9:1-12:13 THE DESOLATIONS OF JERUSALEM.
A 9:1, 2 The time.
B 9:3-19 Daniel‘s Humiliation
C 9:20-23- The Hierophant.
D 9:23-27 The Prophecy.
A 10:1 The time.
B 10:2, 3 Daniel‘s Humiliation
C 10:4-21 The Hierophant.
D 11:1-12:13 The Prophecy.
The desolation of Jerusalem. From (479 to 409 BC). The ―desolations‖ had therefore lasted [42
(6 x 7) years], and had yet [28 (4 x 7) years] to run before they were ―accomplished.‖ We find the same
sub-divisions of the ―servitude,” for from the first year of Nebuchadnezzar (496 BC) to the decree of
Artaxerxes (other wise known as Astyages) (454 BC) was forty-two years; and from the decree to the
end of the servitude was twenty eight years. The Companion Bible
Daniel 9:1-7 Daniel's Prayer for the People
9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the lineage of the Medes, who was made king
over the realm of the Chaldeans — 2 in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by the books the
number of the years specified by the word of the Lord through Jeremiah the prophet, that He would
accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem. 3 Then I set my face toward the Lord God to
make request by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes. 4 And I prayed to the Lord
my God, and made confession, and said, "O Lord, great and awesome God, who keeps His covenant and
mercy with those who love Him, and with those who keep His commandments, 5 we have sinned and
committed iniquity, we have done wickedly and rebelled, even by departing from Your precepts and
Your judgments. 6 Neither have we heeded Your servants the prophets, who spoke in Your name to our
kings and our princes, to our fathers and all the people of the land. 7 O Lord, righteousness belongs to
You, but to us shame of face, as it is this day — to the men of Judah, to the inhabitants of Jerusalem and
all Israel, those near and those far off in all the countries to which You have driven them, because of the
unfaithfulness which they have committed against You. NKJV
Note: The vision recorded in the preceding chapter was given in the third year of Belshazzar (538
BC). In the same year, which was also the first year of Darius, when the events narrated in this chapter
occurred? Consequently less than one year is passed over between the two chapters. Although Daniel
now is prime minister of the foremost kingdom on the face of the earth, he was still cumbered with
many cares and burdens, he did not let this responsibility deprive him of the privilege of studying the
Scriptures to seek for answers to the many questions that came into his mind concerning the will of
God concerning the people of Israel. Paul the Learner
Jer 25:11-13 [Reference]
11 And this whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king
of Babylon seventy years. 12 'Then it will come to pass, when seventy years are completed, that I will
punish the king of Babylon and that nation, the land of the Chaldeans, for their iniquity,' says the Lord;
'and I will make it a perpetual desolation. 13 So I will bring on that land all My words which I have
pronounced against it, all that is written in this book, which Jeremiah has prophesied concerning all the
Daniel 9:1 Seventy-Sevens
9:1. chronology. Assuming Darius the Mede's reign coincides with that of Cyrus, his first year would be
539. Again, the timing is significant as a major change of empires is in process (see comment on Dan
9:2. Jeremiah's prophecy. In 597 the prophet Jeremiah wrote a letter to the exiles (Jer 29) informing
them that the length of the exile would be seventy years. This is most likely the subject of Daniel's
interest as he ponders whether the time might be right for the return.
9:3. fasting, sackcloth and ashes. In the Old Testament the religious use of fasting is often in
connection with making a request before God. The principle is that the importance of the request
causes an individual to be so concerned about his or her spiritual condition that physical necessities fade
into the background. In this sense the act of fasting is designed as a process leading to purification and
humbling oneself before God (Ps 69:10). The practice of putting dirt, dust or ashes on one's head was a
typical sign of mourning throughout the Old Testament and into the New Testament period. It is a
practice also known from Mesopotamia and Canaan. Many mourning rites originated as a means for the
living to identify with the dead. It is easy to see how dust on the head and torn clothes would be
symbolic representations of burial and decay. Sackcloth was made of goat or camel hair and was coarse
and uncomfortable. In many cases the sackcloth was only a loin covering.
(IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament)
[General Information – 9:1-27: Daniel reinterprets Jeremiah’s prophecy of seventy years.]
9:1: Darius…Ahasuerus: On Darius, see 6:1 notes. Ahasuerus is Xerxes, like Darius a Persian and not
a Mede, and was the son, not father, of Darius. Of Median descent, possibly an effort to harmonize the
fact that Ahasuerus and Darius were Persian with the statement in 6:1 that Darius was a Mede. [JSB]
9:2: The author grapples with the prophetic prediction in Jeremiah 25:11-12 that Babylon would fall
after seventy years. This is one of the few explicit references in a biblical book to another biblical book;
it does not necessarily reflect the canonization of the Prophets, but suggests that like the Torah, certain
prophetic texts were studied intensively at this time. [Jewish Study Bible]
9:3: Fasting, sackcloth, and ashes were aspects of ritual mourning in the Bible, but were also signs of
penitence as well as penitence as well as preparation for fervent prayer and for visions (4 Ezra [2
Esdras] 5:13; 9:24 Jewish works). The rise of penitential theology in post-biblical Judaism suggests
that, although Daniel‘s prayer is a response to particular historical events, it also reflects in Judaism a
new personal, penitential religious life that is taken up in various ways by the Qumran sectarians,
Pharisees, and Christians. This can also be found in some strands of rabbinic tradition (Talmud b. Ta’an
11b-12a), but there is also found in the Talmud a tendency to rein in excessive penitential asceticism
(Talmud b. Ta’an 11a; b. B. Bat. 60b). [Jewish Study Bible]
THE “TIMES,” AND NUMBERED “DAYS’ OF DANIEL 7:25; 8:14; 12:7, 11, 12
To understand these periods we must go to the beginning, ‗Fulfill her week and we will give thee this
also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.’ Genesis 29:27 So the period
is a day for a year. There are five specific periods of ―time” and ―days‖ mentioned in the Book of Daniel
(7:25; 8:14; 12:7, 11, 12). In addition to these five, we also have the great period of the ―seventy
sevens‖ (or weeks) of years found in Chapter 9.
Sixty-nine of these weeks was completed at the ―cutting off‖ of the Messiah; the last or ―seventieth
seven‖ is yet to come. All the other five periods of time in the book are to be referred to, and are
standardized, so to speak, by this last ―seven‖ or a period of 7 years. The ―seventy weeks‖ [sevens] are
to be reckoned as dealing with years. Therefore, on the basis of a Jewish year which is composed of
only 360 days [not like our 365 days], one ―seven‖ is then 360 x 7 = 2, 520 days. So when you speak
of something happening ‗in the midst of the week‘ you is speaking of a time period of 3 ½ years or a
time that is 1, 260 days long. Paul the Learner
The Prophecy of the Seventy Weeks: Israel's Future in the Plan of God. 9:1-27.
This prophecy is unique in Scripture in that it actually sets up a sort of time schedule of coming events
the nearest approach to it is Jeremiah's prophecy of seventy years (see below). The schedule relates to
events in the future of the Israelites.
1. After devoting brief attention to the historical setting (vv. 1, 2),
2. Daniel proceeds to report an intensive season of prayer (vv. 3-19),
3. Followed by the arrival of an angelic messenger of prophecy (vv. 20-23).
4. The very important prophecy of the seventy weeks comes at the end (vv. 24-27).
1) The Historical Setting of the Prophecy 9:1, 2
Verse 1 in the first year of Darius. That is, 539/538 B.C., sixty-seven years after Daniel's
transportation in the summer of 605 B.C.; about fifty-nine years from the beginning of King
Jehoiachin's captivity (2 Chronicles 36:9-10; Ezekiel 1:1 ff.); a bit less than fifty years from the final
destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C. This explains Daniel's interest in Jerusalem (Dan 9:2). He
wondered if the time was up. Made king over the realm of the Chaldeans. Daniel does not confuse him
with Cyrus. He was made king, i.e., appointed, and that not over the Medo-Persian empire but over
Babylonia only. (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
The number of the years. The reference seems to be to Jer 25:11-12, which says, "When seventy years
are accomplished ... I will punish the king of Babylon." That king had already been punished; so Daniel
knew it was time for the desolations of Jerusalem also to be ended. Seventy is a round number; it was
actually sixty-eight. Cf. Lk 21:26. (The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
Verse 1 [In the first year of Darius] See the notes at Dan 5:31. The king here referred to under this
name was Cyaxares II, who lived between Astyages and Cyrus, and in whom was the title of king. He
was the immediate successor of Belshazzar, and was the predecessor of Cyrus, and was the first of the
foreign princes that reigned over Babylon. Of course, as he preceded Cyrus, who gave the order to
rebuild the temple (Ezra 1:1) this occurred before the close of the seventy years of the captivity.
[The son of Ahasuerus] Or the son of Astyages. It was no unusual thing for the kings of the East to
have several names, and one writer might refer to them under one name, and another under another.
[Of the seed of the Medes] Of the race of the Medes. See as above.
[Which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans] By conquest He succeeded Belshazzar, and
was the immediate predecessor of Cyrus. Cyaxares II ascended the throne of Media, according to the
common chronology, 561 B.C. Babylon was taken by Cyrus, acting under the authority of Cyaxares,
538 B.C., and, of course, the reign of Cyaxares, or Darius, over Babylon commenced at that point, and
that would be reckoned as the "first year" of his reign. He died 536 B.C., and Cyrus succeeded him;
and as the order to rebuild the temple was in the first year of Cyrus.
The time referred to in this chapter, when Daniel represents himself as meditating on the close of the
captivity, and offering this prayer, cannot long have preceded that order. He had ascertained that the
period of the captivity was near its close, and he naturally inquired in what way the restoration of the
Jews to their own land was to be affected, and by what means the temple was to be rebuilt. (Barnes)
[I Daniel understood by books] By the sacred books, and especially by the writings of Jeremiah. It
has been made a ground of objection to the genuineness of Daniel that he mentions "books" in this place
c-paariym as if there were at that time a collection of the sacred books, or as if they had been enrolled
together in a volume. The objection is that the writer speaks as if the canon of the Scriptures was
completed, or that he uses such language as the Hebrews did when the canon of the Scriptures was
finished, and thus betrays him. It is sufficient to reply to it, that there is every probability that the Jews in
Babylon would be in possession of the sacred books of their nation, and that, though the canon of the
Scriptures was not yet completed, there would exist private collections of those writings. The word used
here by Daniel is just such as he would employ on the supposition that he referred to a private collection
of the writings of the prophets.
[The number of the years, whereof the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah] The number of the
years in respect to which the word of the Lord came to Jeremiah; that is, which he had revealed to
Jeremiah. The "books" referred to, therefore, were evidently a collection of the writings of Jeremiah, or
a collection which embraced his writings.
[That he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem] That Jerusalem would so
long lie waste. This was expressly declared by Jeremiah (Jer 25:11-12): "And this whole land shall be a
desolation and an astonishment; and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years. And it
shall come to pass, when seventy years are accomplished, that I will punish the king of Babylon, and
that nation, saith the Lord, for their iniquity," etc. So also Jer 29:10: "For thus saith the Lord, That after
seventy years be accomplished at Babylon, I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in
causing you to return to this place." The time of the desolation and of the captivity, therefore, was fixed
and positive, and the only difficulty in determining when it would "close," was in ascertaining the exact
year when it "commenced."
Daniel, it seems, by close study, had satisfied his own mind on that subject, and had been able to fix
upon some period that was undoubtedly the proper beginning, and hence, compute the time when it
would close. The result showed that his calculation was correct, for, at the time he expected, the order
was given by Cyrus to rebuild the city and temple. When he instituted this inquiry, and engaged in this
solemn act of prayer, it would have been impossible to have conjectured in what way this could be
brought about. The reigning monarch was Cyaxares II, or, as he is here called, Darius, and there was
nothing in "his" character, or in anything that he had done, that could have been a basis of calculation
that he would favor the return of the Jews and the rebuilding of the city, and there was then no
probability that Cyrus would so soon come to the throne, and nothing in his character, as known, that
could be a ground of hope that he would voluntarily interpose, and accomplish the Divine purposes and
promises in regard to the holy city.
It was probably such circumstances as these which produced the anxiety in the mind of Daniel, and
which led him to offer this fervent prayer; and his fervent supplications should lead us to trust in God
that he will accomplish his purposes, and should induce us to pray with fervor and with faith when we
see no way in which he will do it. In all cases he can as easily devise a way in answer to prayer, as he
could remove Cyaxares from the throne and incline the heart of Cyrus to undertake the rebuilding of
Jerusalem and the temple. (Barnes’ Notes)
1. Insight: Learning God's plan (Da 9:1-2)
The first year of Darius was 539 B.C., the year that Babylon fell to the Medes and the Persians. This
great victory was no surprise to Daniel, because God had already told him that the Medo-Persian Empire
would conquer Babylon. In Nebuchadnezzar's great "dream image," the head of gold would be replaced
by the chest and arms of silver (chap. 2): and later visions revealed that the bear would conquer the lion
(chap. 7). But long before Daniel's day, both Isaiah and Jeremiah had predicted the fall of Babylon, so
its no surprise that Daniel started studying afresh the scroll of the Prophet Jeremiah.
The Word of God. One of the beautiful things about the inspired Word of God is its constant freshness:
no matter how often we read it, there is always something new to learn or something familiar to see in a
new light. Had Jeremiah's scrolls of the Old Testament been organized like our modern Bibles,
1. He would have read Jer 24 and been reassured that the Lord would care for His people no matter
what ruler was on the throne.
2. From 25:1-14, he would learn the reason for the exile as well as the length of the exile-seventy
3. And this would be corroborated in 29:10-14. The exile of the Jews in Babylon was no accident; it
was a divine appointment, and they would not be released until the very time that God had ordained.
Daniel called Jeremiah's writings "the word of the Lord." King Jehoiakim had tried to burn up
Jeremiah's prophecies, but the Lord preserved them because they were His very words (Jer 36).
(A) "Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will never pass away" (Mt 24:35, NIV).
(B) "The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God stands forever" (Isa 40:8,
(C) "Long ago I learned from your statutes that you established them to last forever" (Ps
Over the centuries, people have ignored, denied, attacked, and sought to destroy the Holy Scriptures, but
the Word of God is still here! God especially protected the scrolls written by Jeremiah because He
wanted Daniel to have a copy to take with him to Babylon. "All scripture is given by inspiration of
God" (2 Timothy 3:16), the Old Testament as well as the New, and Holy Scripture is the only
dependable source of truth about God, man, sin, salvation, and the future events God has in His great
plan. In these days of rapidly changing ideas, events, and situations, the unchanging Word of God is our
dependable light and unshakable foundation.
The God of the Word. This is the first time that Jehovah [YHWH], the covenant name of God, is used
in the Book of Daniel, and it is used only in this chapter (vv. 2-3, 10, 13-14, 20). But we must remember
that, at that time, the Lord was calling the nation of Israel "Lo-Ruhama-not loved" and "Lo-Ammi not
my people" (Hosea 1) because Israel had broken His holy covenant. When you are outside the
covenant, you can't sincerely use His covenant name and expect to receive covenant blessings. However,
Daniel came to God pleading for mercy and forgiveness for himself and his people, and that's the kind
of praying the Lord Jehovah wants to hear. In fact, the promise of God's forgiveness was written right
into the covenant.
"But if they confess their iniquity and the iniquity of their fathers, with their unfaithfulness in which they
were unfaithful to Me, and that they also have walked contrary to Me... then I will remember My
covenant with Jacob, and My covenant with Isaac and My covenant with Abraham I will remember: I
will remember the land" (Lev 26:40-42, NKJV). Certainly as Daniel studied the Scriptures and prayed
to Jehovah, he had in his mind and heart both the holy covenant (Lev 26; Deut 27:1-28:68) and
Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the temple (1 Kings 8:33-36). (Exposition Commentary)
God's plan for His people. God revealed to Jeremiah that the people of Israel would be taken to
Babylon and be exiled from their land for seventy years (Jer 25:11-12; 29:10). God had commanded
His people to give the land a "sabbath rest" every seven years and a "year of jubilee" every fifty years
(Lev 25). Both the forty-ninth and the fiftieth years would be "sabbatical years" when the people
were not allowed to sow seed or cultivate their orchards. They had to trust God to make the food grow to
meet their daily needs. This law was not only good for the land, helping to restore its fertility, but it was
also good for the spiritual life of the nation. However, it was not until the nation's captivity in Babylon
that the land enjoyed its Sabbath rests (2 Chronicles 36:20-21).
From what date do we begin to count off the seventy years, and when did the captivity officially end? To
answer these important questions, we must highlight the key dates in Jewish history at that time.
1. Babylon began to attack the kingdom of Judah in 606 B.C., and Jerusalem and the temple
were destroyed in 586.
2. The first Jewish captives were taken to Babylon in 605, Daniel and his three friends being
3. In 538, Cyrus issued the decree that permitted the Jews to return to their land and rebuild the
temple (Ezra 1:1-4),
4. And in 537 about 50,000 Jews returned to Jerusalem under the leadership of Zerubbabel
and Joshua the high priest (Ezra 1-2).
5. If we decide that the Captivity officially began in 606-05 with the attack on Jerusalem and
the deporting of the first captives,
6. Then seventy years later would take us to 537-36, when the first exiles returned to their land
and the foundations of the temple were laid.
7. In other words, the first captives left Judah in 605 and the liberated exiles returned to the land
in 537-36, a time period of roughly seventy years.
8. However, some students feel that the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple should be the
starting point (586), with the Captivity not officially ending until the second temple had been
built and dedicated (515), another period of approximately seventy years.
9. Since both interpretations make sense, it shouldn't be necessary to debate the issue.
We need to be aware of three important facts.
First, in sending His people into captivity, the Lord was keeping His covenant promise, for He had
warned them that they would be punished if they persisted in disobeying Him (Lev 26). It appears that
Israel's years of captivity in Babylon helped to cure the Jewish people of their detestable sin of idol
Second, the Captivity brought blessing to the land, for the land had been abused by farmers who would
not let the land enjoy its sabbatical rests. The land belonged to the Lord (25:23; see Deut 11:12) and
He would not permit His people to defile it by sin and idolatry and waste it by not giving it times of rest.
For every sabbatical year the Jews failed to honor, they added one more year to their own bondage in
Third, when Daniel made this discovery about the seventy years, the period of captivity was about to
end! If Daniel was taken to Babylon in 605, and he discovered Jeremiah's prophecy in 539, then he had
been in Babylon sixty-six or sixty-seven years. The next year (538) Cyrus would make his decree
permitting the Jews to return to their land. The prophet was probably eighty-one years old at this time.
He himself would not be able to return to the land, but he rejoiced that others could return.
(The Bible Exposition Commentary: Old Testament)
9:5: Later Jewish confessions share this structure of listing words for various prohibited activities in the
first-person plural. [Jewish Study Bible]
8 "O Lord, to us belongs shame of face, to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, because we have
sinned against You. 9 To the Lord our God belong mercy and forgiveness, though we have rebelled
against Him. 10 We have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God, to walk in His laws, which He set
before us by His servants the prophets. 11 Yes, all Israel has transgressed Your law, and has departed
so as not to obey Your voice; therefore the curse and the oath written in the Law of Moses the servant of
God have been poured out on us, because we have sinned against Him. 12 And He has confirmed His
words, which He spoke against us and against our judges who judged us, by bringing upon us a great
disaster; for under the whole heaven such has never been done as what has been done to Jerusalem.
13 "As it is written in the Law of Moses, all this disaster has come upon us; yet we have not made our
prayer before the Lord our God, that we might turn from our iniquities and understand Your truth.
14 Therefore the Lord has kept the disaster in mind, and brought it upon us; for the Lord our God is
righteous in all the works which He does, though we have not obeyed His voice. 15 And now, O Lord
our God, who brought Your people out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and made Yourself a
name, as it is this day — we have sinned, we have done wickedly! 16 "O Lord, according to all Your
righteousness, I pray, let Your anger and Your fury be turned away from Your city Jerusalem, Your holy
mountain; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and Your people are a
reproach to all those around us. 17 Now therefore, our God, hear the prayer of Your servant, and his
supplications, and for the Lord's sake cause Your face to shine on Your sanctuary, which is desolate. 18
O my God, incline Your ear and hear; open Your eyes and see our desolations, and the city which is
called by Your name; for we do not present our supplications before You because of our righteous
deeds, but because of Your great mercies. 19 O Lord, hear! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, listen and act! Do
not delay for Your own sake, my God, for Your city and Your people are called by Your name." NKJV
9:17-18. desolation of city and sanctuary. The city of Jerusalem had been destroyed by the
Babylonians in 586 and was little more than a desolate ruin. Fifty years had come and gone since the
temple had been dismantled and razed. (IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament)
9:15-19: The penitential prayer and confession of Israel‘s sins expresses Deuteronomistic theology, i.e.
a view expressed often in the books from Deuteronomy through 2 Kings: Israel has sinned, and if it
repents, God will act graciously once more. [Jewish Study Bible]
2) The Exemplary Prayer of Daniel 9:3-19
In the appreciation of a poem, play, or painting, the greatest value is to be received by simply taking the
creation as a whole. Just so Daniel's prayer should be studied as a whole. The prayer was a providential
means of accomplishing what was already determined (see Isa 42:24-25; 43:14-15; 48:9-11; Jer 49:17-
20. Cf. Jer 50:4-5, 20). The names of Deity employed are significant. Daniel reminds God that both
Jerusalem (Dan 9:18) and the Jews (v. 19) are called by thy name. He addresses the Lord as Lord God
(°Adonay °Elohim, v. 3) and LORD God (Yahweh °Elohim, v. 4). See a Bible dictionary on names of
God. Daniel's conception of God shows balance between the great and dreadful God (v. 4; cf. Isa 6:1
ff.) and a God of mercies and forgiveness (v. 9; cf. Exodus 20:5-6). The problems of interpretation here
are not difficult. Note what light this chapter casts on prayer (Mt 6:5-18; Lk 11:1-13). Observe:
(1) Daniel's prayer was a persistent, undespairing interest (Dan 6:1-10; cf. 9:1-3). In sixty-eight
years of waiting, the prophet had not lost hope.
(2) He had determination (v. 3; cf. Lk 9:51).
(3) He was importunate (Dan 9:3. See also Mt 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 20:30-31. Cf. Lk 16:24;
(4) He showed humility. Note how he associated himself with his people in their sins (cf. Lk
18:10-14; 2 Corinthians 12:7).
(5) He made confession (esp. Dan 9:4-5. Cf. Ps 32:5; 51:4; James 5:16).
(6) He displayed submission (Dan 9:14)
(7) And engaged in petition
(8) And intercession.
Like Moses (Exodus 32:10-14; cf. Ezekiel 14:14, 20), Daniel as intercessor carried on argument with
the Almighty, on several grounds: (1) God's people were a reproach among the heathen (Dan 9:16). (2)
God was known to be merciful (v. 18). (3) God's reputation was at stake (v. 19).
(The Wycliffe Bible Commentary)
[O Lord, to us belongeth confusion ...] To all of us; to the whole people, high and low, rich and poor,
the rulers and the ruled. All had been partakers of the guilt; all were involved in the calamities
consequent on the guilt. As all had sinned, the judgments had come upon all, and it was proper that the
confession should be made in the name of all. (Barnes' Notes)
[To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness’s] Not only does righteousness belong to him
in the sense that he has done right, and that he cannot be blamed for what he has done, but mercy and
forgiveness belong to him in the sense that he only can pardon, and that these are attributes of his nature.
[Though we have rebelled against him] The word used here and rendered "though" kiy may mean
either "though" or "for." That is,
1. The passage may mean that mercy belongs to God, and we may hope that he will show it,
"although" we have been so evil and rebellious; or it may mean that it belongs to him, and
he only can show it,
2. "For" we have rebelled against him; that is, our only hope now is in his mercy, "for" we
have sinned, and forfeited all claims to his favor.
Either of these interpretations makes good sense, but the latter would seem to be most in accordance
with the general strain of this part of the prayer, which is to make humble and penitent confession.
[Neither have we obeyed the voice of the Lord] The commands of God as made known by the
prophets, Daniel 9:6. (Barnes' Notes)
[Yea, all Israel have transgressed ...] Embracing not only the tribe and the kingdom of Judah, but the
whole nation. The calamity, therefore, had come upon them all.
[Even by departing] By departing from thy commandments; or by rebellion against thee.
[That they might not obey thy voice] By refusing to obey thy voice, or thy commands.
[Therefore the curse is poured upon us] As rain descends, or as water is poured out. The "curse" here
refers to what was so solemnly threatened by Moses in case the nation did not obey God. See
[And the oath that is written in the Law of Moses ...] The word here rendered "oath" shbu’aah
means, properly, a "swearing," or "an oath;" and hence, either an oath of promise as in a covenant, or
an oath of cursing or imprecation-that is, a curse. It is evidently used in the latter sense here. See
Gesenius, "Lexicon" Daniel saw clearly that the evils which had been threatened by Moses (Deut 28)
had actually come upon the nation, and he as clearly saw that the cause of all these calamities was that
which Moses had specified. He, therefore, frankly and penitently confessed these sins in the name of
the whole people, and earnestly supplicated for mercy. (Barnes' Notes)
[And he hath confirmed his words ...] By bringing upon the people all that he had threatened in case of
their disobedience. Daniel saw that there was a complete fulfillment of all that he had said would come
upon them. As all this had been threatened, he could not complain; and as he had confirmed his words in
regard to the threatening, he had the same reason to think that he would in regard to his promises. What
Daniel here says was true in his time, and in reference to his people will be found to be true at all times,
and in reference to all people. Nothing is more certain than that God will "confirm" all the words that he
has over spoken, and that no sinner can hope to escape on the ground that God will be found to be false
to his threatening or that he has forgotten them, or that he is indifferent to them.
[Against our judges that judged us] Our magistrates or rulers.
[For under the whole heaven] In the entire world.
[Hath not been done as hath been done upon Jerusalem] In respect to the slaughter, and the captivity,
and the complete desolation. No one can show that at that time this was not literally true. The city was in
a state of complete desolation; its temple was in ruins; its people had been slain or borne into captivity.
[As it is written in the law of Moses] The word law was given to all the writings of Moses. See the
notes at Luke 24:44.
[Yet made we not our prayer before the Lord our God] Margin, "entreated we not the face of." The
Hebrew word used here chaalaah means, properly, "to be polished;" then to be worn down in strength,
to be weak; then to be sick, or diseased; then in Piel (the form used here), to rub or stroke the face of
anyone, to soothe or caress, and hence, to beseech, or supplicate. See Gesenius, "Lexicon" Here it
means, that, as a people, they had failed, when they had sinned, to call upon God for pardon; to confess
their sins; to implore his mercy; to deprecate his wrath. It would have been easy to turn aside his
threatened judgments if they had been penitent, and had sought his mercy, but they had not done it.
What is here said of them can and will be said of all sinners when the Divine judgment comes upon
[That we might turn from, our iniquities] That we might seek grace to turn from our transgressions.
"And understand thy truth." The truth which God had revealed; equivalent to saying that they might be
righteous. (Barnes’ Notes)
[Therefore hath the Lord watched upon the evil] The word here used and rendered watched -
Shaaqad - means, properly, "to wake; to be sleepless; to watch." Then it means to watch over anything,
or to be attentive to it. Jer 1:12; 31:28; 44:27. - Gesenius, "Lexicon" The meaning here is, that the
Lord had not been inattentive to the progress of things, nor unmindful of his threatening. He had
never slumbered, but had carefully observed the course of events, and had been attentive to all that they
had done, and to all that he had threatened to do. The practical "truth" taught here-and it is one of great
importance to sinners-is, that God is not inattentive to their conduct, though he may seem to be, and
that in due time he will show that he has kept an un-slumbering eye upon them. See the notes at Isa
[For the Lord our God is righteous in all his works ...] This is the language of a true penitent;
language which is always used by one who has right feelings when he reflects on the Divine dealings
toward him. God is seen to be righteous in his law and in his dealings, and the only reason why we
suffer is that we have sinned. This will be found to be true always; and whatever calamities we suffer, it
should he a fixed principle with us to "ascribe righteousness to our Maker," Job 36:3. (Barnes' Notes)
[And now, O Lord our God, that hast brought thy people forth out of the land of Egypt] In former
days. The reference to this shows that it is proper to use "arguments" before God when we plead with
him (compare the notes at Job 23:4); that is, to suggest considerations or reasons why the prayer
should be granted. Those reasons must be, of course, such as will occur to our own minds as sufficient to
make it proper for God to bestow the blessing, and when they are presented before him, it must be with
submission to his higher view of the subject. The arguments which it is proper to urge are those
1. from the Divine mercy and faithfulness;
2. from the promises of God;
3. from his former dealings with his people;
4. from our sins and misery;
5. from the great sacrifice made for sin;
6. from the desirableness that his name should be glorified.
Here Daniel properly refers to the former Divine interposition in favor of the Hebrew people, and he
pleads the fact that God had delivered them from Egypt as a reason why he should now interpose and
save them. The strength of this argument may be supposed to consist in such things as the following:
(a) In the fact that there was as much reason for interposing now as there was then; Daniel 9:15
(b) In the fact that his interposing then might be considered as a proof that he intended to be regarded as
their protector, and to defend them as his people;
(c) In the fact that he who had evinced such mighty power at that time must be able to interpose and
save them now, etc.
[And hast gotten thee renowned] Margin, "made thee a name." So the Hebrew. The idea is that that
great event had been the means of making him known as a faithful God, and a God able to deliver. As
he was thus known, Daniel prayed that he would again interpose, and would now show that he was as
able to deliver his people as in former times.
[As at this day] That is, as God was then regarded. The remembrance of his interposition had been
diffused abroad, and had been transmitted from age to age.
[We have sinned ...] This turn in the thought shows how deeply the idea of their sinfulness pressed
upon the mind of Daniel. The natural and obvious course of thought would have been, that, as God had
interposed when his people were delivered from Egyptian bondage, he would now again interpose; but
instead of that, the mind of Daniel is overwhelmed with the thought that they had sinned grievously
against one who had shown that he was a God so great and glorious, and who had laid them under such
obligations to love and serve him. (Barnes' Notes)
[O Lord, according to all thy righteousness] The word righteousness here seems to refer to all that
was excellent and glorious in the character of God. The eye of Daniel is fixed:
1. Upon what he had formerly done;
2. Upon his character of justice, and mercy, and goodness;
3. Upon the faithfulness of God to his people,
4. And, in view of all that was excellent and lovely in his character,
He pleaded that he would interpose and turn away his anger from his people now. It is the character of
God that is the ground of his plea-and what else is there that can give us encouragement when we come
before him in prayer.
[Let thine anger and thy fury be turned away ...] The anger which had come upon the city, and which
appeared to rest, upon it. Jerusalem was in ruins, and it seemed still to be lying under the wrath of God.
The word rendered fury is the common one to denote wrath or indignation. It implies no more than
anger or indignation, and refers here to the Divine displeasure against their sins, manifested in the
destruction of their city.
[Thy holy mountain] Jerusalem was built on hills, and the city in general might be designated by this
phrase. Or, more probably, there is allusion either to Mount Zion, or to Mount Moriah.
[Because for our sins ...] There is, on the part of Daniel, no disposition to blame God for what he had
done. There is no murmuring or complaining, as if he had been unjust or severe in his dealings with his
people. Jerusalem was indeed in ruins, and the people were captives in a distant land, but he felt and
admitted that God was just in all that he had done. It was too manifest to be denied that all these
calamities had come upon them on account of their sins, and this Daniel, in the name of the people,
humbly and penitently acknowledged.
[A reproach to all that are about us] All the surrounding nations. They reproach us with our sins, and
with the judgments that have come upon us, as if we were peculiarly wicked, and were forsaken of
heaven. (Barnes' Notes)
[Now, therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of thy servant] In behalf of the people. He pleaded for
his people and country, and earnestly entreated the Lord to be merciful. His argument is based:
1. On the confession of sin;
2. On the character of God;
3. On the condition of the city and temple;
4. On the former Divine interpositions in behalf of the people;
And by all these considerations, he pleads with God to have mercy upon his people and land.
[And cause thy face to shine upon thy sanctuary] Upon the temple. That is, that he would look upon it
benignly and favorably. The language is common in the Scriptures, when favor and kindness are
denoted by lifting up the light of the countenance, and by similar phrases. The allusion is originally,
perhaps, to the sun, which, when it shines brightly, is an emblem of favor and mercy; when it is
overclouded, is an emblem of wrath.
[For the Lord's sake] That is, that he would be propitious for his own sake; to wit, that his glory might
be promoted; that his excellent character might be displayed; that his mercy and compassion might be
shown. All true prayer has its seat in a desire that the glory of God may be promoted, and the excellence
of his character displayed. That is of more consequence than "our" welfare, and the gratification of
"our" wishes, and that should be uppermost in our hearts when we approach the throne of grace.
[O my God, incline thine ear, and hear] Pleading earnestly for his attention and his favor, as one does
to a man.
[Open thine eyes] As if his eyes had been closed upon the condition of the city, and he did not see it. Of
course, all this is figurative, and is the language of strong and earnest pleading when the heart is greatly
[And the city which is called by thy name] Margin, "whereupon thy name is called." The margin
expresses the sense more literally; but the meaning is that the city had been consecrated to God, and
was called his-the city of Jehovah. It was known as the place of his sanctuary-the city where his
worship was celebrated, and which was regarded as his peculiar dwelling place on the earth. Compare
Ps 48:1-3; 87:3. This is a new ground of entreaty, that the city belonged to God, and that he would
remember the close connection between the prosperity of that city and the glory of his own name.
[O Lord, hear ...] The language in this verse does not require any particular explanation. The repetition-
the varied forms of expression-indicates a mind intent on the object; a heart greatly interested; an
earnestness that cannot be denied. It is language that is respectful, solemn, devout, but deeply earnest. It
is not vain repetition, for its force is not in the "words" employed, but in the manifest fervor,
earnestness, and sincerity of spirit which pervade the pleading. It is earnest intercession and
supplication that God would hear-that he would forgive, that he would hearken and do, that he would
not defer his gracious interposition. The sins of the people; the desolation of the city; the promises of
God; the reproach that the nation was suffering-all these come rushing over the soul, and prompt to the
most earnest pleading that perhaps ever proceeded from human lips.
And these things justified that earnest pleading-for the prayer was that of a prophet, a man of God, a
man that loved his country, a man that was intent on the promotion of the Divine glory as the supreme
object of his life. Such earnest intercession; such confession of sin; such a dwelling on arguments why a
prayer should be heard, is at all times acceptable to God; and though it cannot be supposed that the
Divine Mind needs to be instructed, or that our arguments will convince God or influence him as
arguments do men, yet it is undoubtedly proper to urge them as if they would, for it may be only in this
way that our own minds can be brought into a proper state. The great argument which we are to urge
why our prayers should be heard is the sacrifice which has been made for sin by the Redeemer, and the
fact that he has purchased for us the blessings which we need.
But in connection with that it is proper to urge our own sins and necessities; the wants of our friends or
our country; our own danger and that of others; the interposition of God in times past in behalf of his
people, and his own gracious promises and purposes. If we have the spirit, the faith, the penitence, the
earnestness of Daniel, we may be sure that our prayers will be heard as his was. (Barnes' Notes)
MOSES MAIMONIDES – 11th CENTURY SAGE
‗The sole object of all the trials mentioned in Scripture is to teach man what he ought to do or believe;
so that the event which forms the actual trial is not the end desired; it is but an example for our
instruction and guidance.‘ The object of trials – from the guide for the perplexed Chapter 24 Page 304
– by Moses Maimonides. Paul the Learner
‘Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trials which is to try you…13 But rejoice…’ 1 Peter
Daniel 9:20-27 The Seventy-Weeks Prophecy
20 Now while I was speaking, praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and
presenting my supplication before the Lord my God for the holy mountain of my God, 21 yes, while I
was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused
to fly swiftly, reached me about the time of the evening offering. 22 And he informed me, and talked with
me, and said, "O Daniel, I have now come forth to give you skill to understand. 23 At the beginning of
your supplications the command went out, and I have come to tell you, for you are greatly beloved;
therefore consider the matter, and understand the vision:
24 "Seventy weeks are determined
For your people and for your holy city, THE PROPHECY
To finish the transgression,
To make an end of sins,
To make reconciliation for iniquity,
To bring in everlasting righteousness,
To seal up vision and prophecy,
And to anoint the Most Holy.
25 "Know therefore and understand,
That from the going forth of the command
To restore and build Jerusalem
Until Messiah the Prince,
There shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks;
The street shall be built again, and the wall,
Even in troublesome times.
26 "And after the sixty-two weeks
Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself;
And the people of the prince who is to come
Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary.
The end of it shall be with a flood,
And till the end of the war desolations are determined.
27 Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week;
But in the middle of the week
He shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering.
And on the wing of abominations shall be one, who makes desolate,
Even until the consummation, which is determined,
Is poured out on the desolate." NKJV
9:21. swift flight. In Isa 6 the creatures called seraphim fly, and in Zec 5 there is a vision of women
with wings who fly, but this is the only occasion when a being identified as an angel flies. Though other
supernatural creatures (the ones listed earlier, as well as cherubim) are portrayed with wings, angels
(messengers) are not, despite the artistic renditions of the past fifteen hundred years. In Mesopotamian
art protective genies are portrayed with wings, as are a variety of demons. In inter-testamental literature
the earliest reference to flying angels is in 1 Enoch 61:1 (though cherubim and seraphim are by then
included in the category). The Hebrew construction used is a complex one, and many commentators
have concluded (with good cause) that the text expresses weariness (y'p) rather than flight ('wp). (IVP)
9:21. time of the evening sacrifice. From the Israelite perspective the day ended about six o'clock in
the evening (rather than our midnight). As a result the evening sacrifice was offered late in the
afternoon, between three and four o'clock. (IVP Bible Background Commentary)
9:24. seventy sevens. A period of seven years was the sabbatical year cycle (see especially Lev 26:34-
35 and the reference to it in 2 Chronicles 36:21). Seven sabbatical year cycles constituted a Jubilee
cycle, at the end of which slaves were set free and land was returned to its proper owner (Lev 25).
Seventy sabbatical cycles equal ten Jubilee cycles. The first Jubilee cycle is distinguished here (seven
sevens in v. 25), and the last sabbatical cycle is distinguished (the seventieth week). It is clear, then,
that these numbers are laden with theological significance that gives them a schematic appearance. In
Mesopotamia the numbers seven and seventy represent a full measure of time. Schematic usage of the
term "weeks" can be seen in Jewish literature in the book of 1 Enoch (in the Apocalypse of Weeks), and
the period of seventy weeks is also found at Qumran. The schematic use of time has been referred to as
"chronography," which is to be differentiated from "chronology." (IVP Commentary)
9:24. seal up vision and prophecy. See comment on Dan 12:4. Sealing concerns authentication. The
authentication of Jeremiah's prophecy and Daniel's vision will only be accomplished when the
designated period of time passes. (IVP)
9:24. anoint the most holy. The consecration ceremony that involves anointing and purification of the
Holy of Holies in Exodus 29 (especially vv. 36-37) is sufficient background for understanding this
statement. The desecration of the holy place requires its purification. Assyrian temple inscriptions also
refer to the anointing of a temple that is to be repaired and restored by a future prince. (IVP)
9:25. word to restore and rebuild. The NIV translates this as "decree," but in its note indicates that it is
a "word"—and this usually refers to a prophetic oracle, not a royal decree. In fact the same
combination of verb and noun ("word going out") has just been used in verse 23. This identification of
the "word" is even more likely in light of the fact that Daniel is reflecting on the writing of Jeremiah,
who proclaimed the prophetic oracle concerning return and restoration in his letter to the exiles (see
comment on Dan 9:2). Notice especially Jer 29:10. The "going forth" of this word would then be dated
to sometime between 597 and 594. (IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament),
9:25-26. anointed one. It is important to note that the noun here is indefinite, thus a messiah (an
anointed one, as in the NIV note), rather than the Messiah. The prophetic literature had not yet adopted
this term as a technical term for the ideal, future Davidic king (besides this chapter, the term is used
only in the prophets in Isa 45:1, referring to Cyrus, and Hab 3:13, in a generic way). Priests and kings
were both anointed to their tasks in Israel.
Some have maintained that the two references to anointed individuals require two different anointed
1. One after the first cycle of forty-nine years (plausibly Cyrus, since he has already been
given anointed status in the prophets, though leaders of the return such as Zerubbabel or
Joshua would not be impossible);
2. The second to be cut off before the last week. This view is favored by the Hebrew
punctuation that suggests a period should be placed between the two numbers (as reflected in
the RSV) rather than after the sixty-two sevens. It was forty-nine years between the fall of
Jerusalem (586) and the decree of Cyrus (538). (IVP Bible Background Commentary:
9:25. streets and a trench. "Streets" refers to the city squares and plazas that are the major features of
city planning. This is where the public functions of the city take place, from government to merchant
activities. "Trench" can only refer to the dry moat that was a common element of a city's defenses. The
combination indicates that Jerusalem will again be a place of security and prosperity, providing all of the
civic functions of a smoothly operating urban center.
9:26. anointed one cut off. The most common identification of the cut off anointed one is Onias III,
the high priest murdered by Antiochus Epiphanes in 171 (referred to in 11:22). Many find this an
irresistible option because it initiated a seven-year period of persecution in Jerusalem that included
the desecration of the temple in 167. (IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament)
9:27. abomination of desolation. The consistent use of the noun translated "desolation" (shmm, see
also 8:13) is quite intentional. The Syrian Baal Shamem ("Lord of Heaven") was the deity whose
worship was instituted in the temple on the altar of sacrifice by the Syrian citizens who were brought
into Jerusalem by Antiochus and his military commander, Apollonius. Antiochus worshiped this deity
as Olympian Zeus. This desecration perpetrated by Antiochus served as a prototype for all future
desecrations. Even in the sixth century, however, this concept had precedent. In a work called The
Verse Account of Nabonidus the priests of Marduk list the offenses of Nabonidus that purportedly led
Marduk to dethrone him in favor of the Persian king Cyrus. Among the accusations are that he built an
abomination, a work of unholiness (a statue of the god Nanna placed in the temple of Marduk), and
ordered an end to the most important rituals (IVP Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament)
9:24: Seventy weeks [of years], that is, 490 years, the true prediction of Jeremiah according to this
interpretation (see v. 2 and notes). This interpretation is based on reading a single word in Jeremiah
25:11-12 in two different ways, as ―shav’uim) (weeks) and ―shiv’im‖ (seventy). Such close textual study
and devocalizations of texts for interpretive purposes would characterize later rabbinic interpretation.
Holy of Holies anointed, finally accomplished by Judas Maccabee in 164 BCE [BC] (1 Maccabees
4:26-59), shortly after the final editing of Daniel. [Jewish Study Bible]
9:25-26: Anointed leader…anointed one: The word anointed in vv. 25 and 26 is the Hebrew word
―mashiah‖ (Messiah); thus these verses have given rise to much Christian speculation. In the context
of the other historical references, however, the anointed leader probably refers to either Zerubbabel or
the high priest Joshua (Ezra 3:2; Haggai Chapter 1; Zechariah 6:9-15), while the anointed one is
most likely the high priest Onias 3rd, killed in 171 BCE (2 Maccabees 4:30-34). The prince is
Antiochus 4th Epiphanes. [Jewish Study Bible]
9:27: Half a week, the three and a half years of the Maccabean revolt that had transpired to that time.
See 7:25 notes; cf. 8:14. Appalling abomination, probably new altar stones placed upon the altar in the
Temple, upon which pagan sacrifices were offered (1 Maccabees 1:54; 2 Maccabees 6:5). [JSB]
Note: I wanted to first of all give you the interpretation of the text from the worldly view point, and
now I will give you the proper interpretation of the text from the view point of the Lord.
Paul the Learner
1. The Purpose of the seventy week: [Seven reasons – God’s perfect number]
(a) To finish the transgression [the reason why Judah was taken by Babylon].
(b) To make an end of sins [this could either be the sins of Judah or?].
(c) To make reconciliation for iniquity [this means to change your ways].
(d) To bring in everlasting righteousness [ could only be speaking about the sacrifice of God’s lamb]
(e) To seal up the vision [to complete this in the time of the future]
(f) And prophecy [and complete and prove that this is a true prophecy].
(g) To anoint the most Holy [there is only One who qualifies for this and that is Jesus Christ]
2. The starting point to consider:
‘…from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem – unto the Messiah the
Prince –shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks:‘ Daniel 7:25
(A) The First Period is simple, being the ―seven weeks or seven sevens,‖ which equals a period of 49
(B) The Second Period spoken of is the ―threescore and two weeks or sevens‖ which equals a period of
434 years. From 405 BC – to 29 AD. In 405 BC after the 70 years of the Babylonian Servitude we
find that Cyrus of Persia issued his decree to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem
‘Now in the first year of Cyrus King of Persia, that the word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah might
be fulfilled, the Lord stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proclamation
throughout all his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying, 2 Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The
Lord God of heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and he hath charged me to build him
an house at Jerusalem, which is in Judah.’ Ezra 1:1, 2 KJV
Here again the angel speaks about ‗the street shall be build again, and the wall even in troublous times.’
If you read the books of Ezra and Nehemiah you will find that this was fulfilled at that time.
3, ‘And after threescore and two weeks [remember that according to v. 25 it says, ‗unto the Messiah‘]
shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself…’ Daniel 9:26
(a) So we find that after 29 AD that the Messiah is to come forth and then He is to die for the sins of
the people. We find the fulfillment of this in Luke 19:41-42 ‘And when he [Jesus] was come near,
he beheld the city, and wept over it, 42 Saying, if you had known, even you, at least in this your day,
the things which belong unto your peace! But now they are hid from your eyes.’ The cutting off
clearly points to the crucifixion of there Messiah Yeshua [Jesus] of Nazareth and the rejection of
the Jewish nation of His Messianic kingdom.
(b) So after the Jewish nation rejected the kingdom what will happen next according to Jesus ‗For the
days shall come upon you, that your enemies shall cast a trench about you, and compass you round,
and keep you in on every side, 44 And shall lay your city and Temple even with the ground, and your
children within you; and they shall not leave in you one stone upon another [looking for gold];
because you did not know the time of your visitation of the Messiah.’ Luke 19:43, 44 My
interpretation Paul the Learner [Reference See Josephus on the destruction by Titus of Rome]
(c) Remember that the kings of Persia had many names – Astyages Esther 1:17 [wife was Esther – son
was Cyrus] he was also called Ahasuerus Esther 1:1 and Artaxerxes Ezra 6:14 and then also ―Darius
the Median‖ Daniel 5:33. [Ref. Herodotus, the Behistun Rock, and the Cylinder of Cyrus (Medo-
The purpose was the rebuilding of Jerusalem and the Temple and the cleansing of the Sanctuary. This is
also the end of all of the visions of Daniel in Chapters 7-12; and all the numbered ―days‖ of 7:25; 8:14;
and 12:7, 11, 12, and this cleansing was there object and there end.
The First Period = The seven sevens (or 49 years). These commence with ―the going forth of the
commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem.‖ This begins in the first month called by the Jews,
Nisan, 454 BC. Hanani‘s report to Nehemiah was made in the ninth month of Chisleu, in the year 455
BC three months before; both months being in the ―twentieth year of Artaxerxes who as we see above
is identified with the Great King Astyages who was the brother-in-law to Nebuchadnezzar. The madness
of Nebuchadnezzar lasted for seven years. So Artaxerxes had evidently in imperial matters been acting
for his brother-in-law Nebuchadnezzar. Infact this seems the reason that the decree was issued in
Shusan, and not in Babylon; and no one would have taken this on himself without some authority.
To put it in plain English:
1. In Nisan, 454 BC Astyages (i.e. Artaxerxes = the Great King) issued the decree that was
spoken of in Daniel 9:25.
2. Later, in the same year, Nebuchadnezzar‘s ―madness‖ was lifted off him. ―At the end of the
days‖ his understanding and reason returned unto him, it seems, as suddenly as they had left
him; and he thereupon issued his imperial proclamation throughout his dominions, as is
recorded in Daniel4:34-37.
3. The seven sevens therefore, meaning seven sevens of literal years, which are 49 years (454
BC to 405 BC = 49 years). Began in the year 454 BC with the decree, and end with the
completion of the walls and the dedication of the Temple in Jerusalem in the year 405 BC.
For the information on this see Ezra 6:10, 15-19.
Note: it must be remembered that the issuing of this decree took place long before Ezra appeared on the
scene; and before any of the subsequent decrees of other monarchs, which all had to do with the
construction of the Temple in Jerusalem; whereas the first decree that was issued to Nehemiah (2:1), had
to do only with the ―city‖ and the construction of its ―walls.‖
The Second time Period = which is the sixty-two sevens (or a period of 434 years). These follow on
directly from the end of the seven sevens [405 BC] of the First Period, and they will come to an end with
the cutting [killing] off of the Messiah [Jesus Christ of Nazareth]. This time period covers 405 BC to
the year 29 A.D.
So far we have spoken of a time period of 69 of the 70 weeks of years. Later we will discuss the
remaining week = 7 years. Paul the Learner
Gabriel explained that during those 490 years, the Lord would accomplish specific purposes for the
Jewish people. The Lord would “Finish the transgression,‖ that is, the transgression of the Jewish
people, and then ―makes an end of sins‖ either the sins of the nation Israel or the sin question in general.
After all this was the main burden of Daniel‘s prayer. Israel was a scattered suffering nation because she
was a sinful nation. How could God accomplish this? By making ―reconciliation for iniquity,‖ that is,
by offering a sacrifice that would truly atone for their sin. Here we come to the cross of Jesus Christ,
Israel’s Messiah. Paul the Learner
When Jesus died on the cross:
1. He died for the sins of the whole world (1 John 2:2; John 1:29), and therefore we can
proclaim the good news of the Gospel of Salvation to sinners everywhere.
2. But Jesus also died for the church (Ephesians 5:25) the Gentiles.
3. And He also died for the people of Israel, ‗For the transgression of my people was he
stricken.’ (Isaiah 53:8).
4. Jesus died for sinners in every tribe and nation (Revelation 5:9; 7:9).
5. But in a very special way, He died for His own people, the Jewish nation (John 11:44-52).
The last divine purposes focus on righteousness and the future kingdom of the Messiah‖
1. When Jesus returns, He will establish His righteous kingdom (Jeremiah 23:5-6; 31:31-34)
2. And then He will rule in righteousness (Isaiah 4:2-6).
3. In that day, the Old Testament prophecies of Israel‘s glorious kingdom will be fulfilled.
4. And there will then be no need for visions or for prophets,
5. And ―to anoint the most holy” refers to the sanctifying of the future temple that is described
in Ezekiel Chapters 40-48
Note: The nation of Israel was scattered after they had rejected the sacrifice of God, the lamb who we
call Jesus the Messiah [Christ]. So from the year 70 AD to the year 1948 AD the nation of Israel was a
nation scattered and persecuted throughout the world, they had no home land and it seemed that no
nation even wanted to be of any help to them. The Hitler of Germany during World War 2 killed over
6,000,000 of them about 1/3 rd of the Jews of the world. So then after this the United Nations agreed to
allow the nation of Israel to have there own home land which was very small in size. Now in 210 AD we
find that the nation of Israel is still alive, even though the nations around them have tried time and time
again to destroy them. The nation of Israel has finally learned there lesson, and no longer serve any
gods of wood or stone, but many of them also do not even serve the one true God who they call
[YHWH – Adonai – Jehovah].
And some have even turned to Kabbalah [mystical Judaism] for the answer that can only be found in
the acceptance of there Messiah Jesus of Nazareth. They have become disenchanted with the Holy One
blessed be He [God], who allowed Hitler to destroy so many of them. They still keep Kosher and also
the Sabbath and etc, but instead of going to the synagogue they as a nation would rather go to the beach
as I found out when I visited Israel in 1972. They allow all faiths to worship in Jerusalem but they do
not accept any Christian conversion of there people. They have a Democratic type of government and
they also pollute the water ways just like we do here in the United States. They accept homosexual
activity [even though God is against it in the Law of Moses]. They are concerned with wealth and
power instead of ―Prayer and Praise‖ I am not talking about the nation as a whole only a percentage of
them. They also have no intentions of building any Temple to God. This is the reality of our day.
There are those who continue to serve and worship God and try to obey His word. The Jews feel like
they did in the days of Jesus ‗we have Abraham for our father‘ and that there salvation rests in that
fact and also keeping the law of God. Then there are those who feel that they have reached a plain of
enlightenment and now they practice Kabbalah as the thirteenth – century Jewish sage Abraham
Abulafia said ‗Now we are no longer separated from our source, and behold we are the source and the
source is us. We are so intimately united with It, we cannot by any means be separated from It, for we
are it.” In other words, I am God and so they seek through mysticism to be like God and move in the
spiritual realm that God does. I have made this quote from the book God is a verb by David A.
Cooper. If I am a God then why do I need a Savior? Paul the Learner
Daniel 9:27 –The Third Period
‘And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week [=7 years]: and in the midst of the week
[after 3 ½ years into the week of seven years] he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease
[this took place when after 3 ½ years Titus of Rome broke through the walls of Jerusalem in 70 AD and
killed the priests who were ministering in the Temple see Josephus for reference] and for the
overspreading of abominations he shall make it [the Temple] desolate, even until the consummation,
and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate [the Jewish nation will cease to be a nation and
Jerusalem will be destroyed as well as the Temple see the words of Jesus in Matthew 24, Mark 13 and
Luke 21 for conformation and also Josephus who reported 1,100,000 died at that time].‘
So now we have only 3 ½ years left of the 70 weeks of years left. This last, or the seventieth seven is
yet future, part of it happened in the year 70 AD and the remainder will happen in the book of
Revelation 12:14 where we find that the 144,000 Jews of Rev. 7, 14 are protected from the wrath of the
beast and hidden by God because they are the remnant of Israel that God promised He would protect
from destruction, we see that the earth helps the woman [Israel] with a earthquake in Rev. 12:16. You
will no doubt notice in Revelation 12:14 the period of time called, ‗a time, and times and half a time
[3 ½ years total the time of the Great Tribulation on the earth]. Thus the full 70 weeks of years comes
to an end. The word time in the Greek is Kairos [a season, or time, a period] Paul the Learner
1. In March 14th 445 BC – Nehemiah 2:1-8) the commandment went forth. And from that 49th year
of rebuilding under Ezra and Nehemiah until threescore  and two weeks = 434 years we see
2. Our Lord Jesus going up to Jerusalem on the 8th of the month Nisan, ―six days before the Passover
which would fall on the 10th of Nisan in that year. But as the 14th on which the Paschal Supper was
to be eaten, fell that year upon a Thursday, the 8th of Nisan which was the preceding Friday. Jesus
must have spent the Sabbath therefore, at Bethany; and on the evening of the 9th of Nisan after the
Sabbath had ended. Then upon the following day which was the 10th of Nisan, we find Jesus entered
Jerusalem as is recorded in the Gospels.
Note: The Julian date (which is our calendar) of the 10th of Nisan was a Sunday the 6th of April, AD
32. What then was the length of the period intervening between the issuing of the decree to rebuild
Jerusalem and the public advent of ―MESSIAH THE PRINCE,‖ between the 14th of March in the
year 335 BC and the 6th of April in the year 32 AD?
The interval contained exactly and to the vary day 173,880 days or the period of Seven times sixty-nine
Prophetic years of 360 days of the Jewish calendar.
Note: According to the Julian calendar: 476 x 365 = 173,740 days. However, since the Julian calendar
did not yet exist when the prophecy was given, we must use the Jewish calendar to properly calculate
the exact number of days:
Add 4th of March to the 6th of April = 24 days.
Add for leap years = 116 days.
Total 173, 880 days.
Also 69 weeks of Prophetic years of 360 days (or 69 x 7 x 360 = 173,880 days) So the corrected reading
of Luke 19:42 spoken by our Lord is ‗If you also had known, even on this day, the things which belong
to your peace, but now they are hid from your eyes.’ Paul the Learner