Taft by linzhengnd


									27 th   American President: William
            Howard Taft
•   William Howard Taft was born in Cincinnati, Ohio.
•   Son of a prominent attorney who had served in the
    Grant cabinet and later as American minister to
    Russia and Austria-Hungary.
•   Taft graduated from Yale University in 1878 and
    earned a law degree from the Cincinnati Law School
    two years later.
•   Appointed an assistant prosecuting attorney for
    Hamilton County and worked briefly for the Internal
    Revenue Service before opening a law practice in
•   He married Helen Herron in 1886. She was a very
    important influence on his life, providing the drive
    and ambition he lacked.
•   In 1887, he was appointed to fill a vacancy on the
    Ohio superior court and was elected to that position
    the following year.
•   In 1890, they moved to Washington and became a
    solicitor general in the Benjamin Harrison
•   Taft became a friend and lunch partner of Theodore
    Roosevelt, who was then a civil service
•   He was next appointed to the U.S. Circuit Court in
    1892, and served until becoming a law professor and
    dean in Cincinnati.
                         Rise to Presidency
•   Taft became the most important member of
    Roosevelt's cabinet - administering all foreign
    affairs, including the continuing situations in the
    Philippines and in Cuba.
•   Taft traveled all over the world to speak for his
    country, and for a time even served as "acting"
    Secretary of State for a few weeks after the
    death of John Hay.
•   As Roosevelt's advisor, Taft earned the
    President's trust, and was a natural choice to
    become the successor to the Presidency.
•   Roosevelt, who had promised not to run for
    reelection again, threw his entire political weight
    behind the "heir to the Progressive crown."
•   On the weight of this support, William Howard
    Taft easily won the Republican nomination, and
    became the 27th President of the United States.
 •   Political:
 -   Payne-Aldrich Tariff
 -   Ballinger-Pinchot affair
 -   Taft wins Republican nomination over
 -   Federal Reserve Act
 -   Seventeenth Amendment passed
 -   Wilson defeats Taft and Roosevelt for
 -   Underwood Tariff Act
 •   Intellectual:
 -   The idea of world peace and international
     arbitration was the best way to effect the end
     of war
 •   Religious:
 -   None
 •   Arts:
 -   None
 •   Technology:
 -   Federal Trade Commission established
 -   Lusitania torpedoed and sunk
PIRATES (cont)
       •   Economy/Education:
       -   Standard Oil Antitrust case
       -   Sixteenth Amendment
       -   US Steel Corporation antitrust suit
       •   Social:
       -   Huerta takes power in Mexico
       -   US occupation of Vera Cruz,
       -   World War I starts in Europe
      Key Domestic Policy Issues
•   He tackled the tariff boldly, on the
    one hand encouraging reformers to
    fight for lower rates, and then on
    the other hand cutting deals with
    conservative leaders that kept
    overall rates high resulted the
    Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909
    but it was too high for most reform.
•   He launched 90 antitrust suits,
    including one against the country’s
    largest corporation, U.S. Steel, for
    an acquisition that Roosevelt
    personally had approved.
•   Because of his deep belief in “The
    Law” as the scientific device that
    should be used by judges to solve
    society’s problems, Taft considered
    himself a “progressive”
Key Foreign Policy Issue
             •   He actively pursued what he termed
                 “Dollar Diplomacy” to enhance the
                 economic development of less-
                 developed nations of Latin America and
                 Asia through American investment in
                 their infrastructures.
             •   As a president, Taft believed the idea of
                 world peace and that international
                 arbitration was the best way to effect the
                 end of war. He was able to gain several
                 reciprocity and arbitration treaties.
             •   In 1910, he persuaded congressional
                 Democrats to support a free trade, treaty
                 with Canada,but with the Liberal
                 Canadian government who arranged the
                 treaty was turned out of office and the
                 treaty collapsed.
             •   However, in 1910 and 1911, Taft
                 secured the ratification of arbitration
                 treaties that he had successfully
                 arranged with France and Britain.
         Quotes from William Taft
•   Failure to accord credit to anyone
    for what he may have done is a
    great weakness in any man.
•   No tendency is quite so strong in
    human nature as the desire to lay
    down rules of conduct for other
•   Socialism proposes no adequate
    substitute for the motive of
    enlightened selfishness that to-day
    is at the basis of all human labor
    and effort, enterprise and new
•   We are all imperfect. We can not
    expect perfect government.
            William Taft’s Successes
•   He was known as one of the foremost
    advocates of world peace and arbitration.
•   President Taft signed a law to make New
    Mexico and Arizona states since they were
    territories. He also signed a law to let the state
    choose their own senates.
•   In 1909, the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act passed.
    This changed the tariff rates from 46 to 41%.
•   One of Taft’s key policies was known as Dollar
    Diplomacy. This was the idea that America
    would use the military and diplomacy to help
    promote U.S. business interests overseas. For
    example, in 1912 Taft sent marines to
    Nicaragua to help stop a rebellion against the
    government because it was friendly to
    American business interests.
•   Following Roosevelt into office, Taft continued
    to enforce antitrust laws. He was key in
    bringing down the Standard Oil Company in
    1911. Also during Taft’s term in office, the
    sixteenth amendment was passed that allowed
    the U.S. to collect income taxes.
•   Building of most of the Panama Canal
•   He also had peacefully settled a number of
    international disputes, launched the most
    ambitious attempt yet made to obtain world
    peace, and steadily maintained a policy of
    neutrality toward Mexico.
William Taft’s Failures
           •   His inability to obtain Canadian
               reciprocity and general arbitration
           •   His poor handling of the Ballinger-
               Pinchot affair
           •   He was unable to follow the Roosevelt
               policies, ultimately leading to the split of
               the Republican Party
           •   Alienated some members of his
           •   His treatment of the insurgents, which
               split his party and allowed Democrats
               and progressive Republicans to win
               Congress in 1910 and the presidency
               and Congress in 1912.
           •   He failed to earn profits for American
               business or obtain economic and
               political stability or peace
           •   His parsimoniousness, he did little to
               strengthen the military power of the
           •   He refused to do anything for blacks or
               to grant independence to the Filipinos
             One Word: Inconsistent
•   Had a campaign promise to lower the
    tariffs but was ultimately defied with the
    Payne-Aldrich Bill that was passed (also
    partly influenced by his passivity and
    inactiveness), which increased tariffs
•   So-called supposedly conservationist
    Taft supported Richard Ballinger in his
    opening of public lands in Wyoming,
    Montana, and Alaska to corporate
    development, and dismissed fellow
    conservationist Chief Gifford Pinchot of
    the Agriculture Department’s Division of
    Forestry who was definitely not in favor
    of the act
•   Trusted by Theodore Roosevelt to
    continue his policies but later challenged
    it and became his rival
•   Considered himself a “progressive” but
    ultimately sided with the Old Guard
Taft for President today?
             •   Although he has a good reputation
                 of busting more trusts than
                 Roosevelt did in a shorter amount
                 of time, he would not have been a
                 good president today
             •   His indecisiveness would not be fit
                 for a challenging obstacle that the
                 country is facing today (economic
                 recession, etc.)
             •   He is considerably inactive and
             •   Had little talent for leadership
             •   His sensitivity to criticism would
                 further interfere with his tasks and
                 responsibilities as president,
                 especially with the recession that
                 the nation is currently facing
•   Vice President: James S. Sherman
•   Secretary of State: Philander C. Knox
•   Secretary of the Treasury: Franklin
    MacVeagh (1909-13)
•   Secretary of War: Jacob M. Dickinson
    (1909-11); Henry L. Stimson (1911-13)
•   Attorney General: George W.
    Wickersham (1909-13)
•   Postmaster General: Frank H.
    Hitchcock (1909-13)
•   Secretary of the Navy: George von L.
    Meyer (1909-13)
•   Secretary of the Interior: Richard A.
    Ballinger (1909-11); Walter Lowrie
    Fisher (1911-13)
•   Secretary of Agriculture: James
    Wilson (1909-13)
•   Secretary of Commerce and Labor:
    Charles Nagel (1909-13)
               Post- presidential activities
•   appointed the Chancellor Kent Professor of
    Law and Legal History at Yale Law School
•   made an honorary member by the Yale
    Chapter of Acacia Fraternity
•   elected president of the American Bar
•   spent a lot of his time writing books and
    newspaper articles, most notably his series on
    American legal philosophy
•   continued to advocate for world peace by
    urging nations to enter into arbitration treaties
    with each other and promoting the idea of a
    League of Nations even before the First World
    War began
•   founded the League to Enforce Peace
•   co-chairman of National War Labor Board
    between 1917 and 1918
•   nominated by President Warren G. Harding on
    June 30, 1921 to become Chief Justice of the
    United States, serving until February 3, 1930
•   traveled to Great Britain to study the
    procedural structure of the English courts in
•   retired as Chief Justice on February 3, 1930
    due to ill health and died five weeks later on
    March 8 from complications of heart disease,
    high blood pressure, and inflammation of the
•   became the first president to be buried at
    Arlington National Cemetery
    •   · In the 1908 campaign, Taft was
        chosen by Theodore Roosevelt as his
        successor to continue “[his] policies]”
    •   · Ample-girthed, jovial, passive, and
        mild progressive Taft easily defeated
        William Jennings Bryan of the
        Democratic Party, polling 321 electoral
        votes to 162 for Bryan (Socialist
        Eugene V. Debs surprisingly earned
        420,793 votes)
    •   · With Taft having won the nomination
        for the Republican Party, Roosevelt
        pulled his delegates and created the
        Progressive Party in the presidential
        election of 1912, thus officially splitting
        the Republican Party
    •   · As the Republican vote is divided by
        Taft and Roosevelt, Democratic Wilson
        wins the presidential election of 1912
•   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Howard_Taft
•   http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhowardtaft
•   http://www.answers.com/topic/william-h-taft
•   http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/taft
•   http://www.ipl.org/div/potus/whtaft.html
•   http://wikipedia.org
•   http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/William-Howard-Taft-
•   http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Grant-Eisenhower/William-Howard-Taft-
•   http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1009.html
•   http://americanhistory.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_rise_of_william_howard_taf
•   The American Pageant: Thirteenth Edition
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