progressive.

Ví d :
Somebody hit him on the head while he was going to his car.

                  Subject1 + past progressive + when + subject 2 + simple past.

Ví d :
He was going to his car when someone hit him on the head.
L u ý: M nh có when và while có th           ng b t k- n i nào trong câu nh ng sau when nh t thi t
ph i là 1 simple past và sau while nh t thi t ph i là 1 past progressive.
- Dùng    di n     t 2 hành     ng song song cùng 1 lúc, n i v i nhau b ng liên t while.

              Subject1 + past progressive + while + subject 2 + past progressive.


Ví d :
He was reading newspaper while his wife was preparing the dinner in the kitchen.
( M nh     không có while có th        c chuy n sang simple past nh ng hi m khi vì s nh m l n
v i *)
Ví d :
Jose was writing a letter to his family when his pencil broke.

While Joan was writing the report, Henry was looking for more information.

When Mark arrived, the Johnsons was having dinner, but they stopped in order to talk to him.

2.2.3 Quá kh hoàn thành (past perfect).


                 Had + P2


- Dùng di n       t 1 hành ng x y ra tr       c 1 hành   ng khác trong quá kh . (trong câu bao gi
c(ng có 2 hành    ng: 1 tr c và 1 sau.
- Dùng k t h p v i 1 simple past thông qua 2 gi i t ch" th i gian before và after.


                 Subject + past perfect + before + subject + past simple

Ví d :
I had gone to the store before I went home.

The professor had reviewed the material before he gave the quiz.

Before Ali went to sleep, he had called his family.

George had worked at the university for forty-five years before he retired.

The doctor had examined the patient thoroughly before he prescribed the medication.


                  Subject + past simple + after + subject + past perfect


Ví d :
John went home after he had gone to the store.

After the committee members had considered the consequences, they voted on the proposal.

- M nh có before và after có th          ng $u ho c cu i câu nh ng sau before nh t thi t ph i là 1
simple past và sau after nh t thi t ph i là 1 past perfect.
- Before và after có th     c thay b ng when mà không s b nh$m l'n vì trong câu bao gi c(ng
có 2 hành ng: 1 tr c và 1 sau.
Ví d :
The police cars came to the scene when the robbers had gone away.
( trong câu này when có ngh*a là after vì sau when là past perfect.)
2.2.4 Quá kh hoàn thành ti p di n (past perfect progressive).


         Subject + had + been + [Verb + ing]...


Nó      c dùng gi ng h t nh past perfect nh ng hành ng không d ng l i mà ti p t c ti p di n
cho n th i i m simple past. Nó th ng            c k t h p v i 1 simple past thông qua phó t
before. Trong câu th ng có since ho c for + th i gian.
- Th i này hi n nay ít dùng và   c thay th b ng past perfect.
Ví d :
Henry had been living in New York for ten years before he moved to California.
George had been working at the university for forty-five years before he retired.




2.3 T     ng lai

2.3.1 T     ng lai     n gi n (simple future)

                     Will / shall
                                       + [ Verb in simple form ]
                     Can / may.

- Ngày nay ng pháp hi n i,           c bi t là M2 dùng will cho t t c các ngôi còn shall ch"       c
dùng trong các tr ng h p sau:
+ M i m%c ng         i khác 1 cách l ch s .
Ví d :
Shall we go out for lunch?
Shall I take your coat?
+      ngh giúp 3ng         i khác 1 cách l ch s .
Ví d :
Shall I give you a hand with these packages.
+ Dùng       ngã giá khi mua bán, m c c .
Ví d :
Shall we say : fifteen dollars?
- Nó dùng     di n t 1 hành ng s0 x y ra vào th i i m nh t nh trong t ng lai. Th i i m
này không       c xác nh rõ r t. Các phó t th ng dùng là tomorrow, next + th i gian, in the
future.
Near future. (t    ng lai g$n)
To be going to do smth - s#p làm gì.
- Dùng di n t 1 hành ng s0 x y ra trong 1 t            ng lai g$n, th i gian s0     c di n   t b ng 1
s phó t nh : in a moment (lát n a), tomorrow.
Ví d :
We are going to have a meeting in a moment.

We are going to get to the airport at 9 am this morning.

- Ngày nay,   c bi t là trong v!n nói ng   i ta th    ng dùng Present progressive     thay th .
- Dùng    di n    t 1 s vi c ch#c ch#n s0 x y ra dù r ng không ph i là t      ng lai g$n.
Ví d :
Next year we are going to take a TOEFL test for the score that enables us to learn in the US.

2.3.2 T    ng lai ti p di n ( future progressive)

                   Will / shall
                                     + be + [ verb + ing ]
                   Can / may.

- Nó di n t 1 hành ng s0 ang x y ra            1 th i i m nh t     nh c a t    ng lai. Th i i m này
   c xác nh c th b ng ngày, gi .
Ví d :
I will be doing a test on Monday morning next week.
- Nó      c dùng k t h p v i 1 present progressive di n         t 2 hành   ng song song x y ra, 1
hi n t i, 1 t ng lai.
Ví d :
Now we are learning English here but by the time tomorrow we will be working at the office.

2.3.3 T    ng lai hoàn thành (future perfect)


              Will have + P2


- Nó     c dùng di n t 1 hành ng s0 ph i       c hoàn t t 1 th i i m nào ó trong t                ng
lai. Th i i m này th ng  c di n t b ng : by the end of, by tomorrow.
Ví d :
We will have taken a TOEFL test by the end of this year.
L u ý : Th i này ph i có lý do    c bi t m i s d ng.

3. S hoà h p gi a ch ng và                   ng t .
Thông th ng thì ng t      ng li n ngay v i ch ng và ph i chia theo ngôi ch ng . Song có
nh ng tr ng h p không ph i nh v y.

3.1 Ch ng          ng tách kh i     ng t .
-                                                               u
    ng xen vào gi a ch ng và ng t là 1 ng gi i t ( 1 gi i t m $ k t h p v i các danh
t theo sau). Ng gi i t này không quy t nh gì n vi c chia ng t .   ng t ph i chia theo
ch ng chính.
                            Subject + [ng gi i t ] + verb

Ví d :
The study of languages is very interesting.
Singular subject              singular verb

Several theories on this subject have been proposed.
   Plural subject                                 plural verb

The view of these disciplines varies from time to time.
Singular subject                         singular verb

The danger of forest fires is not to be taken lightly.
Singular subject                singular verb

The effects of that crime are likely to be devastating.
Plural subject                    plural verb

The fear of rape and robbery has caused many people to flee the cities.
Singular subject                              singular verb

- Các thành ng trong b ng d i ây cùng v i các danh t i ng sau nó t o nên hi n t ng
 /ng ch ng . C m /ng ch ng này ph i ng tách bi t ra kh i ch ng chính và ng t b ng
2 d u ph&y và không có nh h ng gì t i vi c chia ng t .


                         Together with                along with
                         accompanied by               as well as


Ví d :
The actress, along with her manager and some friends, is going to a party tonight.
Singular subject                                                               singular verb

Mr. Robbins, accompanied by his wife and children, is arriving tonight.
Singular subject                                                            singular verb

L u ý: - N u 2 / ch ng n i v i nhau b ng liên t and thì
                 ng                                                                    ng t l p t c ph i chia   ngôi
th 3 s nhi u (they).
Ví d :
The actress and her manager are going to a party tonight.
                         ng
        - nh ng n u 2 / ch ng n i v i nhau b ng liên t or thì ng t s0 ph i chia theo
danh t     ng sau or. N u ó là danh t s ít thì ph i chia ngôi th 3 s ít và ng c l i.
Ví d :
The actress or her manager is going to a party tonight.

3.2 Các danh t luôn òi h i                      ng t và         i t s it.
  ó là các         ng t trong b ng sau:


             any + danh t s ít            no + danh t s ít             Some + danh t s ít
             anybody                      nobody                       somebody
             anyone                       no one                       someone
          anything                  nothing                        something
          every + danh t s it                            each + danh t s ít
          everybody
          everyone                                       either*
          everything                                     neither*


* Either và either là s ít n u nó không         c s d ng v i or và nor.
L u ý:
- either (1 trong 2) ch" dùng cho 2 ng       i, 2 v t. N u 3 ng      i, 3 v t tr lên ph i dùng any.
Ví d :
If either of you takes a vacation now, we won’ t be able to finish this work.

If any of students in this class is absent, he or she must have the permission of the instructor.

- Neither (không 1 trong 2) ch" dùng cho 2 ng         i, 2 v t. N u 3 ng       i, 3 v t tr lên ph i dùng not
any).
Ví d :
Neither of two his classes gets an “c”

Not any of those pairs of shoes fits me.

3.3 Cách s d ng none, no
none of the :    c s d ng tùy theo danh t           ng     ng sau nó.
- n u danh t    ó là không    m      c thì     ng t ph i chia        ngôi th 3 s ít.


                       None + of the + non-count noun + singular verb


Ví d :
None of the counterfeit money has been found.
- n u sau none of the là 1 danh t     m         c s nhi u thì       ng t ph i chia     ngôi th 3 s nhi u.


                          None + of the + plural noun + plural verb


Ví d :
None of the students have finished the exam yet.
No       c s d ng c(ng tu- theo danh t          ng sau nó.
- n u sau no là danh t s ít ho c không          m     c thì     ng t ph i chia       ngôi th 3 s ít.

                                Singular noun
                       No +                           + singular verb
                                       non-count noun

Ví d :
No example is relevant to this case.
- nh ng n u sau no là 1 danh t     m                     c s nhi u thì    ng t ph i chia     ngôi th 3 s nhi u.


                        No + plural noun + plural verb


Ví d :
No examples are relevant to this case.

3.4 Cách s d ng c u trúc either ... or và neither ... nor.
  i u c$n l u ý nh t khi s d ng c p thành ng này là ng t sau ó ph i chia theo danh t sau
or ho c nor. N u danh t ó là s ít thì ng t ph i chia ngôi th 3 s ít và ng c l i.

                  Neither                          nor
                                  + noun                     + singular noun + singular verb
                  either                           or

Ví d :
Neither John nor Bill                 is going to the beach today.
                 Singular noun    singular verb

Either John or Bill              is going to the beach today.
             Singular noun   singular verb

                  Neither                         nor
                                 + noun                    + plural noun + plural verb
                  either                          or

Ví d :
Neither Maria nor her friends are going to class today.
                             Plural               plural

L uý:
Khi ch ng là 1 verbing thì                   ng t ph i chia            ngôi th 3 s ít.

3.5 Các danh t t p th
 ó là nh ng danh t trong b ng d i ây dùng       ch" m t nhóm ng i ho c 1 t ch c. Cho dù
v y, chúng v'n    c xem là danh t s ít và do ó, các ng t và i t i cùng v i chúng ph i
  ngôi th 3 s ít.

                congress                 family            group         committee       class
                organization             team              army          club            crowd
                government               jury              majority*     minority        public
- N u ng t     ng sau nh ng danh t này chia ngôi th 3 s nhi u thì nó ám ch" các thành viên
c a t ch c ho c nhóm ó ang ho t ng riêng r0.
Ví d : The congress votes for the bill.
The congress are discussing the bill (some agree but some don’ t).
(TOEFL không b#t l)i này)
* Majority
Danh t này       c dùng tu- theo danh t     i   ng sau nó.


                                       The majority + singular verb
                             The majority of the plural noun + plural verb.


Ví d : The majority believes that we are in no danger.
The majority of the students believe him to be innocent.
L u ý: Danh t police luôn    c coi là danh t ngôi th 3 s nhi u do v y                  ng t       ng sau nó
ph i chia ngôi th 3 s nhi u.
Ví d :
The police come to the crime scene at good time and arrested a suspect.


M t s thí d :
The committee has met, and it has rejected the proposal.
The family was elated by the news.
The crowd was wild with excitement.
Congress has initiated a new plan to combat inflation.
The organization has lost many members this year.
Our team is going to win the game.
Các c m t trong b ng d i ây ch" m t nhóm gia súc ng v t cho dù danh t                         ng sau gi i t
of có s nhi u thì ng t sau ó v'n ph i chia ngôi th 3 s ít.


     flock of birds, sheep     herd of cattle     pack of dogs        school of fish      pride of lions


Ví d :
The flock of birds is circling overhead.
The herd of cattle is breaking away.
A school of fish is being attacked by sharks.
L u ý: T t c các danh t t p h p ch" th i gian, ti n b c, s       o     u òi h i các       ng t -       it -
b ng i cùng nó ph i ngôi s ít.
(TOEFL b#t l)i này).
Ví d :
He has contributed $50 and now he wants to contribute another fifty.

Twenty-five dollars is too much to pay for that shirt.

Fifty minutes isn’ t enough time to finish this test.

Twenty dollars is all I can afford to pay for that recorder.

Two miles is too much to run in one day.

3.6 Cách s d ng A number of/ the number of


                 a number of + danh t s nhi u +         ng t      s nhi u


- a number of : m t s l ng l n nh ng... . i v i danh t s nhi u và ng t ph i chia ngôi
th 3 s nhi u.
- the number of : m t s .... i vói danh t s nhi u nh ng ng t ph i chia ngôi th 3 s ít.


                 the number of + danh t s nhi u +          ng t      s ít


Ví d :
A number of applicants have already been interviewed.
The number of residents who have been questioned on this matter is quite small

3.7 Các danh t luôn dùng            s nhi u.
Các danh t sau ây luôn ph i dùng         d ng s nhi u.

             Trousers      eyeglasses            tongs - cái k,p
             shorts        scissors- cái kéo     tweezers- cái nhíp
             Jeans         pants- qu$n           pliers - cái kìm

Ví d :
The pants are in the drawer.
A pair of pants is in the drawer.
Các danh t trên th ng xuyên d ng s nhi u vì chúng bao g/m 2 th c th , do v y các                ng t
và i t i cùng chúng ph i ngôi th 3 s nhi u.
Ví d :
The pliers are on the table.
These scissors are dull.
- N u mu n bi n chúng thành s ít dùng a pair of ... và lúc ó          ng t và   it   i cùng v i chúng
ph i ngôi th 3 s ít.
Ví d :
This pair of scissors is dull.
The pair of pliers is on the table.

3.8 Cách dùng các thành ng There is, there are
Thành ng này ch" s t/n t i c a ng                       i ho c v t t i 1 n i nào ó. Ph i phân bi t chúng v i     ng
t to have.
There is
                    ch" s t/n t i (existance)
There are


To have ch" s s h u (possession)


To possess (get, hold instinctively).
- Ch ng th t c a thành ng này i                          ng sau      ng t to be. N u danh t   ó là s nhi u thì   ng
t chia s nhi u và ng c l i.
- M%i bi n i v th i và th                     u nh m vào          ng t to be còn phân t 2 thì d a vào tr   ng t to
have/ has been.

                                     there is
                                     there was                  + singular subject ...
                                     there has been               ( ho c non-count)

                                     there are
                                     there were                 + singular subject ...
                                     there have been              ( ho c non-count)
Ví d :
There is a storm approaching.
 singular          singular

There have been a number of telephone calls today.
          Plural                                    plural

There was an accident last night.
      singular           singular

There were too many people at the party.
       Plural                       plural

There has been an increase in the importation of foreign cars.
         Plural                      plural

There was water on the floor where he fell.
       Plural       non-count



4.         it
     i t trong ti ng Anh chia 5 lo i có các ch c n!ng riêng bi t.

4.1         i t nhân x ng ch ng (Subject pronoun)
G/m :
                                              I          we
                                              you        you
                                              he         they
                                        she
                                        it
Ch c n ng:
-          u
       ng $ câu làm ch ng trong câu và quy t             nh vi c chia   ng t .
-      ng     ng sau      ng t to be.
Ví d : The teachers who were invited to the party were George, Batty.
-    ng ng sau các phó t so sánh nh than, as. Tuy t                i không       c dùng   i t nhân x ng
tân ng trong tr ng h p này.
Ví d : He is taller than I (am) - không c dùng me.
            She is as beautiful as my girlfriend.
-   i v i các i t nhân x ng ch ng nh we, you và                   i t nhân x ng tân ng nh us có th
dùng 1 danh t s nhi u ngay sau ó.
Ví d : We students, you teachers, us workers.
Các     i t nh all, both có th            c dùng theo l i này v i các ngôi s nhi u.


we
you          all/ both
they
Ví d :
I am going to the store.
We have lived here for twenty years.
It was she who called you. (sau ng t be)
George and I would like to leave now.
We students are going to have a party.

4.2          i t nhân x ng tân ng

                               me       us
                               you      you
                               him      them
                               her
                               it

- nó        ng ngay sau       ng t ho c các gi i t làm nhi m v c a m t tân ng .
- i v i các ngôi i t nhân x ng tân ng               s nhi u có th dùng all ho c both ngay sau ó.
us
you      all / both
them
Ví d :
They called us on the phone.
                 complement

The teacher gave him a bad grade.
                       complement

John told her a story.
              complement

The policeman was looking for him.
                                      sau gi i t

To us, it seems like a good bargain
 sau gi i t

L u ý: Nên nh r ng nhi u gi i t có th có ch c n!ng nh các thành ph$n khác trong câu, ch ng
h n nh phó t ho c liên t . Vì v y, ta c$n ph i xác nh các xem chúng óng vai trò gì - c$n d a
vào ng c nh ch không ph i d a vào s hi u bi t bình th ng v ch c n!ng c a chúng.
Ví d :
Janet will make her presentation after               him.
                                      preposition complement pronoun

Janet will make her presentation after               he finishes his speech.
                                        conjunction subject pronoun


                                                                      clause

( m t m nh     (clause) g/m 1 ch ng và 1                              ng t . Trong m nh          trên, he là ch ng và
finishes là ng t ).

4.3 Tính t s h u

                           my       our
                           your     your
                           his
                           her      their
                           its

- Nó      ng ngay tr       c danh t và ch" s s h u c a ng                      i ho c v t   i v i danh t   ng   ng sau.
Ví d :
John is eating his dinner.
This is not my book.
The cat has injured its foot.
The boy broke his arm yesterday..
She forgot her homework this morning.
My food is cold.
L u ý: Its khác v i It’ s. It’ s có ngh*a là it is ho c it has.

4.4           it s h u

                           mine     ours
                           yours    yours
                           his
                           hers     theirs
                           its
- Dùng     thay th cho tính t s h u và danh t       ã     c nh#c    n    trên.


         possessive pronoun + possessive adjective + noun


- Nó có th      c ng làm ch ng trong câu.
-   ng ng sau ng t to be.
- Nó có th làm tân ng khi i sau 1 ng t ho c sau 1 gi i t .
  Do you remember to take your money?
-   ng ng sau các phó t so sánh nh than, as.
  Your book is as good as mine.
M t s thí d :

This is my book = This is mine.
Your teacher is the same as his teacher = Yours is as the same as his.
Her dress is green and my dress is red = Hers is green is green and mine is red.
Our books are heavy = Ours are heavy.
Their coasts are too small. Theirs are too small.
I forgot my homework = I forgot mine.

4.5      i t ph n thân (reflexive pronoun)

             myself           ourselves
             yourself         yourselves
             himself         themselves
             herself
             itself

L u ý:   các ngôi s nhi u, uôi - self bi n thành - selves.
Ch c n ng:
- Ch" ch ng làm vi c gì ó cho chính mình. Trong tr             ng h p này nó     ng ngay sau   ng t
ho c ng cu i câu sau gi i t for ho c to.
Ví d :
He sent the letter to himself.

You can see the differences for yourselves.

- Ch" ch ng t thân làm l y 1 vi c gì. Trong tr          ng h p này nó      ng    ng sau ch ng ho c
cu i câu khi nói.
Ví d :
I myself believe that the proposal is good.

He himself set out to break the long distance flying record.
She prepared the nine-course meal herself.

The students themselves decorated the room.

You yourself must do this homework.

John himself bought this gifts.

By + one-self = alone.
Ví d :
John washed the dishes by himself = John washed the dishes alone.

5.       ng t dùng làm tân ng
- Không ph i b t c    ng t nào trong ti ng Anh c(ng òi h i 1 danh t ho c i t theo sau nó
làm tân ng . Có m t s    ng t l i yêu c$u tân ng sau nó ph i là m t ng t khác. Chúng chia
làm 2 lo i sau:

5.1      ng t nguyên th làm tân ng
B ng sau là nh ng ng t          òi h i tân ng sau nó ph i là m t     ng t khác. Chúng tuân theo m'u
câu nh sau:
agree to do something.
desire to do something.
decide to do something.

          agree     attempt       claim      decide    demand
          desire    expect        fail       forget    hesitate
          hope      intend        learn      need      offer
          plan      prepare       pretend    refuse    seem
          strive    tend          want       wish

Ví d :
John expects to begin studying law next semester.
Mary learned to swim when she was very young.
The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting.
The president will attempt to reduce inflation in the next your years.
The soldiers are preparing to attack a village.
Cynthia has agreed to act as a liaison between the two countries.

5.2 Ving dùng làm tân ng
- B ng sau là 1 s các    ng t      òi h i tân ng sau nó là 1 Ving theo các m'u câu sau:
admit doing something (thú nh n làm gì)
Ví d : He admitted having done wrong.
Enjoy doing something (thích thú khi làm i u gì)


                     admit          appreciate    enjoy           quit
                      delay         deny           practice         resume
                      miss          postpone       resist           consider
                      report        resent         can’ t help      mind
                      suggest       avoid          finish           recall
                                                                    risk

L u ý : Trong b ng trên có m'u ng t :
can’ t help
               + (against) doing smth : không th d ng               c, không th nh n     c ...
can’ t resist
Ví d :
With such good oranges, we can’ t help (resist) buying 2 kilos at a time.

L u ý: N u mu n        t ph    nh cho các tr ng h p này t not tr          c nguyên th b to ho c Ving.
Tuy t i không          c c u t o d ng ph    nh c a ng t chính.
Ví d :
John decided not to by the car.
We regretted not going to the party last night.

M t s thí d :
John admitted stealing the jewels.

We enjoy seeing them again after so many years.
You shouldn’ t risk entering that building in its present condition.
Michael was considering buying a new car until the price went up.
The Coast Guard reported seeing another ship in the Florida Straits.
Would you mind not smoking in this office?
* Các ng t     b ng sau là nh ng ng t mà tân ng c a chúng có th là                     ng t nguyên th
hay Ving mà ng ngh*a c a chúng không thay i.
Ví d :
begin to do smth = begin doing smth.

                      begin       can’ t stand   continue        dread
                      hate        like           love            prefer
                      regret      start          try

L u ý: Trong b ng trên có m'u         ng t :
               to do smth
can’ t stand                   ( Không th ch u    ng        c khi ph i làm gì)
               doing smth
Ví d :
                  waiting such a long time.
I can’ t stand
                  to wait such a long time.
I hate to ride her bicycle to school = I hate riding her bicycle to school.
5.3 3     ng t           c bi t
 ó là các     ng t mà ng ngh*a c a chúng thay                 i khi tân ng sau nó là 1 nguyên th ho c 1
Ving.
         Stop to do smth : d ng l i        làm gì.
         Ví d :
         He stops to get gasoline.
         Stop doing smth : d ng vi c gì ang làm l i.
         Ví d :
         He stops writing and goes out.
         Remember to do smth : nh s0 ph i làm gì.
         Ví d :
         I remember to send a letter at the post office.
         Remember doing smth : nh           ã làm gì.
         Ví d :
         I remember locking the door before leaving but I can’ t find the key.

         Forget to do smth : quên s0 ph i làm gì.
         Ví d :
         He forgets to call his friend this afternoon.
         Forget doing smth : quên ã làm gì.


         Ví d :
         I forget doing the homework yesterday.
L u ý:      ng t forget trong m'u câu mang ngh*a ph              nh.
         I forget getting to the airport to meet my girl-friend this morning.

5.4 Các       ng t              ng
                            ng ! sau gi i t
- T t c các       ng t      ng    ng sau gi i t      u ph i   d ng Ving.
verb
adj.      + preposition + Ving
noun
  ng t + gi i t + Ving
B ng sau g/m các ng t + gi i t .

          approve of: tán thành           be better off:                     keep on = continue
          give up: t b                    insist on: nài n"                  think about
          rely on: ph thu c vào           succeed in: thành công trong       think of
          worry about: lo l#ng v          count on = rely on                 depend on
                                                                             put off: trì hoãn
Danh t + gi i t + Ving (b ng sau)

          possibility of      method of         method for       reason for
          choice of           intention of      excuse for

Ví d :
George has no excuse for dropping out of school.
There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price.
There is no reason for leaving this early.
Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem.
Tính t + gi i t + Ving (b ng sau)

          accustomed to         afraid of        capable of          fond of
          intent on             interested in    successful in       tired of

Ví d :
Mitch is afraid of getting married now.
We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends.
Jean is not capable of understanding the predicament.
Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year.
Craig is fond of dancing.
We are interested in seeing this film.
- Không ph i b t c tính t nào trong ti ng Anh c(ng òi h i #ng sau nó ph i là 1 gi i t , có m t
s tính t l i òi h i ng sau nó là m t ng t nguyên th (xem b ng sau).

              anxious                boring      dangerous       hard
              eager: háo h c         easy        good            strange
              pleased                prepared    ready           able*
              usual                  common      difficult

eager to do smth: háo h c làm gì.
hard to do smth : khó làm gì.
* able :
able                     capable
          to do smth =                    of doing smth
unable                  incapable
Ví d :
These students are not yet able to handle such difficult problems.
These students are not yet capable of handling such difficult problems.
M t s thí d :
Mohammad is eager to see his family.
It is dangerous to drive in this weather
We are ready to leave now.
It is difficult to pass this test.
It is uncommon to find such good crops in this section of the country.
Ritsuko was pleased to be admitted to the college.
L u ý:
- M t s các ng t ti ng Anh th ng có gi i t i kèm phía sau. Không                                        c nh$m l'n gi i
t ó v i to c a ng t nguyên th . Ch ng h n m t s ng t trong b ng sau:


    object to: ph n     i          look forward to : mong       i       confess to : thú nh n ã làm gì


Ví d :
John gave up smoking because of his doctor’ s advice.
Mary insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane.
Fred confessed to stealing the jewels.
We are not looking forward to going back to school.
Henry is thinking of going to France in August.
You would be better off leaving now instead of tomorrow.

5.5 V n           it        i tr     c      ng t nguyên th ho c Ving làm tân ng .
-    ng tr   c1       ng t nguyên th làm tân ng thì d ng c a                    i t ph i là tân ng .

                                                                    Pronoun
                       Subject + verb + complement form                            + [ to + verb] ...
                                                                    noun

Sau ây là b ng các          ng t         òi h i    i t (hay danh t ) i sau nó ph i              d ng tân ng .

                  allow             ask           beg       convince         instruct
                  invite            order         permit    persuade         prepare
                  remind            urge          want      expect           promise

Ví d :
Joe asked Mary to call him when he woke up.
We ordered him to appear in court.
I urge you to consider your decision.
They were trying to persuade him to change his mind.
The teacher permitted them to turn their assignments in late.
You should prepare your son to take this examination.
Tuy nhiên,     ng tr     c 1 Ving làm tân ng thì d ng c a danh t ho c                      i t ph i     d ng s h u.

                                             d ng s h u c a danh t
               Ch ng +             ng t +                                  + [verb + ing] ...
                                             tính t s h u
Ví d :
We understand your not being able to stay longer.
He regrets her leaving.
We are looking forward to their coming next year.
We don’ t approve of John’ s buying this house.
We resent the teacher’ s not announcing the test sooner.
We object to their calling at this hour.


6. Cách s d ng            ng t bán khi m khuy t need và dare
6.1 need
   ng t này    c s d ng ra sao còn ph thu c vào danh t               ng   ng sau nó là    ng v t hay
b t ng v t.
- khi ch ng là ng v t (living thing)


             Subject as a living thing + need + to + verb
                          (c$n ph i làm gì)

Ví d :
I need to clean my house.
John and his brother need to paint the house.
My friend needs to learn Spanish.
He will need to drive alone tonight.
-Tuy nhiên khi ch ng là m t b t        ng v t (unliving thing) thì   ng t sau need s0    i khác.


             Subject as unliving thing + need + [Verb + ing]
                                                  to be + P2


Ví d :
The grass needs to be cut. Ho c The grass needs cutting.
The television needs repairing. Ho c The television need to be repaired.
The composition needs rewriting. Ho c The composition needs to be rewritten.
L u ý:

                 need = to be in need of + noun


to be in need of + noun có th thay th cho c 2 công th c trên.
Ví d :
Jill is in need of money = Jill needs money.
The roof is in need of repair = The roof needs to be repaired.
The organization was in need of volunteers = The organization needed volunteers.

6.2 Dare
- Dare không       c dùng nhi u kh ng nh. Nó ch"       c dùng ph      nh và nghi v n. ng t
sau nó theo lý thuy t là có to nh ng trên th c t th ng b to. Nó có th dùng v i tr    ng t to
do ho c dùng tr c ti p.
   He doesn’ t dare (to) say anything
= He dares not (to) say anything.
Does he dare (to) say anything = Dares he (to) say anything.
- Dare không        c dùng     th kh ng     nh tr tr   ng h p - I dare say mang 2 ngh*a:
         - Tôi cho là.
         Ví d : I dare say there will be a restaurant car at the end of the train.
         - Tôi công nh n là.
         Ví d : I dare say you are right. Tôi th a nh n là anh úng.
- How dare (dared) + subject ... (sao dám).
Ví d :
How dare you open my letter? Sao c u dám bóc th c a tôi ra th ?
- Dare còn       c dùng nh 1 ngo i        ng t mang ngh*a dám, thách theo m'u câu sau:


                  To dare smb to do smth

                  (thách ai làm gì)
They dare the boy to swim across the river in the cold weather.

7. Cách dùng             ng t to be + infinitive
         BE + INFINITIVE
- Nó     c dùng truy n             t nh ng m nh l nh ho c nh ng ch" d'n tt ng        i th nh t qua ng   i
th 2 t i ng i th 3.
Ví d :
No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police.
(không ai       c phép r i toà nhà này mà không        c phép c a c nh sát).
He is to stay here until we return.
(nó ph i     l i ây cho t i khi b%n tao quay l i).
- Dùng v i m nh          if mang tính b#t bu c ho c m nh l nh.
Ví d :
Something must be done quickly if extinct birds are to be saved
He said if he fall asleep at the wheel, we were to wake him up.
-   truy n      tm td        nh.
Ví d :
She is to be married next month.
(cô y s0 c i vào tháng t i)
The expedition is to start in a week’ s time.
C u trúc này r t thông d ng trong báo chí và n u nó là t a            báo thì ng   i ta b be i   ti t
ki m ch).
Ví d :
The Prime Minister is to make a statement tomorrow.
= The Prime Minister to make a statement tomorrow.
- Was/ were + infinitive
   di n    t1ýt     ng v s m nh.
Ví d :
They said good bye without knowing that they were never to meet again.
(h% chia tay nhau mà không bi t r ng s0 ch ng bao gi h% g p l i nhau)
- To be about to + verb = near future = to be in the point of Ving.

8. Câu h i
8.1 Câu h i yes và no
S d* g%i là nh v y vì trong câu tr l i có th dùng yes ho c no           $u câu. Nên nh r ng:
Yes + positive verb
No + negative verb.
Không     c nh$m l'n d ng câu tr l i ti ng vi t.


                      auxiliary
                      be               + subject + verb ...
                      do, does, did

Is Mary going to school today?
Was Mary sick yesterday?
Have you seen this movie before?
Will the committee decide on the proposal today?
Do you want to use the telephone?
Does George like peanut butter?
Did you go to class yesterday?

8.2 Câu h i thông báo
Là lo i câu h i mà trong câu tr l i ngoài yes ho c no ra còn ph i thêm m t s các thông tin khác.
Các câu h i này dùng v i m t s các i t nghi v n.

8.2.1 who và what làm ch ng .
        Who
                   + verb + (complement) + (modifier)
        what

Who opened the door? (someone opened the door)
What happened last night? (something happened last night.)
Chú ý: Không úng khi nói :
Who did open the door?
What did happen last night?

8.2.2 Whom và what là tân ng c a câu h i

     whom           auxiliary
               +                    + subject + verb + ( modifier)
     what           do, does, did

Chú ý:
M c dù trong v!n nói, nhi u ng i s d ng who thay cho whom trong lo i câu h i này nh ng
tuy t i không     c dùng nh v y trong v!n vi t (l)i c b n)
Ví d :
Whom does Ahmad know from Venezuela? ( Ahmad know someone from Venezuela)
What did George buy at the store? ( George bought something at the store)



8.2.3 Câu h i dành cho các b ng (when, where, why, how)

     when
                         Auxiliary
     where
                    +    be              + subject + verb + (complement) + (modifier)
     why
                         do, does, did
     how

When did John move to Jacksonville?
Where does Mohamad live ?
Why did George leave so early?
How did Maria get to school today?
Where has Henry gone?
When will Bertha go back to Mexico?

8.3 Câu h i gián ti p (embedded questions)
Là lo i câu h i có các    c i m sau:
- Câu có 2 thành ph$n n i v i nhau b ng 1      i t nghi v n.
- ng t        m nh      2 ph i      ng xuôi sau ch ng không                c c u t o câu h i       thành ph$n th
2.
- i t nghi v n không ch" bao g/m 1 t mà nhi u khi có th là 2 ho c 3 t ch ng h n: whose +
noun, how many, how much, how long, how often, what time, và what kind.


                         Subject + verb ( phrase) + question word + subject + verb

Ví d :
Câu h i : Where will the meeting take place?
Câu h i gián ti p: We haven’ t ascertained where the meeting will take place.
                                                              Q word    subject          verb phrase

Câu h i: Why did the plane land at the wrong airport?
Câu h i gián ti p : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the wrong airport.
                                                                           Q word   subject     phrase


                         auxiliary + subject + verb + question word + subject + verb


Do you know where he went?
Could you tell me what time it is?

M t s thí d :
The professor didn’ t know how many students would be in her afternoon class.
I have no idea how long the interview will take.
Do they know how often the bus runs at night?
Can you tell me how far the museum is from the college?
I’ ll tell you what kind of ice cream tastes best.
The teacher asked us whose book was on his desk.

8.4 Câu h i có uôi
Khi s d ng lo i câu h i này nên nh r ng nó không nh m m c ích ê h i mà nh m                                kh ng
  nh l i ý ki n c a b n thân mình ã bi t.
- Câu chia làm 2 thành ph$n tách bi t nhau b i d u ph&y.
-N u      ng t     ph$n chính      th kh ng      nh thì       ph$n uôi là ph        nh và ng     c l i.
-    ng t to be       c dùng tr c ti p, các ng t th ng dùng tr      ng t to do, các                       ng t
th i kép: future, perfect, progressive dùng v i chính tr ng t c a th i ó.
- Các thành ng there is, there are và it is dùng l i            ph$n uôi.
- ng t to have trong ti ng Anh c a ng              i M2 là       ng t th     ng do ó nó s0 dùng v i tr           ng
t to do.
Ví d :
There are only twenty-eight days in February, aren’ t there?
It’ s raining now, isn’ t it? It isn’ t raining now, is it?
The boys don’ t have class tomorrow, do they?
You and I talked with the professor yesterday, didn’ t we?
You won’ t be leaving for another hour, will you?
Jill and Joe have been to Mexico, haven’ t they?
You have two children, don’ t you?
(Trong ti ng Anh, thì s0 dùng haven’ t you?)
L u ý:
Trong các bài thi TOEFL n u     ng t chính là have thì     ng sau ph i dùng tr       ng t do.
Ví d :
She has an exam tomorrow, doesn’ t she?

9. L i nói ph ho kh ng               nh và ph       nh.
9.1 L i nói ph     ho kh"ng       nh.
- Dùng ph ho l i ý kh ng nh c a m t ng i khác t ng               ng v i câu ti ng vi t “c ng th
” và ng i ta s0 dùng so và too trong c u trúc này.
-    ng t to be      c phép dùng tr c ti p, các ng t th ng dùng v i tr          ng t to do, các
   ng t   th i kép (future, perfect, progressive) dùng v i chính ng t c a nó.
- Khi be     c s d ng trong m nh         chính thì th i c a ng t be s d ng trong câu ph ho
c(ng ph i cùng th i v i be m nh chính.


                                                           Subject + verb(be) + too
                  Affirmative statement (be) + and +
                                                           So + verb(be) + subject


Ví d :
I am happy, and you are too.
I am happy, and so are you.
- Khi m t ng t       th kép (auxilary + verb), ví d , will go, should do, has done, have written,
must examine, vv... xu t hi n trong m nh     chính thì tr      ng t c a m nh      chính     cs
d ng d ng kh ng nh, và ch ng và ng t ph i hoà h p.

                                                            Subject + auxiliary only + too
                  Affirmative statement + and +
                   ( ng t      th kép)                      So + auxiliary only + subject


Ví d :
They will work in the lab tomorrow, and you will too.
They will work in the lab tomorrow, and so will you.

                                                        Subject +do, does, or did + too.
                    Affirmative statement + and +
                     ( ng t       n tr be)              So + do, does, or did + subject
Ví d :
Jane goes to that school, and my sister does too.
Jane goes to that school, and so does my sister.
John went to the mountains on his vacation, and we did too.
John went to the mountains on his vacation, and so did we.
I will be in New Mexico in August, and they will too.
I will be in New Mexico in August, and so will they.
He has seen her plays, and the girls have too.
He has seen her plays, and so have the girls.
We are going to the movies tonight, and Suzy is too.
We are going to the movies tonight, and so is Suzy.
She will wear a costume to the party, and we will too.
She will wear a costume to the party, and so will we.

9.2 L i nói ph ho ph             nh
- Dùng       ph ho l i ý ph      nh c a ng   i khác, t     ng ng v i câu ti ng vi t “ c ng không”.
- C u trúc dùng cho lo i câu này là either và neither.
Nên nh r ng: Not ... either / Neither ... positive verb.
Các tr   ng h p dùng gi ng h t công th c kh ng           nh.

                                             Subject + negative auxiliary or be + either .
             Negative statement + and +
                                             Neither + positive auxiliary or be + subject.



Ví d :
I didn’ t see Mary this morning. John didn’ t see Mary this morning.
I didn’ t see Mary this morning, and John didn’ t either.
I didn’ t see Mary this morning, and neither did John.
She won’ t be going to the conference. Her colleagues won’ t be going to the conference.
She won’ t be going to the conference, and her colleagues won’ t either.
She won’ t be going to the conference, and neither will her colleagues.
John hasn’ t seen the new movie yet. I haven’ t seen the new movie yet.
John hasn’ t seen the new movie yet, and I haven’ t ether.
John hasn’ t seen the new movie yet, and neither have I.

10. Câu ph            nh
     thành l p câu ph    nh ng i ta t not vào sau              ng t to be, tr   ng t to do c a   ng t
th    ng, và các tr   ng t c a ng t    th i kép.
-    t any    ng tr   c danh t    nh n m nh cho ph             nh.
- Trong m t s tr ng h p nh n m nh cho danh t               ng sau b ph      nh, ng    i ta     ng t
nguyên th và t no tr c danh t . ( no = not at all).


                              Nagative + nagative = Positive


Ví d :
It’ s really unbelievable that he has no money.


                           Nagative + comparative = Superlative


Ví d :
Professor Baker couldn’ t be more helpful = Pr. Baker was the most helpful.
We couldn’ t have gone to the beach on a better day. T c là: Today is the best day to go to the
beach.


                                Nagative ..., much less + noun.
                                  (không mà l i càng không)


Ví d :
He didn’ t like to read novels, much less text books.
It’ s really unbelievable how he could have survived, after such a free fall, much less live to tell
about it on TV.
M t s phó t trong ti ng Anh mang ngh a ph         nh, khi ã dùng nó trong câu tuy t i không
      c dùng ph     nh c a ng t n a.



Ví d :
Hardly
Scarcely           H$u nh không ( Almost no)
Barely


Hardly ever
Rarely           H$u nh không bao gi ( almost never).
Seldom

Công th c dùng v i các phó t trên.


                     Subject + nagative + adverb + positive verb
L u ý: Barely và scarcely ôi khi mang ngh*a v a , v a so n (just enough). Ph i c!n c theo
ng c nh c a câu ho c các câu tr l i d i ph$n nghe tìm ra ngh*a úng.
Ví d :
He scarcely has money for the tuition fee and not any coins left.
(Nó v a      ti n    tr h%c phí và không còn xu nào c .)

11. M nh l nh th c
Chia làm 2 lo i tr c ti p và gián ti p.

11.1 M nh l nh th c tr#c ti p.
M nh l nh th c tr c ti p là câu mà m t ng i ra l nh cho m t ng            i khác làm vi c gì ó. Nó có
th có please i tr c. Ch ng         c hi u là you. S d ng d ng             n gi n c a ng t (Nguyên
th b to).
Ví d :
Close the door.                               Open the window.
Leave the room.                               Pay your rent.
Please turn off the light.                            Be quiet.
D ng m nh l nh th c ph            nh     c thành l p nh c ng thêm don’ t tr   c   ng t .
Don’ t close the door.
Please don’ t turn off the light.
Don’ t open the window, please.
( Please có th          u
                    ng $ ho c cu i câu m nh l nh th c làm cho câu tr nên l ch s h n).

11.2 M nh l nh th c gián ti p.
Th ng dùng v i 4        ng t sau:
to order
to ask                  to do something.
              smb       not to do something
to tell
to say


Ví d :
John told Mary to close the door.
Jack asked Jill to turn off the light.
The teacher told Christopher to open the window.
Please tell Jaime to leave the room.
John ordered Bill to close his book.
The policeman ordered the suspect to be quiet.
L u ý:
 uôi c a Let’ s ...., shall we.
Ví d :
Let’ s go out for lunch, shall we?
Khác v i let us trong câu m nh l nh th c.
Ví d :
Let’ s go now (chúng ta i thôi) khác v i Let us go, please. ( xin hãy       cho chúng tôi i)

12.       ng t khi m khuy t.
S d* g%i là nh v y vì           ng t này mang nh ng     c tính nh sau:
- Không có ti u t to          ng tr   c.
- ng t nào i sau nó c(ng ph i b to.
- Không bao gi 2 ng t khi m khuy t i cùng v i nhau, n u có thì b#t bu c               ng t th 2 ph i
chuy n sang m t d ng khác.
Ví d :
Will have to
         must

Will be able to
           can

Will be allowed to
           may

   ng t khi m khuy t             c s d ng v i các ch c n!ng sau:

12.1 Di$n          t th i t     ng lai.

12.2 Di$n          t câu i u ki n.

12.2.1      i u ki n có th th c hi n           c   th i hi n t i.

                                                              Will/shall
                 If + Subject + simple present + subject +                 + [verb in simple form]
                                                              can/ may



Ví d :
If I have the money, I will buy a new car.
If you try more, you will improve your English.
We will have plenty of time to finish the project before dinner if it is only ten o’ clock now.


                 If + subject + simple present tense + subject + ... + simple present tense

M'u câu này còn           c dùng      di n t m t thói quen.
Ví d :
If the doctor has morning office hours, he visits his patients in the hospital in the afternoon
(không có ng t khuy t thi u.)
John usually walks to school if he has enough time.
             If + Subject + simple present tense ... + command form* ...


* Nên nh r ng m nh l nh th c          d ng     n gi n c a      ng t . ( simple form)
M'u câu trên có ngh*a là nh ai, ra l nh cho ai làm gì.
Ví d :
If you go to the Post Office, please mail this letter for me.
Please call me if you hear from Jane.

12.2.2     i u ki n không th th c hi n               c    th i hi n t i.

                                                   Would/should
          If + Subject + simple past + subject +                       + verb in simple form
                                                     could/ might

Ví d :
If I had enough money now, I would buy this house
( but now I don’ t have enough money.)
If I had the time, I would go to the beach with you this weekend.
(but I don’ t have the time.) ( I’ m not going to the beach with you.)
He would tell you about it if he were here.
( he won’ t tell you about it.) ( He is not here).
If he didn’ t speak so quickly, you could understand him.
(He speaks very quickly.) (You can’ t understand him.)
L u ý:
      ng t to be sau if     m'u câu này ph i chia làm were          t t c các ngôi.
I... they were.


Ví d :
If I were you, I wouldn’ t do such a thing.
(but I’ m not you.)

12.2.3     i u ki n không th th c hi n               c    th i quá kh .

                                                            Would/should
                  If + Subject + past perfect + subject +                     + have + P2
                                                            could / might

Ví d :
If we hadn’ t lost the way we could have been here in time.
(but in fact we lost the way, so we were late.)
If we had known that you were there, we would have written you a letter.
(We didn’ t know that you were there.) ( we didn’ t write you a letter.)
She would have sold the house if she had found the right buyer.
(She didn’ t sell the house.) (She didn’ t find the right buyer.)
If we hadn’ t lost the way, we would have arrived sooner.
(We lost our way.) (we didn’ t arrive early.)
Câu i u ki n không ph i lúc nào c ng tuân theo úng công th c trên, trong m t s tr ng h p
1 v c a câu i u ki n quá kh còn m t v l i hi n t i do th i gian c a t ng m nh        quy
  nh.
Ví d :
If she had caught the flight she would be here by now.
L u ý:
        Trong m t s tr ng h p câu i u ki n không th th c hi n                    c   th i quá kh , ng    i
ta b if i và o had lên $u câu nh ng ý ngh*a v'n gi nguyên.


                                    Had + subject + [verb in past participle ]...

Ví d :
Had we known you were there, we would have written you a letter.
Had she found the right buyer, she would have sold the house.
Hadn’ t we lost the way, we would have arrived sooner.

12.2.4 Các cách dùng          c bi t c a Will, would và sould trong các m nh             if
+ Thông th ng nh ng               ng t này không       c dùng    ng sau if nh ng n u          c dùng nó s0
  mang ý ngh*a sau:


                                      If you will /would.


Th   ng      c dùng trong các yêu c$u l ch s ( Would l ch s h n)


Ví d :
If you would wait a moment, I will see if Mr John is here.
(N u cô vui lòng ch m t chút, tôi s0 xem li u ông John có           ây không.)
I would be very grateful if you will/ would make an arrangement for me.

                                 If you could + verb in simple form.
                                                                  ng
            N u ông vui lòng - Ng òi nói cho r ng ng i kia s0 / ý nh m t l0 t t nhiên


Ví d :
If you could fill in this form.
If you could open your books.
                            If + subject + will / would.
                         N u ... ch u - Di n t ý t nguy n


Ví d :
If he will (would) listen to me, I can help him.
N u nó ch u nghe theo l i tôi thì tôi có th giúp nó.


                                 If + subject + will.
                                 Di n t s ngoan c .


Ví d :
If you will learn English this way, a failure for TOFEL test is sure awaiting you.
N u c u mà c h%c ti ng Anh theo cách này thì tr t k- thi TOFEL ch#c ch#n ang ch             ón c u.


                                If + subject +should.


Di n t m t hành ng dù r t có th            c song kh n!ng r t ít và khi nói ng   i nói không tin là
s vi c l i có th x y ra.
Ví d :
If you shouldn’ t know how to use this TV set, please call me up this number.
N u anh không bi t cách s d ng chi c tivi này, hãy g%i i n cho tôi s máy này. (Nói v y nh ng
ng i nói không cho r ng là anh ta l i không bi t s d ng chi c tivi ó.)
If you should have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me.
(Ng i th$y không cho r ng c u h%c sinh l i không làm         c nh ng bài t p ó - vì chúng r t d
ho c c u h%c trò r t thông minh)
- Trong m t s tr    ng h p ng    i ta b if i và    o should lên $u câu mà ng ngh*a không thay
   i.


Ví d :
Should you have any difficulties while doing these exercises, please feel free to ask me.
Should it be cloudy and gray, the groundhog will supposedly wander around for food - a sign that
spring is near.
N u tr i có nhi u mây và b$u tr i xám x t thì ng i ta cho là con sóc t s0 i lang thang ki m !n
- ó là d u hi u c a mùa Xuân ang t i g$n. Th c ra, khi s d ng c u trúc này thì tác gi cho
r ng khi con sóc t chui ra thì r t hi m khi tr i l i có nhi u mây và b$u tr i l i xám l i - có th là
do k t qu th ng kê.

13. Cách s d ng thành ng as if, as though.
(Có ngh*a là : d   ng nh là, nh th là)
- M nh        ng sau 2 thành ng này th                           ng hay       d ng i u ki n không th th c hi n               c và
chia làm 2 th i:

13.1 Th i hi n t i
N u      ng t   m nh tr c chia simple present thì ng t                                         m nh       sau ph i chia    simple
past,    ng t to be s0 ph i chia là were t t c các ngôi.

                                                                      as if
                        Subject + verb (simple present) +                                + subject + verb (simple past)
                                                                      as though


Ví d :
The old lady dresses as if it were winter even in the summer.
                         Hi n t i                  quá kh

(It is not winter.)
Angelique walks as though she studied modelling.
                    Hi n t i                                quá kh

(She didn’ t study modelling)
He acts as though he were rich.
    Hi n t i                         quá kh

(He is not rich)

13.2 Th i quá kh .
N u      ng t         m nh          tr     c chia       simple past thì         ng t       m nh      2 ph i chia    past perfect.

                                                                     as if
                         Subject + verb (simple past) +                                + subject + verb (past perfect)
                                                                     as though


Ví d :
Betty talked about the contest as if she had won the grand prize.
         Past simple                                                  past perfect


(She didn’ t win the grand prize.)


Jeff looked as if he had seen a ghost.
      Past simple                   past perfect


(She didn’ t see a ghost.)
He looked as though he had run ten miles.
     Past simple                         past perfect

(He didn’ t run ten miles.)
+    C 2 d ng chia ó sau as if                      u di n       t i u ki n không th th c hi n               c.
L u ý:
Trong m t s tr ng h p n u             i u ki n là có th t thì 2 công th c trên không            c tuân theo.
   ng t l i tr v d ng bình th         ng theo di n bi n c a câu.
Ví d :
He looks as if he has finish the test.

14. Cách s d ng               ng t To hope và to wish.
Hai      ng t này tuy /ng ngh*a nh ng khác nhau v m t ng pháp.
+     ng sau   ng t to hope là m t câu di n bi n bình th          ng.
Ví d :
I hope that they will come. ( I don’ t know if they are coming.)
( Tôi hy v%ng là h% s0 t i.)
We hope that they came yesterday. ( We don’ t know if they came.)
+ Nh ng ng t to wish l i òi h i ng sau nó ph i là m t i u ki n không th th c hi n                           c.
  i u ki n này chia làm 3 th i.

14.1 Th i t      ng lai.
    ng t    m nh     sau s0 ph i là Would / could + verb ho c were + Ving.

                                                               Could + verb
                Subject + wish + (that) + Subject* +           would + verb      + ...
                                                               were + Ving



Subject* : có th là cùng ho c khác ch ng v i ch ng trong m nh                    chính.
Ví d :
We wish that you could come to the party tonight. (You can’ t come.)
I wish that you would stop saying that. (You probably won’ t stop.)
She wish that she were coming with us. ( She is not coming with us.)



14.2 Th i hi n t i
    ng t    m nh     2 s0 chia     simple past.     ng t to be ph i chia làm were         t t c các ngôi.


                           Subject + wish + (that) + Subject* + verb in simple past ...



Ví d :
I wish that I had enough time to finish my homework. ( I don’ t have enough time.)
We wish that he were old enough to come with us. ( He is not old enough.)
They wish that they didn’ t have to go to class today. ( They have to go to class.)
14.3 Th i quá kh .
   ng t       m nh     sau s0 ph i chia             Past perfect ho c Could have + P2

                                                                       Past perfect
               Subject + wish + (that) + Subject +
                                                                       Could have + P2


Ví d :
I wish that I had washed the clothes yesterday. ( I didn’ t wash the clothes yesterday.)
She wish that she could have been there. ( She couldn’ t be there.)
We wish that we had had more time last night. ( We didn’ t have more time.)
L u ý:
               ng t wish ch" có th nh h ng n m nh         ng sau nó b ng cách bu c m nh
 ó ph i        i u ki n không th th c hi n c. Nh ng i u ki n ó th i nào l i do th i gian c a
m nh          ó quy t nh không h ph thu c vào th i c a ng t to wish.

Ví d :
He wished that he could come to the party next week.
     Quá kh              i u ki n    t   ng lai                        T    ng lai
                                     Phù h p v th i



The photographer wished that we stood closer together than we are standing now.
                         Quá kh                       i u ki n   hi n t i                          hi n t i
                                                                   Phù h p v th i



       - Ph i phân bi t v i to wish                 d ng câu này v i ngh*a            c gì, mong gì v i to wish trong
m'u câu sau:


                                                  To wish somebody something


Ví d :
I wish you a happy birthday.

15. Cách s d ng thành ng used to và get/be used to

15.1 used to.


                                    Used to + [Verb in simple form]... ( Th           ng hay, ã t ng)            (*)



Ch" m t thói quen, hành         ng th        ng xuyên x y ra l p i l p l i trong quá kh .
Ví d :
When David was young, he used to swim once a day. ( Thói quen trong quá kh )
Chuy n sang câu nghi v n:

                                 Did + Subject + use to + Verb
                                 = Used + Subject + to + verb.


Ví d :
When David was young, did he use to swim once a day?
                               used he to swim once a day?
    Câu ph      nh:

                                     Subject + didn’ t + use to + Verb
                                     = Subject + used not to + verb.


Ví d :
When David was young, he didn’ t use to swim once a day.
                               he used not to swim once a day.


15.2 get / be used to.

                                    BE / GET USED TO + VING
                                     ( tr nên quen v i)      (noun)


L u ý: Trong công th c (*) có th thay used to = Would nh ng d nh$m l'n.

16. Cách s d ng thành ng Would rather
                 Would rather ... than = Prefer ... to
                   (Thích ... h n là; thà ... h n là)

4          ng sau would rather ph i là m t       ng t nguyên th b to (bare infinitive) nh ng   ng sau
        prefer ph i là m t verb+ing.
    Ví d :
             John would rather drink Coca-Cola than orange juice.
             John prefer drinking Coca-Cola to drinking orange juice.

L u ý:
4  Vi c s d ng thành ng này còn tu- thu c vào s ch ng và ngh*a c a câu
16.1 Lo i câu có m t ch ng .
     lo i câu này ch" dùng Would rather (không có than) và chia làm 2 th i :
1. Th i hi n t i.
  ng t sau Would rather là nguyên th b to. N u mu n dùng ph                   nh     t not tr     c     ng t
nguyên th b to ( công th c 1)


                             Subject + Would rather + (not) bare infinitive                 (1)


Ví d :
Jim would rather go to class tomorrow
Trong câu này ng       i nói mu n nói Jim thích       n l p vào ngày mai (ch hôm nay Jim không
mu n)
2.     Th i quá kh .
  th i quá kh sau would rather là have + past participle (hay còn g%i là phân t 2 - P2) - Công
th c 2.


                                       Subject + would rather + have + (P2)                           (2)

Ví d :
John would rather have gone to class yesterday than today ( John thích i h%c vào ngày hôm qua
h n ngày hôm nay).

16.2 Lo i câu có 2 ch ng
         lo i câu này thành ng             c s d ng s0 là Would rather that (      c gì, mong gì) và chia
làm nh ng m'u câu nh sau:
1. Câu gi        nh
       Là lo i câu di n t ý ng i th nh t mu n ng i th 2 làm m t vi c gì ó, nh ng làm
hay không còn tu- thu c vào vào phía ng i th 2. Do v y c u trúc ng t sau ch ng 2 ph i là
nguyên th b to - Công th c 1.


                        Subject1 + Would rather that + Subject2 + bare infinitive               (1)

Ví d :
I would rather that Jones call me tomorrow ( Tôi mu n Johnes g%i i n cho tôi vào ngày mai -
Nh ng Jones có g%i i n cho ng i nói hay không còn tu- vào Jones).
We would rather that he take this train. ( áp chuy n tàu ó hay không còn tu- vào anh y - H%
ch" mu n v y).

2.      i u ki n không th#c hi n       c    hi n t i (ngh%a c a câu trái v i th#c t ).
   ng t sau ch ng 2 s0 chia       Simple past,    ng t to be s0 ph i        c chia thành Were     t tc
các ngôi - Công th c 2

                         Subject1 + would rather that + Subject2 + Simple past...               (2)


Ví d :
Henry would rather that his girlfriend worked in the same department as he does
         (In fact his girlfriend doesn’ t work in the same department.)
Jane would rather that it were winter now.
     (It is not winter now.)

Nh n xét:
- Trong các câu trên ngh*a c a v th 2 luôn trái v i th c t      th i i m hi n t i.
- N u mu n thành l p th ph      nh dùng   Did not + verb
                                              Were not + verb


3.    i u ki n không th th#c hi n         c trong quá kh ( Ngh%a c a câu là trái v i th#c t .)
         Trong lo i câu này    ng t    m nh      th 2 s0 ph i      c chia    Past perfect - Công th c
1.


                           Subject1 + would rather that + Subject2 + Past perfect           (1)

Ví d :
Jim would rather that Jill had gone to class yesterday.
(nh ng trong th c t thì Jill ã không t i l p ngày hôm qua và ng i nói ch" l y làm ti c là Jill ã
không t i l p vào ngày hôm qua.)
Nh n xét: Trên th c t ngh*a c a to wish và would rather that (v i ngh*a c, mong mu n) trong
tr ng h p trên là gi ng nhau nh ng Wish        c s d ng trong ti ng Anh bình dân (hàng ngày).
Còn Would rather that mang k ch tính nhi u h n.

17. Cách s d ng Would Like
       Thành ng này dùng m i m%c ng i khác m t cách l ch s ho c di n                   t mong mu n
c a mình m t cách nhã nh n sau ó ph i là ng t nguyên th có to (infinitive).


                               Subject + would like + [to + verb] ...


Ví d :
Would you like to dance with me?
I would like to visit Hongkong.
We would like to order now, please.
The president would like to be re-elected.
They would like to study at the university.
Would you like to see a movie tonight?

L uý:
- N u hành ng       c xác nh c th v m t th i gian ho c th i gian là hi n t i thì dùng
   ng t nguyên th sau like.
- Nh ng n u th i gian là không xác nh thì ph i dùng Verb+ing.

Ví d :
Would you like a lemonade now? (th i gian là hi n t i now)
She likes watching TV every night. (th i gian là không xác     nh - ch" s thích hobby)
Ho c I would like eating a steak and salad.

18. Cách s d ng các            ng t khi m khuy t              di n     t các tr ng thái       hi n
t i.
18.1 Could/may/might.


                                Could/may/might + [Verb in simple form]

                                            Có th /có l0.
       Ch" m t kh n!ng có th x y ra hi n t i song ng i nói không ch#c. C 3               ng t có giá
tr nh nhau.
Ví d :
            It might rain tomorrow              It will possibly rain tomorrow
            It may rain tomorrow    =                        OR
            It could rain tomorrow              Maybe it will rain tomorrow

Chú ý:
Maybe là s k t h p c a may và be, nh ng nó là m t t và không ph i là tr             ng t . Nó /ng
ngh*a v i perhaps.
                             M t s ví d v Could, may, và might:
The president said that there might be a strike next month.
I don’ t know what I’ m doing tomorrow. I may go to the beach or I may stay home.
(L u ý là ng   i Anh th   ng nói là stay at home nh ng ng     i M2 l i nói là stay home.)
It might be warmer tomorrow.
I may not be able to go with you tonight.
I don’ t know where Jaime is. He could be at home.

18.2 Should


                                    Should + [Verb in simple form]
Ngh*a là :
- Nên ( di n    t m t l i khuyên,    ngh ho c b#t bu c nh ng không m nh l#m)
- Có khi - dùng     di n   t mong mu n i u gì x y ra.
Ví d :
It should rain tomorrow ( I expect it to rain tomorrow)
My check should arrive next week. ( I expect it to arrive next week).
L u ý:
- Had better, ought to, be supposed to nói chung là /ng ngh*a v i should v i i u ki n là ng
t to be ph i chia th i hi n t i.
- be supposed to ngoài ngh*a t ng        ng v i should còn mang ngh*a quy nh ph i, b#t bu c
ph i.
Ví d :
We are supposed to have a math test this afternoon, but it was postponed because the Professor
had to attend a science conference.
          ( Theo quy nh là ....)

18.3 Must


                           Must + [verb in simple form]


Ngh*a là :
         - Ph i - b#t bu c r t m nh (ng   i b b#t bu c không có s l a ch%n nào khác)
Ví d :
         One must endorse a check before one cashes it. (ng         i ta ph i ký sau t m séc tr    c khi
rút ti n).
         George must call his insurance agent today.
         A pharmacist must keep a record of the prescriptions that are filled.
         An automobile must have gasoline to run.
         An attorney must pass an examination before practising law.
         This freezer must be kept at -200.


         - H n là - di n   t m t s suy lu n có logic d a trên nh ng hi n t       ng có th t   hi n t i.
Ví d :
         John’ s lights are out. He must be asleep.
         (We assume that John is asleep because the lights are out.)
         The grass is wet. It must be raining.
         (We assume that it is raining because the grass is wet.)

+ Must         c thay th b ng have to trong nh ng tr      ng h p sau ây
         -   ng sau Will      th i t   ng lai.
         Ví d :
                  We will have to take a TOEFL test at the end of this year.
         - Had to thay cho must        quá kh .
         Ví d :
                  The teacher had to attend a science conference yesterday.
+     th i hi n t i have to       c thay th cho must khi:
         H i xem mình có b bu c ph i làm i u gì không ho c di n                 t s b#t bu c do khách
         quan mang l i làm gi m nh, tính b#t bu c c a must.
         Ví d :
             Q : Do I have to leave a deposit?
             A : No, you needn’ t but you have to sign in this register, I’ m sorry but that’ s the rule.

19. Cách s d ng các                ng t khi m khuy t             di n      t các tr ng thái       th i
quá kh .

                                 Could/ May/ might + have +P2 (có l0 ã)


Ch" m t kh n!ng       quá kh song ng        i nói không dám ch#c.
Ví d :
It might have rained last night, but I’ m not sure.
(Có l0 êm qua tr i m a)
The cause of death could have been bacteria.
(Nguyên nhân c a cái ch t có l0 là do vi trùng)
John might have gone to the movies yesterday.
(Có l0 John ã t i r p chi u bóng ngày hôm qua)


                          Could + have +P2 (có l0 ã có th - nh ng th c t thì không)


Ví d :
We could have solved this problem at that time (But we couldn’ t in fact)
(L0 ra lúc ó chúng tôi ã có th gi i quy t      c v n này.)

                  SHOULD + HAVE + P2 (l0 ra ph i, l0 ra nên - nh ng th c t thì không)
                        Thành ng này t      ng    ng v i Was / were / Supposed to.



                                         MUST HAVE P2 - H n là ã
                  (Ch" s suy lu n logic d a trên nh ng hi n t   ng có th t trong quá kh )

Ví d :
Paul did so well in his speech today that he could have rehearsed it many times this past week.
(Hôm nay Paul ã có l i phát bi u r t hay, h n là tu$n qua nó ã di n t p r t nhi u l$n ).


                               MIGHT HAVE BEEN VERB+ ING - có l0 lúc y ang
               (Ch" s suy lu n logic d a trên nh ng hi n t    ng có th t trong quá kh )


Ví d :
I didn’ t hear the telephone ring, I might have been sleeping at that time.
I didn’ t watch that scene on television, I might have been paying attention to the argument.


                              MUST HAVE BEEN VERB+ ING - ch#c h n lúc y ang
                     (Ch" s suy lu n logic d a trên nh ng hi n t   ng có th t trong quá kh )


Ví d :
I didn’ t hear you knock, I must have been sleeping at that time.
I didn’ t see him this morning, he must have been working in the office.

20. tính t và phó t (adjective and adverb).
+ M t tính t bao gi c(ng b ngh*a cho m t danh t và ch" danh t . Nó ng ngay
  tr c danh t ó. Trong ti ng Anh ch" có m t danh t duy nh t ng sau danh t mà
  nó b ngh*a ó là: galore ( nhi u, phong phú, d/i dào).
Ví d :
There are errors galore in the final exam.
- M t phó t bao gi c(ng b ngh*a cho:
         +M t         ng t - m t tính t - và m t phó t khác.
Ví d :
He runs very fast.
     verb      adv     adv



She is terribly beautiful.
         Adv            adj



- Adj + ly = adv nh ng ph i c&n th n vì không ph i b t c t nào có uôi ly                  u là phó t . M t s
các tính t c(ng có t n cùng là ly.
Ví d :
Lovely, friendly, lonely.
- M t s các c m t m              u
                                $ b ng gi i t       ch" a i m, th i gian, ph        ng ti n hành      ng, tình
hu ng hành ng c(ng               c coi là phó t . Ví d : in the office.
- M t s các phó t có c u t o           c bi t nh soon, very, almost.
- V trí các phó t trong ti ng Anh t           ng   i tho i mái nh ng c(ng có nh ng ph c t p. Có m t
s quy lu t nh sau:
          + Các phó t b ng s0 th           ng xuyên    ng   cu i câu theo th t     u tiên:
*          ch" ph ng th c hành ng ( uôi ly),
*          ch" a i m (here, there, at school...),
*          ch" th i gian,
*          ch" ph     ng ti n hành   ng,
*         ch" tình hu ng hành ng.
          + M t phó t không bao gi            c    ng xen vào gi a   ng t và tân ng .
                    Ví d :
                    I have terribly a headache. (câu sai vì phó t    ng xen gi a     ng t và tân ng )
          + N u trong câu ch" có phó t ch" th i gian thì nó th        ng lên $u câu.
                    Ví d :
                  In 1975 I graduated but I didn’ t find a job.
          + Các phó t ch" t$n s (always, sometimes...) th ng bao gi c(ng ng tr c                 ng t
          chính khi nó là ng t hành ng, nh ng bao gi c(ng ng sau ng t to be.
                    Ví d :
                    - They have often visited me recently.
                    - He always comes in time.
                    Nh ng: The president is always in time.

21.        ng t n i.
    ó là các   ng t    trong b ng sau.


                               be             appear        feel
                               become         seem          look
                               remain         sound         smell
                               stay                         taste

Các ng t trên có nh ng c tính sau:
+ Không di n t hành ng mà di n t b n ch t c a s v t, s vi c, nh màu s#c, mùi v ...
+        ng sau chúng ph i là m t tính t không          c là m t phó t .


L u ý: các c p        ng t
                                     appear            to happen
                                     seem      =       to chance           (D   ng nh )


- To appear có th thay th cho to seem và ng            c l i nh ng không th thay th cho to happen và
to chance.
- 3 ng t to be, to become, to remain có nh ng tr ng h p có m t danh t ho c m t ng danh
t theo sau, lúc ó chúng m t i ch c n!ng ng t n i.
- 4 ng t to feel, to look, to smell và to taste trong m t s tr ng h p òi h i sau nó là danh t
làm tân ng và tr thành m t ngo i ng t . Lúc này chúng m t i ch c n!ng c a m t ng t
n i và tr thành m t ng t di n t hành ng và có quy n òi h i 1 phó t i b tr (chúng
thay i v m t ng ngh*a).
- To feel = s , n#n, khám xét.
- to look at : nhìn
- to smeel : ng i.
- to taste : n m.

22. So sánh c a tính t và danh t
22.1 So sánh b!ng.
So sánh b ng ch" ra 2 th c th chính xác gi ng nhau (b ng nhau ho c nh nhau) và ng            cl in u
c u trúc so sánh d ng ph      nh.
C u trúc
         As ... as

                                                           adj             noun
                                       S + verb + as +           + as +
                                                          adv             pronoun


+ N u là c u trúc ph                  nh as th nh t có th thay b ng so.
Ví d :
He is not so tall as his father.
L u ý:
Ta c$n ph i nh r ng             i t sau as luôn          d ng ch ng .
Peter is as tall as I. You are as old as she.

M t s thí d v so sánh b!ng.
My book is as interesting as your.
                             Tính t

His car runs as fast as a race car.
                      Phó t

John sings as well as his sister.
                     Phó t

Their house is as big as that one.
                         Tính t

His job is not as difficult as mine. Ho c His job is not so difficult as mine.
                             Tính t                                                 Tính t

They are as lucky as we
                Tính t
+ Danh t c(ng có th dùng so sánh cho c u trúc này nh ng tr c khi so sánh ph i xác                    nh
  ch#c ch#n r ng danh t ó có nh ng tính t t ng   ng nh trong b ng sau:

                                     Tính t          Danh t
                               heavy, light       weight
                               wide, narrow       width
                               deep, shallow      depth
                               long, short        length
                               big, small         size

+ C u trúc dùng cho lo i này s0 là the same ... as.

                                                              noun
                   Subject + verb + the same + (noun) + as
                                                             pronoun


Ví d :
My house is as high as his
My house is the same height as his.
L u ý:
- Do tính ch t ph c t p c a lo i công th c này nên vi c s d ng bó h,p vào trong b ng trên.
- The same as >< different from.
My nationality is different from hers.
Our climate is different from Canada’ s.
- Trong ti ng Anh c a ng       i M2 có th dùng different than n u sau ó là c m t câu hoàn ch"nh
(không ph bi n).
Ví d :
His appearance is different from what I have expected.
= His appearance is different than I have expected.
- From có th thay th b ng to.
M t s thí d v the same và different from:
These trees are the same as those.
He speaks the same language as she.
Her address is the same as Rita’ s.
Their teacher is different from ours.
My typewriter types the same as yours.
She takes the same courses as her husband.

22.2 So sánh h n, kém
- Trong lo i so sánh này, ng    i ta phân ra làm 2 lo i phó t , tính t ng#n và phó t , tính t dài.
-   i v i các phó t và tính t ng#n, ta ch" c$n c ng thêm uôi ER vào t n cùng.
- i v i nh ng tính t ng#n có 1 nguyên âm k,p gi a 2 ph âm, ta ph i g p ôi ph âm cu i
không ph i thay i cách %c.
Ví d :
big - bigger.
red - redder
hot - hotter
- Nh ng tính t có t n cùng b ng bán nguyên âm ph i               i thành ier (y -ier)
Ví d :
happy - happier
friendly - friendlier (ho c more friendly than)
- Tr     ng h p ngo i l : strong - stronger.
-      i v i t t c các phó t và tính t dài dùng more (n u h n) và dùng less ( n u kém).
Ví d : more beautiful, more important, more believable.

                                       adj + er
                                       adv + er*                            noun
                    Subject + verb +                         + than +
                                       more + adj/ adv                      pronoun
                                       less + adj

* có th thêm er vào t n cùng c a m t s phó t nh : faster, quicker, sooner, và later.
L u ý:
- ng sau phó t so sánh nh than và as ph i là               i t nhân x ng ch ng , không                   c phép là
  i t nhân x ng tân ng ( l)i c b n).
Ví d :
John’ s grades are higher than his sister’ s.
Today is hotter than yesterday.
This chair is more comfortable than the other.
He speaks Spanish more fluently than I .
He visits his family less frequently than she does.
This year’ s exhibit is less impressive than last year’ s.

-      nh n m nh cho tính t và phó t so sánh ng           i ta dùng far ho c much tr            c so sánh.

                             far            adv                                       noun
        Subject + verb +                +           +er          + than       +
                             much           adj                                       pronoun



                             far            more          adj                          noun
        Subject + verb +                +           +              + than         +
                             much           less          adv                          pronoun

- M t s thành ng nh n m nh : much too much
                                             adv   adv     adj
Ví d :
Harry’ s watch is far more expensive than mine.
That movie we saw last night was much less interesting than the one on television.
A watermelon is much sweeter than a lemon.
She dances much more artistically than her predecessor.
He speaks English much more rapidly than he does Spanish.
His car is far better than yours.
+ Danh t c(ng có th            c dùng    so sánh trong các c u trúc b ng ho c h n, kém.
- Trong c u trúc so sánh b ng ch" c$n xác nh xem danh t ó là m          c hay không m       c
vì tr c chúng có m t s       nh ng dùng v i 2 lo i danh t ó.
- Trong c u trúc so sánh h n kém c(ng c$n ph i xác nh xem danh t ó là m           c hay không
   m     c vì ng tr c chúng có dùng fewer (cho m           c), less (không m       c) và more
dùng chung cho c 2 (công th c d i ây). Do c u trúc này không ph c t p nên         c dùng r ng
rãi h n so v i c u trúc so sánh b ng.

                           many
                           much                     noun
   Subject + verb + as +            + noun + as +
                           little                   pronoun
                           few

ho c

                      more                       noun
   Subject + verb +    fewer   + noun + than +    pronoun
                      less


Ví d :
I have more books than she.
February has fewer days than March.
He earns as much money as his brother.
They have as few class as we.
Their job allows them less freedom than ours does.
Before pay-day, I have as little money as my brother.

22.3 So sánh h p lý
Khi so sánh nên nh r ng các m c t dùng so sánh ph i t ng           ng v i nhau v b n ch t ng
pháp ( ng i v i ng i, v t v i v t). Do v y 3 m c so sánh h p lý s0 là:
+ s h u cách
+ that of (cho s ít)
+ those of (cho s nhi u)

Câu sai: His drawings are as perfect as his instructor (câu này so sánh drawings v i instructor)
Câu úng : His drawings are as perfect as his instructor’ s (instructor’ s = instructor’ s drawings)
Câu sai: The salary of a professor is higher than a secretary. (câu này so sánh gi a l    ng c a 1
ông giáo s v i m t cô th ký)
Câu úng: The salary of a professor is higher than that of a secretary. ( that of = that salary of)
Câu sai : The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than a teacher. (câu này so sánh gi a
duties v i teacher)
Câu úng: The duties of a policeman are more dangerous than those of a teacher. (those of =
those duties of).

M t s thí d v so sánh h p lý.
John’ s car runs better than Mary’ s.
(Mary’ s = Mary’ s car)
The climate in Florida is as mild as that of California.
(that of = that climate of )
Classes in the university are more difficult than those in the college.
(those in = the classes in )
The basketball games at the university are better than those of the high school.
(those of = the games of)
Your accent is not as strong as my mother’ s.
(my mother’ s = my mother’ s accent)
My sewing machine is better than Jane’ s.
(Jane’ s = Jane’ s sewing machine).

22.4 Các d ng so sánh          c bi t
B ng d i ây là m t s d ng so sánh c bi t c a tính t và phó t . Trong ó l u ý r ng farther
dùng cho kho ng cách, further dùng cho thông tin và nh ng v n tr u t ng khác.

      Tính t và phó t         so sánh h n kém         so sánh nh t
      far                      farther                 farthest
                               further                 furthest
      little                  less                    least

       much                   more                    most
       many

       good                   better                  best
       well

       bad                    worse                   worst
       badly

I feel much better today than I did last week.
The university is farther than the mall.
He has less time now than he had before.
Marjorie has more books than Sue.
This magazine is better than that one.
He acts worse now than ever before.
+ further = more.
Ví d :
The distance from your house to school is farther than that of mine.
He will come to the US for further education next year.

22.5 So sánh a b
Là lo i so sánh g p r 3i, g p ôi, g p 3. Nên nh r ng trong c u trúc này không               c dùng so
sánh h n kém mà ph i dùng so sánh b ng.

                                             much                        noun
      Subject + verb + b i s + as +                  + noun + as +
                                             many                        pronoun

Ví d :
This encyclopedia costs twice as much as the other one.
At the clambake last week, Fred ate three times as many oysters as Barney.
Jerome has half as many records now as I had last year.
L u ý:
- Khi dùng so sánh lo i này ph i xác          nh rõ danh t    ó là   m     c hay không     m     c vì
  ng tr c chúng có much và many.
- Các c u trúc twice that much ...
                           many
                       (g p ôi s      ó)
ch"    c dùng trong v!n nói, tuy t         i không    c dùng trong v!n vi t.
Ví d :
We had expected eighty people at the rally, but twice that many showed up. (v!n nói)
We had expected eighty people at the rally, but twice as many as that number showed up. (v!n
vi t)

22.6 So sánh kép (càng ....thì càng)
Nh ng câu này b#t $u b ng m t c u trúc so sánh h n, và do ó m nh                th 2 c(ng ph i b#t $u
b ng m t c u trúc so sánh h n.

            The + comparative + subject + verb + the comparative + subject + verb


Ví d :
The hotter it is, the more miserable I feel.
The higher we flew, the worse Edna felt.
The bigger they are, the harder they fall.

The sooner you take your medicine, the better you will feel.

The sooner you leave, the earlier you will arrive at your destination.

         The more + subject +verb + the + comparative + subject + verb


The more you study, the smarter you will become.
The more he rowed the boat, the farther away he got.
The more he slept, the more irritable he became.

22.7 No sooner ... than (v a m i ... thì; ch"ng bao lâu ... thì)
N u thành ng no sooner xu t hi n $u câu thì than ph i $u cho m nh                       2. L u ý r ng tr
  ng t ph i ng tr c ch ng theo công th c sau:

                       No sooner + auxiliary + subject + verb + than + subject + verb


Ví d :
No sooner had they started out for California than it started to rain.
No sooner will he arrived than he will want to leave.
No sooner had she entered the building than she felt the presence of somebody else.
L u ý:
No longer ngh*a là not any more (không còn... n a). Không bao gi                  c s d ng not longer
trong câu mà ngh*a c a nó nh v y.
John no longer studies at the university.
(John doesn’ t study at the university any more).
Cynthia may no longer use the library because her card has expired.
(Cynthia may not use the library any more)

23. D ng nguyên, so sánh h n và so sánh h n nh t.
Ph$n l n các tính t di n t (tr ng thái, tính cách, v1 ,p...)        u có 3 d ng: d ng nguyên (happy),
d ng so sánh h n (happier) và so sánh h n nh t (happiest).

           D ng nguyên            so sánh             so sánh nh t
         hot                hotter                 hottest
         interesting        more interesting       most interesting
         sick               sicker                 sickest
         colorful           more colorful          most colorful

- D ng nguyên không ch" s so sánh. Nó ch" mô t ph&m ch t                 n thu$n c a 1 ng    i, 1 v t, hay
m t nhóm (ng i ho c v t).
Ví d :
The house is big.
The flowers are fragrant.
- D ng so sánh h n ch" ra m c          m nh h n hay y u h n v s khác nhau gi a 2 ng              i (2 v t).
Ví d :
My dog is smarter than yours.

Bob is more atheletic than Richard.
Spinach is less appealing than carrots.
* Ta c(ng có th so sánh 2 th c th (ng i ho c v t) mà không s d ng than. Trong tr ng h p
này thành ng of the two s0    c s d ng trong câu (nó có th      u
                                                            ng $ câu và sau danh t ph i
có d u ph&y, ho c ng cu i - Xem 2 công th c d i ây).


           Subject + verb + the + comparative + of the two + (noun)

                          ho c
           of the two + (noun), + Subject + verb + the + comparative


Harvey is the smarter of the two boys.
Of the two shirts, this one is the prettier.
Please give me the smaller of the two pieces of cake.
Of the two landscapes that you have shown me, this one is the more picturesque.
Of the two books, this one is the more interesting.
Ghi nh :
                2 th c th - so sánh h n
                3 th c th tr lên - so sánh h n nh t


- c p      so sánh h n nh t, 3 th c th tr lên     c so sánh v i nhau, m t trong chúng
tr i h n ho c kém h n so v i các th c th còn l i.

                         adj+ est                           2
                                                  In + dt       s ít
Subject + verb + the +    most + adj      +                 2
                                                  of + dt       s nhi u
                         least + adj

John is the tallest boy in the family.
Deana is the shortest of the three sisters.
These shoes are the least expensive of all.
Of the three shirts, this one is the prettiest.

L u ý:
- Sau thành ng one of the + superlative, danh t ph i                      d ng s nhi u và   ng t chia    ngôi
s ít.
Ví d :
One of the greatest tennis players in the world is Bjon Borg.
Kuwait is one of the biggest oil producers in the world.
Các phó t không        c i kèm b i -er ho c -est. Mà thay vì ó, khi c dùng trong câu so sánh
chúng i cùng more ho c less i v i c p so sánh h n, và v i most ho c least      thành l p nên
d ng so sánh h n nh t.




         D ng nguyên             So sánh h n       So sánh h n nh t
         carefully               more carefully    most carefully
                                 less carefully    least carefully

         cautiously              more cautiously   most cautiously
                                 less cautiously   least cautiously

Ví d :
Sal drove more cautiously than Bob.
Joe dances more gracefully than his partner.
That child behaves the most carelessly of all.
Irene plays the most recklessly of all.

24. Các danh t làm ch c n ng tính t
Trong ti ng Anh, r t nhi u danh t có th làm ch c n!ng tính t          khi chúng ng tr c các danh
t khác (a wool coat, a gold watch, a history teacher). Danh t         ng $u c a s k t h p óng vai
trò m t tính t , mô t danh t th 2 ( óng vai trò danh t ). T t c        các danh t v i ch c n!ng tính
t luôn d ng s ít cho dù danh t mà nó b ngh*a có s nhi                 u. S k t h p s - danh t luôn
ph i có d u g ch ngang ”-“.
Ví d :
We took a tour that lasted five weeks.
(Weeks làm ch c n!ng danh t trong câu này).
We took a five-week tour.
             Adj         noun

His subscription to that magazine is for two years.
(years : danh t )
He has a two-year subscription to that magazine.
               Adj              noun

That student wrote a report that was ten pages long.
(pages : danh t )
That student wrote a ten-page report.
                                 Adj      noun

These shoes cost twenty dollars.
These are twenty-dollar shoes.
                   Adj             noun
25. Enough v i tính t , phó t và danh t
S thay i v trí c a enough tu- thu c vào vi c nó b ngh*a cho 1 danh t , 1 tính t , hay 1 phó
t . Khi b ngh*a cho 1 tính t hay 1 phó t , enough ng ng sau:

       adj
               + enough
       adv

Are those French fries crisp enough for you?
                          Adj

She speaks Spanish well enough to be an interpreter.
                    Adv

It is not cold enough to wear a heavy jacket.
         Adj

Khi b ngh*a cho m t danh t enough             ng   ng tr   c.


         enough + noun


Do you have enough sugar for the cake?
                       noun

Jake bought enough red paint to finish the barn.
                                noun

He does not have enough money to attend the concert.
                                       noun

L u ý:
Danh t mà enough b ngh*a ôi khi không c$n thi t có m t trong câu mà không làm thay
  i ngh*a c a câu.

I forgot my money. Do you have enough?
(ta hi u r ng ng ý c a ng i nói là “enough money”)

26. Các t n i ch nguyên nhân
Ph$n này s0 trình bày cách s d ng m t vài công c ng pháp ch" nguyên nhân.

26.1 Because/ because of
Because ( không có of) òi h i ng sau nó là m t câu hoàn ch"nh (ph i có ch ng và ng t ).
Because of òi h i ng sau nó là m t danh t ho c 1 ng danh t ( không       c phép có ng t
liên h p).

                    Subject + verb
    ... because +
                    there + verb + subject


    ... because of + danh t ( ho c c m danh t )
L u ý:
Because of có th thay th cho thành ng due to.
Jan was worried because it           had started to rain.
                         Subject          verb

Jan was worried because of the rain.
                                   noun

The students arrived late because there was a traffic jam.
                                                 verb       subject

The students arrived late because of the traffic jam.
                                                  noun phrase

We have to cut down on our driving because there is an oil shortage.
                                                                      verb      subject

We have to cut down on our driving because of the oil shortage.
                                                                        noun phrase



26.2 M c ích và k t qu (so that-                        )
Các m nh      ch" m c ích  c i cùng v i liên t so that. Sau so that là m t m nh k t qu
g/m ch ng và ng t . Th i gian c a m nh       k t qu ph i t ng lai trong m i quan h v i
th i gian c a m nh ch" m c ích.

   Subject + verb + so that + subject + verb


L u ý:
M c dù trong v!n nói có th ch p nh n không có that nh ng trong v!n vi t bu c ph i có that.
He studied very hard so that he could pass the test.
(nó ã h%c r t ch!m ch" có th qua          c k- thi)
She is sending the package early so that it will arrive in time for her sister’ s birthday.
Damien is practicing the guitar so that he can play for the dance.
I am learning German so that I will be able to speak it when I go to Austria next summer.
Susan drove to Miami instead of flying so that she could save money.
Will you let me know about the party so that I can make plans to attend?

26.3 Cause and effect
Nh ng c u trúc sau ây          c s d ng                 ch" m i quan h nhân qu .

                       adjective
 Subject + verb + so + adverb                    + that + subject + verb


L u ý: Không s d ng m t danh t sau so. Còn mu n dùng danh t thì xem các c u trúc d            i
 ây.
The soprano sang so well that she received a standing ovation.
Terry ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
Judy worked so diligently that she received an increase in salary.
The soup tastes so good that every one will ask for more.
The little boy looks so unhappy that we all feel sorry for him.
The students had behaved so badly that he was dismissed from the class.
Các c u trúc ch a các b ng c           ng   :


                           many                 2
 Subject + verb + so +                   + dt       s nhi u + that + subject + verb
                            few



The Smiths had so many children that they formed their own baseball team.
I had so few job offers that it wasn’ t difficult to select one.


                           much                          2
 Subject + verb + so +                   + dt không          + that + subject + verb
                           little



He has invested so much money in the project that he cannot abandon it now.
The grass received so little water that it turned brown in the heat.

                                                                 2
         Subject + verb + such + a + adjective + dt                  s ít + that ...

                                ho c
                                                             2
         Subject + verb + so + adjective + a + dt                s ít + that ...

L u ý:
Such + a + adjective th   ng        c dùng nhi u h n trong 2 c u trúc trên.
It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors.
               Ho c
It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.
It was such an interesting book that he couldn’ t put it down.
               Ho c
It was so interesting a book that he couldn’ t put it down.



                                            dt 2 s nhi u
 Subject + verb + such + adjective +                                   + that + subject + verb
                                             dt không 2


She has such exceptional abilities that everyone is jealous of her.
                       dt    m    c s nhi u


They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
                        dt   m    c s nhi u


Perry has had such bad luck that he’ s decided not to gamble.
                       dt không   m    c


This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.
                      dt không    m    c


L u ý: Ta không th s d ng so trong c u trúc trên.
Phân tích ngh%a c a các c u trúc trên.
ví d :
It has been such a long time since I’ ve seen him that I’ m not sure if I will remember him
( Tôi không bi t li u tôi có nh n             c ra nó không vì ã lâu l#m r/i tôi không g p nó.)
Nguyên nhân: It has been a long time.
K t qu : I’ m not sure if I will remember him.
He has so heavy a work load that it is difficult for him to travel.
( Th t là khó   i v i anh ta trong chuy n i du l ch b i vì anh ta có nhi u công vi c ph i làm.)
Nguyên nhân: He has a very heavy work load.
K t qu : It is difficult for him to travel.
Peter has such long fingers that he should play the piano.
(Peter nên ch i àn Piano b i vì nó có nh ng ngón tay dài.)
Nguyên nhân: Peter has such long fingers.
K t qu : He should play the piano.
Professor Sands gives such interesting lectures that his classes are never boring.
(các gi h%c c a giáo s Sands ch ng bao gi bu/n t1 b i vì ông y th                    ng    a ra nh ng bài
gi ng h t s c thú v .)
Nguyên nhân: Professor Sands gives very interesting lectures.
K t qu : His classes are never boring.
This is such tasty ice cream that I’ ll have another helping.
(Tôi s0 g%i m t su t kem n a vì nó r t ngon.)
Nguyên nhân: The ice cream is very tasty.
K t qu : I’ ll have another helping.

27. M t s t n i mang tính i u ki n

       even if + nagative verb
             (cho dù ...)

You must go tomorrow even if you aren’ t ready.
         Whether or not + positive verb
             (dù có ... hay không)
He likes watching TV whether or not the show is god.


          unless + positive verb = if ... not
               (tr phi, n u ... không)
  If you don’ t start at once, you will be late.
= You will be late unless you start at once.


           But for that + unreal condition
                      (n u không thì ....)
Her father pays her fees, but for that she wouldn’ t be here ( but she is here)
          present                                i u ki n không th c      hi n t i


My car broke down, but for that I could have come in time.
          quá kh                             i u ki n không th c     quá kh




 otherwise          + conditional sentence                     k1o, n u không thì ....
- i u ki n có th th c hi n              c.
We must be back before midnight, otherwise I will be locked out.
- i u ki n không th c hi n    c.
Her father pays her fees, otherwise she couldn’ t be here.
          present                             i u ki n không th c     hi n t i


I used a computer, otherwise it would have taken longer.
quá kh                                i u ki n không th c   quá kh


Nh n xét.
Trong ti ng Anh hàng ngày, ng            i ta dùng or... else                 thay th cho otherwise.


               Provided/providing (that)
               (v i i u ki n là, mi n là )
You can camp here provided (that) you leave no mess.


              Suppose/ supposing ? = what ... if ...?
                       (gi s vì sao, n u vì sao)
Suppose the plane is late? = what will happen if the plane is late?
- T n i này còn            c s d ng          em ra l i g i ý.
Suppose you ask him = why don’ t you ask him?
           What if I’ m- tao th thì sao nào
                  a ra s thách th c



      If only +    Simple present= hope that
                     will + verb

                 Hy v%ng là...
If only he comes in time (hy v%ng anh y                n úng gi )
If only he will head your advice.




      If only +      Simple past = wish that
                     past perfect

         Giá mà - trái v i th c t .
If only he didn’ t smoke. (but he doesn’ t)
If only she had come in time. (but she didn’ t)


      if only + would verb -         c sao, mong sao

- dùng di n t m t c mu n hi n t i
If only he would drive more slowly (but he drive so fast)
ho c m t      c mu n vô v%ng     t     ng lai.
If only it would stop raining.
Mong sao tr i      ng m a n a - nh ng th c t thì tr i ang m a r t to.

28. Câu b          ng
Câu b   ng   c s d ng nh m nh n m nh vào hành                   ng c a tân ng ch không nh n m nh
vào hành ng c a ch ng trong câu ch ng.
be + P2
Ph ng pháp chuy n i t câu ch            ng sang câu b   ng.
-   a tân ng c a câu ch      ng lên làm ch ng . Trong tr ng h p n u có 2 tân ng ( 1 tr c ti p,
1 gián ti p), mu n nh n m nh vào tân ng nào thì ng i ta a nó lên làm ch ng ( nh ng
th òng là tân ng gián ti p làm ch ng ).
Ví d :
     I gave him a book.
hay I gave a book to him.
Trong câu này book là tân ng tr c ti p, him là tân ng gián ti p, ta     i:
He was given a book by me.
- Th i c a ng t    câu b   ng ph i tuân theo th i c a                                     ng t   câu ch     ng.
-    t by + tân ng m i              ng sau t t c các tân ng khác.
- to be made, to be made of                   c làm b ng - ch" m t v t                     c làm b ng 1 th nguyên v t li u.
This table is made of wood.
- to be made from:     c làm b ng - ch" m t v t                                 c làm b ng 2 th nguyên v t li u tr lên.
- to be made out of:            c làm b ng ( dùng cho th c ph&m)
This cake is made out of flour, egg, butter and sugar.
- M%i bi n i v th i và th                      u nh m vào                    ng t to be, còn phân t 2 gi nguyên (xem các
công th c d i ây.)



                    Simple present hay simple past
                         am
                         is
                         are           + [verb in past participle]
                         was
                         were


Ch     ng : Hurricanes destroy a great deal of property each year.
                Subject             present                     complement


B     ng : A great deal of property is destroyed by hurricanes each year.
             singular subject                        be    past participle


Ch     ng : The tornado destroyed thirty houses.
                  Subject                 past            complement


Bi    ng : Thirty houses were destroyed by the tornado.
             plural subject          be       past participle




                                     present progressive hay Past progressive
                         am
                         is
                         are          + being + [verb in past participle]
                         was
                         were


Ch     ng : The committee is considering several new proposals.
                      Subject             present progressive                complement


B     ng : Several new proposals are being considered by the committee.
                plural    subject              auxiliary    be        past participle
Ch     ng : The committee was considering several new proposals.
                  Subject               past progressive                        complement


B     ng : Several new proposals were being considered by the committee.
               plural subject                  auxiliary        be        past participle




                                present perfect hay Past perfect
                    has
                    have         + been + [verb in past participle]
                    had



Ch     ng: The company has ordered some new equipment.
                 subject             present perfect                   complement


B     ng : Some new equipment has been ordered by the company.
                 Singular subject           auxiliary      be    past participle


Ch     ng : The company had ordered some new equipment before the strike began.
                   subject           past perfect                       complement


B     ng : Some new equipment had been ordered by the company before the strike began.
                 Singular subject            auxiliary be            past participle




                 ng t khi m khuy t (modal)

          modal + be + [ verb in past participle]

Ch     ng : The manager should sign these contracts today.
                   Subject           modal + verb                    complement


B     ng : These contracts should be signed by the manager today.
                Subject             modal       be past participle




                                    modal + perfect

           modal + have + been + [ verb in past participle]


Ch      ng: Somebody should have called the president this morning.
                   Subject                       modal + perfect                        complement

B     ng : The president should have been called this morning.
                   Subject                  modal               have         be past participle



29.      ng t gây nguyên nhân
   ng t gây nguyên nhân   c s d ng ch" ra m t ng i gây cho ng i th hai làm m t vi c
gì ó cho ng i th nh t. M t ng i có th gây cho ai ó ph i làm cái gì ó cho anh ta ho c cho
ch ta qua vi c chi tr ti n, yêu c$u, ho c c 3ng ép ng           i ó. Các     ng t gây nguyên nhân là:
have, get, make.
29.1 Have/ get / make
M nh      theo sau have ho c get có th      d ng ch       ng ho c b    ng.

         To have smb do smth = to get smb to do smth
               (Sai ai, khi n ai, b o ai làm gì)
Mary had John wash the car (John washed the car.)
Mary got John to wash the car. (John washed the car.)


                     To have / get smth done
                       (   a cái gì i làm...)

- B n thân mình không làm         c nên nh 1 ng       i khác làm.
Ví d :
Mary got the car washed. (The car was wash by somebody.)
Mary had the car washed. (The car was wash by somebody.)
I have the laundry washed. (the laundry is washed by someone)


                  To want / like something done

M'u câu h i c a 2      ng t này s0 là:
- What do you want done to ...           Anh mu n làm gì v i ....
Ví d :
- What do you want done to your motorbike?
- I’ d like it repaired and cleaned
ho c I want it repaired and cleaned.


         To make smb do smth = to force smb to do smth

           ( bu c ai ph i làm gì.)
Ví d :
 The robber forced the teller to give him the money.
= The robber made the teller give him the money.
   ng t to make v to cause còn           c dùng theo m'u sau:


                                smb
         To make/ to cause      smth     + P2

          (làm cho ai, cái gì b làm sao)
Ví d :
Working all night on Friday made me tired on Saturday.
The hurricane caused many water front houses damaged.
- !ng sau      ng t to make còn có th dùng 1 tính t .


         To make smb / smth + adjective

Ví d :
Wearing flowers made her more beautiful.
 i theo h    ng này thì      ng t to find có th dùng theo công th c:


         To find + smb/ smth + adjective (P1- P2)

N u là phân t 1 s0 mang tính ch          ng còn phân t 2 mang tính b   ng.


Ví d :
I found her quite interesting to talk to.
My sister found snakes frightening - con r#n áng s .
We found the boy frightened - b n thân th ng bé s .

29.2 Let
Let th ng     c b sung và danh sách các ng t gây nguyên nhân trong các sách ng pháp.
Nh ng th c ch t thì nó không ph i là ng t gây nguyên nhân. Nó ngh*a là allow hay permit. Ta
hãy l u ý s khác nhau v m t ng pháp khi s d ng to let và to allow hay permit.

                                    permit
         Let sb do smth = to                 sb to do smth
                                    allow

             (cho phép ai,      ai làm gì)
Ví d :
John let his daughter swim with her friends.
(John allowed his daughter to swim with her friends.)
(John permitted his daughter to swim with her friends.)
The teacher let the students leave class early.
The policeman let the suspect make one phone call.
Dr. Jones is letting the students hand in the papers on Monday.
Mrs. Binion let her son spend the night with a friend.
We are going to let her write the letter.
Mr. Brown always lets his children watch cartoons on Saturday mornings.
29.3 Help
Help th c ch t c(ng không ph i là m t ng t gây nguyên nhân, nh ng nói chung c xem xét
cùng v i các ng t gây nguyên nhân trong các sách ng pháp. Nó th ng i v i ng t   d ng
simple form (t c là ng t nguyên th b to), nh ng có th i v i ng t nguyên th trong m t
s tr ng h p.

                 to do smth
 To help smb     do smth          - gi ng nhau v ngh*a.

                    (giúp ai làm gì)
Ví d :
John helped Mary wash the dishes.
Jorge helped the old woman with the packages (to) find a taxi.
The teacher helped Carolina find the research materials.
- N u tân ng sau help là m t i t vô nhân x ng mang ngh*a ng                i ta thì ng   i ta b      i và và
b luôn c to c a ng t      ng sau.
Ví d :
This wonderful drug helps (people to) recover more quickly.
- N u tân ng c a help và tân ng th 2 c a ng t             ng sau trùng h p nhau thì ng            i ta b tân
ng sau help và b luôn c to c a ng t     ng sau.
Ví d :
The body fat of the bear will help (him to) keep him alive during hibernation.

30. Ba       ng t        c bi t
- ó là nh ng ng t mà ngh*a c a chúng s0 h i bi n           in u     ng t       ng sau tân ng c a nó là
m t nguyên th b to hay verbing.
   hear
to watch somebody do something             - Hành   ng tr%n v,n t    $u t i cu i.
    see
    hear
to watch somebody doing something - Hành            ng có tính nh t th i, không tr%n v,n.
    see
Ví d :
I didn’ t hear the telephone ring.
I didn’ t hear the telephone ringing.
I see her sing./ I see her singing.

31. C u trúc ph c h p và                i t quan h thay th
Ti ng Anh có 2 lo i câu :
- câu n gi n : là câu ch" có m t thành ph$n và ch" m t thành ph$n c(ng            ngh*a.
ví d :
She is standing in the way.
- Câu ph c h p là câu có 2 thành ph$n chính và ph n i v i nhau b ng 1                i t g%i là   i t quan
h thay th .

31.1 That và Which làm ch ng c a câu ph
Chúng ng $u câu và làm ch ng c a câu ph , thay th cho danh t b t                        ng v t    ng tr   c
nó. Do v y, nó nh t thi t ph i có m t trong câu.

31.2 That và wich làm tân ng c a câu ph
Chúng v'n ng        $u câu ph và thay th cho danh t b t          ng v t      ng tr     c nó nh ng làm tân
ng . Do v y, nó có th b i      c.
Ví d :
George is going to buy the house that we have been thinking of buying.
Ngoài ra, trong m t s tr      ng h p ng    i ta b#t bu c ph i dùng that.


     The + tính t so sánh b c nh t + danh t + that + m nh            ph

Ví d :
This is the best book that I have ever read before.


         All/ every/ little/ no/ none/ smth + that + dependent clause

Ví d :
All the apples that fall are eaten by the pigs.
That’ s something that looks terrible.

31.3 Who làm ch ng c a câu ph
Nó thay th cho danh t ch" ng i ho c ng v t ng tr c nó và làm ch ng c a câu ph . Do
 ó, nó không th b i       c.
L u ý: Tuy t i không         c dùng that thay cho who trong tr ng h p này m c dù nó có th
    c ch p nh n trong v!n nói.

31.4 Whom làm tân ng c a câu ph
Nó thay th cho danh t ch" ng i ho c           ng v t    ng ngay tr      c nó nh ng làm tân ng c a câu
ph . Do ó, nó có th b i     c.
Ví d :
The man (whom) I don’ t like are angry.
L u ý: Tuy t i không       c dùng who thay th cho whom trong v!n vi t m c dù trong v!n nói
có th    c ch p nh n.
- N u whom là tân ng c a 1 ng     ng t bao g/m 1 ng t + 1 gi i t , thì l i vi t hoàn ch"nh
nh t là a gi i t ó lên trên whom.
Ví d :
He is the man to whom I talked yesterday.
Ho c
The man to whom you have just talked is the chairman of the company.
- Tuy nhiên, n u whom là tân ng c a 1 ng      ng t bao g/m 1 ng t + 2 gi i t , thì lu t trên
không     c tuân theo. Hai gi i t ó v'n ph i t ng sau ng t .
Ví du:
The man whom you are looking forward to is the chairman of the company.

31.5 M nh ph b&t bu c và m nh ph không b&t bu c
- M nh ph b#t bu c là lo i m nh b#t bu c ph i có m t trong câu, n u không câu s0
m t h n ngh*a ban $u. Trong tr ng h p này không              c dùng which là ch ng c a
câu ph mà ph i dùng that m c dù which v'n có th             c ch p nh n. Câu ph s0 ng
xen vào gi a câu chính và không tách ra kh i nó b ng b t c 1 d u ph&y nào.
Ví d :
Hurricanes that are born off the coast of Africa often prove to be the most deadly.
     Subject                       dependent clause              main verb

(TOEFL không b#t l)i này)
- M nh ph không b#t bu c là lo i m nh mang thông tin ph trong câu, n u b nó i thì câu
c(ng không b m t ngh*a ban $u. Do ó b#t bu c ph i dùng which làm ch ng , không ch p
nh n dùng that. Which cho dù có là tân ng c a câu ph c(ng không  c b i, câu ng xen
vào gi a m nh chính và tách ra kh i m nh      ó b ng 2 d u ph&y.


Ví d :
This rum, which I bought in the Virgin Island, is very smooth.
(TOEFL b#t l)i này)

31.6 T m quan tr ng c a d u ph'y trong m nh ph
- Trong m nh     ph b#t bu c, khi nó ng!n cách gi a m nh              chính b ng b t c d u
ph&y nào thì danh t d ng tr c m nh ph ó b gi i h n (t                 ng    ng v i câu ti ng
vi t “ch" có”).
Ví d :
The travellers who knew about the flood took another road.
(only the travellers who knew about the flood ...)
The wine that was in the cellar was ruined.
(only the wine that in the cellar ...)
- Trong m nh      ph không b#t bu c, danh t ng ng tr c i t quan h thay th b ng!n
cách v i nó b i 1 d u ph&y không b xác nh ho c gi i h n b i m nh ph ó (t ng   ng
v i ngh*a ti ng vi t “ t t c ”).
Ví d :
The travellers, who knew about the flood, took another road.
(all the travellers knew about the flood...)
The wine, that was in the cellar, was ruined.
(all the wine in the cellar ...)
31.7 Cách s d ng All / both/ several / most ... + of + whom / which.
Không      c s d ng        i t nhân x ng tân ng trong lo i câu này.
Ví d :
Her sons, both of whom are working abroad, ring her up everynight.
The buses, all of which are full of passingers, begin pulling out of the station.

31.8 What và whose
+ What (the thing/ the things that) có th làm tân ng c a câu chính và /ng th i làm ch ng
c a câu ph .
Ví d :
What we are expecting is his exam result.
+ whose (c a ng i mà, c a con mà)
- Thay th cho danh t ch" ng i ho c           ng v t   ng tr   c nó và ch" s s h u c a ng     i ho c
   ng v t ó i v i danh t   ng sau.
Ví d :
I found the cat whose leg was broken.
-   i v i b t ng v t v'n có th dùng whose trong nh ng tr ng h p bình th              ng. Tuy nhiên,
trong nh ng tr ng h p ti ng Anh quy chu&n nên dùng of which.
Ví d :
Checking accout, of which interest is quite high, is common now.

32. Cách lo i b các m nh                ph
- Trong nh ng m nh     ph b#t bu c, ng i ta có th lo i b    i t quan h thay th và             ng t
bo be (cùng v i các tr  ng t c a nó n u có) trong nh ng tr ng h p sau ây:
+ Khi nó ng tr c m t m nh ph mà c u trúc ng t              th b    ng.
Ví d :
This is the Z value which was obtained from the table areas under the normal curve.
Ho c
This is the Z value obtained from the table areas under the normal curve.
+ Tr     c m t ng gi i t (m t gi i t m          u
                                               $ k t h p v i các danh t theo sau).
Ví d :
The beaker that is on the counter contains a solution.
Ho c
The beaker on the counter contains a solution.
+ Tr      c m t c u trúc     ng t    th ti p di n.
Ví d :
The girl who is running down the street might be in trouble.
Ho c
The girl running down the street might be in trouble.
Ngoài ra, trong m t s tr ng h p ng           i ta có th lo i b     i t quan h thay th và ng t
chính, thay vào ó b ng 1 Ving n u nh         i t quan h      ng sát ngay danh t mà nó b ngh*a.
Ví d :
Weeds that float on the surface should be removed before they decay.
Weeds floating on the surface should be removed before they decay.
-     i v i m nh   ph không b#t bu c ta có th lo i b   i t quan h và ng t to be khi nó
    ng tr c m t ng danh t , nh ng ph$n ng danh t còn l i v'n ph i ng trong 2 d u ph&y.
Ví d :
Mr. Jackson, who is a professor, is traveling in the Mideast this year.
ho c
Mr. Jackson, a professor, is traveling in the Mideast this year.
- Ngoài ra, ta còn có th lo i b      i t quan h và     ng t chính và thay vào ó b ng 1 Ving khi
nó i b ngh*a cho 1 tân ng .
Ví d :
The president made a speech for the famous man who visited him.
Hay
The president made a speech for the famous man visiting him.

33. Cách s d ng phân t 1 trong m t s tr                     ng h p        c bi t
- Khi 2 hành ng x y ra song song cùng m t lúc thì hành ng th 2                d ng Ving. Hai hành
  ng này không ng!n cách v i nhau b i b t k- 1 d u ph&y nào.


Ví d :
He drives away and whistles = He drives away whistling.
- Khi hành ng th 2 ho c các hành ng ti p theo sau ó là 1 ph$n trong ti n trình c a hành
  ng th nh t thì hành ng th 2 và các hành ng theo sau ó d ng Ving. Nó ng!n cách v i
hành ng chính b ng 1 d u ph&y.
Ví d :
She went out and slammed the door = she went out, slamming the door.
- Khi hành ng th 2 ho c các hành           ng theo sau nó là k t qu c a hành        ng th nh t thì
hành ng th 2 s0 d ng Ving.
Ví d :
He fired two shots, killing a robber and wounding the other.
- Hành ng th 2 không c$n ph i có chung ch ng v i hành                 ng th nh t, nó ch" c$n là k t
qu c a hành ng th nh t thì c(ng ã     d ng Ving.
Ví d :
The plane crashed, its bombs exploding when it hit the ground.
L u ý: Các tr    ng h p trên ây th    ng     c dùng trong v!n vi t.

34. Cách s d ng nguyên m u hoàn thành
To have + P2
Should like
                + to have + P2
would like
   (Di n     t    c mu n nh ng không thành.)
Ví d :
I would (should) like to have passed the test last week.
         Should like
He                       to have seen the photos =
         would like
         would
He                  have liked to see the photos =
         should
          (but he couldn’ t)
- Nó dùng v i m t s        ng t : To seem/ appear/ happen (d ng nh ) / pretend (gi v ).
- Nên nh r ng hành          ng c a nguyên m'u hoàn thành x y ra tr c hành ng c a m nh
chính.
Ví d :
He seems to have been an athlete = It seems that he has been an athlete.
  He pretended not to have known about that.
= He pretended that he hadn’ t known about that.
Dùng v i sorry.
To be sorry + to have + P2
Hành     ng c a nguyên m'u hoàn thành x y ra tr      c.
 The girl were sorry to have missed the rock concert.
= The girl were sorry that they had missed the rock concert.
Dùng v i m t s các ng t sau ây th b           ng.
To acknowledge, to belive, to understand, to consider, to find, to know, to report, to say, to
suppose, to think.
- nên nh hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra tr c hành ng c a m nh chính.
Ví d :
He is said to have been out of the country.
It is said that he has been out of the country.
Nó còn       c s d ng v i m t s       ng t : claim/ expect/ hope/ promise.
- Trong tr ng h p này, hành ng c a nguyên m'u hoàn thành x y ra sau hành         ng c a m nh
   chính d ng t ng lai hoàn thành.
Ví d :
He expects to have finished the homework tonight.
= He expects that he will have finished the homework tonight.
He promised to have told me about that event.
= He promised that he would have told me about that event.


 Needn’ t + have + P2

(l0 ra không c$n ph i)
Ví d :
You needn’ t have hurried, we still have enough time now.

35. Nh ng cách s d ng khác c a that
35.1 That v i t cách c a m t liên t (r!ng)
- Khi that ng sau 4 ng t : say, tell, think, believe ng i ta có th b nó i.
Ví d :
John said that he was leaving next week.
                 Hay
John said he was leaving next week.
Henry told me that he had a lot of work to do.
                   Hay
Henry told me he had a lot of work to do.
- Tuy nhiên, sau 4       ng t : mention, declare, report, state thì that không th b    i, b#t bu c ph i
có.
Ví d :
The mayor declared that on June the first he would announce the results of the search.
George mentioned that he was going to France next year.
The article stated that this solution was flammable.

35.2 M nh          có that
Là lo i m nh  b#t bu c ph i có that trong câu, nó có th dùng v i ch ng hình th c it, ho c
        u
  ng $ câu làm ch ng .

 It + to be + adj + that + subject + verb ....


      That + subject + verb +... + to be + adj


Ví d :
It is well known that many residents of third world countries are dying.
Hay
That many residents of third world countries are dying is well known.
L u ý: N u m t câu b#t $ b ng 1 m nh
                        u                        that, ta ph i ch#c ch#n r ng c 2 m nh      cùng ch a
1 ng t .
It surprises me that John would do such a thing.
Hay
That John would do such a thing surprises me.
It wasn’ t believed until the fifteenth century that the earth revolves around the sun.
hay
That the earth revolves around the sun wasn’ t believed until the fifteenth century.
It is obvious that the Williams boy is abusing drugs.
Hay
That the Williams boy is abusing drugs is obvious.
Nh n xét: Ch ng gi it th        ng       c dùng trong v!n nói còn that          u
                                                                            ng $ câu   c dùng trong
v!n vi t.

36. Câu gi          nh
Là lo i câu mà ng i th nh t mu n ng          i th 2 làm m t vi c gì cho mình, nh ng làm hay không
còn tu- thu c vào phía ng i th 2.

36.1 Câu gi         nh dùng would rather that
Xem thành ng would rather trang 49 - lo i câu có 2 ch ng .

36.2 Câu gi         nh dùng v i        ng t trong b ng.
B ng sau là m t s        ng t b#t bu c     ng t sau nó ph i       d ng gi   nh.

           advise          demand      prefer          require
           ask             insist      propose         stipulate
           command         move        recommend       suggest
           decree          order       request         urge

- Trong câu nh t    nh ph i có that.
-   ng t sau ch ng 2         d ng nguyên th b to.


      Subject1 + verb + that + subject 2+ [verb in simple form] ...
Ví d :
We urge that he leave now.
N u b that i ch ng 2 s0 tr thành tân ng ,           ng t tr v d ng nguyên th có to, câu s0 m t i
ý ngh*a gi nh và tr thành câu bình th ng.
Ví d :
We urge him to leave now.
L u ý : Trong ti ng Anh c a ng i Anh (British English), tr c ng t nguyên th b to có
should. Nh ng trong ti ng Anh c a ng i M2 (American English) ng i ta b nó i.
M t s ví d
The judge insisted that the jury return a verdict immediately.
The university requires that all its students take this course.
The doctor suggested that his patient stop smoking.
Congress has decreed that the gasoline tax be abolished.
We proposed that he take a vacation.
I move that we adjourn until this afternoon.
36.3 Câu gi          nh dùng v i tính t
Các tính t dùng trong câu gi        nh g/m các tính t trong b ng d       i ây.

    advised           necessary      recommended        urgent
    important         obligatory     required           imperative
    mandatory         proposed       suggested
Trong công th c sau, adjective ch"        nh m t trong các tính t có trong b ng trên.


    it + be + adjective + that + subject + [verb in simple form ]...
      ( any tense)


M t s ví d :
It is necessary that he find the books.
It was urgent that she leave at once.
It has been proposed that we change the topic.
It is important that you remember this question.
It has been suggested that he forget the election.
It was recommended that we wait for the authorities.
Trong m t s tr       ng h p có th dùng danh t t         ng ng v i các tính t        trên theo công th c
sau.


    it + be + noun + that + subject + [verb in simple form ]...
      ( any tense)


Ví d :
It is a recommendation from a doctor that the patient stop smoking.

36.4 Dùng v i m t s tr             ng h p khác
- Câu gi      nh còn dùng     c trong m t s câu c m thán, th         ng bao hàm các th l c siêu nhiên.
Ví d :
God save the queen !. Chúa phù h cho n hoàng.
God be with you ! = good bye (khi chia tay nhau)
Curse this frog !: ch t ti t con cóc này
- Dùng v i m t s thành ng :
+ Come what may: dù có chuy n gì i n a.
  Ví d :
   Come what may we will stand by you.
+ If need be : n u c$n
   Ví d :
   If need be we can take another road.
- Dùng v i if this be trong tr ng h p mu n nêu ra m t gi             nh t phía ng    i nói nh ng không
th t ch#c ch#n l#m v kh n!ng.
Ví d :
If this be proven right, you would be considered innocent.

36.5 Câu gi            nh dùng v i it is time
It is time (for smb) to do smth : ã                 n lúc ph i làm gì. (th i gian v a v n, không             a ra gi   nh)
Ví d :
It is time for me to get to the airport (just in time).
Nh ng:
It is time
It is high time        subject + simple past                  ( ã     n lúc - gi       nh th i gian   n tr m t chút)
It is about time
Nh n xét: High/ about                   c dùng tr     c time         thêm vào ý nh n m nh.
Ví d :
It’ s high time I left for the airport.
(it is a little bit late)

37. L i nói bao hàm
  ó là l i nói k t h p 2 ý trong câu l i làm m t thông qua m t s thành ng .

37.1 Not only ... but also (không nh ng ... mà còn)
Các thành ph$n i sau 2 thành ng này ph i t                           ng          ng v i nhau v m t ng pháp, t c là danh -
danh, tính t - tính t ...

                                                    Noun                                     noun
                                                    adj                                      adj
      Subject + verb + not only +                   adv                     + but also +     adv
                                                    ng gi i t                                ng gi i t




                                Subject + not only + verb + but also + verb


L u ý: Thông th          ng thành ph$n sau but also s0 quy t                       nh thành ph$n sau not only.
Ví d :
He is not only handsome but also talented.
                     tính t                      tính t

Beth plays not only the guitar but also the violin.
                               Danh t                       danh t

He writes not only correctly but also neatly.
                              Adv                     adv

Maria excels not only in mathematics but also in science.
                                     Ng gi i t                       ng gi i t

Paul Anka not only plays the piano but also composes music.
                              ng t                                   ng t
37.2 As well as (c(ng nh , c(ng nh là)
Các thành ph$n i ng tr c và                             ng sau thành ng này ph i t              ng    ng v i nhau v m t t
lo i theo công th c d i ây:

                               noun                                                              noun
                               adj                                                             adj
   Subject + verb + not only +                                                  + but also +
                               adv                                                             adv
                               ng gi i t                                                        ng gi i t

ho c

  subject + verb + as well as + verb ...

Ví d :
Robert is talented as well as handsome.
             Tính t                              tính t


Beth plays the guitar as well as the violin.
              anh t                                     danh t


He writes correctly as well as neatly.
            phó t                               phó t


Marta excels in mathematics as well as in science.
                      Ng gi i t                                    ng gi i t


Paul Anka plays the piano as well as composes music.
               ng t                                                  ng t


L u ý: Không                                                              ng
                  c nh$m l'n thành ng này v i as well as c a hi n t ng / ch ng mang
ngh*a cùng v i. Nó i cùng v i các thành ph$n ng sau nó      t o thành 1 c m t , tách ra kh i
m nh chính b ng 2 d u ph&y và không nh h ng gì n vi c chia ng t .
Ví d :
The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.
My cousins, as well as Tim, have a test tomorrow.

37.3 Both ... and ( c ... l)n )
Công th c này dùng gi ng h t nh tr                               ng h p Not only ... but also.
L u ý : Both ch"           c dùng v i and không                             c dùng v i as well as.
Ví d :
Robert is both talented and handsome.
                      Tính t                   tính t


Beth plays both the guitar and the violin.
                           anh t                        danh t


He writes both correctly and neatly.
                       phó t                   phó t


Marta excels both in mathematics and in science.
                                   Ng gi i t                        ng gi i t


Paul Anka both plays the piano and composes music.
                   ng t                      ng t



38. Cách s d ng to know và to know how
Nh(ng công th c sau ây liên quan t i cách s d ng ng t know. Know how luôn    c s d ng
   ch" m t ai ó có k2 n!ng hay kh n!ng làm vi c gì. Vì vây, nó th ng  c i theo b i m t
  ng t , và khi ó, ng t ph i d ng nguyên th có to.


 Subject + know how to do smth : bi t cách làm gì nh th nào.

Tuy nhiên sau to know còn có th là m t danh t , m t ng gi i t ho c m t câu hoàn ch"nh.

                                     danh t
            subject + know +         ng gi i t
                                     câu
Tuy nhiên ng sau to know how v'n có th dùng 1 m nh             hoàn ch"nh    ch" kh n!ng gi i
quy t ho c vi c b#t bu c ph i làm.
Ví d :
At a glance, he knew how he could solve this math problem.
Seeing the weather map, the pilot knew how he had to fly at which line.
M t s thí d :
Bill knows how to play tennis well.
Maggie and her sister know how to prepare Chinese food.
Do you know how to get to Jerry’ s house from here ?
Jason knew the answer to the teacher’ s question.
No one knows about Roy’ s accepting the new position.
I didn’ t know that you were going to France.

39. M nh         nh       ng b
Là lo i m nh     di n     t 2 ý trái ng   c trong cùng m t câu thông qua m t s thành ng .

39.1 Despite / in spite of (m c dù)
  ng sau 2 thành ng này ch"          c phép s d ng m t ng danh t , không       c s d ng m t câu
hoàn ch"nh.

                  In spite of
                                    + ng danh t
                  Despite

Ví d :
Despite his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
In spite of his physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
Jane will be admitted to the university despite her bad grades.
Jane will be admitted to the university in spite of her bad grades.
39.2 although, even though, though
   ng sau 3 thành ng này ph i dùng m t câu hoàn ch"nh không            c dùng m t ng danh t .

         Although
         even though      + Subject + Verb + (complement) ...
         though

Ví d :
Although he has a physical handicap, he has become a successful businessman.
Jane will be admitted to the university even though she has a bad grades.
L u ý: N u though ng cu i câu, tách ra kh i câu b ng 1 d u ph&y. Khi nói h i d ng l i m t
chút, lúc ó nó t ng        ng v i ngh*a “ tuy nhiên” (however).
Ví d :
He promised to call me, but till now I haven’ t received any call from him, though.
M t s thí d b tr
In spite of the bad weather, we are going to have a picnic.
The child ate the cookie even though his mother had told him not to.
Although the weather was very bad, we had a picnic.
The committee voted to ratify the amendment despite the objections.
Though he had not finished the paper, he went to sleep.
She attended the class although she did not feel alert.

40. Nh ng         ng t d gây nh!m l n
          ó là nh ng    ng t trong b ng sau:

                                              N i ng t
                                  rise    rose   risen       rising
                                  lie     lay    lain        lying
                                  sit     sat    sat         sitting

                                             Ngo i ng t
                             Raise       raised    raised       raising
                             lay         laid      laid         laying
                             set         set       set          setting

Các ng t này r t d gây nh$m l'n v m t ng ngh*a, chính t ho c phát âm, c$n phân bi t
chúng b ng ng c nh trong các câu c th .
TO RISE - t dâng lên ( ng t này không c$n tân ng )
Ví d :
The sun rises early in the summer.
When the bell rings, the students rise from their seats.
When oil and water mix, oil rises to the top.
Jim rose early so that he could play golf before the others.
It must be late; the moon has risen.
Prices have risen more than ten percent in a very short time.
TO RAISE (smb, sth) - Nâng ai, cái gì lên -           ng t   òi h i 1 tân ng .
Ví d :
The students raise their hands in class.
The weighlifter raises the barbell over it’ s head.
The crane raised the car out of the lake.
After studying very hard, John raised his grades substantially.
Mr. Daniels has raised his tenants’ rent another fifteen dollars.
The OPEC have raised the price of oil.
TO LIE :        t i , n m.
- To lie in : t i n i nào.
- To lie down : n m xu ng
- To lie on : n m trên.
    ng t này r t d nh$m l'n v i to lie (nói d i) ph i phân bi t nó v i to lie trong m'u câu : To
lie to smb.
Ví d :
The university lies in the Western section of town.
If the children are tired, they should lie down for a nap.
Maria Elena lay on the beach for three hours yesterday sunbathing.
( trong câu này hành ng sunbath x y ra song song v i vi c n m trên bãi bi n nên dùng
sunbathing - nh ph$n lý thuy t trên ã trình bày)
The old dog just lay on the grass watching the children at play.
( 2 hành    ng n m và xem x y ra /ng th i nên dùng watching....)
Don’ t disturb Mary; she has lain down for a rest.
That old rug had lain in the corner for many years before it was put in the garage.


TO LAY (smth, smb):          t,   ai ó, cái gì lên trên b m t
- To lay on :      t trên.
- To lay in :     t vào.
- To lay down :       t xu ng.
L u ý: Nguyên th và hi n t i c a ng t này r t d nh$m l'n v i th i quá kh c a            ng t to
lie, c$n phân bi t chúng theo ng c nh.
Ví d :
Don’ t lay your clothes on the bed.
The boy lays his books on the table every day.
The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons and surrendered.
= The enemy soldiers laid down their weapons surrendering.
The children laid their toys on the floor when they had finished using them.
The students had laid their composition on the teacher’ s desk before the bell rang.
The nurse laid the baby in crib.
TO SIT : ng/i
- To sit in : ng/i trong, ng/i .
- To sit on : ng/i trên.
- To sit down : ng/i xu ng.
Ví d :
We are going to sit in the fifth row at the opera.
Bullfight fans sit in the shade because it is cool.
Because the weather was nice, we sat on the patio.
After swimming, Bob sat on the beach to dry off.
Nobody has sat through as many boring lectures as Peter has.
They have sat in the same position for 2 hours.
L u ý: Không        c nh$m l'n     ng t này v i to seat ( có s c ch a, có ch) ng/i)
Ví d : This studium can seat 100.000 people.
TO SET : t ( t ng        ng v i to put).
L u ý : ng t này r t d l'n phát âm vói simple past c a to sit ( sat).
Ví d :
The little girl helps her father (to) set the table every night.
The carpenters set their tools in the box at noon and go to lunch.
The botanist set her plants in the sun so that they would grow.
After carrying her son from the car, the mother set him in his crib.
Don’ t set the chocolate near the oven or it will melt.
No sooner had they set the roast in the oven, than the electricity went out.
                        M t s thành ng dùng v i các ng t này.
+ To lay off (workers, employees) - Dãn th , cho ngh" b t, cho t m ngh".
+ To set (broken bone) in : bó x       ng g'y vào trong ...
+ To set one’ s arlam for + time:        /ng h/ báo th c vào lúc.
     Ví d :
     I set my alarm for 6 am everyday.
+ To set fire to (smth) : làm cháy.
     Ví d :
     While playing with matches, the children set fired to the sofa.
+ To raise ( plants, animals) for a living: Tr/ng cây, nuôi gia súc     ki m s ng.
     Ví d :
     That farmer raises chickens for a living.
41. M t s         ng t        c bi t khác.
Agree to do smth ( /ng ý làm gì)
Agree to smb’ s doing smth ( /ng ý v i vi c làm gì c a ai).
    Ví d :
    He agrees to my leaving early tomorrow morning.
+ Mean to do smth: có ý       nh làm gì.
      Ví d :
      I mean to get to the top of the mount before sunrise.
+ It means doing smth: bao g/m c vi c làm gì.
    Ví d :
   He is determined to get ticket for Saturday’ s game if it means standing in the line all night.
+ Propose to do smth: có ý nh làm gì.
    Ví d :
    I propose to start tomorrow.
+ Propose doing smth:        ngh làm gì.
   Ví d :
    I proposed waiting until the police came.
+ Go on doing smth: Ti p t c làm vi c gì ( ang b b d )
    Ví d :
    He goes on talking about his accident.
+ Go on to do smth: Ti p t c làm gì (v'n cùng m t ch          nh ng chuy n sang m t khía c nh
  khác).
   Ví d :
    He goes on to tell about his accident on the trip.
  He shows the position of the Island on the map and goes on to talk about it’ s climate.
+ Try to do smth: c g#ng làm gì.
    Ví d :
    He tries to improve his English.
+ Try doing smth : th làm gì.
  Ví d :
    They try putting wise netting all around the garden to stop entering of the livestock.




                                             Ph!n II

                                       Ti ng Anh vi t.
I. Các l)i th       ng g p trong ti ng Anh vi t.
Ti ng Anh vi t khác v i ti ng Anh nói m c     òi h i ng pháp và s d ng t v ng m t cách
ch t ch0 t o thành ti ng Anh quy chu&n (Formal written English).
42. S hoà h p c a th i           ng t .
Trong m t câu ti ng Anh có 2 thành ph$n thì th i c a ng t 2 thành ph$n ó ph i hoà h p v i
nhau. Th i c a ng t     m nh chính s0 quy t nh th i c a m nh ph .


               MAIN CLAUSE                                      DEPENDENT CLAUSE
                Simple present                                    Present progressive

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra song song v i hành           ng c a m nh      chính.
Ví d :
I see that Harriet is writing her composition.
Do you know who is riding the bicycle?

                Simple present                                  Will/ can/ may + verb
                                                                      be going to

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra sau hành ng c a m nh                      chính trong m t t    ng lai
không xác nh ( ho c t ng lai g$n).
Ví du:
He says that he will look for a job next month.
I know that she is going to win that prize.
Mary says that she can play the piano.

                Simple present                                         Simple past

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra tr         c hành    ng c a m nh     chính trong m t quá kh        c xác
  nh c th v m t th i gian.
Ví d :
I hope that he arrived safely.
They think he was here last night.

                Simple present                                Present perfect (progressive)

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra tr c hành ng c a m nh                chính trong m t quá kh không xác
 nh c th v m t th i gian.
Ví d :
He tells us that he has been to the mountains before.
We know that you have spoken with Mike about the party.
                  Simple past                                        Past progressive
                                                                       Simple past

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra song song v i hành ng c a m nh                chính.
Ví d :
I gave the package to my sister when she visited us last week.
Mike visited the Prado Art Musium while he was studying in Madrid.
                  Simple past                                 Would / could / might + verb

Hành    ng c a m nh    phù x y ra sau hành     ng c a m nh    chính.
Ví d :
He said that he would look for a job next month.
Mary said that she could play the piano.
                    Simple past                                              Past perfect

Hành ng c a m nh ph x y ra tr              c hành    ng c a m nh        chính lùi sâu vào trong quá kh .
Ví d :
I hoped he had arrived safely.
They thought he had been here last night.

43. Cách s d ng to say, to tell.
        N u không có m t tân ng nào mà          n liên t that ngay thì ph i dùng      ng t to say.


                          Subject + say + (that) + subject + verb ...

        Nh ng n u có m t tân ng gián ti p r/i m i          n liên t that thì ph i dùng to tell.

                    Subject + tell + inderect object + (that) + subjct + verb ...


Ví d :
He tells me that he will be very busy today.
Tuy nhiên    ng sau     ng t to tell còn có m t s tân ng tr c ti p dù trong b t c tình hu ng nào.

         a story
         a joke
Tell     a secret
         a lie (lies)
         the truth
         (the) time


44. T       i tr   c     gi i thi u
Trong m t câu có 2 thành ph$n n u m t trong 2 thành ph$n ó có dùng n i t nhân x ng dù
là b t c lo i i t nào thì m nh còn l i ph i có m t danh t gi i thi u cho nó. Danh t gi i
thi u ph i h p v i i t ó v gi ng ( c, cái), s ( ít nhi u).
Ch"     c phép có m t danh t      i gi i thi u cho   i t , n u có 2 s0 gây nên nh$m l'n.
Các ví d v     i t không có ti n s :
Câu sai: Henry was denied admission to graduate school because they did not believe that he
         could handle the work load.
       (Trong câu này i t nhân x ng they không có ti n s trong câu. Graduate school là
       m t n v s ít, và các thành viên trong khoa c a nó không         c c p t i.)
Câu úng: The members of the admissions committee denied Henry admission to graduate
         school bexause they did not believe that he could handle the work load.
               (Trong câu này, they ám ch" các thành viên c a u. ban.)
                                                    Ho c là
           Henry was denied admission to graduate school because the members of the
           admissions committee did not believe that he could handle the work load.


Câu sai : George dislikes politics because he believes that they are corrupt.
         ( i t they không có ti n s trong câu này. Politics là s it, vì v y they không th ám
         ch" t i nó.)
Câu úng: George dislikes politics because he believes that politicians are corrupt.
                                                     Ho c là
           George dislikes pliticians because he believes that they are corrupt.


Các ví d v    i t có ti n s không rõ ràng:
Câu sai : Mr. Brown told Mr. Adams that he would have to work all night in order to finish the
          report.
               (Không rõ ràng là he ám ch" t i Mr. Brown hay Mr. Adams.)
Câu úng : According to Mr.Brown, Mr. Adams will have to work all night in order to finish the
         report.
                                                     Ho c là
           Mr. Brown said that, in order to finish the report, Mr. Adams would have to work all
           night.


Câu sai : Janet visited her friend every day while she was on vacation.
               (   i t she có th ám ch" t i c Janet l'n b n c a cô y)
Câu úng : While Janet was on vacation, she visited her friend every day.

45.      i t nhân x ng one và you
C 2     i t này    u mang ngh*a ng     i ta nh ng cách s d ng khác nhau.
- N u trên ã dùng t i        i t one thì các    it t      ng ng   d   i c(ng ph i là one, one’ s ho c
he, his.
Ví d :
If one takes this exam without studying, one is likely to fail.
If one takes this exam without studying, he is likely to fail.
One should always do one’ s homework.
One should always do his homework.


M t s ng i c&n th n tránh phân bi t nam n ã dùng he ho c she ( his ho c her) nh ng i u ó
là không c$n thi t.
N u trên ã s d ng i t you thì các i t t ng ng d i ph i là you ho c your.

                                                    you
                           You + verb... +              + (verb) ...
                                                        your

Ví d :
If you take this exam without studying, you are likely to fail.
You should always do your homework.

Tuy t        i không     c dùng one và you l'n l n.
Các ví d v câu sai:
If one takes this exam without studying, you are likely to fail.
 Ngôi th 3                                    Ngôi th 2

If one takes this exam without studying, they are likely to fail.
   S ít                                      S nhi u

Các ví d b tr cho c 2 d ng:
One should never tell his secrets to a gossip if he wishes them to remain secret.
You should always look both ways before you cross the street.
If one’ s knowledge of English is complete, he will be able to pass TOEFL.
If you do not want your test scores reported, you must request that they be canceled.
One should always remember his family.

46. Cách s d ng phân t m                   u
                                          ! cho m nh                   ph
Trong m t câu ti ng Anh có 2 thành ph$n chung m t ch ng ng                  i ta có th s d ng:
+ phân t 1 (Verbing) m         $u cho m nh        ph        cho 2 hành      ng x y ra song song,
+ ho c phân t 2 m         $u cho m nh        ph (ch" b       ng),
+ ho c ng t nguyên th m $u cho m nh ph ( ch" m c ích) và
+ ng danh t ho c ng gi i t m $u cho m nh ph   ch" s t ng ng.
L u ý: Khi s d ng lo i câu này c$n h t s c l u ý r ng ch ng c a m nh                             ng
                                                                                          chính / th i
c(ng là ch ng c a m nh ph .
Ví d :
Incorrect: After jumping out of a boat, the shark bit the man.
              (Ta hi u ch ng th t c a    ng t     jumping là the man; nh v y, ngay sau d u ph&y ta
              ph i c p t i the man.)
Correct : After jumping out of the boat, the man was bitten by a shark.

46.1 V+ing m            u m nh     ph
Thông th ng có 5 gi i t m        $u cho m nh           ph     ng tr     c Ving ó là:
By : b ng cách, b i
after, upon : sau khi
before : tr c khi
while : trong khi
when : khi
Ví d :
 After preparing the dinner, Michelle will read a book.
= After Michelle finishes preparing the dinner, he will read a book.
By working a ten-hour day four days, we can have a long weekend.
Because we work a ten-hour day four days, we can have a long weekend.
While reviewing for the test, Marcia realised that she had forgotten to study the use of participal
phrases.
= While Marcia was reviewing for the test, she realised that she had forgotten to study the use of
participal phrases.
N u being ho c having m      $u câu ph thì     ng tr   c chúng &n gi i t because.


Ví d :
 Having a terrible toothache, Felipe had to call his dentist for an appointment.
= Because Felipe had a terrible toothache, he had to call his dentist for an appointment.
N u mu n dùng ph      nh t not tr c verbing sau gi i t (xem công th c).


                    (Preposition) + (not ) +[verb + ing] ... + noun +verb ...


Nên nh r ng th i c a hành ng m nh chính s0 quy t nh th i c a hành                   ng     m nh
ph . Hai hành ng x y ra song song cùng m t lúc (công th c trên).
Ví d :
Hi n t i: Practicing her swing everyday, Tricia hopes to get a job as a golf instructor.
Quá kh : Having a terrible toothache, Felipe called the dentist for an appointment.
T ng lai : Finishing the letter later tonight, Sally will mail it tomorrow morning.
Trong tr ng h p hành ng c a m nh chính l'n m nh ph    u x y ra quá kh mà hành
  ng c a m nh ph x y ra tr c hành ng c a m nh chính thì công th c s0 là:


                  (not) + having + P2 ..., Subject + simple past


   ng tr   c có &n 2 gi i t because và after, vi c hi u 2 gi i t này tu- thu c vào ng c nh c a
câu.
Ví d :
Having finished their supper, the boys went out to play.
(After the boys had finihed their supper, they went out to play.)
Having written his composition, Louie handed it to his teacher.
(After Louie had written his composition, he handed it to his teacher.)
Not having read the book, she could not answer the question.
(Because she had not read the book, she could not answer the question.)
N u hành     ng c a m nh      ph    th b     ng thì công th c s0 là:
                       (not) + having been + P2 ..., Subject +simple past


Ví d :
Having been notified by the court, Melissa reported for jury duty.
(After Melissa had been notified, she reported for jury duty.)
Having been delayed by the snowstorm, Jason and I missed our connecting flight.
(After we had been delayed by the snowstorm, we missed the connecting flight.)
Not having been notified of the change in meeting times, George arrived late.
(Because George had not been notified of the change in meeting times, he arrived late.)

46.2 Phân t 2 m            u m nh       ph        ch* b      ng
Xu t phát t c u trúc trên ( th b        ng ) ng    i ta b having been i và ch" gi l i Past
participle (P2)
Incorrect : Found in Tanzania by Mary Leaky, some archaeologists estimated that the three
            million year old fossils were the oldest human remains to be discovered.
Correct : Found in Tanzania by Mary Leaky, the three million year old fossils were estimated to
          be the oldest human remains to be discovered.
Incorrect : Attacked by an angry mob, the gashes in the boy’ s throat were life-threatening.
            (L u ý r ng attacked có cùng ngh*a v i having been attacked. Ch ng th c c a ng
            t attacked là the boy; vì v y, vi c ám ch" t i nó ph i xu t hi n ngay sau d u ph&y.)
Correct : Attacked by an angry mob, the boy suffered life-threatening gashes in his throat.

46.3       ng t nguyên th ch* m c ích m                   u cho m nh     ph
Ví d :
Incorrect : To prevent cavities, dental floss should be used daily after brushing one’ s teeth.
Correct : To prevent cavities, one should use dental floss daily after brushing one’ s teeth.

46.4 Ng danh t ho c ng gi i t m                    u m nh         ph ch* s# t    ng ng.
Ví d :
Incorrect : A competitive sport, gymnast has to perform before a panel of judges who use their
            knowledge to determine which participant will win.
Correct : In a competitive sport, gymnast has to perform before a panel of judges who use their
            knowledge to determine which participant will win.
  i u c$n l u ý nh t khi s d ng lo i m'u câu này là ch ng c a m nh               chính ph i là ch ng
c a m nh ph .

47. Phân t dùng làm tính t

47.1 Dùng phân t 1 làm tính t
Phân t 1       c dùng làm tính t khi nó áp ng $y             các i u ki n sau:
+        ng ngay tr c danh t mà nó b ngh*a.
+        ng t không òi h i m t tân ng nào (n i        ng t ).
+ Hành       ng ph i     th ch     ng
+ Hành        ng ang     th ti p di n.

47.2 Dùng phân t 2 làm tính t
Phân t 2         c dùng làm tính t khi nó áp ng $y           nh ng i u ki n sau:
+       ng ngay tr     c danh t mà nó b ngh*a
+ Hành         ng ph i   th b     ng
+ Hành         ng ó ph i x y ra tr     c hành   ng c a m nh       chính.
L u ý: M t s các ng t nh to interest, to bore, excited và frighten. Khi dùng ph i c&n th n
xem hành ng ó ch      ng hay b   ng.

48. Th a (redundancy)
M t câu trong ó thông tin trong câu c l p l i mà không c$n thi t             c g%i là th a. Sau ây là
m t s c m t th a mà ta c$n bi t tránh s d ng.

Advance forward             advance, proceed, và progress t t c ngh*a là “ ti n lên phía tr        c” . Vì
Proceed forward             v y, forward là không c$n thi t (th a)
Progress forward

return back                 return và revert ngh*a là “ tr     v ho c tr l i” vì v y back là không c$n
revert back                 thi t (th a)

sufficent enough            các t này là /ng ngh*a. Nên s d ng 1 trong 2.

compete together            B n thân t compete ngh*a là “ tham gia vào cu c thi u v i nh ng ng           i
                            khác”
reason ... because          Các t này ch" ra cùng 1 v n . M'u chu&n là reason... that.

Join together.              Join có ngh*a là” em l i cho nhau” , “ sát cánh bên nhau” , hay “ tr thành 1
                            b ph n hay thành viên c a ....“ nên together     ây là th a.
Repeat again                B n thân repeat có ngh*a là “ nói l i l$n n a” , (re - luôn có ngh*a là again)
                            nên    ây th a again.
new innovations             B n thân innovation có ngh*a là “ 1 ý t ng m i, 1 sáng ki n m i”

matinee performance         matinee ngh*a là” bu i bi u di n ban chi u” . Nên performance là th a.

same identical              Các t này /ng ngh*a.

two twins                   Twins ngh*a là “ hai anh em hay 2 ch em”

the time when               Ng i Anh không nói the time when mà ch" dùng 1 trong 2.
                            Ví d : It is the time you must leave.
the place wherre            Ng i Anh không nói the place where mà ch" dùng 1 trong 2.
                            Ví d : It is the place I was born.


M t s ví d :
The army advanced after the big battle.
       Hay
The army moved forward after the big battle.
The peace talks advanced.
         Hay
The peace talks progressed.
We have sufficent money to buy the new dress.
They have enough time to eat a sandwich before going to work.
The teacher proceeded to explain the lesson.
John and his brother are competing in the running games.
The teacher asked us to join the students who were cleaning the room.
Mary repeated the question slowly so that Jim would understand.
Besides the two evening showings, there will also be a matinee.
The reason I want to take that class is that the professor is supposed to be very eloquent.
(Lý do tôi tham d vào l p h%c ó là ông giáo s r t có tài hùng bi n.)
This is where I left him.
That was the time I hit a home run.

49. C u trúc câu song song
Khi thông tin trong m t câu    c a ra d i d ng li t kê ra hàng lo t thì các thành ph$n             c
li t kê ph i t ng    ng v i nhau v m t ng pháp (danh - danh, tính t - tính t ).
Nên nh r ng thông th        ng thì thành ph$n $u tiên sau    ng t s0 quy t    nh các thành ph$n còn
l i.
Tuy nhiên n u th i gian trong câu khác nhau thì các hành         ng trong câu ph i theo quy lu t th i
gian và nguyên t#c song song không     c áp d ng.
Ví d :
She is a senior, studies every day, and will graduate a semester early.

50. Thông tin tr c ti p và thông tin gián ti p
50.1 Câu tr#c ti p và câu gián ti p
Trong câu tr c ti p thông tin i t ng     i th nh t    n ng   i th 2.
Ví d :
He said “ I bought a new motorbike for myself yesterday”
Còn trong câu gián ti p, thông tin i t ng       i th nh t qua ng     i th 2 và    n ng   i th 3. Do
v y có s bi n i v m t ng pháp.
Ví d :
He said he had bought a new motorbike for myself the day before.

50.2 Ph        ng pháp chuy n       i t câu tr#c ti p sang câu gián ti p
Khi chuy n      i t câu tr c ti p sang câu gián ti p c$n ph i:
+ Phá b ngo c kép, chuy n i toàn b các             i t nhân x ng theo ngôi ch ng th nh t sang
    i t nhân x ng ngôi th 3.
+ Lùi ng t   v th 2 xu ng 1 c p so v i m c ban $u (lùi v th i).
+ Chuy n i t t c các i t ch" th , phó t ch" th i gian theo b ng quy nh.

                                          B ng "i     ng t

                DIRECT SPEECH                                          INDIRECT SPEECH
                  Simple present                                            Simple past

               Present progressive                                        Past progressive

                  Present perfect                                           Past perfect
                   (Progressive)                                           (Progressive)

                    Simple past                                             Past perfect

                     will /shall                                           would / should

                    Can / may                                              Could / might


                                     B ng     i các lo i t khác.

                    This, these                                             That, those

                  here, overhere                                          there, overthere

                       today                                                  that day

                     yesterday                                             the day before

             the day before yesterday                                     two days before

                     tomorrow                                      the following day/ the next day

              the day after tomorrow                                     in two days’ time

         next + th i gian (week, year ...)                    the following + th i gian (week, year...)

          last + th i gian (week, year ...)                   the privious + th i gain (week, year...)

                  th i gian + ago                            th i gian + before/ the privious +th i gian


- N u là nói và thu t l i x y ra trong cùng m t ngày thì không c$n ph i       i th i gian.
Ví d :
At breakfast this morning he said “ I will be very busy today”
At breakfast this morning he said he would be very busy today.
- Vi c i u ch"nh logic t t nhiên là c$n thi t n u l i nói  c thu t l i sau ó 1 ho c 2 ngày.
Ví d :
th 2 Jack nói v i Tom:
I’ m leaving the day after tomorrow. (t c là th 4 Jack s0 r i i)
N u Tom thu t l i l i nói c a Jack vào ngày hôm sau (t c là th 3) thì Tom s0 nói:
Jack said he was leaving tomorrow.
N u Tom thu t l i l i nói c a Jack vào ngày ti p theo (ngày th 4) thì Tom s0 nói:
Jack said he was leaving today.

50.3     ng t v i tân ng tr#c ti p và tân ng gián ti p.
+ Trong ti ng Anh có nh ng lo i           ng t (trong b ng sau)có 2 tân ng và /ng th i c(ng có 2
  cách dùng.

                        Bring     find       make     promiss
                        build     get        offer    read
                        buy       give       owe      sell
                        cut       hand       paint    send
                        draw      leave      pass     show
                        feed      lend       pay      teach
                        tell      write

- Cách dùng gián ti p    t tân ng tr c ti p sau      ng t r/i     n gi i t for, to và tân ng gián ti p
(công th c sau.)

                                                                for
                        Subject + verb + tân ng tr c ti p +              + tân ng gián ti p
                                                                to

- Cách dùng tr c ti p t tân ng gián ti p ngay sau         ng t và sau ó       n tân ng tr c ti p, gi i
t to và for m t i, công th c sau:


              Subject + verb + tân ng gián ti p + tân ng gián ti p


- N u c 2 tân ng     u là i t nhân x ng thì không             c dùng công th c tr c ti p (t c là công
th c th nh t     c s d ng).
        Ví d :
        Correct : They gave it to us.
        Incorrect: They gave us it.
- ng t to introduce và to mention không bao gi            c dùng công th c tr c ti p mà ph i dùng
công th c gián ti p.
To introduce sb/smth to sb
to mention smth to sb
                                        M ts     thí d b" tr
John gave the essay to his teacher.
John gave his teacher the essay.
The little boy brought some flowers for his grandmother.
The little boy brought his grandmother some flowers.
I fixed a drink for Maria.
I fixed Maria a drink.
He drew a picture for his mother.
He drew his mother a picture.
He lent his car to his bother.
He lent his brother his car.
We owe several thousand dollars to the bank.
We owe the bank several thousand dollars.

51. Phó t                    o lên !u câu
Trong ti ng Anh có nh ng tr ng h p phó t không ng v trí bình th ng c a nó mà o lên
        u
  ng $ câu nh m nh n m nh vào hành ng c a ch ng .
Trong tr ng h p ó ng pháp có thay i, ng sau phó t      ng      u
                                                              $ câu là tr  ng t r/i
m i n ch ng và ng t chính (công th c sau).

                               hardly
                               rarely
                               seldom                       + auxiliary + subject + verb ...
                               never
                               only ...


Ví d :
Never have so many people been unemployed as today.
Phó t    tr        ng t         ch ng                        ng t

(so many people have never been unemployed as today.)
Hardly had he fallen asleep when he began to dream of far-away lands.
 Phó t             t t ch ng          ng t

(He had hardly fallen asleep when he dream of far-away lands.)
Rarely have                 we seen such an effective actor as he has proven.
Phó t         tr     ng t    ch ng            ng t

(we have rarely seen such an effective actor as he has proven.)
Seldom does the class let out early.
 Phó t        tr      ng t      ch ng                ng t

Only by hard work will we                              be able to accomplish this great task.
                    Phó t        tr          ng t    ch ng          ng t

(We will be able to accomplish this great task only by hard work.)


                                               M t s các phó t              c bi t        u
                                                                                      ng ! câu
+ IN/ UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES : Dù trong hoàn c nh nào c(ng không.
Ví d :
In / under no circumstances should you lend him the money.
(dù trong b t c tr    ng h p nào anh c(ng không nên cho nó vay ti n.)
+ ON NO ACCOUNT : Dù b t c lý do nào c(ng không.
Ví d :
On no account must this switch be toughed.
(dù v i b t c lý do nào anh c(ng không           c      ng vào c#m này)
+ SO + ADJ + AUXILIARY + S + V + THAT. ....                   n n)i mà ....
Ví d :
So difficult did she get a job that she had to stay home for an year.
So sure of this were the owners that they provided lifeboats for only 950 of its possible 3,500
passengers. (Nh ng ng i ch c a con tàu ã quá tin t ng n n)i mà h% ch" trang b xu/ng
c u #m cho 950 trong s 3,500 hành khách mà con tàu có th t i          c - chích trong bài %c v
tàu Titanic).
(Cô y ki m      c vi c làm m t cách khó kh!n n n)i cô y ã ph i ng/i nhà 1 n!m tr i)
+ ONLY IN THIS WAY : Ch" có b ng cách này.
Ví d :
Only in this way could you solve the problem.
(Ch" có b ng cách này thì c u m i gi i           cv n     hóc búa này.)
+ NAGATIVE, ... , NOR + AUXILIARY + S + V.... ( ... mà c(ng ch ng/ mà c(ng không ...)
Ví d :
He didn’ t have any money, nor did he know anybody from whom he could borrow.
( Nó ch ng còn /ng nào c mà nó c(ng ch ng bi t ai mà nó có th h i vay.)
52. Cách ch#n nh ng câu tr l i úng.
M t trong 2 bài thi ng pháp c a TOEFL        c a ra d i d ng m t câu cho s5n còn b d và
d i ó là 4 câu       i n vào. Trong 4 câu ó ch" có 1 câu úng. ch%n    c câu úng ó ta c$n
ti n hành các b c sau:
1. Ph i ki m tra các l)i ng pháp, bao g/m:
a- S hoà h p gi a ch ng và          ng t .
b- Vi c s d ng các tính t và phó t .
c- V trí c a các b ng theo th t :
        + ch" ph     ng th c hành    ng
        + ch"   a i m
        + ch" th i gian
        + ch" ph     ng ti n hành   ng
        + hoàn c nh hành      ng.
d- S ph i h p gi a các thì c a      ng t .
e- Xem xét vi c s d ng h p lý các         it .
f- C u trúc câu song song.
2. Ph i lo i b nh ng câu tr l i mang tính r          m rà
a- Ph i lo i b nh ng câu tr l i bao g/m 1 thành ng tuy không sai nh ng dài, trong khi ó l i
    có 1 t khác ng#n h n thay th .
Nh ng l u ý r ng có nh ng phó t không có hình th c uôi ly ho c n u có s0 mang ngh*a khác,
   nên ph i dùng theo cách : m t c m thành ng ( nh ng tính t có uôi ly)
Ví d :
Freshly khác v i in a fresh mener (t   i).
Minh ho
This food is only delicious when eaten in a fresh mener (khi !n t   i).
He had a dozen fresh-laid egges (tr ng v a m i 1)
b- Ph i tránh nh ng câu tr l i có 2 t mang cùng m t ngh*a (Redundancy)
3. Ph i tránh nh ng câu tr l i có nh ng t v ng không kh p v i ngh*a c a câu.          c bi t là các
    ng      ng t .
4. Tránh nh ng câu tr l i có ti ng lóng.

53. Nh ng t d gây nh!m l n
 ó là nh ng t r t d gây nh$m l'n v m t ng ngh*a, chính t ho c cách phát âm.
ANGEL (n) : Thiên th$n.
ANGLE (n) : Góc.
CITE (v) : Trích d'n. In her term paper, Janis had to cite many references.
SITE (n) : Khu t ( xây d ng). The corner of North Main and Mimosa Streets will be the site
of the new shopping center.
SIGHT (n) :    1- Khe ng#m, t$m ng#m. Through the sight of the rifle, the soldier spotted the
enemy.
         (n)    2- c nh t    ng. Whatching the landing of the space’ s capsule was a pleasant
sight.
         (v)    3- Th y, quan sát th y We sighted a ship in the bay.
COSTUME (n) Qu$n áo, trang ph c l h i.
Ví d :
It is a custom in Western Europe for little boys to wear shorts pants to school.
DECENT (adj) : 1-      ng #n, t ch"nh.
                2- t   m t t, t t
Ví d :
When one appears in court, one must wear decent clothing.
DESCENT (n) :            1- leo xu ng, trèo xu ng.
Ví d :
The mountain climbers found their descent more hazardous than their ascent.
                2- ngu/n g c, dòng dõi.
Ví d :
Vladimir is of Russian descent.
DESSERT (n) : Món tráng mi ng.
Ví d :
We had apple pie for dessert last night.
DESERT (n) : sa m c.
Ví d :
It is difficult to live in the desert without water.
DESERT (v) : b , b m c.
Ví d :
After deserting the post, the soldier ran away from the camp.
LATER (adv) : sau ó, sau ây, r/i thì (th ng dùng v i câu        t    ng lai).
Ng c ngh*a v i nó là earlier (  c dùng simple past).
Ví d :
We went to the movies and later had ice cream at Dairy Isle.
THE LATTER >< THE FORMER
Cái th 2, ng i th 2 >< cái th nh t, ng          i th nh t.
Ví d :
Germany and England both developed dirigibles for use during World war II, the latter primarily
for coastal reconnaissance. (latter = England).
LOOSE (adj) : l ng >< tight : ch t
Ví d :
after dieting, Marcy found that her clothes had become so loose that she had to buy a new
wardrobe.
LOSE (v) :       1- ánh m t, th t l c.
Ví d :
Mary lost her glasses last week.
                 2- thua, th t b i.
Ví d :
If Harry doesn’ t practice his tennis more, he may lose the match.
Passed (v - quá kh c a pass) :
                 1- trôi qua, qua i.
Ví d :
Five hours passed before the jury reached its verdict.
                 2- i qua, i ngang qua.
Ví d :
While we were sitting in the park, several of our friends passed us.
                 3- thành công, v      t qua     c.
Ví d :
The students are happy that they passed their exams.
PAST (adj) : 1- ã qua, d* vãng.
Ví d :
This past week has been very hectic for the students returning to the university.
                2- tr c ây.
Ví d :
In the past, he had been a cook, a teacher, and a historian.
PEACE (n) : hoà bình, s tr t t , s yên n, s yên l ng, s thanh bình.
Ví d :
Peace was restored to the community after a week of rioting.
PIECE (n) : M t m&u, 1 m nh.
Ví d :
Heidi ate a piece of chocolate cake for dessert.
PRINCIPAL (n) :           1- hi u tr     ng (tr   ng ti u h%c và trung h%c).
Ví d :
The principal called a faculty meeting.
        (adj) 2- chính, ch y u.
Ví d :
An anthropologist, who had worked with the indigenous tribes in Australia, was the principal
speaker at Friday’ s luncheon.


PRINCIPLE (n) : Nguyên t#c, lu t l .
Ví d :
Mr. Connors is a man who believes that truthfulness is the best principle.
QUIET (adj) : yên #ng, yên , im l ng,t*nh m ch.
Ví d :
The night was so quiet that you could hear the breeze blowing.
QUITE (adv) : 1- hoàn toàn.
Ví d :
Louise is quite capable of taking over the household chores while her mother is away.
                 2- h i, m t chút.
Ví d :
He was quite tired after his first day of classes.
QUIT (v) : d ng.
Ví d :
Herman quit smoking on his doctor’ s advice.
STATIONARY (adj) : c          nh, không di chuy n, t*nh t i.
Ví d :
The weatherman said that the warm front would be stationary for several days.
STATIONERY (n) : Gi y vi t             c bi t, v!n phòng ph&m.
Ví d :
Lucille used only monogrammed stationary for correspondence.
THAN (liên t ) :       c s d ng trong câu so sánh h n.
Ví d :
Today’ s weather is better than yesterday’ s.
THEN (adj) : sau ó (        c dùng sau 1 th i i m ã          c    c p).
Ví d :
First, Julie filled out her schedule; then, she paid her fees.
THEIR (adj) : tính t s h u s nhi u.
Ví d :
Their team scored the most points during the game.
THERE (adv) : 1-      ó,    ng kia.
Ví d :
Look over there between the trees.
                 2-     c s d ng v i be         ch" ra s hi n di n, s có m t, s t/n t i.
Ví d :
There is a book on the teacher’ s desk.
THEY’ RE ( i t +         ng t ): vi t t#t c a they are.
Ví d :
They’ re leaving on the noon flight to Zurich.
TO (gi i t ) : i t i, cho t i, t i t n lúc.
Ví d :
Go to the blackboard and write out the equation.
TWO (n ho c adj) - hai.
Ví d :
Two theories have been proposed to explain that incident.
TOO (adv)      1- quá.
Ví d :
This morning was too cold for the children go to swimming.
                 2- c(ng, c(ng v y.
Ví d :
Jane went to the movie, and we did too.
WEATHER (n): th i ti t.
Ví d :
Our flight was delayed because of bad weather.
WHETHER (liên t ): nên ch!ng (ch" ra 1 l a ch%n).
Ví d :
Because of gas shortage, we do not know whether we will go away for our vacation or stay home.
WHOSE ( i t ) - tính t hay i t quan h s h u.
Ví d :
The person whose name is drawn first will win the grand prize.
WHO’ S (       i t quan h +    ng t ) : vi t t#t c a who + is ho c who + has.
Ví d :
Who’ s (who is) your new biology professor ?
Scott is the attorney who’ s (who has) been reviewing this case.
YOUR (adj) - s h u c a you.
Ví d :
We are all happy about your accepting the position with the company in Baltimore.
YOU’ RE ( i t +        ng t ) - Vi t t#t c a you + are.
Ví d :
You’ re going to enjoy the panorama from the top of the hill.


                              Các t có i m gi ng nhau d nh$m l'n.


ACCEPT (v) : ch p nh n.
Ví d :
Professor Perez will accept the chairmanship of the humanities department.
EXCEPT (gt) : ngo i tr (1 v t hay 1 ng       i).
Ví d :
Everyone is going to the convention exept Bob.
ACCESS (n) : s5n có, cách truy c p vào.
Ví d :
The teacher had no access to the students’ files, which were locked in the principal’ s office.
EXCESS (adj) :           1- d/i dào, phong phú, d th a.
                  We paid a surcharge on our excess baggage.
           (n)           2- L ng b xung, ph .
Ví d :
The demand for funds was in excess of the actual need.
ADVICE (n) : l i khuyên, t v n.
Ví d :
If you heed the teacher’ s advice, you will do well in your studies.
ADVISE (v) :        a ra l i khuyên, ho c t v n.
             The Congress advised the president against signing the treaty at that time.
AFFECT (v) : Tác ng.
Ví d :
The doctors wanted to see how the medication would affect the patient.
EFFECT (n) :             1- K t qu ho c h u qu .
Ví d :
The children suffered no ill effects from their long plane ride.
         (v)             2- T o hi u qu .
Ví d :
To effect a change in city government we must all vote on Tuesday.
Again (adv): 1 l$n n a, l p l i ( 1 hành    ng).
Ví d :
Mike wrote to the publishers again, inquiring about his manuscript.
AGAINST (gi i t ) : 1- ch ng l i, ph n i ai ó ho c cái gì ó.
Ví d :
The athletic director was against our dancing in the new gym.
                         2- k bên, bên c nh.
Ví d :
The boy standing against the piano is my cousin Bill.
ALREADY (adv) : s5n sàng.
Ví d :
Jan’ s plane had already landed before we got to the airport.
ALL READY (noun + adj): ã ch&n b s5n sàng             làm gì.
Ví d :
We are all ready to go boating.
AMONG (gi i t ): Ch" ra m i quan h trong (ho c s l a ch%n t ) 3 hay nhi u ng           i (nhi u v t)
- trong s .


Ví d :
It was difficult to select a winner from among so many contestants.
BETWEEN (gi i t ) : ch" ra m i quan h (s l a ch%n) gi a 2 th c th .
Ví d :
Between writing her book and teaching, Mary Ellen had litte time for anything else.
L u ý : c u trúc between ... and c(ng có th        c dùng    ch" v trí chính xác c a 1 qu c gia n m
gi a các qu c gia khác.
Ví d :
Vi tnam lies between China, laos and cambodia.
BESIDE (gi i t ) : bên c nh ó.
Ví d :
There is a small table beside the bed.
BESIDES (gi i t ho c phó t ): ngoài ra, c(ng, h n n a.
Ví d :
I have five history books here besides the four that I left at home.
ASIDE (adv) :     t sang 1 bên.
Ví d :
Harry sets money aside every payday for his daughter’ s education.
COMPARE (V) + WITH: so v i (             ch" ra s gi ng nhau, s t      ng /ng).
Ví d :
Sue compared her new school with the last one she had attended.
CONTRAST (V) + WITH: ch" ra s t          ng ph n (khác nhau).
Ví d :
In her composition, Marta chose to contrast life in a big city with that of a small town.
CONSECUTIVE (adj) : Liên t c ( không có tính ng#t quãng).
Ví d :
Today is the tenth consecutive day of unbearable heat wave.
SUCCESSIVE (adj) : liên t c (có tính ng#t quãng).
Ví d :
The United States won gold medals in two successive Olympic Games.
CONSIDERABLE (adj): áng k .


Ví d :
Even thought Marge had considerable experience in the field, she was not hired for the job.
CONSIDERATE (adj): l ch s , ân c$n, chu áo, hay quan tâm t i ng          i khác.
Ví d :
It was very considerate of Harry to send his hostess a bouquet of flowers.
CREDIBLE (adj) : có th tin        c.
Ví d :
His explanation of the rescue at sea seemed credible.
CREDITABLE (adj) : v1 vang, áng ca ng i, áng khen.
Ví d :
The fireman’ s daring rescue of those trapped in the burning was a creditable deed.
Vi c ng i lính c u ho dám xông vào c u nh ng ng i b nh t trong ám cháy là vi c làm áng
khen ng i.
CREDULOUS (adj): c tin, nh, da.
Ví d :
Rita is so credulous that she will accept any excuse you offer.
DETRACT (v) : làm gi m (giá tr , uy tín).
Ví d :
Molly’ s nervousness detracted from her singing.
DISTRACT (v) : làm lãng quên, làm m t t p trung.
Ví d :
Please don’ t distract your father while he is balancing the chequebook.
DEVICE (n): m t phát minh hay 1 k ho ch, thi t b , d ng c , máy móc.
Ví d :
This is a clever device for cleaning fish without getting pinched by the scales.
DEVISE (v) : ngh* ra, sáng ch ra.
Ví d :
The general devised a plan for attacking the enemy camp at night while the soldiers were
celebrating.
ELICIT (v) : rút ra, moi ra, thu h/i l i, rút l i
Ví d :
The prosecutor’ s barrage of questions finally elicited the truth from the witness.
ILLICIT (adj) : b t h p pháp.
Ví d :
The politician’ s illicit dealings with organized crime caused him to lose his government position.
EMIGRANT (n) : ng        i di c ( ng t là Emigrate from : di c t ).
Ví d :
After world war II, many emigrants left Europe to go to the United States.
IMMIGRANT (n) : ng          i nh p c ( ng t là Immigrate into ).
Ví d :
The United States is a country composed of immigrants.
EXAMPLE (n) : thí d , d'n ch ng.
Ví d :
Picasso’ s Guermica is an excellent example of expressionism in art.
SAMPLE (n) : m'u.
Ví d :
My niece loves to go to supermarket because the dairy lady always gives her a sample of cheese.
FORMERLY (adv) : tr         c ây.
Ví d :
He formerly worked as a professor, but now he is a physicist.
FORMALLY (adj) 1- t ch"nh (!n m c).
Ví d :
At the resort we were required to dress formally for dinner every night.
  n i ông ng      i ng   i ta yêu c$u chúng tôi !n m c ch"nh t vào t t c các b a !n t i.
                 2- chính th c.
Ví d :
She has formally requested a name change.
HARD (adj): 1- khó.
                 Ví d : The test was so hard that nobody passed.
                 2- c ng.
                 Ví d : The stadium’ s seats were hard, so we rented a cushion.
                 3- (phó t ) ch!m ch", r t n) l c.
                 Ví d : They worked hard on the project.
HARDLY (adv) : h$u nh không.
                 Ví d : He had so much work to do after the vacation that he hardly knew where
                 to begin.
HELPLESS (adj) : Vô v%ng, tuy t v%ng.
I could not speak their language, I felt helpless trying to understand the tourists’ plight.
USELESS (adj) : vô d ng.
An umbrella is useless in a hurricane.
ô s0 tr nên vô d ng trong tr n bão.
HOUSE (n) và Home (n) : nhi u khi    c s d ng l'n l n, nh ng có s khác bi t v ng ngh*a.
             1- House ám ch" t i toà nhà ho c công trình ki n trúc.
                 The Chapmans are building a new house in Buckingham Estates.
                 2- Home ám ch" t i b$u không khí trong ngôi nhà. Home là n i trái tim .
IMAGINARY (adj): T        ng t   ng, không có th t.
Since Ralph has no brother or sisters, he has created an imaginary playmate.
IMAGINATIVE (adj) : phong phú trí t        ng t   ng, giàu trí t   ng t   ng.
Star Wars was created by an highly imaginatve writer.
IMMORTAL (adj) : b t t .
The immortal works of Shakespeare are still being read and enjoyed three centuries after their
writing.
IMMORAL (adj) : trái v i luân th ng o lý, /i b i.
Their immoral behavior in front of the students cost the teachers their jobs.
IMPLICIT (adj) : ng$m, &n tàng, ti m tàng, tuy t       i, hoàn toàn.
Our supervisor has implicit faith in our ability to finish the project on time.
Ng i giám sát d án có ni m tin tuy t i vào kh n!ng hoàn t t d án úng th i h n c a chúng
tôi.

EXPLICIT (adj) : rõ ràng, chính xác.
The professor gave explicit instructions for carrying out the research project.
INDUSTRIAL (adj) : [thu c] công nghi p.
Paul had an industrial accident and wa in the hospital for three months.
INDUSTRIOUS (adj): c$n cù, siêng n!ng.
Mark was such an industrious student that he received a four-year scholarship to the university.
INFLICT (v) : k t án, b#t ph i ch u.
Because the prisoners had created a riot and had assaulted several guards, the warden inflicted
several punishments on all the participants.
AFFLICT (v) : làm s$u não, làm au kh .
During the Middle Ages, millions of people were afflicted by the plague.
(vào th i trung c , hàng tri u ng i ã b ngã b nh vì n n d ch.)
INSPIRATION (n): c m h ng (sáng t o, h%c t p, khám phá).
Thomas A. Edison, inventor of the phonograph, said that an idea was ninety-nine percent
perspiration and one percent inspiration.
(Thomas A. Edison, nhà phát minh ra chi c kèn, nói r ng 1 ý t         ng là 99% m/ hôi công s c và
ch" 1% c m h ng sáng t o).
ASPIRATION (n) :          1- khát v%ng, nguy n v%ng.
                          Gail’ s lifelong aspiration has been that of becoming a doctor.
                          2- s hít th .
                          To pronounce certain words, proper aspiration is necessary.
INTELLIGENT (adj) : thông minh.
Dan was so intelligent that he received good grades without ever having to study.
INTELLIGIBLE (adj) : d dàng, d hi u.
The science teacher’ s explanations were so intelligible that students had no problems doing their
assignments.
INTELLECTUAL (n) : 1- trí th c.
                          Because Fabian is an intellectual, he finds it difficult to associate with his
                          classmates who are less intelligent.
                          2- (adj): khôn ngoan, tài trí, uyên bác.
                          John was involved in an intellectual conversation with his old professor.
INTENSE (adj) : m nh, d d i, mãnh li t.
Last winter’ s intense cold almost depleted the natural gas supply.
INTENSIVE (adj) : m nh, sâu, t p trung.
Before going to Mexico, Phil took an intensive course in Spanish.
LATE (adj, adv):       1-không úng gi , mu n.
                          Professor Carmichael hates to see his students arrive late.
                          2- (adj) quá c .
                    Her late husband was the author of that book.
LATELY (adv) : g$n ây.
I haven’ t seen Burt lately. He must be extremely busy with his research.
LEARN (v) : h%c.
The new cashier had to learn how to operate the computerised cash register.
TEACH (v) : d y.
The instructor is teaching us how to program computers.
LEND (v) và LOAN (v) : cho vay - có th dùng l'n             c.
Jill loaned (lend) me her red dress to wear to the dance.
BORROW (v) : vay.
I borrowed Jill’ s red dress to wear to the dance.
LIQUEFY (v) : tan ra, ch y ra.
The ice cream began to liquefy in the intense heat.
LIQUIDATE (v) : tr kh , thanh toán, thanh lý.
The foreign agent tried to liquidate the traitor before he passed the information to his contacts.
LONELY (adj) : cô       n..
After her husband’ s death, Debbie was very lonely and withdrawn.
Sau cái ch t c a ch/ng, Debbie r t cô n và khó tính.
ALONE (adj) : m t mình.
After losing in the Olympic tryouts, Phil asked to be left alone.
Near (gi i t ho c phó t ): g$n.
My biology class meets near the Student Union.
Nearly (adv): h$u h t, g$n nh , suýt n a.
We were nearly hit by the speeding car on the turnpike.
Chúng tôi suýt n a thì b m t xe t c cao húc vào trên xa l .
Observation (n): s quan sát, s theo dõi.
The ancient Egyptians’ observation of the heavently bodies helped them know when to plant and
harvest.
Observance (n): s tuân theo, s tuân th , nghi th c, nghi l .
There will be numerous parades and displays of the fireworks in observance of Independece Day.
Persecute (v) : ng c ãi, hành h .
Throughout history many people have been persecuted for their religious beliefs.
Prosecute (v): truy t .
Shoplifters will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.
Preceed (v): ng tr c.
Weather Service warnings preceeded the hurricane.
Proceed (v): ti p t c (m t công vi c b b d ).
After the fire drill, the teacher proceeded to explain the experiment to the physics class.
Quantity (n) : s l ng (     c dùng v i danh t không m         c).
A large quantity of sand was removed before the archeologists found the prehistoric animal
bones.
Number (n): s l ng (      c s d ng v i danh t      m     c).
A number of artefacts were found at the excavation site.
Remember (v) : nh l i, nh , ngh* v .
I do not remember what time he asked me to call. You don’ t remember, do you?
Remind (v) : nh#c nh ai, làm cho nh l i.
Please remind me to call Henry at 7 o’ clock tonight.
Henry reminds me of my uncle.
Sensible (adj) : có óc phán oán t t.
When it is raining hard, sensible people stay indoors.
Sensitive (adj) : nh y c m.
Stephen cannot be out in the sun very long because he has very sensitive skin and burns easily.
Special (adj) : c bi t.
Meyer’ s Department Store will have a special sale for their charge customers.
Especially (adv) :   c bi t.
Rita is especially tatented in the fine arts. She has a special talent for playing music by ear.
Use (n): áp d ng, s d ng.
The salesman said that regular use of fertilizer would ensure a greener, healthier lawn.
Usage (n) : cách s d ng.
Norm Crosby’ s usage of English vocabulary in his comedy routine is hilarious.

54. Cách s d ng gi i t .
Vi c s d ng gi i t là r t khó vì h$u h t các khái ni m v gi i t u có nh ng ngo i l . Cách
t t nh t   h%c chúng là minh ho b ng hình nh xem chúng th c hi n ch c n!ng nh th nào so
v i các gi i t khác và h%c nh ng ng d ng chung nh t nh và nh ng thành ng s d ng các
gi i t khác nhau.
S / d i ây s0 em l i cho b n 1 ý ni m chung v cách s d ng gi i t . Tuy nhiên, nó không
giúp    c b n hi u nh ng thành ng ch a gi i t nh t nh.          i v i nh ng thành ng mà t nó
không nói lên ngh*a c a nó thì ngh*a c a nó s0 ph i h%c thu c. Nghiên c u các câu ví d   hi u
ngh*a c a m)i thành ng . Các gi i t và thành ng này r t quan tr%ng trong t t c các ph$n c a
TOEFL.

                                     Above, over
                                         on
                      to                                    from

                                         through

                           into                             out of

                                                            by

                                           Below, under

54.1 During - trong su t (hành           ng x y ra trong m t quãng th i gian)
during for + time (ch" tr ng thái).
Ví d :
During our vacation, we visited many relatives across the country.
During the summer, we do not have to study.

54.2 From (t ) >< to ( n).
Dùng cho th i gian và a i m.
From a time to a time
       a place      a place

He lived in Germany from 1972 to 1978.
We drove from Atlanta to New York in one day.
From time to time : th"nh tho ng, ôi khi.
Ví d :
We visit the art museum from time to time.
54.3 Out of (ra kh i) >< into (di vào)
+ be (run) out of + danh t : h t, không còn.
+ be out of town : i v#ng.
Mr. Adams cannot see you this week because he is out of town.
+ be out of date (c(, l)i th i) >< be up to date (m i, c p nh t, h p th i)
Don’ t use that dictionary. It is out of date. Find one that is up to date.
+ be out of work : th t nghi p.
I have been very unhappy since I have been out of work.
+ be out of the question : không th         c.
Your request for an extension of credit is out of the question.
+ be out of order: h ng.
We had to use our neighbour’ s telephone because ours was out of order.

54.4 by
+      ng t ch" chuy n      ng + by = i ngang qua.
+      ng t t*nh + by =    g$n,    bên.
+ by + th i gian c th : tr c lúc.
  Ví d : We usually eat supper by six o’ clock in the evening.
+ By       c dùng trong câu b      ng     ch" ra ch th gây hành       ng.
    Ví d : Romeo and Juliet was writen by William Shakespeare.
+ By + ph ng ti n giao thông (bus/ plane/ train/ car/ ship/ bike).
  Ví d : We traveled to Boston by train.
+ By then : tr     c lúc ó.
    Ví d : I will graduate from the university in 1997. By then, I hope to have found a job.
+ By way of = via : theo    ng.
  Ví d : We are driving to Atlanta by way of Baton Rouge.
+ By the way :            1- tình c .
    Ví d : By the way, I’ ve got two tickets for Saturday’ s game. Would you like to go with me?
                       2- nhân ây, ti n ây.
+ By far + tính t so sánh : (dùng nh n m nh).
    Ví d : This book is by far the best on the subject.
+ By accident / by mistake : tình c . >< on purpose (c tình).
  Ví d : Nobody will receive a check on Friday because the wrong cards were put into the
  computer by accident.

54.5 In ( trong,        t i) - ngh%a xác     nh h n at
+ In a room/ building/ drawer/ closet : bên trong ...
   Ví d : Your socks are in the drawer.
+ In + n!m/ tháng.
     Ví d : His birthday is in April. I will begen class in 1998.
+ In time : úng gi -v a v n.
   Ví d : We arrived at the airport in time to eat before the plane left.
+ In the street: d    i lòng     ng.
     Ví d : The children were warned not to play in the street.
+ In the morning / afternoon/ evening : vào bu i sáng/ bu i chi u/ bu i t i.
   Ví d : I have a dental appointment in the morning, but I will be free in the afternoon.
+ In the past/ future: trong quá kh / t     ng lai.
     Ví d : In the past, attendance at school was not compulsory, but it is today.
+ In future : t nay tr i.
   Ví d : I will spend much time on learning English in future because the TOEFL test is
   coming.
+ In the beginning/ end. : tho t $u/ r t cu c = at first/ at last.
     Ví d : Everyone seemed unfriendly in the beginning but in the end everyone made friends.
+ In the way : ch#n ngang l i, ) ngay l i.
  Ví d : He could not park his car in the driveway because another car was in the way.
+ Once in a while : th"nh tho ng, ôi khi.
     Ví d : Once in a while, we eat dinner at Chiness restaurant.
+ In no time at all: trong nháy m#t, trong 1 thoáng.
   Ví d : George finishes his assignment in no time at all.
+ In the meantime = meanwhile : trong lúc ó.
     Ví d : We start school in several weeks, but in the meantime, we can take a trip.
+ In the middle :     gi a ( a i m).
   Ví d : Grace stood in the middle of the room looking for her friend.
+ In the army/ air force/ navy. Trong quân i/ trong không l c/ trong h i quân.
+ In the + s th t + row :         hàng gh th .
     Ví d : We are going to sit in the fifteen row of the auditorium.
+ In the event that : trong tr    ng h p.
     Ví d : In the event that you win the prize, you will be notified by mail.
+ In case :      phòng khi,      ng nh3.
     Ví d : I will give you the key to the house so you will have it in case I arrive a little late.
+ Be/ get in touch/ contact with : ti p xúc, liên l c, g p g3 v i ai.
  Ví d : It’ s very difficult to get in touch with Jenny because she works all day.

54.6 on
+ On + th trong tu$n/ ngàytrong tháng.
     Ví d : I will call you on Thursday. His birthday is on February 3.
+ On + a/the + ph      ng ti n giao thông (bus/ plane/ train/ ship/ bike).
  Ví d : It’ s two late to see Jane; she’ s already on the plane. I came to school this morning on
  the bus.
+ On a street : t i ph .
  Ví d : I lives on 1st Ng%c khánh.
+ On + the + s th t + floor: t$ng th .
    Ví d : My girlfriend lives on the fourth floor of an old building by my house.
+ On time : úng gi (b t ch p hoàn c nh bên ngoài).
  Ví d : Despite the bad weather, our plane left on time.
+ On the corner (of two street) : góc gi a 2 ph .
    Ví d : My house is on the corner of Ng%c khánh street and Tr m c         p street.

      On the corner                 at the corner           in the corner




+ On the sidewalk : trên v"a hè.
    Ví d : Don’ t walk in the street, walk on the sidewalk.
+ On the way : trên   ng t i >< on the way back to: trên      ng tr v .
  Ví d : We can stop at the grocery store on the way to their house.
+ On the right/ left :   bên trái/ bên ph i.
    Ví d : Paul sits on the left side of the room and Dave sits on the right.
+ On television/ (the) radio: trên truy n hình/ trên ài phát thanh.
  Ví d : The president’ s “ State of the Union Address” will be on television and on the radio
  tonight.
+ On the telephone (on the phone): nói trên i n tho i, g%i i n tho i, nhà có m#c i n tho i.
  Ví d : Is your house on the telephone ? - nhà c u có m#c i n tho i không?
           Janet will be here soon; she is on the telephone.
+ On the whole = in general : nói chung.
  Ví d : On the whole, the rescue mission was well executed.
+ On the other hand: tuy nhiên.
+ on the one hand ... on the other hand : m t m t ... m t khác.
    Ví d : The present perfect aspect is never used to indicate a specific time; on the other hand,
    the simple past tense is.
+ On sale       1- for sale : có bán,   bán.
                2- bán h giá.
    Ví d : The house will go on sale this weekend.
      The regular price of the radio is $39.95, but today it’ s on sale for $25.
+ On foot: i b .
    Ví d : My car would not start so I came on foot.
54.7 at -    t i (th   ng là bên ngoài, không xác           nh b!ng in)
   Ví d : Jane is at the bank.
+ At + s nhà.
    Ví d : George lives at 565 16th Avenue.
+ At + th i gian c th .
    Ví d : The class begin at 5:15.
+ At + home/ school/ work :        nhà/    tr    ng/ ang làm vi c.
    Ví d : Charles is at work and his roommate is at school. At night, they are usually at home.
+ At + noon/ night: vào ban tr a/ vào ban êm.
    at noon (M2) : úng 12h tr a.
+ At least : t i thi u >< at most : t i a.
    Ví d : We will have to spend at least two weeks doing the experiments.
+ At once : ngay l p t c.
    Ví d : Please come home at once.
+ At times : thi tho ng, ôi khi.
    Ví d : At times, it is difficult to understand him because he speaks too fast.
+ At present/ the moment = now + th i ti p di n.
L u ý: 2 gi i t trên t ng      ng v i presently nh ng ph i c&n th n khi s d ng phó t này vì
nh ng v trí khác nhau s0 mang nh ng ngh*a khác nhau.
Sentence + presently : Ngay t c thì, ch ng bao lâu.
    Ví d : She will be here presently : cô y s0 t i ây ngay bây gi .
Presently + sentence : Ngay sau ó.
    Ví d : Presently he heard her living home.
Subject + presently + verb : Hi n nay.
    Ví d : She is presently working on her PhD degree. - Hi n nay cô y ang làm lu n án ti n s*
    tri t h%c.
    Ví d : She is studying at the moment.
+ At first : tho t $u >< at last : v sau.
    Ví d : Jane was nervous at first, but later she felt more relaxed.
+ At the beginning/ at the end of :        $u/    cu i ( dùng cho    a i m/ th i gian).
M t s thành ng     c bi t dùng v i gi i t .
+ On the beach: trên bãi bi n.
    Ví d : We walked on the beach for several hours last night.
+ In place of = instead of : thay cho, thay vì.
    Ví d : Sam is going to the meeting in place of his brother, who has to work.
L u ý: In place of không thay th          c cho instead khi instead i m t mình      ng cu i câu.
    Ví d : She was supposed to come this morning, but she went to the lab instead.
+ For the most part : ch y u.
    Ví d : The article discuses, for the most part, the possibility of life in other planets.
+ In hopes of + Ving = hoping to + verb = hoping that + sentence.
   Ví d : John called his brother in hopes of finding somebodyto watch his children.
+ Of course : ch#c ch#n, t t nhiên.
    Ví d : If you study the material very thoroughly, you will have no trouble on the
examination.
+ Off and on : dai d ng, tái h/i, t ng ch p m t.
       Ví d : It rained off and on all day yesterday.
+ All of a sudden: b t thình lình.
  Ví d : When we were walking through the woods, all of a sudden, we heard a strange sound.
+ For good = for ever : v*nh vi n, mãi mãi.
       Ví d : Helen is leaving Chicago for good.

55. Ng           ng t .
 ó là nh ng ng t k t h p v i 1,2 ho c ôi khi 3 gi i t . Khi k t h p                 d ng nh v y, ng
ngh*a c a chúng thay i h n so v i ngh*a ban $u.
+ To break off: ch m d t, c#t t, o n tuy t.
       Ví d : As a result of the recent, unprovoked attack, the two countries broke off their
       diplomatic relations.
+ To bring up: nêu ra,        a ra.
     Ví d : The country commissioner brought up the heated issue of restricting on-street
parking.
+ Call on : 1- yêu c$u.
       Ví d : The teacher called on James to write the equation on the blackboard.
                  2- ghé th!m, n th!m.
  Ví d : The new minister called on each of the families of his church in order to become
  better acquainted with them.
+ Care for: 1- thích (take care of).
       Ví d : Because Marita doesn’ t care for dark colors, she buys only brightly colored clothes.
                   2- trông nom, s!n sóc (take care for).
  Ví d : My neighbors asked me to care for their children after school.
+ Check out : 1- M n sách (th vi n).
       Ví d : I went to the library and checked out thirty books last night for my research paper.
                   2- xem xét, i u tra.
       Ví d : This photocopy machine is not working properly. Could you check out the problem?
+ Check out of : làm th t c (         ra kh i khách s n, sân bay, nhà ga) >< check into : làm th t c
    vào sân bay, khách s n...
+ Check (up) on : i u tra.
       Ví d : The insurance company decided to check up on his driving record before insuring
him.
+ Close in on : ti n l i g$n, ch y l i g$n.
       Ví d : In his hallucinatory state, the addict felt that the walls were closing in on him.
+ Come along with: i cùng v i.
  Ví d : June came along with her supervisor to the budget meeting.
+ Come down with : M#c ph i 1 c!n b nh.
    Ví d : During the summer, many people come down with intestinal disorders.
+ Count on = depent on = rely on : trông c y vào, d a vào, nh vào.
  Ví d : Maria was counting on the grant money to pay her way through graduate school.
+ Do away with = eliminate = get rid of : t ng kh , lo i b , tr kh .
    Ví d : Because of the increasing number of broblems created after the football games, the
    director has decided to do away with all sports activities.


                              ng,
+ Draw up : so n th o (1 h p / 1 k ho ch).
    A new advertising contract was drawn up after the terms had been decided.
+ Drop out of : b ( c bi t b h%c gi a ch ng).
    Ví d : This organization has done a great deal to prevent young people from dropping out of
    school.

56. S k t h p c a các danh t ,                 ng t và tính t v i các gi i t
R t nhi u danh t , ng t , và các tính t     c i kèm v i các gi i t nh t nh. Tuy nhiên, c(ng
có nhi u ngo i l . Sau ây s0 li t kê m t s danh t , ng t , và tính t mà chúng th ng xuyên
hi n di n v i các gi i t kèm theo.


Nouns + prepositions

               equivalent of     number of         example of
               quality of        reason for        exception for
               pair of           sample of         possibility of

Các danh t cho trong b ng sau có th        i v i ho c for ho c of.

                 fear      method         hatred     need      means


Ví d :
The quality of this photograph is poor.
I saw a sample of her work and was quite impressed.
They have yet to discover a new method of/ method for analyzing this information.

   ng t + gi i t .

               Decide on         plan on             depend on
               detract from      engage in           approve of
               emerge from      escape from    succeed in
               participate in   remove from    mingle with
               confide in       pay for        rely on

Chú ý: Không      c nh$m l'n gi a to c a m t   ng t nguyên th v i gi i t to. M t s   ng t
có th ho c

				
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Description: Grammar-Ngu Phap tieng anh Can Ban-Nang Cao