Development of a GIS-Based Tool for
Visualizing Land Use-Transportation Interactions and
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Florida International University
Miami, FL 33199
(305) 348-3821, (305) 348-2802
Scott Burton, Marie York, John O’Brien
FAU/FIU Joint Center for Urban
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33301
Florida Department of Transportation, District 6
Miami, FL 33130
Planning professionals have long recognized the connection between land uses and
transportation, and there have been many studies to investigate the relationship between the
two. Most studies have been focused on specific cases in which a major transportation
investment induced land use developments or on sophisticated land use-transportation models.
In planning practices, the land uses and transportation facilities are considered separately,
usually by different departments in a local or regional government. While GIS has been used to
support many transportation or land use planning efforts, efforts in using GIS to bring the two
together have been limited.
This paper describes the design and implementation of a prototype GIS-based tool for
visualizing the interaction between land use and transportation, and its potential applications in
transit planning. The tools will provide functions to facilitate the understanding of important land
use and transportation issues, as well as disseminate information through the Internet. The
purpose of the software is to provide the planning professionals, the public officials, and the
general public with information regarding land uses and potential transportation improvements
and assist them in making best land use-transportation decisions. The objectives to be
achieved through the research is to identified the relevant variables to allow such visualization,
the applicable technologies, and issues related to the development of such tools, including data
availability, data collection, data conversion, and integration of travel demand models and land
The interaction between land use and transportation is a complex phenomenon as it involves
many factors. These factors include, for example, the demand for and supply of developable
land and transportation facilities, accessibility, household income levels, corporate or personal
preferences of locations for business or residence, public policies, etc. Further complicating the
matter is that there is a time lag between transportation improvements and land use changes in
response to changes in the transportation system. Comprehensive reviews on the land use
and transportation interaction may be found in (TRB 1999, EPA 1997, Southworth, 1995),
Figure 1 shows the dynamics of the urban system including the land use and transportation
components. The key link between transportation and land use is accessibility since spatial
interaction between activities or land uses is promoted by transportation. Accessibility is used to
measure this interaction which reflects both the attractiveness of potential destinations and
ease of reaching them. The conceptual model shown in Figure 1 also suggests some of the
elements that a GIS visualization tool may incorporate:
Population and employment distribution
Supply of floor space or residential dwelling units
Vacancy rates of commercial or business buildings
Availability of vacant land
Degree of build-up
Housing and business rents
Zoning and other regulations
Transportation network including different modes
Cost of travel
Travel speed or travel time
Transportation system levels of service
The above elements are considered in the implementation of the visualization tool. However, it
should be noted that the architecture shown in Figure 4.1 is designed for modeling for a large
region and is not intended to directly support land use decisions concerning subareas in an
urban area or at the community level. Necessary for a model, it leaves out detailed information
that may be important for specific land use development projects or transportation improvement
projects. Therefore, many more variables may be considered that are outside of the scope of
this modeling framework.
In this paper, the design and implementation of a GIS based computer tool for visualization of
transportation and land use information is described. The goal is to provide a means through
which information about transportation system and land uses may be easily retrieved and
presented in an easy-to-understand format to public officials and the public. Such information
may be used to facilitate decision-makers and stakeholders of transportation investments to
determine the effectiveness of transportation projects and their impact.
The main objectives of this project include identifying suitable computer technologies for data
visualization through the development of a prototype computer visualization tool to study the
feasibility, options of technologies, and design and implementation issues. These issues
include data availability, data collection and conversion, and integration of travel demand
models and land use models.
Figure 1. Complexity of Functional Linkage in Urban Systems Dynamics (Southworth,
The focus of this project is visualization of transportation and land use information. Five groups
of information technologies are considered for this project:
1. GIS. GIS has been used by many DOTs and MPOs for various applications including
transportation facility management, transportation improvement project tracking, analysis of
travel or traffic characteristics, vehicle routing optimization, transit ridership analysis,
visualization of land use and socioeconomic data, etc. GIS provides good user interface
and map display capabilities. A GIS application can also be customized with the
programming capability of GIS. GIS is the main technology utilized for this project.
2. Multimedia. Graphics, static photos, video imagery, and audio are some of the data that
may be utilized. For instance, while transportation professionals understand the definition of
highway levels of service, the public and elected officials generally do not. Video images of
actual traffic conditions allow a road user to relate his or her personal experience to the
level of service referred. Photographs can also be used to show the environment at a
particular location. While video images may be more realistic, they are also more expensive
since they need more sophisticated equipment to obtain and process and have a much
greater demand on the computing power.
3. 3D models. 3D models of a transportation facility and its environment before and after the
implementation of a proposed project can be a powerful tool for evaluating the impact of a
transportation project. Such modeling will require specialized software that is capable of
building realistic 3D models that represent buildings, landscape, and transport facilities, as
well as knowledge and skills to construct 3D models. The cost may be high. Therefore,
while it is feasible to generate 3D models for specific projects, given the current state-of-
the-art of the technologies, it will not be feasible to produce such models at a regional scale.
If being realistic is not required and building footprints are available, simple 3D models can
be easily generated using existing GIS software such as the ArcView 3D Analyst extension.
4. 2D/3D simulation/animation. Simulation and animation are similar in that they both provide
video-like graphic outputs that depict continuous changes in a system. The major
difference is that simulation has an element of randomness since it is a stochastic process
while animation is made of a predefined sequence of graphics. Simulation is used to study
the behavior of a system, while animation is only used for visualization. For example, traffic
flow may be animated to allow the user to inspect traffic conditions. However, animation
with symbols may not be helpful to the public as interpretation of spatial and time scale is
required. There have been applications of animation in which land use changes over a long
period of time are visualized in a movie style display. The data used are typically satellite
images. The resolution of these images is relatively low to only allow a sense of general
patterns of land use changes. The study of transportation and land use interaction usually
requires more detailed information, thus not a suitable application of such animations.
5. Internet technology. The Internet, or the World Wide Web, is considered to be an important
tool for delivering information to the public and for state and local agencies to exchange
information. It is possible in the long run to establish a data warehouse where all land use
and transportation data from different public agencies may be easily accessed through a
GIS tool such as VOLUTI.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF VOLUTI
VOLUTI stands for Visualization Of Land Uses and Transportation Interactions. VOLUTI is
envisioned to iinclude four components: databases, visualization tools, tools for creating land
use and transportation improvement scenarios, and a decision support tool. This conceptual
framework is shown in Figure 2. In the figure, the arrows indicate the direction of the data flow.
The solid lines indicate links that have been implemented. Dashed lines represent components
or links that are desired but have not been implemented in the current version of VOLUTI.
The visualization component supports display of various types of information. The sources of
the information may be the databases, travel demand model, land use model, scenario creator,
and the decision support tool. The display formats may include maps, imagery, text, charts,
tables, and multimedia.
The scenario creator is to be used for creating different scenarios of land use development,
land use changes, and transportation improvement projects. The data created by the scenario
creator may be input into the travel demand model or the land use model. The results
produced by the models will then be displayed to allow the user to evaluate the impact of such
VOLUTI RELATIONAL DATABASES
TRAVEL DEMAND MODEL LAND USE MODEL
Figure 2. Conceptual Structure of VOLUTI
The decision support component may be considered as an evaluator that can take the raw data
and, by applying predefined rules, analyze and evaluate the data. For instance, for a proposed
land development or transportation project, the decision support tool may suggest that due to
environmental constraints, the project location is inappropriate. Another example is to evaluate
the adequacy of public facilities in an area, or appropriate types of land developments to
achieve balanced land use mix.
The travel demand model and the land use model are external to VOLUTI and are independent
of each other at present. These models may be coupled in the future to allow the interaction
between land use and transportation to be considered.
The current implementation of VOLUTI includes the databases and the visualization
component. A primitive link to FSUTMS is also established to import the forecast traffic volume
data produced by FSUTMS that are then displayed in VOLUTI.
To a large degree, the capabilities of VOLUTI depend on the availability and quality of data.
For this project, data from various sources are collected. The sources include mainly the
Miami-Dade County, Florida Department of Transportation, and the United State Geological
Survey. For demonstration purposes, the study area was chosen to be a southern part of
Miami-Dade County about 13 miles east-west and 13 miles north-south (see Figure 3). U.S. 1,
a major thoroughfare, runs through the area. A major transportation improvement project – an
extension of the South-Dade Busway, will be implemented in the area. Data collected for the
project are from three major sources: Miami-Dade County, FDOT, and USGS.
Figure 3. Study Area - South Miami-Dade County
Data from Miami-Dade County
TAZ. TAZ stands for Traffic Analysis Zones, which are used for analyzing travel demand
and traffic patterns.
FSUTMS. FSUTMS is the abbreviation of Florida Standard Urban Travel Model Structure.
A FSUTMS model consists of a set of files that define the model network, which is an
abstraction of the actual road network, and various parameters used in the model.
Census Tract. Census tract boundaries are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau for the
purposes of census data collection and statistics compilation. The census tract theme is
created from the Census Bureau’s TIGER/LINE files. The tract boundaries appear to have
been adjusted to the street network. This theme may be used to display geographically
population statistics such as population of different age groups, racial groups, income
groups, etc. There are 301 census tracts in Miami-Dade in 1990, 23 of which are in the
study area. Census tracts may be used to display demographic data.
Major road map. This map is used for display traffic related information.
Detailed street map. This map is used for background and will be used in the future to
support address matching.
Public facilities such as libraries, schools, fire stations, dump sites, etc.
Public transit facilities. These include bus routes represented as line features with attributes
identifying them as being part of one or more transit bus routes.
Land parcel information. It is jointly owned by the Miami-Dade County and the Florida
Power and Light Company. Therefore, the data are proprietary. It defines the property
boundaries by parcels and can be linked to the tax appraiser’s database via portfolio
numbers of the properties.
Property tax appraisal database. It contains information such property sales prices for the
most recent three sales, assessed values for the past three years, ownership, lot size,
building square footage, etc.
Land uses. The land use map was compiled by the Miami-Dade County Information
Technology Division, by aggregating polygons in the parcel map that have the same land
use codes. The map used is last updated in 1994.
Public well fields protection areas. This theme contains polygons representing well field
Dump sites. It contains 25 SWM sites in the county including landfills, resource recovery,
neighborhood trash/recycling centers, and transfer stations.
Flood hazard zones. It is a polygon theme defining areas that are flood zones according to
100-year flood plain, and 500-year flood plain, respectively. It also identifies areas that are
not in flood zones as well as water areas. The attributes include a zone code and elevation.
Hurricane evacuation zones. The entire study area is in an evacuation zone, therefore, it is
not used in this project. However, if a larger region is considered, then this information may
Data from FDOT
Base map. This map contains all the federal and state roads in FDOT District 6, which has
the jurisdiction over the Miami-Dade County and the Leon County. In the study area, there
are relative few state roads.
1996 Average annual daily traffic (AADT).
1996 Roadway levels of service.
Number of lanes. The number of lanes of a roadway is for both directions. It is an
important factor that determines the roadway capacity.
All the data except the base map are created using the dynamic segmentation function of
Arc/Info. Each set of data is stored as a database table with each record containing information
about the beginning mile post, the ending mile post, and the attribute data. An event theme can
then be generated in ArcView, which has the same appearance of the base map but the
attribute values can be properly displayed.
Data from the U.S. Geological Survey
A number of digital orthophoto quadrangles (DOQs) have been purchased from the U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS) and some are obtained from FDOT. The one-meter DOQs can
show great detail of features including buildings, sidewalks, roads, cars, etc. Because of the
high resolution of the DOQs, the digital files have a large size. The infrared DOQ files obtained
for this project have a size of about 150 megabytes. The display of such large amount of data
may be slow depending on the computer speed and memory (RAM). If they are to be stored
centrally at a location and provided over a local area network (LAN), a wide area network
(WAN), or the Internet, the downloading of the data will take a significant amount of time and
would be too slow to be useful.
IMPLEMENTATION OF VOLUTI
The functions implemented in the current version of VOLUTI may be grouped into five general
functional areas: land use, environment, socioeconomic, transport facility, and accessibility.
These functions will be described by groups after a brief description of the ArcView project
organization and the graphic user interface design.
Graphic User Interface Design
VOLUTI is implemented using ArcView. ArcView organizes information with several types of
documents including view, table, chart, layout, script, etc. The main document type in VOLUTI
that is of main interest to the user is the view document where maps are displayed and
manipulated. The view GUI in VOLUTI is customized with Avenue, a script language of
ArcView. To allow people with limited GIS skills to use it, all functions are provided through
menus. When user interactions such as input from map area are required, the needed tool is
automatically selected, and specific instructions about providing required input are given. The
user is not required to know the functions of the tools available in the tool bar. Figure 4 shows
the view GUI in VOLUTI. All menus appear in UPPERCASE are created for VOLUTI. Among
these menus, LAND USE, ENVIRONMENT, SOCIOECONOMIC, TRANSPORT FACILITY, and
ACCESSIBILITY have been implemented in the first phase of VOLUTI. The rest of VOLUTI
menus will be implemented in the future. The View menu is also customized. The functions
provided in the menus that have been implemented are explained below.
Figure 4. VOLUTI GUI
View is an existing menu in the standard ArcView GUI. It has been customized to provide
additional functions for managing the display. These additional functions include:
A switch to turn image themes on or off. The image themes are the DOQQs.
A theme manager that allows the user to move themes between a visible and an invisible
view (see Figure 5). It helps to keep the Table of Contents (or legends list) short thus
easier to visualize.
Display control that allows the user to set default map extent for display. This is useful
when the full map extents are large but
the interested area is relatively small.
Figure 5. The Theme Manager
LAND USE Menu
The LAND USE menu allows the user to query information
related to land uses. The menu choices are shown in Figure 6.
The following types of information may be requested by the user
from the LAND USE menu:
Site photographs. Photographs are available at predefined
locations. A theme is created that stores such locations as
points on the map. In the attribute table of the theme, the
image files containing the photographs are given for each
location. Up to nine photographs may be stored for each
location and displayed. Figure 7 gives an example of four
photographs displayed for the location at U.S. 1 and SW
Figure 6. The LAND USE
Figure 7. Display of Photographs of a Site (U.S. 1 and SW 211the Street)
Zoning. Zoning data are obtained from Miami-Dade County Planning Department and are
only available for a portion of the study area. The user may chose the zoning types from a
dialog box, and the area with specified zoning types will be highlighted in yellow on the
Vacant lands. The user can either request for the display of all vacant land parcels or
request for those that have a specific acreage. The information about vacant lands is
available from both the property tax appraiser’s database (which is joined to the parcel
theme for display) and the 1994 land use map, the former is currently used by VOLUTI for
this query. However, there are problems associated with both the property tax appraiser’s
database and the 1994 land use database. In property tax appraiser’s database, some of
the properties do not have land use information, thus raising concerns about the
completeness and the quality of the database. A disadvantage of using the land use map
derived from the parcel information is that it may not be updated as frequently as the parcel
Underutilized lands. Underutilized lands are those properties that have a development ratio
of less than or equal to 10 percent. The development is defined as the building square
footage divided by the parcel area, both being available from the property appraiser’s
Dwelling units and vacancy rates. The number of single-family and multi-family dwelling
units as well as the vacancy rates for both types of housing units from a 1993 update
version of the socioeconomic database for the travel demand model FSUTMS. This
information may be considered as an indicator of housing markets. An alternative data
source that may be used for this purpose is the property tax appraiser’s database, which is
potentially more accurate if the database quality may be assured, since this database can
provide actual statistics rather than just an estimate.
Land use composition. Land use composition in a user-defined area may be displayed as a
pie chart. This information may be used to evaluate the land use mix. The 1994 land use
layer is used for this purpose. While there are 93 detail categories of land uses, the
categories have been generalized in VOLUTI. The generalized land use categories include
residential, hotel/motel, commercial, industrial, institutional, parks/recreation, agriculture,
transportation/communications, vacant land, and inland water.
Sales prices of the last three sales of a single property. This information is also from the
property tax appraiser’s database. The database stores the sales prices of up to three most
recent sales. The information is displayed as a bar chart, with each bar representing the
sales price of a particular sale.
Property value trends.
The property tax
values of the past three
years include 1996,
1997, and 1998. This
although covering only a
short period of time,
may be useful to
evaluate the trend of the
real estate market in an
area. Such evaluation
will be useful in
determining the needs
improvements in the
area. The assessed
values may be Figure 8. History of Average Assessed Value for Single
requested for one and Multi-Family Properties in an Area
property or all properties
in a user defined area, which is the area that fall within a user-drawn rectangle. The user
may specify the type of properties types (e.g., single-family, multi-family, or commercial) to
be included in the query. The result is shown as a bar chart (see Figure 8).
The ENVIRONMENT Menu
The purpose for this menu (as shown in Figure 9) is
to provide information on the environmental
conditions that have a relevance to land
development. Many factors may determine the
suitability or attractiveness of an area for different
types of development. These factors may include, Figure 9. The ENVIRONMENT Menu
for example, topographic features such as water
bodies, wet lands, and shorelines, sites of
environmental concerns such as land fills and contamination sites, flood risks, and natural
preserves. In South Florida the terrain is flat therefore elevation is not of concern. Depending
on the availability of data, the display of the following information is supported: flood zones,
public well field protection areas, trash centers and land fills, and hazardous waste sites.
The SOCIOECONOMIC Menu
This menu (see Figure 10) supports queries about
demographic and social-economic information such as
population distribution, population density, population age
groups, single- and multi-family population distribution,
distribution of employment of different types, and school
enrollment. Employment distribution may be view by each
category of employment such as commercial, service, or
industrial employment, or as a total. Employment density can
also be viewed.
One of the common types of analysis is the buffer analysis,
mostly used for corridor analysis or transit service coverage
analysis. The buffer analysis in VOLUTI begins first with the
user choosing road segments to serve as a corridor,
Figure 10. The SOCIO-
determining a distance from the
roads as the buffer size, and
specifying an attribute to
analyze such as population or
dwelling units. VOLUTI will then
create a new theme that
displays the buffer area, the
distribution of the attribute value
Figure 11. Buffer Analysis Result
(population, e.g.), and a window that provides a summary of the statistics. Figure 11 illustrates
the results of a buffer analysis along the new planned busway extension in the U.S. 1 corridor.
The TRANSPORT FACILITY Menu
This menu provides access to information about the transportation
facilities (see Figure 12). The user may query about different types
of transportation facilities. Choice of Public Transit Facility from
the menu will result in the display of both bus route and bus stop
themes. Queries about roadway facilities will result in the display
of the Major Roads theme with the roadways of interested
functional classes highlighted. If the menu entry Show Selected
Facilities is chosen, a new theme will be created and displayed that
contains only those roadways that are selected from the theme
Major Roads according to their function classes.
Information on number of lanes, traffic volume, and level of service
is only available for state roads. Number of lanes and traffic
volume are coded on the map by line thickness. A roadway
section represented by a thicker line has more lanes or a larger Figure 12. The
traffic volume than one that is represented by a thinner line. TRANSPORT
The entry Congested Roads displays roadway sections that have a
level of service E or F. This option does not produce a new theme but only change the symbols
to highlight the congested roadway sections.
To provide a more visual presentation of congestion or level of service, digital video camera
was used to collect actual roadway operating conditions. The imager was collected in March
1999 during morning rush hours on a weekday. The intention is to link the video clips to
roadway or a set of symbols representing levels of service. By clicking a roadway section or a
symbol, a video clip will be played, giving the viewer a live scene of roadway operations. This
function, unfortunately, was not implemented for the current version of VOLUTI due to a
technical problem with the equipment required to edit the video recording.
The ACCESSIBILITY Menu
Accessibility may be measured by the presence of a good
transportation network and by the levels of service of the
transportation facilities including transit. Due to the lack of data
concerning congestion levels and time and effort required to
gather such data, the current version of VOLUTI only evaluates
the presence of transportation facilities and ignores the
congestion levels on the roads. This is a weakness of the
current version of VOLUTI but may be improved to some Figure 12.
degree in the future when the link to FSUTMS is completed. ACCESSIBILITY Menu
The ACCESSIBILITY menu is shown in Figure 13. Accessibility may be calculated for a site or
a user defined area. A site is defined as a point location specified by the user on the map of
Major Roads, which may be under consideration of new land developments. A region is an area
defined by the user who draws a rectangle on the map representing the boundary the region to
According to the Planning Handbook published by the Institute of Transportation Engineers, in
an urban area a network consisting of expressways that are approximately six miles apart
should be provided, and major arterials should be spaced about 1 mile apart. Based on these
guidelines, accessibility for an area is ranked excellent, good, fair, or poor based on the density
of expressways and major arterials. To measure the accessibility or mobility of a site, a three-
mile radius and an one-mile radii are used to search for expressways and major arterials within
the circular area, respectively. The total lengths of the two types of roadways are calculated
and divided by the area of the circle to find the density. Accessibility, or more precisely, density
of facilities, is ranked by the following criteria:
Excellent expressway(s) present, density >= 0.23 mile per sq-mile;
density of major arterials >= 1 mile per sq-mile.
Good expressway(s) present, density < 0.23 mile per sq-mile;
density of major arterials >= 1 mile per sq-mile.
Fair expressway not present;
density of major arterials >= 1mile per sq-mile.
Poor expressway not present;
density of major arterials < 1 mile per sq-mile.
A region is defined as an arbitrarily shaped polygon drawn by the user on the map display, who
may be interested in new land developments in a large area. The accessibility is measured by
the density of expressways and major arterials within the region:
Excellent expressway(s) present, density >= 1/3 mile per sq-mile
density of major arterials >= 2 mile per sq-mile
Good expressway(s) present, density < 1/3 mile per sq-mile
density of major arterials >= 2 mile per sq-mile
Fair expressway not present
density of major arterials < 2 mile per sq-mile
Poor expressway not present
density of major arterials < 2 mile per sq-mile
The result of any queries in the ACCESSIBILITY menu is a window displaying the accessibility
ranking for a site or an area.
In the future, accessibility will be improved by considering travel time between pair of origins
and destinations as proposed by, e.g., Schoon et al. (1999), Aultman-Hall et al. (1997), among
In this paper, the design of a prototype GIS application for visualizing land use and
transportation information is described. The application, VOLUTI, has been partially
implemented. The program is designed for people with limited GIS knowledge and skills. A set
of menus is designed to allow the user to obtain information with minimum input. Various kinds
of information may be requested and displayed easily. More functions that will allow the GIS
program to be linked to a travel demand model to analyze the impact of land use changes or
improvements of transportation facilities will be implemented in the future.
During the program implementation, some issues have emerged and most are data related.
One of the problems is the lack of metadata. This has resulted in extra efforts to collect
metadata in order to understand and use them appropriately, or the inability to use them.
Another problem is the incompleteness or inaccurate data in the databases. Traffic data for
county roads are also not as comprehensive as for the state roads.
Because of the time lag between transportation improvement projects and land use induced by
there improvements, to be able to evaluate the impact of transportation projects historical data
on both transportation projects and land use are needed. Such information is, however,
generally lacking. For instance, property tax and sales price information may be valuable for
evaluating the real estate market and market trends, but tax data are only available for the past
three years and the sales prices are limited to the last three sales. Historical land use
information is lacking since GIS and high-resolution DOQs are only recent technological
advances. While the South Florida Water Management District did create a land use GIS map
in 1989, that land use map and the 1994 land use map used in this project are created using
different source data, and have different classification systems. Relating the two is therefore
not straightforward. Also missing is the historical data of transportation projects. Such data
may provide valuable opportunities for us to learn from the past. To solve this problem,
temporal GIS technology should be developed, and studies are needed to investigate practical
methods to preserve historical data and the costs for such effort (Zhao et al. 1997).
At present, VOLUTI can read the FSUTMS output of network loading (or travel volume) and
display the data. One of the desirable functions of VOLUTI is to allow the user create land use
and transportation scenarios and evaluate their impacts. The impact of transportation projects
may be evaluated in a simple manner by determining the improvement in accessibility using
FSUTMS. Take this one step further to forecast the impact of improved accessibility on future
land use will require the application of a land use allocation model to determine the new growth
The evaluation of impact of land use changes on transportation is somewhat more complicated.
While this is feasible technologically as VOLUTI may be interfaced with FSUTMS via file
transfers, practical limitations exist. The fact is that such an evaluation, often referred to as
development of regional impact (DRI) studies, is often an involved, and quite frequently political
process. Unless accuracy can be assured, simply using FSUTMS to handle DRI studies is not
desirable for inexperienced users, and may result in providing the user with misleading
information. Therefore, the appropriateness of using FSUTMS for evaluating land use impact
on transportation system needs to be carefully examined.
In the future, VOLUTI will be further improved by adding more data including the video clips,
implementing the scenario editor that supports both land use changes and transportation
system changes, and developing a methodology to evaluate land use impact on transportation.
A web application of VOLUTI is currently under development and will be completed. Other
potential improvements such as utilizing 3D models, including neighborhood design variables
such as presence of sidewalk, landscaping, property setback, etc., and developing decision
support tools will also be considered.
Aultman-Hall, L., Matthew Roorda, and Brian W. Baetz. Using GIS for evaluation of
neighborhood pedestrian accessibility. Journal of Urban Planning and Development.
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Rosenbaum, A.S. and B.E. Koenig (1997). Evaluation of Model Tools for Assessing Land Use
Policies and Strategies, Technical Report EPA420-R-97-007, U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Schoon, John, M. MacDonald, and A. Lee. Accessibility Indices: Pilot Study and Potential Use
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D.C., January 11-14, 1999.
Southworth, F. (1995). A Technical Review of urban Land Use –Transportation Models as
Tools for Evaluating Vehicle Travel Reduction Strategies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Oak Ridge, TN.
TRB (1999). Land Use Impacts of Transportation: A Guidebook, National Highway Cooperative
Research Program Report 423A, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council,
Zhao, F., L. Wang, H. Elbadrawi, and L.D. Shen (1997). “ Temporal Geographic Information
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