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					Marketing Research
           Marketing Research
        • the systematic collection,
          analysis, and interpretation
          of information to develop a
          market strategy
          or solve a
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          marketing
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         Marketing Research
        Why?
         Marketing research firms
         provide businesses with
         professional researchers to
         make marketing
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         more
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           Marketing Research
        Two types of information
        used in market research:
              •primary data
              •secondary data
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        Gathering Secondary Data
        Secondary data: information
        that has already been collected
        and published by others.
        Secondary research: finding
        this information, and then
        analyzing it for a new purpose.
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        Gathering Secondary Data
        PROS
        •   information is already gathered
        •   takes less time
        •   less expensive
        •   can be done with small firms
            (without hiring marketing firm)
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        Gathering Secondary Data
        CONS
        • information is “second-hand”
        • may not be suitable for what
          you are researching
        • may be difficult to “reinterpret”

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        Gathering Secondary Data
        SOURCES
        • books, periodicals, indexes,
          databases, the internet,
          consultants, marketing
          research professionals
        • Statistics Canada
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Gathering Secondary
        Data
     Assignment
        Gathering Secondary Data
        1. Choose a city in Canada
           starting with the same letter
           as your first or last name.
        2. Find four pieces of information
           about that city a marketer may
           use to promote it.
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                  Doyle Research Associates

        Please make sure to cleanse your
        palette between samples!

        Answer all questions as truthfully as
        possible. Do not consult with those
        around you.
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        Thank you for your participation!
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Primary data: information
        newly collected by a researcher
        for a specific purpose.

        Two general types:
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Qualitative Research
        • used to gather people’s
          reactions and responses
           • blind taste tests, opinion polls


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         Gathering Primary Data
        Quantitative Research
        • data is collected by surveying a
          sample of the target-market
        • researchers use the results to
          predict opinions of entire market

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Researchers collect information
        using various techniques:
            • test marketing
            • internal information sources
            • surveys
            • observation
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Test Marketing
        • test markets are sites that
          mirror the demographic
          composition of total market; eg.
          Peterborough, ON

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Test Marketing
        • used for packaged goods
        • used for movies: private
          screenings, sneak previews


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         Gathering Primary Data
        Test Marketing
        • done in different ways:
          • product placed in store,
            monitor sales
          • change a factor in one store
            → are sales impacted?
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Test Marketing
        • location is kept secret so
          consumers don’t act differently.
          If people know something is
          being tested, they may skew
          the results.
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Test Marketing
        • expensive, and can give
          inaccurate results
        • competitors who know you are
          conducting a test may try to
          sabotage process
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        Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
         This is usually where marketing
         research begins.


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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • inventory and sales records:
          popularity of product,
          fluctuations in sales ($ and #),
          stock turnover
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • advertising and promotional
          records: effectiveness of ads,
          coupons, contests, product
          sample offers
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • production records: peak
          ordering periods, downtimes, to
          help schedule marketing and
          advertising plans
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • customer databases
          • track purchasing patterns
          • target specific promos to
            frequent customers
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • client cards and reward
          programs require personal
          information (gender, age,
          income, etc.)
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           • card usage is tracked
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Internal Information
          Sources
        • data mining looks for hidden
          connections between personal
          information and purchasing
          behaviour
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The Market Research
      Project
    Big Assignment
         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
             A survey is a set of carefully
        planned questions used to gather
        data. These can be completed in
        writing or orally, in person, on the
        phone, through the mail, or on the
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        internet.
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            Most surveys use closed-
        ended questions, which ask you
        to select an answer from two or
        more choices.
            • quick and simple to answer
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            Usually yes/no,
        multiple choice, agree/
        disagree, rate on a
        scale types of
        questions.
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
           Sample closed-ended questions


        I would buy this brand again

        agree      uncertain     disagree
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
           Sample closed-ended questions


        Are you a smoker?
                            q yes q no

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            Sample closed-ended questions


        Which brand names have you
        purchased in the last year?
        q Dove      q Irish Spring q Ivory
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        q Jergens   q Lever 2000 q Other
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
             Sample closed-ended questions

        Rate our service using the
        following scale
                         poor           excellent
        Clean            1      2   3    4     5
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
           Sample closed-ended questions

        What do you look for when you
        shop for a DVD player?
           q simple remote   q ease of use
           q plays MP3/JPG   q brand name
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            When researchers conduct
        surveys they collect from a
        random sample of their target
        market population, giving each
        member an equal chance of being
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        selected.
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            If a sample does not
        accurately represent the target
        market, then the results may be
        misleading; the sample is said to
        be biased.
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Surveys
            If the survey sample is truly
        random, then the results could be
        projected onto the entire market.

            see figure 4.17, page 140
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Problem Survey
   Questions
         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        Have you ever been caught
        surfing to inappropriate sites at
        work?
                         Leading question
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        How much time do you spend
        watching TV and doing
        housework?

                  Two questions in one
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        Select your annual salary level.
            q 20,000-40,000   q 40,000-60,000
            q 60,000-80,000   q 80,000-


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                    answers
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        When was the first time you saw a
        commercial for our product?

               Unanswerable question
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        Why is our product better than
        our competitor’s?

                       Leading question
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        How much do you pay for
        entertainment?

                  Ambiguous question
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        Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        How much do you pay for
        entertainment weekly?
            q $5 q $10 q $15 q $20

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              Nonexhaustive question
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        Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        How much do you pay for
        entertainment and groceries
        weekly?
            q $5 q $10 q $15 q $20
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                 Two questions in one
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        How much do you think the
        average customer spends monthly
        on clothing?

               Unanswerable question
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        Where do you use All Around the
        House cleaner most?
           q bathroom q kitchen q laundry

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Problem Survey Questions

        Why do you think our cereal is the
        best tasting one on the market?
                        Leading question

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Observation
        • collecting information by
          recording people’s actions
          without interacting with them to
          see how they behave

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Observation
        • Often people do not know they
          are being watched. This is to
          ensure they act the way they
          usually do.

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         Gathering Primary Data
        Observation
        • more accurate and less biased
          than surveys
        • more expensive


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         Gathering Primary Data
        Observation
        • less effective in large groups:
            • difficult to observe many people
              at one time
            • people respond to the actions
              of others
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Observation
        • done using cameras, one-way
          mirrors, other methods of
          mechanical observation
            • bar-code scanners, eye-
              tracking photography
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Focus-Group Interviews
        • A small group of people brought
          together to discuss a product or
          issue.
        • Participants are carefully
          selected to represent a specific
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         Gathering Primary Data
        Focus-Group Interviews
        • moderator guides the discussion
          in an unbiased manner. Sessions
          are often recorded for further
          review.

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              TODAY’S TASKS
        1. Choose classes to visit
           (see lists posted on bulletin board)

        2. Compose letters to teachers
           (who, what, when, ask for response)

        3. Start rough survey
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           (show Mr. M. for approval)
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Preparing a Research
       Report
   (refer to handout)
Types of Marketing
    Research
          Consumer Research

        Consumer research is used
        to determine buying
        behaviour.

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           Consumer Research
        Awareness, attitude and
        usage studies (AAU)
        measures consumer awareness of
        product
          • unaided awareness:
              –list all the [whatever] you can think of
          • aided awareness:
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               familiar with
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           Consumer Research
        Awareness, attitude and
        usage studies (AAU)


          total    unaided    aided
                 =         +
        awareness awareness awareness
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          Consumer Research
        Awareness, attitude and
        usage studies (AAU)
         • attitudes about product help
           identify strengths &
           weaknesses
           • STRENGTH: “the brand has been around for a long time”
           • WEAKNESS: “the product is old-fashioned and boring”
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          Consumer Research
        Awareness, attitude and
        usage studies (AAU)
         • usage patterns help develop
           consumer profiles
           •use data to link groups to
            product use
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          Consumer Research
        Consumer segmentation
        analysis
         • group potential customers




                                       component of the final
           based on characteristics




                                          This is a large

                                          project mark!
         • gear advertising and
           promos to this group
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          Consumer Research
        Market dimension analysis
         • researches the main issues
           about the product that
           influence a consumer segment
           •what is it that you find so
            appealing about the product?
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          Consumer Research
        Product research
         • examines the details of the
           product and their impact
           •colour, package, flavour, size,
            texture, design, etc.

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          Consumer Research
        Product research
         • assess making modifications
           based on consumer feedback
           a) is the technology available,
              and will it be worth the
              increased cost?
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          Consumer Research
        Product research
         • assess making modifications
           based on consumer feedback
           b) will consumers see the
              improvement as worth the
              extra cost?
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           c) will the new feature prompt
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           Consumer Research
        Media research
        • segment customers based on
          what they read, watch, listen
          to


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           Consumer Research
        Media research
        Provides:
        • marketers with the ability to
          communicate with target mkts
        • media outlets with audience
          numbers; used to set ad prices
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           Consumer Research
        Consumer tracking devices
        • determine consumer behaviour
          while shopping
            • when consumers shop
            • where they shop
            • what they buy
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           Consumer Research
        Consumer tracking devices
        • uses computer-assisted devices
        • data used to determine displays,
          store layout, advertising,
          inventory, etc.

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           Consumer Research
        Motivational research
        • psychological research into
          consumer buying behaviour
        • look at emotional and rational
          reasons for buying decisions
        • helps determine promotional
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           Consumer Research
        Consumer satisfaction
         studies
        • feedback cards, follow-up
          interviews, suggestion boxes
        • identify gaps between customer
          satisfaction and ideal
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            Consumer Research
        Consumer satisfaction
         studies
        • results identify areas for product
          development, competitive
          differentiation
        • ongoing
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           Consumer Research
        Advertising research
        • provides information on
          effectiveness of ads
        • done in focus groups before
          going public
        • may modify ads as a result
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           Consumer Research
        Advertising research
        • often day after recall (DAR) is
          tested
        • promos also measured for
          effectiveness: how many people
          used coupons? called the 1-800
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          number? Filled a ballot?
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Competitive Research
          Competitive Research
        Competitive research is used to
        determine what products are
        competing with your product,
        and how.


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          Competitive Research
             Competitive Market
                  Analysis
        • uses a variety of tools to
          compare all products in a
          particular category
        • identify competitors, their
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         is a market segment worth entering?
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          Competitive Research
          Competitive Intelligence
        • gather as much information
          about competitors as possible
        • collect articles about companies,
          reports, corporate profiles;
          samples of ads, PR material,
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          Competitive Research
               Pricing Research
        • investigate pricing for a product:
          can you competitively price a
          product and still profit?
        • looks at price vs. demand
        • a lower price (and lower profit)
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          and eventually increased profits
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          Competitive Research
        Comparative Worth Analysis is
        used:
        My product’s “value”: 22
        Competitor’s “value”: 20

        Since my value is 10% greater,
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          Competitive Research
             Conjoint (Tradeoff)
                   Analysis
        • identify individual features of a
          product which make up the value
          equation
        • identify which of these features
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          are most valued and should be
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          emphasized
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                 HOMEWORK
        Chapter 4 review questions

        #1, 3, 4, 7, 8
        Due Tuesday


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