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Hazardous waste

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 61

									     Hazardous waste



             Jan-Olov Sundqvist
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute
         Phone: + 46 8 598 56374
     E-mail: Jan-Olov.Sundqvist@ivl.se
                                               1
   IVL Swedish Environmental
       Research Institute
• Independent research institute, owned
  by both the Government and the
  Industry
• Research, development and consulting
  in all environmental field
• In Stockholm and Gothenburg
  – Stockholm: Valhallavägen 81

                                          2
                 IVL in short
• Founded 1966 after an agreement between the
  Government and the Trade / Industry
• 150 Employees, majority of employees have academic
  education
• Broad field of competence, hosting expertise suited to
  cover the cross cutting nature of environmental issues.
• Projects are often run in co-operation with universities
  and private enterprises.
• Close connection between research - consultancy
• Member in a plethora of national and international
  networks
• Accredited laboratories                                3
        Collective Competence

                Engineering   Geologist
Ecotoxologist                          Working Environment




                         Biologist
         Bio-Chemist                 Chemist



                                                     4
Meetingpoint for Environmental Issues


                                 IVL
                  Universities
     IVL
                  Industrial companies
                  Research Institutes
                  Decision makers
                  Local, regional & national agencies
                  Research Councils



                                                  5
IVL is represented troughout the world


Baltic                        Thailand
Region
                              Vietnam
Europe
                              India
Latinamerica
                              China
Africa



                                         6
Hazardous waste in EU




                        7
        Hazardous waste
• Waste with dangerous properties
• Special rules about handling of
  hazardous waste




                                    8
   What is hazardous waste
            (in EU):
• Wastes featuring on a list (List of
  Waste) Commission Decision, 3 May
  2000, (2000/532/EC)
• Any other waste that display any of the
  dangerous properties mentioned in
  Annex III in Council Directive on
  Hazardous Waste (91/689/EEC)

                                            9
                List of waste
• Commission Decision (2000/532/EC)
• List of Waste. About 900 different waste types
  (hazardous and non-hazardous) are listed
  and coded
• Hazardous wastes are marked with *
• Example:
  – 16 02 09* Transformers and capacitors containing PCBs or
    PCTs
• National supplements
                                                               10
11
        Hazardous properties
(Annex III in Hazardous Waste Directive)

•   Explosive          • Infectious
•   Oxidizing          • Teratogenic
•   Highly flammable   • Mutagenic
•   Flammable          • Substances that may
•   Irritant             release toxic gases
•   Harmful            • Substances that may
•   Toxic                give rise to leachate
                         with hazardous
•   Carcinogenic         properties
•   Corrosive          • Ecotoxic
                                                 12
    Some typical hazardous wastes
•   Oil wastes
•   Solvent wastes
•   Paint and varnish wastes
•   Acid or alcaline wastes
•   Heavy metal wastes (Hg, Cd, Pb, etc)
•   Cyanide wastes
•   PCB wastes
•   Pesticide wastes
•   Infectious wastes
•   Asbestos wastes
•   and more…….
                                           13
 EU legislation for hazardous
             waste

Framework
• Council Directive on Hazardous Waste
  (91/689/EEC)
• Council Directive on waste
  (75/442/EEC)(“Framework Directive”)


                                         14
     Legislation - Specific wastes
• Disposal of waste oils (Council Directive 75/439/EEC).
• Directives on waste from the titanium dioxide industry (Council
  Directives 78/176/EEC, 82/883/EEC and 92/112/EEC).
• Batteries and accumulators containing certain dangerous
  substances (Council Directive 91/157/EEC).
• Packaging and packaging waste (Council Directive 94/62/EC).
• The disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated
  terphenyls (PCB/PCT) (Council Directive 96/59/EC).
• Protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when
  sewage sludge is used in agriculture
• Directive on the restriction of the use of certain hazardous
  substances in electrical and electronic equipment (Council and
  European Parliament Directive 2002/95/EC )


                                                                   15
       Legislation - treatment
• Directive on the Landfill of Waste (Council Directive
  99/31/EC)
• COUNCIL DECISION establishing criteria and
  procedures for the acceptance of waste at
  landfills(2003/33/EC)
• Directive on Incineration of waste (European
  Parliament and Council Directive 2000/76/EC)




                                                          16
Legislation: transport, import,
          and export
• The supervision and control of shipments of
  waste within, into and out of the European
  Community (Council Regulation EEC No
  259/93).
• Rules and procedures applying to shipments
  of certain types of wastes to non-OECD
  countries (Council Regulation No 1420/1999
  and Commission Regulation No 1547/99)

                                                17
      Legislation - useful links
• http://europa.eu.int/scadplus/leg/en/s15002.htm gives
  an overview and links to European waste legislation.

• http://europa.eu.int/eur-
  lex/lex/en/repert/1510.htm#15103030 links to all
  European waste legislation




                                                     18
    Rules for handling of
 hazardous waste in Sweden
• Do not mix different categories of hazardous
  waste or mix hazardous waste with non-
  hazardous waste during collection, transport,
  storage, recycling or disposal.
• (However, mixing is allowed if there is
  ensured that waste is recovered or disposed
  of without endangering human health or
  environment)

                                              19
• All establishments or undertakings that
  recover, dispose or store hazardous waste
  and all producers of hazardous waste shall
  keep a record of quantity, nature, origin and,
  where relevant, destination, frequency of
  collection, mode of transport and treatment
  method
• The record must be preserved for at least 3
  years



                                                   20
• Waste must be properly packed and
  labelled in accordance with the
  international and Community standards
  in force during collection, transport and
  temporary storage
• Where hazardous waste is transferred
  it shall be accompanied by an
  identification form (transport
  document, consignment note):
   –   waste producer
   –   transporter
   –   type of waste
   –   quantity
   –   planned treatment method
   –   date

                                              21
Permission or authorisation for:

•   Transport
•   Temporary storage
•   Recycling
•   Disposal




                                   22
• Producers of hazardous waste and
  establishments or undertakings that treat or
  store hazardous waste shall be subject to
  appropriate periodic inspection by competent
  authorities.
• Competent authorities shall draw up
  hazardous waste management plans and
  shall make these plants public.




                                                 23
    Treatment of hazardous
      wastes - this lecture
1. Common Recycling methods
2. Incineration and other thermal
  treatment
3. Composting
4. Chemical treatment
5. Landfilling

                                    24
              Oil waste recycling
                  Decanting

                              Float sludge

Waste oil
                               Oil phase for refining to
                               fuel oil or lubricating oil

        Heating


                               Water phase to waste
                               water treatment plant


                                Bottom sludge




                                                         25
               Solvent recycling
Distillation




                                   26
Lead accumulators / car batteries




                                    27
         Incineration


Air                  Fluegas
Waste
        Combustion   Ash




                               28
  Air                                  Flue gas
 Waste
                                      Ash

Important parameters to obtain good oxidation
• Air excess
• Energy content of waste - (supplementary fuel)
• Temperature (dependant on air excess and energy
  content)
• Residence time


                                                    29
      Necessary temperature to obtain 99,9 % oxidation at 1 s residence time
oC

900




850




800




750




700




650




600




                                                                               30
                                           % not oxidised at different residence times

                             120




                             100
% non-oxidised in flue gas




                             80




                             60




                             40




                             20




                              0
                                   0   1           2             3                 4           5   6
                                                           Residence time at 800 oC, sekunds
                                                                                                       31
             Overview, incineration plant

Waste                       Air                  Air
                         preheating



Combustion            After combustion            Air
 chamber                  chamber



                                                Energy
   Slag                    Boiler             (hotwater or
 quenching                  Heat                 steam)
                          recovery
                                                                Chimney


                          Flue gas
                          cleaning




                           Flow gas             Clean fluegas
                         condensation-

                                 Condensate water
 Landfill
                       Water treatment




 Leachate water
                   Waste water discharge to
                    sewage or recipient
                                                                          32
           Flue gas cleaning
• Dust: cyclon, electrofilter, textile filter
• HCl: scrubber with lime or caustic soda and
  water
• SO2: scrubber with lime or caustic soda and
  water
• Hg: activated carbon, cooling
• NOx: Urea or ammonia injection, flue gas
  recirculation, catalysts


                                                33
SAKAB hazardous waste
incinerator




                                                       15. Semidry lime scrubber
                                                       16. Flue gas channel
1. Bunker          8. Furnace cooling
                                                       17. Textile filter
2. Shredder        9. Slag quench
                                                       18. Flue gas quench/cooler
3. Halon feeding   10, After combustion chamber
                                                       19. Wet scrubber
4. CFC-plant       11. Evaporator
                                                       20. Stack
5. Barrel path     12. Boiler
                                                       21- Control and regulation
6. Waste feeding   13. Turbine                         station
                                                                                 34
7. Rotary kiln     14. District heating distribution   22. Control of flue gases
SAKAB hazardous waste treatment plant




          Incineration plant
                                        35
              Municipal incineration plant
                                                                                                                                                  Emissions to air
                                                                       Energy




        Air         Secondary and                                             Electrostatic
                    tertiary air                                              precipitator
                                                 Boiler (energy recovery)
   Waste
                                    After-
                                    combustion
                                    chamber
Electricity   Feed hopper
                                                                                                                Wet
                                                                                                                scrubber


                 Combustion                                  Flyash
                 furnace                                     removal

                 Grates                                                     Fly ash                                                           Stack
                                                                            storage


                                        Slag quench tank                     Fly-ash                                           Flue gas fan
  Air                                                         Slag
                    Primary air
                    (preheated)
                                                                                                              Water cleaning
                                                                                                                 system                                      Sludge to landfill

                                                                                                                                                              Water emission




                     System borders



                                       Slag      Fly-ash                                Neutralisation
                                                                                                                                                                            36
                                                            Ammonia or urea             agent (caustic soda
                                                            for NOx-reduction           or lime)
Pyrolysis, thermal gasification
• “New” technologies (first patent 1879)
• Often discussed as alternatives to
  incineration
• Technical difficulties. Several failed
  facilities



                                           37
Pyrolysis and thermal gasification
   Combustible waste



         Gasification
                             Heat




  Tar                                 Excess gas,
                   Combustible gas   e.g. for use in
  Char
                                       oil burner

         Combustion of
           gasified           Heat
           products
                                     Excess heat



             Ash                                       38
    Thermal oxidation in water
             phase
Reaction in water phase;
  Organic material + O2 + increased temperature +
  increased pressure --> Oxidation
Wet oxidation (below the critical point of
  water)
Supercritical oxidation (above the critical
  point)
(Supercritical point of water:
218 bar, 374 C)                                     39
          Wet oxidation
Typical:
• Pressure 20 - 218 bar
• Temperature 200 - 374 C
• Residence time 15 - 60 minutes
• Reaction products: simpler
  biodegradable organic compounds

                                    40
     Supercritical oxidation
Above the critical point:
• Pressure 218 - 300 bar
• Temperature >374 - 500 C
• Residence time: 1-2 minute
• Reaction products: CO2



                               41
Waste in water         O2
          Heat exchanger    Compressor




                                 Reactor




                                           42
Supercritical oxidation




                          43
           Composting
• Some oil wastes can be composted

Organics + O2 --> CO2 + H20 + humus




                                      44
 Important for the composting
           process
• Moisture; 40 - 60 % of total weight or 80
  % of field saturation capacity.
• C/N/P (C/N = 20 - 40; C/P = 140)
• Micro-organisms
• Air



                                          45
        Composting of oil sludge
• Porous structure. Mixture with straw, saw chips, bark,
  etc
• Mixing/turning to facilitate air migration to all parts of
  the compost. Alternatively forced ventilation
• Irrigation if compost gets dry
• Addition of plant nutrients: N, P, K by chemical
  fertiliser or manure
• Addition of micro-organisms: manure, old compost



                                                          46
Windrow composting or heap
composting
  Mixed oil sludge, manure, straw




 1,5 - 3 m height
  ca 2 - 4 m width

 Turning or forced aeration
  7 - 14 days intensive composting
  3-6 months aftercomposting

  Water addition if needed           47
Landfarming, sludgefarming

          Oil sludge is spread on special fields
         Oil mixed with soil (oil 7 - 20 l/m2,år)
            Soil




                          Natural barrier material
        Drainage layer
                          (clay)
 Collection and control of water


                                                     48
Disadvantages by composting
           of oil
• 5 - 10 % of oil evaporates to air (as VOC
  Volatile Organic Compounds)
• Oil cannot be degraded to 100 %
• Compost can not be used for cultivation
  (often used as cover on landfills)




                                              49
          Chemical treatment
• Idea:
  – convert the waste so it can be
     • recycled
     • landfilled in a safe way
     • emitted to the environment




                                     50
     Chemical treatment of liquid
         inorganic wastes
• Precipitation to solid material
  – hydroxid: Pb2+ + OH- --> Pb(OH)2
  – sulphide: Pb2+ + S 2- --> PbS
                Fällningskemikalie
                (lut, kalk, sulfid)
       Avfall

        Me++
                            Filterpress


                          Filterkakor Vatten
                        Dewatered sludge Water to control´,
                                       kontroll
                          30 % TS
                           landfill
                        totill deponi    treatment and
                                       rening
                                       avlopp
                                         discharge
                                                              51
               Redox-reactions
• Cyanide oxidation: CN- --> CO2 + N2
              Lut
          Caustic   Oxidationsmedel
                     Hypochlorite       Syra
                                       Acid
          soda        ex hypoklorit
                    tNaClO

     Waste
      Avfall                            CO 2
      CN -                              N2


                    CNO -
                              Vatten till
                              Waste water vidare
                               behandling eller
                               till avlopp

                                                   52
          Redox-reactions
• Reduction of Cr(VI)
                Reduktionsmedel
                Reduction agent,          Fällning
                                          Caustic
                t ex bisulfit
                bisulphite, sulphur          kalk, lut
                                          soda or lime
                dioxide
      Waste
       Avfall
       Cr(VI)


                Cr 3+              Cr(OH) 3




                            Filterpress


                           Filterkakor Vatten
                                          Water
                        Dewatered sludgekontroll to control´,
                        to 30 % TS
                           landfill       treatment and
                                        rening
                           till deponi                          53
                                        avlopp
                                          discharge
              Landfilling
Requirements on waste:
• <10 % organic material and < 6 % TOC
• limited leaching of metals and salts with
  standardised leaching tests
Requirement on landfill
• <5 litres/m2,year leachate production

                                          54
Final or
temporary                      Landfill in operation
cover




                                                             Geological
                                                              barrier
    Bottom sealing
                      Collection and treatment of leachate




                                 Landfill after operation
Final cover




                                                              Geological
                                                               barrier
 In course of time leaking
 bottom sealing

                                                     Geological barrier: residence time
                                                     < 200 years for hazardous waste
                                                                                 55
                                                     landfills
Landfill for hazardous waste                             Soil cover

                                                        Drainage

                                                        Plastic sealing
                                                        Mineral barrier
                                                        material (clay)
                                                        Levelling

                                                        Waste
Upstream ditch
                               Collection of leachate




                                      Waste
                                      Drainage

                                      Plastic sealing
                                      Clay, bentonite        56
Landfill at SAKAB, Sweden




                            57
          Monofill deposit
• Cement material that are mixed with
  inorganic waste to form a stable, solid
  concrete material
  – 60 - 70 % inorganic waste
  – 30 -40 % Monofil activator
  – water
• Final product K<10-9 m/s, but sensitive
  to freezing
                                            58
Monofill

Cover with soil (to protect against ground frost)




       Monofillstabilised wastel




                                                    59
Treatment of fluorescent tubes




               Metal scrap to                    Glass tubes to recycling
               recycling                         of glass (to new
                          Lightning powder
                          to stabilisation and   fluorescent tubes)
                          landfill

                                                                  60
Mercury wastes




                 61

								
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