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					 1              Integrated Pest Management (IPM),
 2            Best Management Practices (BMP) Plan
 3                           Desert Willows Golf Resort
 4                     Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program
 5                                            County of Riverside
 6
 7                            PLEASE VISIT WEB SITE FOR DETAILS:
 8            http://www.prusaassociates.com/DesertWillow/Audubon_Cooperative_Sanctuary.html
 9
10                                                     Developed by:
11                                                  James G. Prusa
12                                Calif. Agricultural Pest Control Adviser -- License AA 03902
13                         Calif. Licensed Pesticide Qualified Applicator QAL – License QL 34111
14
15                                               February 2006
16
17
18
19   I. Introduction
20
21   The management of a golf course today and in the future requires that sound
22   management practices are utilized that are scientifically credible, financially
23   accountable, and environmentally defensible. In order to achieve these goals,
24   each property must be carefully explored to assess its unique needs that take
25   into consideration expectations, climate and an array of local impacts.
26   Additionally, regular periodic reexamination of pest management practices
27   should be an ongoing process in order to develop and respond to all such factors
28   that, as the vagaries of nature provides, best responds to the dynamics involved.
29
30   In anticipation of the obtaining Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program status
31   of Desert Willows Golf Resort in 2006, this initial Integrated Pest Management
32   (IPM) program to establish Best Management Practices (BMP) is provided. It
33   can definitely be expected that revisions of this plan will and must take place as
34   planted turf grass biosphere matures.
35
36   II. The Site
37
38   Desert Willows Golf Resort is located in an inland desert area of southern
39   California. The plant community biome is classified as Sonoran Desert,
40   subdivision Colorado biome. The site is composed of gently rolling sandy dunes
41   and desert washes in the County of Riverside, California. The golf courses are
42   largely artificially constructed out of native sand soils, state-of–art construction
43   methods have been utilized, proper turf varietals have been selected to minimize
44   maintenance as well as water consumption, and the best possible irrigation



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     James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
45   technology is employed with the intention of efficiently utilizing and recycling
46   effluent, reduced quality water through irrigation.
47
48   The golf course is adjacent to urbanized areas of the City of Palm Desert, but yet
49   not that far removed from the great Sonoran desert of the southwest. The native
50   plant community falls within the botanical classification of Creosote Bush Scrub
51   dominated by Larrea tridentate.
52
53   The native soils of the site are predominantly sandy. Due to the low Buffer pH of
54   these sandy soils, care must be given to thoughtfully select fertilizer formulations
55   so as to not widely swing soil pH and significantly impact available nutrients
56   caused by insoluble precipitates resulting in making nutrients unavailable from
57   such pH fluctuations.
58
59   Large turf area soils of Desert Willows Golf Resort are composed of native
60   sands. Initial agricultural nutrient analysis indicates that these are fairly high
61   infiltration soils, with a fairly alkali range prior to amending and a fairly low Buffer
62   pH. Putting greens rootzones were originally engineered per state-of-the-art
63   specifications with imported sand – but have been impacted by varying
64   maintenance regimes since the courses opened. Over the last two (2) years, a
65   well conceived maintenance regime of proper cultural practices has been
66   effectively managed with superb results in root-zone uniformity.
67
68   Desert Willows Golf Resort is irrigated with a state-of-the-art, computer
69   controlled, irrigation system with individual head controls. Irrigation water is
70   sourced from local wells of the high quality water from the Coachella Aquifer and
71   is increasingly blended with effluent as development builds out. Well water
72   quality is moderately alkali with no significant threat posed from moderately low
73   concentrations of sodium (Na). The irrigation water analysis for Desert Willows
74   Golf Resort is certainly classified as „hard water‟ – and the old agricultural adage
75   of “hard water, makes for soft land” has applied here. Hard water is favorable for
76   turf growth. Water quality of effluent, of course, is slightly degraded from the
77   primary potable water, but has improved nutrient content.
78
79   Environmental concerns have been mitigated with the inclusion of natural buffer
80   areas throughout the property. Water quality factors require sound management
81   and cultural practices to keep soils and nutrients within healthy plant growth
82   balances.
83
84   III. Pest Control Operating Policy
85
86   While pests of structures and landscapes can pose significant threats for people,
87   property and the environment, so too can pesticides. Therefore it is the
88   operating policy of Desert Willows Golf Resort to employ an Integrated Pest




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 89   Management (IPM), Best Management Practices (BMP) approach that reduces
 90   the need and use of pesticides to a level of use that is minimally required.
 91
 92   Pests – are those populations of living organisms (animals, plants, or
 93   microorganisms) that interfere with use of the golf course site for human
 94   purposes. Strategies for managing pest populations will be influenced by the pest
 95   species and whether that species poses a threat to people, property, or the
 96   environment.
 97
 98   Pest Management – includes any measures or methods taken to control the pest.
 99
100   Pests will be managed to:
101
102            Reduce any potential human health hazard or to protect against a
103             significant threat to public safety. This has become increasingly important
104             in Riverside County with the advent of threats such as Lyme Disease,
105             West Nile Virus, Hantavirus, and Arenavirus.
106            Prevent loss of, or damage to, the golf course, structures or property.
107            Prevent pests from spreading into the community, or to plant and animal
108             populations beyond the site.
109            Enhance the quality of life for residents, golfers and others.
110            Preserve the aesthetic quality of the golf course so as to protect the
111             property value and investment of Desert Willows.
112
113   Integrated Pest Management Procedures
114
115   IPM procedures will determine when to control pests and whether to use
116   mechanical, physical, chemical, cultural, or biological means. While Best
117   Management Practices (BMP) cannot provide 100% perfect results at all times,
118   IPM practitioners must depend on current, comprehensive information on the
119   pest and its environment to employ the best available pest control methods.
120   Applying IPM principles prevents unacceptable levels of pest activity and
121   damage by the most economical means and with the least possible hazard to
122   people, property, and the environment.
123
124   The choice of using a pesticide will be based on a review of all other available
125   options and a determination that these options are not acceptable or are not
126   feasible. Cost or staffing considerations alone will not be adequate justification
127   for use of chemical control agents, and selected non-chemical pest management
128   methods will be implemented whenever possible to provide the desired control. It
129   is the policy of Desert Willows Golf Resort to utilize IPM principles to manage
130   pest populations adequately. The full range of alternatives, including the option of
131   taking „no action,‟ will be considered.
132




      Desert Willows                                                            Page 3 of 31
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133   When it is determined that a pesticide must be used in order to meet important
134   management goals, the least hazardous* material will be chosen. The application
135   of pesticides is subject to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
136   (7 United States Code 136 et seq.), State of California and local laws, policies
137   and procedures of Desert Willows Golf Resort, Environmental Protection Agency
138   regulations in 40 Code of Federal Regulations, Occupational Safety and Health
139   Administration regulations.
140
141   Staff, guests, residents, pest managers, and the public will be educated about
142   potential pest problems and the IPM policies and procedures to be used to
143   achieve the desired pest management objectives.
144
145   Record Keeping
146
147   Records of pesticide use shall be maintained on site to meet the requirements of
148   the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR), the Riverside County
149   Agricultural Commissioner and other authorities. Records must be current and
150   accurate if IPM is to work. In addition, pest surveillance data sheets that record
151   the number of pests or other indicators of pest populations are to be maintained
152   to verify the need for treatments.
153
154   Notification
155
156   The Desert Willow operator, Kemper Sports Management, is also a State of
157   California licensed Pest Control Business and takes the responsibility to notify
158   the staff and guests of upcoming pesticide treatments as required by law. Notices
159   will be posted in designated areas at the golf course and sent to residents who
160   wish to be informed in advance of pesticide applications.
161
162   Pesticide Storage and Purchase
163
164   Pesticide purchases will be limited to the amount authorized for use during the
165   year. Pesticides will be stored and disposed of in accordance with the Federal
166   EPA / Calif. DPR registered label * directions and other state regulations.
167   Pesticide must be stored in an appropriate, secure site not accessible to students
168   or unauthorized personnel.
169
170   Pesticide Applicators
171
172   Pesticide applicators must be educated and trained in the principles and
173   practices of IPM and the use of pesticides approved by Kemper Sports (a
174   licensed State of California Pest Control Business), and they must follow
175   regulations and label precautions. Applicators should be minimally certified by
176   the State of California or supervised by a certified applicator and comply with this
177   IPM policy, Pest Management Plan and DPR requirements.


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178
179          * Precautionary statements are required on all pesticide labels. Signal words
180          indicate the level of acute toxicity, the hazard to humans posed by the pesticide
181          product. Every label bears the child hazard warning: Keep Out of Reach of
182          Children.
183
184
185
186   IV. Designated Pest Management Authorities
187
188   Kemper Sports Management, a licensed Pest Control Business in the State of
189   California, shall be the pest management authority for Desert Willows Golf
190   Resort.
191
192   Pest Manager – the onsite pest manager for Desert Willows Golf Resort will be
193   the employed Golf Course Superintendent who shall also be at least certified as
194   a Qualified Pesticide Applicator (QAC) in Category „B‟ (Landscape Maintenance)
195   or above. The Golf Course Superintendent will work to assure a collaborative
196   decision making process is maintained to include the Desert Willows Golf Resort
197   General Manager and other regional Kemper Sports management personnel.
198
199   The Pest Manager will assure that staff, guests and others are provided
200   adequate information on IPM and will encourage their participation in the
201   planning to include such matters as reporting on pest occurrences, sanitation,
202   inspecting, identifying and monitoring.
203
204   V. Pest Management Safety Objectives
205
206   The safety objectives of this IPM, Best Management Practices plan are :
207
208     1. To prohibit injury to staff, guests and others.
209     2. To maintain the integrity of structures, grounds and property.
210     3. To provide as safe a golf course and related facilities as possible.
211     4. To manage pests which occur in order to prevent interference with the safe
212        enjoyment of the golf course or the aesthetic value of the property.
213     5. To minimize the threat of toxic chemical transportation via runoff, interflow,
214        or deep percolation, based on best management for golf courses particularly
215        located in environmentally sensitive areas.
216
217   VI. Selection of proper turf grass cultivars
218
219   A basic Best Management Practice is choosing the right grass species for the
220   location and purpose. Success with any IPM program is dependent upon the
221   selection of the best turf grass cultivar for minimizing plant stress and influencing
222   environmental pressures – and those most pest resistant. At Desert Willows Golf



      Desert Willows                                                                 Page 5 of 31
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223   Resort, improved cultivars have been selected that have been breed to provide
224   the best possible disease resistance, drought tolerance, wear, recovery, weed
225   competition, and that will provide golf playability year round. Overall grasses
226   have been selected for reduced input of all management practices including
227   irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers.
228
229   GREENS. Desert Willows Golf Resort putting greens were originally planted with
230   a unique, hybrid Bermudagrass called „Tifdwarf.‟ Tifdwarf is a hybrid cross of
231   Cynodon transvaalensis X Cynodon dactylon and it is genetically suited for the
232   close mowing conditions of golf putting greens. While Tifdwarf is extremely heat
233   and drought tolerant, it does require being overseeded with cool season grasses
234   in order to maintain winter putting greens.
235
236   TEES, FAIRWAYS, ROUGHS. The Desert Willows Golf Resort playing surfaces
237   outside of the greens are also established with hybrid Bermudagrass that has
238   been selected to reduce inputs, provide wear resistance, heat tolerance and
239   drought tolerance. Under golf course cultivation caution must be employed so as
240   to apply requisite irrigation – and over watering must strictly be avoided in order
241   to prevent pest occurance.
242
243   NATIVE – NATURALIZED DESERT AREAS. Protected and re-established
244   native areas are being naturalized with the planting of a blend of xerophyte plant
245   species that occur in the native Creosote bush plant community. Once
246   established, minimal irrigation reaches these buffer areas around and throughout
247   the golf course proper. Maintenance inputs on such areas is minimized.
248   However, a weed eradication effort and maintenance via mechanical cultivation
249   is necessary to support these areas to a nearly self sustaining habitat for native
250   species of animals.
251
252   Overall, a scientifically based selection process has determined the „best‟
253   possible turf grass species for the playing areas of Desert Willows Golf Resort.
254   Best Management Practices must focus on not over-managing maintenance –
255   the most sensitive focus must be on well controlled irrigation accompanied by a
256   regime of proven cultural practices.
257
258   VII. Scouting, Predicting, Inspecting, Monitoring, and Identifying
259
260   After the proper selection of grass cultivars, the next Best Management Practice
261   (BMP) with successful IPM is properly recognizing and identifying a pest. At
262   Desert Willows Golf Resort it will be the primary responsibility of the Golf Course
263   Superintendent to insure this BMP.
264
265   SCOUTING. A golf course is a large amount of acreage where pests may easily
266   go unnoticed before threshold limits are reached. To avoid this, regular
267   „scouting‟ of the property must be done on a regular, routine and thorough basis.


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268   While broad „delegation‟ can be employed to support this effort, the Golf Course
269   Superintendent needs to be the primary and accountable scout who assures that
270   a routine scouting route is tracked and repeated daily throughout the property.
271   The Golf Course Superintendent can train and educate others to supplement,
272   assist, or conduct the scouting – and it is encouraged to employ staff and other
273   interested parties to report any emerging pest problems. However, a formal
274   “daily” scouting of the property needs to be undertaken and also properly
275   recorded in writing and filed as a reference record. The Golf Course
276   Superintendent should create a daily scouting report form (Form 1.) or similar log
277   after initially becoming familiar with the Desert Willows Golf Resort property and
278   structures – the record may be in writing or kept electronically (with reliable back-
279   up procedures).
280
281   PREDICTING. Once the Golf Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) becomes
282   familiar with the Desert Willows Golf Resort, predicting outbreaks of certain pests
283   becomes feasible. Utilizing historic scouting records and predictive computer
284   modeling (such as Degree-Day models specific to certain pests), pest outbreaks
285   can, and should be anticipated. Obtaining predictive pest management computer
286   models (i.e. Degree Day) as add-ons to the irrigation management software
287   should be considered as they are available.
288
289   INSPECTING, MONITORING, IDENTIFYING. The Golf Course Superintendent
290   needs to assure that proper inspection and monitoring of pest outbreaks is
291   constant. Field inspection of manifested symptoms provides clues to pest
292   identification, but in many cases the only way to ascertain the identify of turf
293   grass disease organisms is to have a reputable laboratory inspect and culture the
294   pathogen. Samples of any pest (weed, insect, fungus, feces) that is not
295   absolutely identified must be immediately sent to a proper lab. In the case of turf
296   grass diseases, collected samples should be sent overnight to the attention of Dr.
297   Frank Wong at the University of California, Turf Disease Diagnostic Lab at
298   Riverside: http://ucrturf.ucr.edu
299           Assistance with pest identification for weeds and insects can be obtained
300   through the County of Riverside Agricultural Commissioner‟s office. For vectors
301   and vermin the SLO County Health Department can be contacted.
302
303   Recognizing and properly identifying pests must be confidently achieved by the
304   Pest Manager before any corrective action is selected and executed.
305
306   VIII. Setting Action Thresholds
307
308   A proper IPM process requires that after the Best Management Practices (BMP)
309   of selecting the best turf cultivars and properly identifying pests, the next BMP to
310   be employed is assigning threshold damage limits for pests at which pest control
311   actions are to be executed.
312


      Desert Willows                                                           Page 7 of 31
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313   Action Thresholds (AT) for golf courses are unique to each individual golf course
314   property. In a marketing sense, AT is a factor similar to quality control assurance
315   (QA) in manufacturing production. AT in areas of agriculture such as food
316   production must place an emphasis on health and safety factors as well as the
317   aesthetic. In golf course management, aesthetic factors are of primary concern
318   and these dictate economic and financial factors. AT for golf courses, just as QA
319   in manufacturing or pest management AT in food and fiber production are related
320   to significant health and market factors.
321
322   Desert Willows Golf Resort is created as a world-class, very high quality
323   property. Aesthetic quality conditions have been achieved through considerable
324   investment of capital by the City of Palm Desert and others. Significant
325   economic impacts to the golf course business, adjacent residences, as well as
326   the local and county economy can be impacted greatly by aesthetic damage to
327   the golf course caused by pests. Damage to specific areas of the golf course (for
328   example, putting greens) or large areas of turf damage would result in significant
329   financial losses in both direct and residual damages. Thus, aesthetic and
330   economic pest damage thresholds dictate setting AT to very sensitive, low levels
331   at Desert Willows Golf Resort.
332
333   Action Thresholds (AT) are developed and implemented for pests below which
334   no pesticide applications is used, in order to reduce the use of pesticides
335
336   AT – Putting Greens. At Desert Willows Golf Resort, as with most golf courses,
337   the putting greens have the lowest tolerance of pest damage. With putting green
338   costs as high as ~$200 per square foot, AT for the greens must be extremely
339   low. The observed presence of any thinning turf cover, visible symptoms of turf
340   disease, physical blemishes from invertebrate or vertebrate pests, or virtually any
341   weeds (that can not be hand picked) will suffice to achieve AT on putting greens.
342   Additionally, the use of scientifically based predictive models may, at times,
343   prescribe the preventative application of a fungicide or insecticide – however,
344   such preventative chemical applications shall not be practiced as a matter of
345   routine, but as a matter of exception. Golf courses under the operational
346   management of KemperSports exist that have successfully maintained high
347   quality turf with as little as one complete fungicidal application in two years times
348   – it is a doable objective.
349
350   AT – Tees. The tees at Desert Willows Golf Resort are also very high priority
351   aesthetic areas. AT levels for the tees need to be close to those established for
352   the greens, but tolerance of minor blemishes and wear is more acceptable.
353
354   AT – FAIRWAYS and ROUGHS. The large turf areas of the golf course,
355   fairways and roughs, must have an AT that requires excellent overall conditions.
356   These large turf areas in play must be predominantly free of weeds and of
357   damage caused by insects or disease pests. While minor blemishes throughout


      Desert Willows                                                           Page 8 of 31
      James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
358   these areas and occasionally off-color areas of isolated turf are generally
359   acceptable, weed tolerance must be minimal to prevent perpetuating seed
360   production. Allowing weed pressure to get a foothold will result in many
361   subsequent years of persistent weed pest problems.
362
363   AT – Native, Naturalized, and Retention Areas. The AT of the naturalized and
364   retention areas of the property will have a very high level.
365
366   AT – Vector. AT levels for vector pest management must, these days, be set at
367   near zero tolerance due to such vector borne diseases as Lyme Disease, West
368   Nile Virus (WNV), Plague, and others potential diseases that have manifested in
369   California and the County of Riverside. The County of Riverside Health
370   Department has a semi-active vector control effort involving the use of vector
371   population traps that must serve as the basis for maintaining very low AT. The
372   county mosquito abatement program provides some biological bait controls as
373   well. The county Health Department shall be utilized in setting vector AT levels.
374   Due to the special nature of vector control programs, the Golf Course
375   Superintendent (Pest Manager) and the property General Manager shall confer
376   to consider contracting a specializing, licensed Agricultural Pest Control Operator
377   to conduct necessary aspects of vector control.
378
379   AT – Structure and Health. AT levels for the structures of Desert Willows Golf
380   Resort as related to wood destroying pests (termites, molds) must also be set at
381   very low levels. Additionally, AT related to health issues (vermin and flies) shall
382   also be set at very low levels and are substantially controlled by the County
383   Health Department. BMP for prevention of pests is mandatory in this regard.
384   Due to the special nature of structural and health pest control programs, the Golf
385   Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) and the property General Manager shall
386   confer to consider contracting a special, licensed Structural Pest Control
387   Operator to conduct necessary aspects of this pest control.
388
389   IX. Developing and Applying IPM Best Management Practices
390
391   Critical Components
392
393   In order to achieve the goals defined by this plan for Desert Willows Golf Resort,
394   critical components must be included in the development and application of the
395   IPM Best Management Practices (BMP). These critical components include the
396   following items:
397
398        a.) Cultural practices, fertilization, and irrigation practices must be carefully
399            developed and implemented in a manner that provides integration with all
400            aspects of IPM.
401        b.) Action Thresholds (AT) must be established and respected, below which
402            no pesticides will be applied.


      Desert Willows                                                             Page 9 of 31
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403        c.) When AT is reached and pesticide applications are required, the use of
404            specific products that are less mobile, less toxic and less persistent in the
405            environment will be utilized as first of choice.
406        d.) The use of scientifically proven, alternate pest control products or
407            strategies that impact less on beneficial organisms will be employed when
408            possible and as recommended by the University of California Extension.
409        e.) Based strictly upon Calif. Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR)
410            regulations and pesticide labels, minimum recommended application rates
411            will be used to reduce hazards to beneficial organisms.
412        f.) The Desert Willows Golf Resort will be managed as a Water Quality
413            Management Zone with relation to achieving pest control objectives,
414            irrigation, meeting target soil fertility parameters, maintaining plant / turf
415            grass health, and achieving golf use requirements when planning
416            pesticide applications.
417
418   Required Methods
419
420   As part of BMP at Desert Willows Golf Resort the following methods will be
421   required:
422
423        a.)     Spot treatments will be preferred over broadcast applications whenever
424                feasible.
425        b.)     Methods will be sought and utilized which quickly incorporate pesticides
426                into the soil or provide systemic adsorption into the turf plant in order to
427                reduce runoff.
428        c.)    The use of proper safety equipment and practices that minimally meet,
429               and preferably exceed, label and DPR requirements shall be utilized at
430               all times.
431        d.)    All spray equipment will be properly maintained, sanitized and calibrated
432               for appropriate application rates and volumes.
433        e.)    All unused chemicals and containers will be properly handled and
434               disposed of per label and DPR requirements.
435        f.)    The use of chemigation for the application of „pesticides‟ is prohibited.
436        g.)    Very high levels of care shall be provided in the handling of toxic
437               materials and chemicals especially in areas subject to runoff.
438        h.)    Pesticide formulations shall be selected that minimize the risks
439               associated with loss from runoff, leaching, and volatilization (preferred
440               formulations include such as controlled release, encapsulated granules
441               & micro-granules, dusts, wettable powders).
442        i.)    Spray adjuvants (spreaders, stickers, wetting agents) will be used as
443               permitted by label and DPR regulations to enhance pesticide efficacy
444               and to minimize risks as delineated in item „h.‟ above.
445        j.)    Pesticide application will be carefully controlled as dictated by weather
446               and environmental conditions.




      Desert Willows                                                              Page 10 of 31
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447        k.) Prior to the application of any pesticide, an assessment will be made as
448            to the potential exposure for transport of the chemical off-target-site.
449        l.) A routine course monitoring plan shall be established and maintained
450            that consistently and uniformly tracks pest infestations.
451        m.) A detailed public notification form (Form 2.) shall be posted as required
452            by the label or DPR.
453        n.) Proper posting and enforcement of re-entry periods shall be maintained
454            per label and DPR (Form 3.)
455        o.) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) shall be on file (in a three-ring
456            binder that shall be kept current, replicated and located in the
457            Administrative Office and Maintenance Office) and made available to the
458            staff, guest and public as required by law.
459        p.) A detailed record of all pest control actions, including but not limited to
460            pesticide applications shall be kept (Form 4.).
461        q.) A follow-up report form that records and evaluates the results of pest
462            control actions shall be maintained and kept on file (Form 5.)
463
464   Hazardous Materials
465
466   In order to minimize the use of hazardous materials and the need for pesticides,
467   Desert Willows Golf Resort has been designed and planted with landscape and
468   turf species with minimum maintenance inputs in mind. Additionally, state-of-the-
469   art technology is employed in its irrigation design and system controls to provide
470   the flexibility to match water application rates with the sandy soil percolation
471   rates, thus avoiding runoff. Towards the end of minimizing the use of chemicals,
472   the following methods will be employed to an economically feasible degree:
473
474        a.) Provisions for hand weeding will be employed to help keep weed pressure
475            reduced.
476        b.) Hand „dabbing‟ should be employed as much as possible as a post-
477            emergence weed control method using the least hazardous material.
478        c.) Irrigation shall be applied to minimize runoff while encouraging deep
479            rooting of turf.
480        d.) Appropriate cultural practices will be employed to minimize stress on turf
481            that include: multiple aerification of turf areas during the year, frequent-
482            light topdressing of greens & tees utilizing sand, use of controlled release
483            nitrogen fertilizers, frequent monitoring of soil pH & nutrients and plant
484            tissue.
485
486   XI. Evaluating IPM Results
487
488   A final key to the success of any IPM program is the Best Management Practice
489   (BMP) of determining and evaluating the results of all pest control actions taken.
490   With this in mind the Golf Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) shall conduct,
491   or cause to be conducted, a routine post pest control action assessment and


      Desert Willows                                                          Page 11 of 31
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492   evaluation. Such shall be recorded on a form (Form 5.) and be maintained as a
493   facility record.
494
495   The Golf Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) will compose a monthly, written
496   summary of pest occurrences, actions and results compiled from the various
497   forms and report such to management.
498
499   XIII. Record Keeping and Forms
500
501   The following forms are provided as minimal outlines for BMP reporting and
502   record keeping. As Calif. DPR requirements are under constant evaluation,
503   amended or new regulations may dictate the need for additional information and
504   record keeping. The Golf Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) will be
505   responsible for updating such records as required by Calif. DPR or other laws
506   and regulations.
507                                   INSERT FORMS:
508   _______________________________________________________________
509                        [Form 1. Scouting Report]
510
511                      Form To Be Established By Golf Course Superintendent
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536


      Desert Willows                                                            Page 12 of 31
      James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
537   ______________________________________
538                   [Form 2. Notification]
539
540
541
542                      WARNING
543
544
545
                 PESTICIDE-TREATED AREA
546                                           ADVERTENCIA
547                                    AREA TRATADA CON PESTICIDA
548
         NAME OF PESTICIDE                                                      NOMBRE DEL PESTICIDA
549
       1                                                             1
550    2                                                             2
551    3                                                             3
552    4                                                             4
553   MANUFACTURER'S NAME; USEPA                                          NOMBRE DEL FABRICANTE; No. DE
      REGISTRATION No.                                                    REGISTRO DE USEPA
554    1                                                             1
555    2                                                             2
556    3                                                             3
       4                                                             4
557
558    INTENDED APPLICATION DATE                                     FECHA PROPUESTA DE APLICACION
559
560           APPLICATION DATE                                           FECHA DE LA APLICACION
561
      TREATED AREAS; REASON FOR TREATMENT                            AREAS TRATADAS; RAZON DE LA APLICACION
562
563
564   Property Name:                                                         Nombre de la Property:
565
566
567
568
                                       ALWAYS BE SAFE
      1. If you need more information ask                                 1. Si necesita más información pregunte
569      Name:                                                               Nombre:
570      Title:                                                              Título:
571   2. Do not play on the treated area                                  2. No juegue en el área tratada
572   3. Wash your hands and exposed skin                                 3. Lávese las manos y la piel expuesta si
573      if you touch the treated area                                       usted toca el área tratada
574
575
      For record keeping only :
576
      Amount of Pesticide Used:
577
578
579
580
581


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582
583                                   [Form 3. Re-Entry Posting]
584
585                      Form To Be Established By Golf Course Superintendent
586
587
588   _______________________________________________________________
589                    [Form 4. Pest Control Use Report]
590                   FORM 4. -- PEST CONTROL USE REPORT
591   Under the full use reporting regulations, growers are required to report monthly the pesticides
592   they use to the agricultural commissioner of the county in which the pest control work was done.
593   Commercial pest control operators are required to report the use of pesticides to the county
594   agricultural commissioner within seven days of completion of the application. The following
595   information must be reported for each pesticide application in production agriculture:
596         month and year of the application(s):
597         county in which work was done:
598         geographic location including the section, township, range, base, and meridian:
599         field location:
600         operator ID/permit number:
601         operator name and address:
602         applicator name and address:
603         site ID:
604         commodity/crop/site treated:
605         acres or units planted:
606         acres or units treated:
607         date and time of application:
608         application method (air, ground, other):
609         U.S. EPA/California pesticide registration number1 of the pesticide product
610           applied:
611          pesticide product name and manufacturer:
612          amount of product applied:
613          person who prepared the report:
614   Operator Identification Before buying or using pesticides in production agriculture
615   (golf course management), every property operator is required to obtain a unique operator
616   ID from each county in which pesticides will be used. This 11-digit number represents:
      XX        - reporting county (where work is performed);
      XX        - calendar year;
                - home county2 (county where grower obtains the first operator
      XX
                identification number);
      XXXXX - unique operator ID number assigned by the home county.
617   When operating in multiple counties, the grower or operator of the property must obtain a
618   grower ID from each county. In this case, the last seven digits (home county and operator
619   ID) obtained from the county in which the operator first registered is carried over and
620   used by all additional counties. Only the first two digits (reporting county) would change.



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621   Site Identification A site ID must be obtained from the county agricultural commissioner
622   for each location or field where pesticides will be used. This site ID is recorded on the
623   restricted material permit or other approved form. Location-specific information (section,
624   township, range) and commodity/crop specific information are recorded in the county
625   database for each site. Maps for each site/field are filed with the permit and/or operator
626   ID in the county agricultural commissioner offices to help definitively locate sites.
627   Although there were no uniform statewide guidelines for issuing site IDs, generally two
628   methods that meet local needs evolved during the first few years:
629       1. In some counties, commissioners assign a site ID to a physical plot of ground and
630            each crop grown that year on that plot (for example, wheat, corn, and tomatoes in
631            rotation) is assigned the same site ID, e.g., 01010001. Operators can carry site IDs
632            over from year to year if there are no changes in the field boundaries or type of
633            plantings. The rationale is that the data is more valuable to the county if it can be
634            related to specific pieces of land for historical and investigative purposes.
635       2. In other counties, the commissioner assigns a new site ID for each crop rotation.
636            For example, each successive planting will have sequential IDs, e.g., 01010001,
637            01010002, 01010003. The first six digits represent the specific plot of ground; the
638            last two digits represent the crop rotation or planting, e.g., "broccoli-lettuce-bok
639            choy." The site IDs are often reissued each year.
640   DPR adapted the site ID systems from the restricted materials permit system to reduce the
641   impact of the new requirements on county and State data systems. It was not until use
642   reporting data were used more extensively for trend analyses in the mid 1990s that DPR
643   fully appreciated the need for county uniformity in the definition of site IDs. (See Section
644   8 for discussion of how DPR is revising the site ID system to use geographic information
645   system [GIS] identifiers.)
646         _______________
647
            1
648            All pesticides must be registered by U.S. EPA before they can be registered in
649         California. In addition, California also requires the registration of spray adjuvants
650         (substances added to enhance the efficacy of a pesticide) including emulsifiers,
651         spreaders, and stickers. Adjuvants are subject to the same state regulations as
652         federally registered pesticides, including use reporting requirements. If a pesticide is
653         federally registered, DPR uses its federal registration number as its California
654         counterpart. DPR assigns a California-only registration number to adjuvants.
            2
655            California has 58 counties that are arbitrarily assigned ordinal numbers in
656         alphabetical order, i.e., Alameda County is "01" and Yuba is "58".
657
658   _______________________________________________________________
659
660                                  [Form 5. Pest Control Evaluation Report]
661
662                      Form To Be Established By Golf Course Superintendent
663
664   _______________________________________________________________
665


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666
667   XIV. Control Strategies
668
669   Best Management Practices (BMP) call for establishing clear, written strategies
670   for specifically dealing with each pest issue that occurs. While it isn‟t possible to
671   predict or accurately anticipate each and every pest occurrence, agricultural
672   science, education and experience can provide a good idea of what pest issues
673   can be expected as related to individual golf course properties.
674
675   An initial development of specific pest control strategies is provided herein in the
676   anticipation of the initial phase of operations at Desert Willows Golf Resort. As
677   time proceeds, an effort to continually update these strategies must be
678   undertaken. The Golf Course Superintendent (Pest Manager) is responsible for
679   the development of these strategies and for updating written procedures that
680   outline them. Such updating of strategies must be done periodically and at the
681   outbreak of any new pest occurrence not covered.
682
683   These strategies are the first lines of defense in IPM and will employ the BMP
684   outlined in this plan.
685
686    A. Cultural Control Strategies: Stress Management
687    The Best Management Practices (BMP) in the area of pest control on golf
688    courses first and foremost include strategies related to proper, scientifically
689    proven cultural practices to reduce unnecessary stress on the turf plant. The
690    objective is to establish a healthy, growing and vigorously competitive turf stand
691    in all areas. Varietals and cultivars of turf grass species have been selected
692    specifically for this site to reduce maintenance inputs while providing an
693    aesthetically pleasing, superb, world-class playing field for golf. At Desert
694    Willows Golf Resort the following cultural practice strategies should be
695    maintained.
696
697    Aerification:
698          1.      Beginning immediately with newly established turf stands, schedule
699                  and adhere to a frequent regime of various types of turf aerification
700                  to include, but not be limited to, core aerification, solid tine
701                  aerification, deep penetration aerification, HydroJect™ aerification.
702          2.      Putting surfaces and tees will need to be aerified both in the spring
703                  and fall (and additionally as needed) from 2-4 times a year
704                  depending on play levels and conditions. Great effort needs to be
705                  taken in consideration of impact on play and revenues, while also
706                  accomplishing this most critical cultural practice.
707          3.      Fairways and roughs also need aerification in spring and fall just
708                  prior to applications of fertilizers so as to encourage settling into
709                  rootzones.
710


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711
712   Topdressing:
713
714             1. A light (dusting), frequent topdressing of greens with approved sand
715                compatible and similar to the constructed root zones should be applied
716                on a regimen of every 2-4 weeks depending on growth and season. A
717                similar regime should be considered for tee surfaces as well.
718
719   Fertility:
720
721             1. It can be anticipated that both greens, approaches, collars and tees will
722                primarily need fertilization with available nitrogen fertilizers at a rate
723                twice that of other areas – as clippings are to be removed from greens
724                and tees. Bermudagrass grass requires much less nitrogen (N) than
725                cool season species, but the sand based greens‟ structure will require
726                around four (8 -10) pounds of available N per 1000 ft2 per year –
727                certainty of rates will be best determined as dependent upon cyclical
728                weather through a year of growing operations on this specific property.
729                It is recommended that a foliar application regime be established with
730                fertilizers having a negative lime equivalency, such as ammonium
731                sulfate, in order to keep pH in a range of around 6.0. Rotating foliar
732                applications of basistic and acidic soluble fertilizers at low rates may be
733                necessary to keep pH stable in the low Buffer pH sands. “Spoon
734                feeding” of available N is the objective here as bermudagrass does
735                best on the N lean side. Over fertilizing greens must be avoided to
736                prevent pest problems.
737             2. It is recommended that controlled release (versus „slow release‟)
738                sources of available nitrogen will be the primary nutrient need of large
739                acreage turf areas – fairways and roughs. It is recommended that
740                Polyon 42N be considered for the growing season and Polyon 44N be
741                considered for the cooler, wet season (Polyon™ -- Purcell Industries).
742                These polymer coated products release N based on temperature and
743                move into the rootzone in spoon fed amounts closely in sync with the
744                demands of the turf plant.
745             3. It should be pointed out that operation of Desert Willows Golf Resort
746                will likely require additional supplemental amounts of available N in
747                order to encourage the establishment of a healthy soil biosphere that
748                favors beneficial microorganisms. The golf course has been
749                established on a fairly mineral sand soil. As the turf matures and
750                contributes to the building of organic matter in the soil rootzone, all
751                biological activity will increase relationally. The microbial biota will also
752                need available N supplemented until such point that a naturally
753                recycling reservoir related to organic matter is achieved. The latter
754                will be held in check by a regime of proper aerification.




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755             4. Soluble, fast leaching fertilizer products are both economical and
756                highly effective. While some golf course operations would be advised
757                to avoid their use, the proper and intelligent use of soluble fertilizer
758                products in a regime of „spoon feeding,‟ at low rates, on a frequent
759                basis comparable to plant demands, are recommended as both safe
760                and sound:
761                     Low rates.
762                     Avoid conditions favorable for runoff.
763                     Frequent application with low concentrations.
764                     Water in to avoid volatilization.
765
766             5. It is recommended that, to the greatest degree possible, all areas of
767                fairway and rough be maintained to uniformly balance a beneficial
768                organic material (OM) into the rootzone of established turf. This OM
769                will enhance the natural process of the rootzone, provide nutrient and
770                water holding capacity, help to maintain the Buffer pH and encourage
771                the development of beneficial biota in the soil.
772             6. While the use of many products claiming to be „organic‟ are yet to be
773                embraced by University of California (UC) applied and basic turf grass
774                researchers, field observations offer varying validation of complex
775                claims. The use of humates, teas, EMs and such should be
776                considered for test use and evaluation as KemperSports Management
777                has taken steps to encourage UC to undertake objective, applied
778                research evaluation of such products and has also generated
779                substantial funding interests.
780             7. In order to properly calculate fertilizer and other chemical applications
781                to Desert Willows Golf Resort, it is recommended that a spread sheet
782                be created that very accurately reflects all square area ( in feet2 and
783                acres) broken out by all component playing areas of each golf hole
784                (each individual tee, fairway, rough area, and green). An example of
785                such a spreadsheet may be viewed at the following Internet URL:
786                  http://www.Harding-Park/up/agronomy/FertCalculator/fertilizer.htm
787             8. It is recommended that the Fescue sps. predominantly being seeded
788                into the large turf areas of Desert Willows Golf Resort will likely require
789                between 1.5 – 2.5 pounds or more of available nitrogen per year with a
790                twelve month growing season. During the first year of operation
791                careful monitoring of N needs should be undertaken utilizing frequent,
792                light application rates to adequately supplement needs. Throughout
793                the first year of operations it will be necessary to „tune in‟ the fertility
794                regime to accommodate the unknowns and complex agronomic
795                interactions of this specific property.
796             9. It is highly recommended that an informal study should be undertaken
797                and maintained on comparing the best results from available, soluble N
798                fertilizers. Including such products as calcium nitrate, ammonium
799                sulfate, urea, potassium nitrate and ammonium nitrate, large



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800                  application plots at varying rates and adequately replicated should be
801                  set out and watched closely. Objective measurement of the results of
802                  such testing must be recorded and reported to management. This is a
803                  BMP to practically establish which compounds provide the best
804                  efficacy matched to the specific soils and conditions of this unique
805                  property.
806   Irrigation:
807           1. Irrigation management will be a major cultural factor in competitively
808               maintaining all turf areas. Providing adequate transport of controlled
809               release N, respecting infiltration rates so as to avoid runoff, and
810               encouraging deep rooting while avoiding wet conditions that encourage
811               pests will be objectives for irrigation management. Hand watering
812               using both the irrigation sprinklers and hoses will be necessary. It can
813               be anticipated that it will take several months to a year to effectively
814               dial-in the irrigations controls to a finely tuned system. The sought
815               after level of irrigation efficacy may not be realized until well into the
816               second year of operation after cycling through a full year of seasons.
817           2. Over watering of the grass species selected for Desert Willows Golf
818               Resort must be avoided in order to encourage their healthy growth and
819               to discourage pests. The Desert Willow courses have had a past
820               history of occurrence of Spring Dead Spot disease on large ares of
821               Bermudagrass. Such pathogen activity was closely related to less
822               than ideal water management and timing of fall overseeding – and has
823               long since been overcome. This water management aspect will be the
824               most critical BMP.
825           3. The following is offered as a University of California suggested guide
826               for total weekly irrigation of warm season turf in the inland valleys –
827               desert areas will be slightly higher:




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828
829
830             4. As previously mentioned, the irrigation system will require vigilant
831                „tweaking‟ during the annual cycles of fall over seeding and spring
832                transition operations.
833
834
835   Equipment:
836         1. All course maintenance equipment should be kept sanitary as a pest
837            prevention strategy. Sanitation in turfgrass management is not unlike
838            safety and sanitation procedures for food handling in the clubhouse
839            kitchen. Equipment should be thoroughly washed down after each
840            use and prior to storage -- a BMP for equipment sanitation and asset
841            preservation must be written and implemented.
842         2. Mowers should be maintained at optimum sharpness at all times in
843            order to provide a surgical cut of the turf blades. Such promotes fast
844            callusing of the blade, prevents pathogen invasion of tissue, and
845            greatly reduces plant stress from desiccation and loss of nutrients.
846         3. Pest control equipment and tools must be well secured, kept sanitary,
847            and properly calibrated at all times.
848
849   Mowing Practices:
850        1. Mowing heights* shall be maintained as follows:
851               a.    Greens – 0.130 to 0.165 inches mower height (MH)
852               b.    Tees and Fairways – 0.50 to 0.60 inches MH
853               c.    Near Roughs – ~1.75 inches MH



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854                    d.      Far Roughs – ~2.5 inches MH
855             2. Hand mowing of all putting surfaces is encouraged to reduce stress.
856                Providing a non-mowing day should be encouraged supplementing
857                with a common greens roller to maintain smoothness.
858             3. All turf areas that are mowed with „reel‟ type mowers should be mowed
859                in different directions, on a regular rotating pattern in order to avoid
860                marcelling and the development of „grain.‟
861             4. Grass clipping must be removed from greens, approaches, collars, and
862                tees so as not to encourage thatch development. Clippings should be
863                composted or recycled in some manner.
864             * These heights are those at which the mowers are set.       True „cutting height‟ is actually
865                  different and varies by the type of mower. At low mowing heights, the actual cutting
866                  height can be significantly lower than the mower height. At higher heights the inverse
867                  is true. It is recommended that a special „prism‟ tool be obtained to verify mowing
868                  heights. Mowing heights will vary during the annual seasonal cycles.
869
870    B. Biological / Organic Control Strategies
871    Desert Willows Golf Resort provides an opportunity to demonstrate sound IPM
872    and BMP that includes biological pest control strategies. While the use of many
873    products claiming to be „organic‟ are yet to be embraced by University of
874    California (UC) applied and basic turf grass researchers, field observations offer
875    varying validation of complex claims. The use of humates, compost teas, EMs
876    and such should be considered for use and evaluation as KemperSports
877    Management has taken steps to encourage UC to undertake objective
878    evaluation of such products and has also generated substantial funding
879    interests. Biological controls for weeds have not been successfully established,
880    some control strategies for some insects and plant pathogens are becoming
881    available. It is recommended that the following strategies be considered for an
882    initial experimental use evaluation study – possibly in conjunction with a
883    University of California Extension study. Please note that these first two
884    methodologies are not widely accepted and require much more study and field
885    evaluation.
886
887             1.        Compost teas for maintaining biosphere biota.
888             2.        EM solutions for discouraging fungal pests.
889
890   Additionally, proven methods should also be used as BMP:
891
892             3.        Bacillus thuringiensis for invertebrate turf pests (existing DPR
893                       label).
894             4.        Use bacterial (Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus thuringiensis
895                       israaelensis) pellets for mosquito abatement (check with County of
896                       Riverside for local availability and use).
897
898



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899    C. Pest Management: Invertebrates (Insects)
900    Invertebrate pests
901    Typical Pests:
902    Include (on turf) sod webworms, lawn moths, white grubs / masked chafers,
903    May / June beetles (Phyllophaega spp.),
904    Include (vectors) western black-legged tick, (Ixodes pacificus), mosquitos
905    (Culex spp. and Ochlerotatus spp.). Vector pests today require special attention
906    due to the potential for outbreaks of serious human pathogens such as
907    Encephalitis, Lyme Disease, West Nile Virus and the hantaviruses.
908
909    Outdoor Areas
910      Avoid over irrigating.
911      Avoid allowing formation of stagnant water pools.
912      Provide repellents to staff and make available to guests.
913      Cooperate with county vector abatement efforts.
914      Reduce night lighting that attracts insects from other areas.
915      Encourage well fitted clothing to reduce exposure.
916      Recycle old tires immediately.
917      Encourage habitats for mosquito feeding birds and fish.
918
919    Greens
920       Mow daily with sharp, hand mowers, prior to play.
921       Avoid thatch buildup.
922       Avoid energizing bright lights around the golf course, and especially the
923        putting greens, during night hours.
924       Fertilize using foliar applications – light and frequent.
925       Avoid over watering and irrigate close to daybreak.
926       Avoid over fertilizing – keep turf on lean side especially N.
927       Monitor and scout daily.
928       Aerify turf areas as prescribed and required.
929       Employ regime of light (dusting), frequent sand topdressing.
930       Remove clippings.
931       Conduct nutrient soil and tissue sampling and analysis at six month
932        intervals.
933
934    Tees
935            Mow 2-3 times per week with sharp, hand mowers as season warrants.
936            Employ same cultural and maintenance regime as with greens.
937
938    Fairways
939       Mow 2-3 times per week with sharp reel mowers as season warrants.
940       Aerify fall and spring.
941       Use controlled release (i.e. Polyon™) N fertilizers and regular soil / tissue
942         nutrient analysis. Also employ „fertigation‟ for large turf areas.
943       Do not over irrigate.



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944
945    Roughs
946      Mow 1-2 times per week with sharp reel or rotary mowers as season
947        warrants.
948      Follow same regime as fairways.
949      Maintain maximum practical mowing heights
950
951    D. Pest Management: Vertebrates
952    Vertebrate pests can cause extensive damage to a golf course, can be a safety
953    hazard, and certainly can be a health hazard in structures. The County of
954    Riverside has a number of programs to assist property owners and growers and
955    every effort must be made to seek this assistance.
956    Typical Pests:
957    Include California ground squirrels, gophers, coyotes, raccoons, moles, skunks,
958    voles, rabbits, rattlesnakes, deer, Bob cat and rarely cougars.
959
960    Practices:
961       Avoid allowing buildup of vegetation around structures and high use
962          areas.
963       Keep areas free of refuse and debris.
964       Contact County of Riverside regarding the use and purchase of baits – as
965          such are likely Restricted Use Materials that require special permits.
966       Select plant materials that do not favor vertebrates.
967       Use traps to remove vertibrates.
968
969    E. Pest Management: Fungal Pathogens
970    Typical Pests:
971    Include the usual turf disease encountered (possibly in this location) in
972    California: Brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani), leaf spots (Bipolaris and Drechsler
973    spp.), pink snow mold (Microdochium nivale), Pythium blight (Pythium spp.),
974    possibly Take-all-patch and Spring Dead Spot (Gaeumannomyces graminis),
975    rusts (Pucinnia spp.)dollar spot (Sclerotinia homeocarpa), red thread (Laetisaria
976    fuciformis),necrotic ring spot (Leptosphaeria korrae) . Diseases will primarily
977    be of a large concern to the low Action Threshold (AT) areas of the golf course
978    (first putting greens, then tees and fairways).
979
980    Practices:
981       Avoid irrigating turf so that it is wet during night hours – irrigate early
982          evenings and close early mornings.
983       Avoid any compaction of soils.
984       Do not over irrigate.
985       Maintain fertility at needed levels – do not over fertilize. Use of controlled
986          release and foliar applications are best.
987
988    F. Pest Management: Nematodes


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 989    Typical Pests:
 990    Nematode pest problems on turf are not likely to occur and have not been
 991    reported in the Coachella Valley.
 992
 993    Practices:
 994       Maintain healthy, vigorous turf.
 995       Practice sanitary methods such as washing down equipment after each
 996          work use.
 997
 998    G. Pest Management Weeds
 999    Typical Pests:
1000    Include many winter annuals, Soliva, plantain (buckhorn and broadleaf),
1001    Swinecess (Coronopus didymus ), clovers, dandelion, California bur clover,
1002    chickweed, as well as English daisy and various grasses such as Poa annua,
1003    Kikuyugrass, goosegrass.
1004    Smooth crabgrass (Digitaria ischaemum) and hairy crabgrass (Digitaria
1005    sanguinalis).
1006
1007    Non-play rough areas
1008      Mulching reduces water needs, is attractive and natural.
1009      Mulch non-use rough areas as much as possible using waste chips from
1010         tree pruning maintenance to a minimum depth of 4-6 inches to restrain
1011         plant growth.
1012      Mulch eighteen (18) inches around tree bases to discourage weeds and
1013         lower need to spray or mow.
1014      The ideal mulching consists of wood chips smaller than ~1” in diameter so
1015         as not to interfere with the striking of a golf ball.
1016      Cultivate or mechanically stir up sandy waste areas as needed to
1017         physically prevent weeds from colonizing.
1018
1019    Turf areas:
1020       Maintain healthy turf with dense canopy.
1021       Maintain steady nutrient levels – especially N due to over seeding and
1022          transition.
1023       Do not over water turf.
1024       Fill divots in fairways regularly with sand / seed mix.
1025       Utilize pre-emergent products in the spring timed for application as soil
1026          temperatures in the upper 1 - 3 inches of soil reach 58 to 60 degrees F. for
1027          a consistent 5 days. This is when the products will have the greatest
1028          efficacy as the weed plant radical emerges.
1029
1030    Putting greens:
1031       Maintain healthy turf with dense canopy.
1032       Topdress with sand frequently, but lightly.
1033       Hand pick Poa annua and other weeds from greens daily.



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1034            Hand water hot spot, hydrophobic areas and use soil wetting agents.
1035
1036    Tees:
1037       Maintain healthy turf with dense canopy.
1038       Maintain tees with same cultural regimes as greens.
1039       Topdress with sand frequently, but lightly.
1040       Fill divots daily with sand / seed mix.
1041
1042    H. Aquatic Pests
1043    Typical pests:
1044    Include planktonic algae, filamentous algae, cattails (broadleaf and narrow-leaf),
1045    common water weed (Elodea), pondweed.
1046
1047    Ponds:
1048       Keep water circulating.
1049       Maintain banks so water depth exceeds six (6) feet.
1050       Monitor water quality and limit nutrient contamination.
1051       Provide for oxygenation of water.
1052       Consider use of Gambusia affinis (mosquito eating fish) with approval of
1053        County of Riverside (760-342-8287).
1054
1055
1056    I. Pest Management Indoors
1057    Typical pests:
1058    Include flies, Argentine ants, mice, rats, cockroaches, wasps, hornets, yellow
1059    jackets, spiders, microorganisms, termites, carpenter ants, and other wood-
1060    destroying insects.
1061
1062    Entryways:
1063    (door-ways, overhead doors, windows, holes in exterior walls, openings around
1064    pipes, electrical fixtures, or ducts):
1065       Keep doors shut when not in use.
1066       Place weather stripping on doors.
1067       Caulk and seal openings in walls.
1068       Install or repair screens.
1069       Install air curtains.
1070       Keep vegetation, shrubs, and wood mulch at least 1 foot away from
1071         structures.
1072       Do not allow vegetation to provide access to roofs.
1073       Keep rain gutters clear of debris and avoid water accumulation.
1074
1075    Offices:
1076       Allow food and beverages only in designated areas.
1077       If indoor plants are present, keep them healthy. When small insect
1078          infestations appear, remove them manually or take plants outdoors.


       Desert Willows                                                        Page 25 of 31
       James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
1079            Keep areas as dry as possible by removing standing water and water
1080             damaged or wet materials
1081            In all areas, remove dust and debris.
1082            Routinely clean lockers and desks.
1083            Frequently vacuum carpeted areas and sanitize as often as needed.
1084
1085      Food Preparation and Serving Areas:
1086      (dining room, main kitchen, lounge,, snack area, vending machines, and food
1087      storage rooms):
1088        Store food and waste in containers that are inaccessible to pests.
1089           Containers must have tight lids and be made of plastic, glass, or metal.
1090           Waste should be removed at the end of each day.
1091        Place screens on vents, windows, and floor drains to prevent cockroaches
1092           and other pests from using unscreened ducts or vents as pathways.
1093        Create inhospitable living conditions for pests by reducing availability of
1094           food and water--remove food debris, sweep up all crumbs, fix dripping
1095           faucets and leaks, and dry out wet areas.
1096        Improve cleaning practices, including promptly cleaning food preparation
1097           equipment after use and removing grease accumulation from vents,
1098           ovens, and stoves. Use caulk or paint to seal cracks and crevices.
1099        Capture rodents by using mechanical or glue traps. (Note: Place traps in
1100           areas inaccessible to children. Mechanical traps, including glue-boards,
1101           used in rodent control must be checked daily. Dispose of killed or trapped
1102           rodents within 24 hours.).
1103        Do not permit storage of food and supplies directly on floors.
1104        Keep all food handling and related surfaces sanitized – frequent use of1%
1105           bleach solutions are very effective.
1106
1107      Rooms and Areas With Extensive Plumbing
1108      (bathrooms, rooms with sinks, locker rooms, dishwasher rooms):
1109        Promptly repair leaks and correct other plumbing problems to deny pests
1110          access to water.
1111        Routinely clean floor drains, strainers, and grates. Seal pipe chases.
1112        Keep areas dry. Avoid conditions that allow formation of condensation.
1113          Areas that never dry out are conducive to molds and fungi. Increasing
1114          ventilation may be necessary.
1115        Store paper products or cardboard boxes away from moist areas and
1116          prohibit direct contact with the floor or the walls. This practice also allows
1117          for ease in inspection.
1118
1119      Maintenance Areas
1120      (boiler room, mechanical room, janitorial-housekeeping areas, and pipe
1121      chases):
1122        After use, promptly clean mops and mop buckets; dry mop buckets and
1123           hang mops vertically on rack above floor drain.


       Desert Willows                                                           Page 26 of 31
       James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
1124            Allow eating only in designated eating areas.
1125            Clean trash cans regularly, use plastic liners in trash cans, and use secure
1126             lids.
1127            Keep areas clean and as dry as possible, and remove debris.
1128            Store all chemicals as detailed in the Chemical Storage Plan.
1129
1130   XVI. APPENDIX 1.
1131   Botanical Names of Turf Grass Species Used at Desert Willows Golf Resort
1132
1133   GREENS:
1134
                Tifdwarf Hybrid Bermudagrass                                   Cynodon transvaalensis X Cynodon
                                                                               dactylon
                Roughstalk Bluegrass (winter overseeding)                      Poa trivialis
1135
1136   TEES:
1137
                Tifdwarf Hybrid Bermudagrass                                   Cynodon transvaalensis X Cynodon
                                                                               dactylon
                Roughstalk Bluegrass (winter overseeding)                      Poa trivialis
1138
1139   FAIRWAYS and ROUGHS:
1140
                Tifdwarf Hybrid Bermudagrass                                   Cynodon transvaalensis X Cynodon
                                                                               dactylon
                Roughstalk Bluegrass (winter overseeding)                      Poa trivialis
                Perennial Ryegrass (winter overseeding)                        Lolium perenne
1141
1142
1143
1144   XVII. APPENDIX 2.
1145   Anticipated Pests at Desert Willows Golf Resort
1146
1147   A.        Vertebrates:
1148
                Turf Pests:                                           Genus, Species:
                California ground squirrels                           Spermophilus beecheyi
                Gophers                                               Thomomys spp.
                Moles                                                 Scapanus latimanus
                Voles                                                 Microtus californicus
                Rabbits                                               Lepus spp.
                Black Tailed Deer                                     Odocoileus hemionus
                Skunks                                                Spilogale putorius, Mephitis mephitis
                Raccoons                                              Procyon lotor

                Dangerous Pests:
                Rattlesnakes                                          Crotalus viridis


       Desert Willows                                                                             Page 27 of 31
       James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
               Cougar                                                 Felis concolor
               Bob cat                                                Lynx rufus
               Coyote                                                 Canis latrans
1149
1150
1151   B.        Invertebrates:
1152
               Turf Pests:
               Sod webworm                                            Crambus. spp.
               Lawn moths                                             Crambus spp.
               White grubs                                            Phyllophaega spp.
               May / June beetles                                     Phyllophaega spp.

               Vectors:
               Western black-legged tick                              Ixodes pacificus
               Mosquitos                                              Culex spp. and Ochlerotatus spp.

1153
1154   C.        Weeds:
1155
               Turf Pests:                                            Genus, Species:
               Smooth crabgrass                                       Digitaria ischaemum
               Hairy crabgrass                                        Digitaria sanguinalis
               Spurweed, Lawn burweed                                 Soliva sessilis
               Plantain Buckhorn                                      Plantago lanceolata
               Plantain Broadleaf                                     Plantago major
               Swinecress                                             Coronopus didymus
               Clovers                                                Trifolium spp.
               Dandelion                                              Taraxacum officinale
               California bur clover                                  Medicago polymorpha
               Chickweed                                              Stellaria media
               Mouseear Chickweed                                     Cerastium fontanum ssp. vulgare
               English daisy                                          Bellis perennis
               Annual bluegrass                                       Poa annua
               Kikuyu                                                 Pennisetum clandestinum
               Goosegrass                                             Eleusine indica
1156
1157
1158   D.        Fungal Pathogens :
1159
               Turf Pests:                                            Genus, Species:
               Spring Dead Spot                                       Gaeumannomyces graminis var, graminis
               Necrotic Ring Spot                                     Leptosphaeria korrae
               Pink snow mold                                         Microdochium nivale
               Anthracnose (Leaf blight / Basal rot)                  Colletotrichum graminicola


       Desert Willows                                                                          Page 28 of 31
       James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
               Take-all-patch                                         Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae
               Dollar spot                                            Sclerotinia homeocarpa
               Brown patch                                            Rhizoctonia solani
               Leaf spot                                              Bipolaris spp.
               Rust                                                   Puccinia spp.
               Red thread                                             Laetisaria fuciformis
1160
1161
1162   E.        Vectors:
1163
               Pests:                                                 Genus, Species:
               Western black-legged tick                              Ixodes pacificus
               Mosquito                                               Culex spp.
               Mosquito                                               Ochlerotatus spp.
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169   XVIII. Chemical Storage Plan
1170
1171                         [To Be Established By Golf Course Superintendent]
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177   XIX. Chemical Spill Response Plan
1178
1179                         [To Be Established By Golf Course Superintendent]
1180
1181   XVII. List of Recommended Chemicals and Pest Control Pharmaceuticals
1182   The following listing is recommended for use in addressing the pest matters
1183   listed in this plan. Chemical means of control should only be employed when
1184   Action Thresholds, as described in section VII above, are reached. Label
1185   requirements must be strictly adhered to and products should only be used for
1186   pest as are targeted.
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194


       Desert Willows                                                                          Page 29 of 31
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1195   Fungicides:
1196
       Product:                         Label Location:                                         MSDS Location:
       Heritage      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld61T006.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp61T002.pdf
       Subdue        http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld6EL002.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp6EL004.pdf


       Insignia      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld6EF000.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp6EF001.pdf


       Primo         http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld2SB001.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp2SB008.pdf


       Merit         http://www.clearychemical.com/support/label/4151SL.pdf     http://www.clearychemical.com/support/msds/4151M.pdf


       Cleary        http://www.clearychemical.com/support/label/4151SL.pdf     http://www.clearychemical.com/support/msds/4151M.pdf
       3336 WP
       Cleary        http://www.clearychemical.com/support/label/4151SL.pdf     http://www.clearychemical.com/support/msds/4151M.pdf
       3336 WP
       Fore          http://www.igin.com/chemicals/PDF/foreto.pdf               http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp4E2001.pdf
       Eagle         http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld61L000.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp61L001.pdf
       Chipco        http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld4FC001.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp4FC004.pdf
       26019
       Daconil       http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld254000.pdf                      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp254002.pdf

1197
1198
1199
1200   Insecticides:
1201
       Product:                    Label Location:                                          MSDS Location:
       Dithane        http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld143001.pdf             http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp143002.pdf
       Talstar        http://pestsolutions.fmc.com/Content/APG/Lab      http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp3O8003.pdf
                      els/Label_Talstar_EZ_Golf_Granular_10_03-
       EZ Golf
                      C.pdf
       Merit          http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld6L2003.pdf             http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp6L2000.pdf


1202
1203
1204
1205   Rodenticides:
1206
       Product:                     Label Location:                                         MSDS Location:
       Kaput D        http://www.scimetricsltd.com/docs/dpg_label.pdf   http://www.scimetricsltd.com/dpg_msds_pf.html




1207
1208
1209



       Desert Willows                                                                                      Page 30 of 31
       James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan
1210
1211
1212
1213      Herbicides:
1214
         Product:                      Label Location:                                            MSDS Location:
        Turflon          http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld0BC002.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp0BC001.pdf
        Ester
        Confront         http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld0AR000.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp0AR001.pdf
        Drive            http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld4BF005.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp4BF000.pdf
        Trimec           http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld2PQ000.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp2PQ001.pdf
        Primo            http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld2SB001.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp2SB008.pdf

        Barricade        http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld1TF003.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp1TF001.pdf

        Ranger           http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp6FU001.pdf              http://lscgw1.monsanto.com/esh/msdslib.nsf/A9E93D7A66F2D7
                                                                            F6062565390070ECB8/$file/Ranger.797.pdf
        Pro
        Top              http://www.pestproducts.com/top-choice.htm
        Choice
        Dursban          http://www.cdms.net/ldat/ld0AT004.pdf              http://www.cdms.net/ldat/mp0AT000.pdf

        Weed Hoe         http://www.montereylawngarden.com/pdf/weed         http://www.montereychemical.com/msds/WeedHoe-m.pdf
                         hoe.pdf
        (MSMA)
        Manage           http://www.monsanto.com/monsanto/us_ag/con         http://www.horizononline.com/msds_sheets/pdf/manage.pdf
                         tent/crop_pro/manage/label.pdf
1215
1216

       The above provided plan and professional recommendations are overview assessments as to the probable pest control
       problems and experiences that may, in probability, occur. This plan is not meant to cover every potential pest problem that
       may be caused by nature or human activity, but it is intended to serve as an overall professional guide. Such
       recommendations are not to be held to constitute legal agricultural pest control recommendations for purposes of obtaining
       Restricted Material Permits from the County of Riverside or the Department of Pesticide Regulation of the State of California,
       nor are these plans to be considered as specific use recommendations as defined within the California Code of Regulations,
       Title 3., Food and Agriculture. It will be necessary for a competent, licensed adviser to provide legal recommendations once
       operations are commenced.

       James G. Prusa
       Pest Control Adviser, License AA 03902.




          Desert Willows                                                                                          Page 31 of 31
          James Prusa Associates: IPM / Best Management Practices Plan

				
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