Comparative Adjectives and Adverbs - PowerPoint - PowerPoint by benbenzhou

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									 Chapter 4
Adjectives
              Adjectives
• What are adjectives?
• Adjectives are words which describe the
  quality of a noun or pronoun.
• Guys with slow cars want faster ones.
• Adjectives tell us what kind of:
• What kind of test is it going to be?
• Is it a hard one or an easy one?
• What is it like?
• Adjectives are invariables, i.e, they do not
  change whether the noun they qualify is
  singular or plural. (an) intelligent boy(s).
      Formation of adjectives
•   Most of the commonest adjectives have no particular
    form or ending
•   E.g. right, wrong, nice, tall, black, etc.
•   But there are however a number of suffixes that are
    used with adjectives.
•   Suffix: -y
•   Meaning: having the look or quality of.
•   Examples: air-airy, rubber-rubbery, dirt-dirty.
•   Suffix:-ly
•   Meaning: it is added to nouns to denote some kinds of
    people to form adjectives with the meaning having the
    qualities of.
•   Examples: brother-brotherly coward-cowardly
         Formation of adjectives
•   Suffix: -like
•   Meaning: it is added to some nouns to form adjectives
    with the meaning looking or having like:
•   Examples: child-childlike, life-lifelike, god-godlike.
•   Suffix: -ish
•   Meaning: A. added to nouns denoting some kinds of
    people to form adjectives with the meaning looking or
    behaving as badly as.
•   B. added to names of nationalities to describe the
    people or their languages.
•   C. added to adjectives which describe color to form
    other adjectives with the meaning having this quality
    more or less
•   Examples: A. child-childish B. Britain-British, C. red-
    reddish
       Formation of adjectives
•   Suffix: -ful
•   Meaning: this suffix is added to nouns to form
    adjectives with the meaning having the quality
    of or full of.
•   Examples faith-faithful, joy-joyful shame-
    shameful.
•   Suffix: -less
•   Meaning: this suffix is added to nouns to form
    adjectives with the meaning not having the
    quality of.
•   Examples: meaning-meaningless, use-useless,
    point-poinless.
          Formation of adjectives
•   Suffix:-able,/-ible
•   Meaning these suffixes form adjectives with the
    meaning which is able to do this or this quality
•   Examples: accept-acceptable, convert-convertible
•   Suffix: -ed
•   Meaning this suffix is added to nouns to form
    adjectives with the meaning having or possessing.
•   Example: bad-tempered, cross-eyed, open-hearted.
•   Suffix:-ese
•   Meaning: this suffix is added to names of countries to
    form adjectives which describe the people or their
    language.
•   Example: China-Chinese
        Formation of adjectives
•   Suffix: -(i)an
•   Meaning: this suffix is added to the names of
    countries to form adjectives which describe
    nationalities or their language:
•   Example: Victoria- Victorian, Republic-Republican
•   Suffix: -ive
•   Meaning: This suffix is used to make adjectives
    from verbs. The resulting adjective usually means
    which performs the action of the verb.
•   Example: attract-attractive, explode-explosive.
             Notes on adjectives
•   1. Most of the other suffixes which you will meet
    form adjectives to describe things in the world of
    intellectual activity, science, technology, and
    medicine:
•   Ist: socialism- socialist; -al: cime-criminal; ic:
    science-scientist ic: science-scientific or: satisfy-
    satisfactory; ical: geography-geographical; ent:
    depend-dependent.
•   2. There are a number of cases where a common
    everyday noun has a corresponding scientific
    adjective. For example, the adjective sunny has a
    scientific adjective which is solar ( as in solar
    system)
        Position of Adjectives
Adjectives may be used attributively, i.e. they
  usually come before the noun or the pronoun
  one(s); or predicatively, i.e. they are separated
  from the noun, usually following a verb like be,
  seem, look, or constructions on the pattern
  MAKE ME ANGRY.
                  Attributive
Attributive
A. The adjective comes before the noun
 e.g. The serious rabbit and the handsome stranger.
B. The adjective comes immediately after the pronoun
    somebody, something, somewhere, anyone, or
    everyone.
e.g. I feel that something terrible is going to happen.
Are you going anywhere interesting tonight?
C. The adjective follows the noun in a few fixed
    expressions , mostly to do with important positions
    or the law
e.g. a cort martial the Postmater General the
    Secretery General the Prince Regent
D
•   D. The adjectives involved, concerned and present
•   A. After a noun
•   E.g. I want to the students involved.
•   The people concerned are waiting outside.
•   B. before the noun
•   E.g.an involved explanation
•   A concerned expression on her face.
•   The present situation.
                   Predicative
•   A. The adjective is used after a verb
•   E.g. He is poor and I am rich.
•   You look tired.
•   The milk turned sour in the hot weather.
•   B. In constructions on the pattern MAKE ME ANGRY:
•   E.g. You make me very angry.
•   I consider her brilliant.
•   I found it quite exciting.
•   B. In constructions on the pattern ACTION VERB +
    ADJECTIVE DESCRIBING RESULT:
•   Please don’t tie knot too tight.
•   Would you hold the door open for me please.
•   He tried to escape so they shot him dead.
                  Predicative
•   In constructions on the pattern DRINK IT COLD:
•   E.g. I always drink milk cold
•   I prefer to buy my clothes second-hand.
•   I eat some vegetables raw
    Adjectives which can be used only predicatively
•     These adjectives are usually on the pattern
                NOUN     LOOK, FEEL,   PREDICATIVE
              PRONOUN    BE, APPEAR,     ADJECTIVE
                          SEEM, ETC.



•     A number of these adjectives refer to
      temporary conditions, i.e., to something which
      is true only for a short time, such as:
•     Ill well unwell faint
•     You don’t look very well.
•     Other predicative adjectives are: glad
      content, far, upset, afraid, alert, alike, alive
 Adjectives which can be used only attributively
1. e.g. I am so glad the you ere able to
   come.
      She is upset because she cant go out
   tonight.
    Thank God you are still alive.
 Adjectives which can be used only attributively
A. Inner outer former late
The former Principal of the College.
The late President Kennedy

B. Meer sheer utter, You are a mere child
It is a sheer waste of time and money.

C. Adjectives which have an adverbial meaning
A heavy smoker , An old friend

D. Certain particular main chief sole only
   principal
She has a certain charm. The chief aim of the
   plan
                Order of adjectives
.1. order of adjectives in relation to
    determiners, etc.
          determiners ordinal     quanti adject      np
                            s      fiers   ives
         Both     The      Last     Few            Noun
                                                  phrase
           All This\t     Next    Lot of
                hese
          half That\t    Other    Little
                 hose
                   My     First    1,2,3
                  etc.
                         second
Order of adjectives
       value   Size      Agel   shape   color   origin   Material
                       tempe
                        ratur
                            e
        nice   small    Oldl    round    red    Frenc        iron
                        cold                        h

1. Examples
A beautiful old red London bus
All those enormous circular wodden tables
The last few original Victorian iron bridges.
                     Notes
1. Noun phrases include compound nouns like
   frying pan

2. Certain verb forms may be put in immediately
  before adjectives which describe origin or
  material
e.g. a painted ceramic tile.
A growing French problem

3.Little is often used as a sort of diminutive
A pretty little house


The
                     Notes
6.When you have two value adjectives coming
  together , the order usually doesn’t matter
e.g. a beautiful, intelligent woman.

A comma is used in the following cases:
a. With color adjectives: a blue and red striped
   tie

b. With adjectives used predicatively:
I am tired and hungry.

c. As a special effect to give equal importance to
   each adjective: He is young, handsome and
   romantic.
                       Notes
•   5. The word pretty is both
    adjective and adverb
•   E.g. She is a pretty clever
    student.

								
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