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					 WELCOME TO FR
 HONORS WORLD
CIVILIZATION II -
15842 - HIS 1515 – 101
 Seminar Themes: Modern Empires
            Since1800



                                  1
                    Introduction
• Instructor: Dr. Jeremiah Kitunda

• Students—Name, Level, home town, hobby, & why you are
  here?

• Sign up sheet

• Reading the syllabus

• Ask questions and Answers

                                                          2
     Course structure
• One minute break & Discipline.

• Interactive lectures & Group
  Discussion

• Video shows, Readings and where they
  are
                                     3
          What is Environmental History of Africa?

• Environmental history of Africa is a relatively new field that examines
  the changing relationship between people and the natural world
  over time. Since current scholarly themes emphasize tensions
  between man and nature in environmental discourse we will direct
  our focus on the interplay between culture and nature in Africa,
  that is, how humans shaped, used and misused the environment
  before 1500 AD. The course will not strictly follow the familiar
  chronology that we find in other historical studies of Africa. Rather
  we will discuss popular issues that have dominated African
  environmental discourse before the colonial era. In spite of
  thematic organization, the course will set the issues under review in
  historical sequence.




                                                                       4
THE BUILDING OF GLOBAL EMPIRES: DETERMINING
FACTORS OF THE RISE OF MODERN EMPIRES

  WHO WERE THE BUILDERS
  OF GLOBAL EMPIRES?

                                              5
    THE SUDDEN RISE OF COLONIAL EMPIRE IN THE
               LATE 19TH CENTURY

 “The most striking outburst of
  imperialism took place in
  Africa. As late as 1875
  European peoples maintained a
  limited presence in Africa. . .
  There was a lively commerce
  around the exchange of African
  gold, ivory and palm oil for
  European textiles, guns and
  manufactured goods. This trade
  brought considerable prosperity
  and economic opportunity to
  both Africans and Europeans. . .
  Between 1875 and 1900,
  however, the relationship
  between Africa and Europe
  dramatically changed.”
  [Bentley]


                                                6
    What factors account for the rise
       of the colonial Empire?
•   Military might– invention of lethal weapons
•   Faster Communication systems—the Suez
•   Individual initiatives—Cecil John Rhodes
•   Natural Resources—Diamond and Gold
•   Ability to deceive others




                                                  7
The Maxim Machine Gun Invented in 1890s in
England by American engineer Hiram Maxim




  9/8/2011                                   8
          Was this Military Technology effective?




The 1880s Maxim Machine gun, a light & powerful gun that fired 11 bullets per second was stronger
   than any weapon in the 19th century world. In the 5 hrs battle of Omdurman, 1898, General
   Kitchener with 20 machine guns & 6 gunboats lost 368 soldiers & Madhist force 11,000 opening
   British colonial rule in Sudan
                                                                                         9
•
        Communication TechnologiesEurope
    1. By 1880s Steamships reduced time required to deliver messages between
    & the colonies from 2 years by ship to 4 months by steamships. 2. Invention of
    telegraphs (telegraph wires and submarine cables) made communication faster. 3.
    After Suez canal steamships took 2 weeks between England & India




                                                                                 10
           Individual Initiatives: Cecil John Rhodes

I contend that we [British] are the finest
    race, the most noble, moral &
    honorable in the world, and that the
    more of the world we inhabit the better
    it is for the human race. I contend that
    every acre added to our territory means
    the birth of more of the English race
    who otherwise would not be brought
    into existence. Added to this, the
    absorption of the greater portion of the
    world under our rule simply means the
    end of all wars. The objects one
    should work for are first the
    furtherance of the British Empire, the
    bringing of the whole uncivilized world
    under British rule, the recovery of the
    United States, the making of the
    Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire.
         (Cecil Rhodes, 1877 in Felix
    Gross, Rhodes of Africa: 1957:61)

                                                       11
By 1900 the world was divided up into Masters and Subjects:
Which of the above was more critical factor in the rise of the
   colonial empire? What was the legacy of imperialism?




                                                                 12
 Deception: What were the Motives of
New Imperialism? How was it justified?




                                     13
What’s sauce for the goose is sauce for the
      gander!! A woman's proverb




                                        14
 Rhodes, Rudyard Kipling (as a reporter with a typewriter) & Boer
General Piet Arnoldus Cronje (1835–1911) surrender at Paardeberg on
     27 February 1900—White man’s burden on fellow whites




                                                                      15
    "CONFESSION OF FAITH” OF BRITISH SA
       Premier Cecil John Rhodes (1890-1896)
I contend that we [British] are the finest
    race, the most noble, moral &
    honorable in the world, and that the
    more of the world we inhabit the better
    it is for the human race. I contend that
    every acre added to our territory means
    the birth of more of the English race
    who otherwise would not be brought
    into existence. Added to this, the
    absorption of the greater portion of the
    world under our rule simply means the
    end of all wars. The objects one
    should work for are first the
    furtherance of the British Empire, the
    bringing of the whole uncivilized world
    under British rule, the recovery of the
    United States, the making of the
    Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire.
         (Cecil Rhodes, 1877 in Felix
    Gross, Rhodes of Africa: 1957:61)

                                               16
            Economic Motives
• By 1900 imperial powers had divided up most of world
  & controlled international trade

• Britain shipped manufactured goods to its colonies in
  exchange for cotton, sugar, tea, copper, & rubber

• France imported oils, fruit, & timber from Africa &
  Southeast Asia


                                                          17
• Belgium mined copper & harvested rubber in the
  Congo
•
• Netherlands’ Far East produced coffee, tobacco, rice, &
  spices

• Portugal extracted tin & diamonds from mines in
  Angola, & imported spices, rice, silk, and tea from
  Macao

                                                        18

				
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