Chapter 4 Adjectives Adjectives • What are adjectives? • Adjectives are words which describe the quality of a noun or pronoun. • Guys with slow cars want faster ones. • Adjectives tell us what kind of: • What kind of test is it going to be? • Is it a hard one or an easy one? • What is it like? • Adjectives are invariables, i.e, they do not change whether the noun they qualify is singular or plural. (an) intelligent boy(s). Formation of adjectives • Most of the commonest adjectives have no particular form or ending • E.g. right, wrong, nice, tall, black, etc. • But there are however a number of suffixes that are used with adjectives. • Suffix: -y • Meaning: having the look or quality of. • Examples: air-airy, rubber-rubbery, dirt-dirty. • Suffix:-ly • Meaning: it is added to nouns to denote some kinds of people to form adjectives with the meaning having the qualities of. • Examples: brother-brotherly coward-cowardly Formation of adjectives • Suffix: -like • Meaning: it is added to some nouns to form adjectives with the meaning looking or having like: • Examples: child-childlike, life-lifelike, god-godlike. • Suffix: -ish • Meaning: A. added to nouns denoting some kinds of people to form adjectives with the meaning looking or behaving as badly as. • B. added to names of nationalities to describe the people or their languages. • C. added to adjectives which describe color to form other adjectives with the meaning having this quality more or less • Examples: A. child-childish B. Britain-British, C. red- reddish Formation of adjectives • Suffix: -ful • Meaning: this suffix is added to nouns to form adjectives with the meaning having the quality of or full of. • Examples faith-faithful, joy-joyful shame- shameful. • Suffix: -less • Meaning: this suffix is added to nouns to form adjectives with the meaning not having the quality of. • Examples: meaning-meaningless, use-useless, point-poinless. Formation of adjectives • Suffix:-able,/-ible • Meaning these suffixes form adjectives with the meaning which is able to do this or this quality • Examples: accept-acceptable, convert-convertible • Suffix: -ed • Meaning this suffix is added to nouns to form adjectives with the meaning having or possessing. • Example: bad-tempered, cross-eyed, open-hearted. • Suffix:-ese • Meaning: this suffix is added to names of countries to form adjectives which describe the people or their language. • Example: China-Chinese Formation of adjectives • Suffix: -(i)an • Meaning: this suffix is added to the names of countries to form adjectives which describe nationalities or their language: • Example: Victoria- Victorian, Republic-Republican • Suffix: -ive • Meaning: This suffix is used to make adjectives from verbs. The resulting adjective usually means which performs the action of the verb. • Example: attract-attractive, explode-explosive. Notes on adjectives • 1. Most of the other suffixes which you will meet form adjectives to describe things in the world of intellectual activity, science, technology, and medicine: • Ist: socialism- socialist; -al: cime-criminal; ic: science-scientist ic: science-scientific or: satisfy- satisfactory; ical: geography-geographical; ent: depend-dependent. • 2. There are a number of cases where a common everyday noun has a corresponding scientific adjective. For example, the adjective sunny has a scientific adjective which is solar ( as in solar system) Position of Adjectives Adjectives may be used attributively, i.e. they usually come before the noun or the pronoun one(s); or predicatively, i.e. they are separated from the noun, usually following a verb like be, seem, look, or constructions on the pattern MAKE ME ANGRY. Attributive Attributive A. The adjective comes before the noun e.g. The serious rabbit and the handsome stranger. B. The adjective comes immediately after the pronoun somebody, something, somewhere, anyone, or everyone. e.g. I feel that something terrible is going to happen. Are you going anywhere interesting tonight? C. The adjective follows the noun in a few fixed expressions , mostly to do with important positions or the law e.g. a cort martial the Postmater General the Secretery General the Prince Regent D • D. The adjectives involved, concerned and present • A. After a noun • E.g. I want to the students involved. • The people concerned are waiting outside. • B. before the noun • E.g.an involved explanation • A concerned expression on her face. • The present situation. Predicative • A. The adjective is used after a verb • E.g. He is poor and I am rich. • You look tired. • The milk turned sour in the hot weather. • B. In constructions on the pattern MAKE ME ANGRY: • E.g. You make me very angry. • I consider her brilliant. • I found it quite exciting. • B. In constructions on the pattern ACTION VERB + ADJECTIVE DESCRIBING RESULT: • Please don’t tie knot too tight. • Would you hold the door open for me please. • He tried to escape so they shot him dead. Predicative • In constructions on the pattern DRINK IT COLD: • E.g. I always drink milk cold • I prefer to buy my clothes second-hand. • I eat some vegetables raw Adjectives which can be used only predicatively • These adjectives are usually on the pattern NOUN LOOK, FEEL, PREDICATIVE PRONOUN BE, APPEAR, ADJECTIVE SEEM, ETC. • A number of these adjectives refer to temporary conditions, i.e., to something which is true only for a short time, such as: • Ill well unwell faint • You don’t look very well. • Other predicative adjectives are: glad content, far, upset, afraid, alert, alike, alive Adjectives which can be used only attributively 1. e.g. I am so glad the you ere able to come. She is upset because she cant go out tonight. Thank God you are still alive. Adjectives which can be used only attributively A. Inner outer former late The former Principal of the College. The late President Kennedy B. Meer sheer utter, You are a mere child It is a sheer waste of time and money. C. Adjectives which have an adverbial meaning A heavy smoker , An old friend D. Certain particular main chief sole only principal She has a certain charm. The chief aim of the plan Order of adjectives .1. order of adjectives in relation to determiners, etc. determiners ordinal quanti adject np s fiers ives Both The Last Few Noun phrase All This\t Next Lot of hese half That\t Other Little hose My First 1,2,3 etc. second Order of adjectives value Size Agel shape color origin Material tempe ratur e nice small Oldl round red Frenc iron cold h 1. Examples A beautiful old red London bus All those enormous circular wodden tables The last few original Victorian iron bridges. Notes 1. Noun phrases include compound nouns like frying pan 2. Certain verb forms may be put in immediately before adjectives which describe origin or material e.g. a painted ceramic tile. A growing French problem 3.Little is often used as a sort of diminutive A pretty little house The Notes 6.When you have two value adjectives coming together , the order usually doesn’t matter e.g. a beautiful, intelligent woman. A comma is used in the following cases: a. With color adjectives: a blue and red striped tie b. With adjectives used predicatively: I am tired and hungry. c. As a special effect to give equal importance to each adjective: He is young, handsome and romantic. Notes • 5. The word pretty is both adjective and adverb • E.g. She is a pretty clever student.
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