Docstoc

guidelines

Document Sample
guidelines Powered By Docstoc
					Guidelines for Developers of
Online Course Materials and
    Web-based Content:
         Satisfying the W3C WAI
  Priority One Accessibility Standards

           Shirley Ambrose
                BA MSc FIITT
               NVQ Assessor
            WebCT Certified Trainer
              Outline


 Rationale
 Introduction
 World Wide Web Consortium’s Web
  Accessibility Initiative (W3C WAI)
 Minimum Guidelines
 Questions
Rationale




            the
            UNIVERSITY
            of
            GREENWICH
             Outline


 Rationale
 Introduction
   Quality Assurance Agency
  (QAA) for Higher Education


 Code of practice for the assurance of
  academic quality and standards in higher
  education, Section 3: Students with
  disabilities - October 1999
 24 precepts with notes for guidance
  Relevant Notes for Guidance
 Electronic information, including web sites, should be
  accessible to students with disabilities (precept 4)
 Academic facilities and support available to non-
  disabled students /…/ should be fully accessible and
  appropriate to disabled students (precept 9)
 Teaching and learning strategies should be planned and
  employed to make the delivery of programmes as
  inclusive as is reasonably possible (precept 10)
 Any courseware and electronic materials should be fully
  accessible to disabled students using, if necessary,
  alternative hardware or software (precept 10)
 The Disability Discrimination
     Act, 1995 - Definition


 Defines a disabled person as someone who
  has:
  "a physical or mental impairment which has
  a substantial and long-term adverse effect
  on his ability to carry out normal day-to-day
  activities".
   The QAA Code - Definition
 Adopts a wider definition of disability and
  includes impairments which may have:
  "few, if any, implications for a student's life
  or study".
 Makes it clear that disability can become
  apparent or acquired during a programme
  of study and may even be a fluctuating or
  temporary condition.
          Main Source Material


 The World Wide Web        Pearson E, Koppi T,
  Consortium's Web           “Guidelines for Accessible
  Content Accessibility      Online Courses”, EDTeC,
  Guidelines                 The University of New South
                             Wales, April 2001,
  http://www.w3.org/WAI/     http://www.edtec.unsw.edu.a
                             u/inter/dload/accessibilty/def
                             ault.html
 Online Course Materials and
     Web-based Content
 Electronic information including web sites
    Personal web sites, intranets, internet, web
     casts, etc
 Any courseware and electronic materials
    Lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, shared
     resource files, Virtual Learning Environments,
     Course Management Systems, etc
 Opportunities for inclusion
 Barriers to inclusion
 Accessible design
 Assistive technology
             Outline


 Rationale
 Introduction
 World Wide Web Consortium’s Web
  Accessibility Initiative (W3C WAI)
The World Wide Web Consortium’s
    Web Accessibility Initiative
           (W3C WAI)


  “The power of the Web is in its universality.
   Access by everyone regardless of disability
            is an essential aspect”

                    Tim Berners-Lee
     W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web
    The W3C WAI Guidelines
1. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
   How to make a Web site accessible for people with a
     variety of disabilities
2. Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
   For software developers – authoring tools and
      accessible software
3. User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
   For software developers – browsers, multimedia
      players, assistive technology
4. XML Accessibility Guidelines
   For developers of XML based applications
Web Content Accessibility
     Guidelines 1.0

    14 Principles

    69 Check points

    3 Priority levels



     Not all of the 14 principles include
            priority one checkpoints
      Web Content Accessibility
           Guidelines 1.0

 Priority One
   A Web content developer must satisfy this
   checkpoint. Otherwise one or more groups will
   find it impossible to access information in the
   document. Satisfying this checkpoint is a basic
   requirement for some groups to be able to use
   Web documents.
 Priority Two
  A Web content developer should satisfy this checkpoint.
 Priority Three
  A Web content developer may address this checkpoint.
             Outline


 Rationale
 Introduction
 World Wide Web Consortium’s Web
  Accessibility Initiative (W3C WAI)
 Minimum Guidelines
     Minimum Guidelines


1. Organising the content using a Virtual
   Learning Environment (VLE)
2. Creating basic content

3. Adding extras

4. Adding dynamic components

5. Checking content for accessibility
1. Organising the content using a
  Virtual Learning Environment




                              the
                              UNIVERSITY
                              of
                              GREENWICH
Ensure clear and consistent
  navigation mechanisms




                Guideline 13:
    Provide clear navigation mechanisms.
       Use the features of the learning
        environment to organise and
            structure the content




                            Guidelines 9 and 12:
Design for device independence and Provide context and orientation information.
Using pop-up, spawned
   or new windows




         Guideline 10:
     Use interim solutions.
2. Creating basic content




                            the
                            UNIVERSITY
                            of
                            GREENWICH
   Use common fonts, styles,
headings, lists and be consistent

   Use standard, common fonts
      Times, Arial, Courier
   Use standard HTML markup to define the
    document where appropriate
      Use Q or BLOCKQUOTE for short and longer
       quotations respectively (but not just to
       achieve hanging indents)
   Text should not be underlined as this
    can be confused with hyperlinks
       Use common fonts, styles,
         headings, lists and be
              consistent

active links       red                •   active links
visited links      magenta            •   visited links
unvisited links    blue               •   unvisited links

                                      Headline
  (this is the default markup         Suppressed style
  for links created in most           Confusion?
  web editing programmes).



                           Guideline 3:
          Use markup and style sheets and do so properly
Use colours wisely




         Guideline 2:
  Don’t rely on colour alone
           Use colours wisely
 Avoid using warm background colours such as
  pink or magenta.
 Avoid the following combinations:




                      Guideline 2:
               Don’t rely on colour alone
            Use colours wisely
 Avoid using warm background colours such as
  pink or magenta.
 Avoid the following combinations:
               Burgundy            Grass green
                 Red                  Green
              Red/orange            Blue/green
                Orange                 Blue
             Golden yellow            Violet
                Yellow                Purple

 Safe Web Colours for colour-deficient vision,
  http://more.btexact.com/people/rigdence/colours/
                         Guideline 2:
                  Don’t rely on colour alone
Use tables carefully and
     appropriately




               Guideline 5:
  Create tables that transform gracefully
Documents are clear, simple
and text can be understood




Guidelines 4 and 14: Clarify the natural language used and
       Ensure that documents are clear and simple
 Documents are clear, simple
 and text can be understood

         :-)       “colon hyphen close parent”
        No.                    “no”
        W3C           “double you three see”



~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~




 Guidelines 4 and 14: Clarify the natural language used and
        Ensure that documents are clear and simple
3. Adding extras




                   the
                   UNIVERSITY
                   of
                   GREENWICH
Provide alternatives for images,
   audio and video content




                                                     [D]


                         Guideline 1:
Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content
Provide alternatives for images,
   audio and video content




                                  A boat on a river




                                                      [D]


                         Guideline 1:
Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content
Provide alternatives for images,
   audio and video content


 This is a text description of the boat on a River.
 It describes the movement, sound, location and other
 essential information that the image is conveying to
 a sighted user.
                                                Return to previous page




                         Guideline 1:
Provide equivalent alternatives to auditory and visual content
          Including PowerPoint
              presentations

 Save a copy of the .ppt file in HTML format
    Use a sans serif font such as Arial
    Ensure that scanned documents and other
     illustrations are clear and legible
    Provide text descriptions
 Save the PowerPoint file in .rtf format
    Save the new file in Word as HTML
 Add an audio narrative to slide shows



                      Guideline 11:
            Use W3C Guidelines and Technologies
Making PDF documents accessible
  Macintosh computers do not offer a general
   accessibility interface for screen readers
   and Adobe Acrobat Reader 5.0 does not
   support screen readers working on
   Macintosh computers.
  Scanned documents, unless scanned using
   Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
   software, cannot be made accessible in
   PDF format
  Avoid using .pdf files


                   Guideline 11:
         Use W3C Guidelines and Technologies
4.   Adding dynamic components




                            the
                            UNIVERSITY
                            of
                            GREENWICH
   Allow users to control moving
      or time-sensitive content

   Avoid causing the screen to flicker
   Avoid causing content to blink
   If a page includes movement - provide a
    mechanism to allow users to freeze motion
    or updates.
   Avoid creating auto refreshing pages



                           Guideline 7:
Ensure that moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating objects or
               pages may be paused or stopped.
  Using hover buttons, roll-overs
    and other dynamic content


   Provide alternative content for scripts,
      applets and plug-ins in case active features
      are inaccessible or unsupported.
                                                         Mouse over




                        Guidelines 6 and 8:
Ensure that pages are accessible even when newer technologies are
 not supported or are turned off and Ensure direct accessibility of
                    embedded user interfaces.
  Using hover buttons, roll-overs
    and other dynamic content


   Provide alternative content for scripts,
      applets and plug-ins in case active features
      are inaccessible or unsupported.
                                                         Mouse over




                        Guidelines 6 and 8:
Ensure that pages are accessible even when newer technologies are
 not supported or are turned off and Ensure direct accessibility of
                    embedded user interfaces.
5.   Is your content accessible?




                              the
                              UNIVERSITY
                              of
                              GREENWICH
        Use checking tools

 Bobby validation / software purchase and
  download from http://www.cast.org
 A-Prompt free download from
  http://aprompt.snow.utoronto.ca/
 Perform a manual check
 Provide an alternative version



         BobbyTM

                  Guideline 11:
        Use W3C Guidelines and Technologies
          W3C Quick Tips to Make
           Accessible Web Sites
Images and animations         Use the alt attribute to describe the function of
                              each visual
Image maps                    Use the client-side map element and text for
                              hotspots
Multimedia                    Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and
                              descriptions of video
Hypertext links               Use text that makes sense when read out of
                              context. For example, avoid "click here"
Page organisation             Use headings, lists and consistent structure.
                              Use CSS for layout and style where possible
Graphs and charts             Summarise or use the longdesc attribute

Scripts, applets & plug-ins   Provide alternative content in case active
                              features are inaccessible or unsupported
Frames                        Use the noframes element and meaningful titles

Tables                        Make line-by-line reading sensible. Summarise

Check your work               Validate. Use tools, checklist and guidelines at
                              http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG
           Summary


 Rationale
 Introduction
 World Wide Web Consortium’s Web
  Accessibility Initiative (W3C WAI)
 Minimum Guidelines
 Questions
       Shirley Ambrose
           BA MSc FIITT
          NVQ Assessor
       WebCT Certified Trainer




      s.c.ambrose@gre.ac.uk
http://www.gre.ac.uk/~s.c.ambrose

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:9/9/2011
language:English
pages:45