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					                                     A2 History, unit 3 – Scheme of Work
                                    Unit 3, Depth Studies and Associated Historical Controversies
                                           A World Divided: Superpower Relations, 1944-90

Weeks   Lesson content    Lesson outcomes            Suggested learning                 Homework/ extension                Resources / E Learning
                                                     activities


Lesson series focus: the seeds of conflict

1-4     Outline of USA-   Students are able to       Explain the course content,        Hold a balloon debate on           Supporting resources are in
        USSR relations    identify the               assessment and exam criteria.      what was the key                   the A2 Resources section of
                          characteristics of Cold    Through texts, sources and         event/turning point of the         www.studyhistory.co.uk and
        1917-1941         War and understand         images, produce a spider           Cold War.                          in the weblinks section. A
        America and       the causes of the          diagram highlighting the           Essay plan: ‘To what extent        course guide can be
        Russia at war     breakdown of the           characteristics of Cold War.       had relations between the          downloaded from the site as
        1941-45.          ‘Grand Alliance’           Complete an evidence table         superpowers broken down by         well.
                          Explore the differences    highlighting the differences       the end of 1944?’                  Texts used to support this
                          in ideology between        between capitalism and             Research essay: ‘How far do        course include, Steve
                          capitalism and             communism. Individually            you agree with the view that       Phillips, ‘Edexcel GCE
                          communism                  students research a key event of   the origins of the Cold War in     History – A World Divided:
                                                     the Cold War and produce a         1945 and 1946 owed much to         Superpower Relations 1944-
                                                     presentation/factoid explaining    ideological differences and        90’, Steve Phillips, ‘The Cold
                                                     the event to the class.            little to personalities and        War’, David Williamson,
                                                     List reasons for growing           conflicting national interests?’   ‘Europe and the Cold War’,
                                                     tensions between USSR and                                             Oliver Edwards, ‘The USA
                                                     West. Conduct a card sort to       Skills work deconstructing         and the Cold War, 1945-63’
                                                     identify the major reasons.        questions, ‘Key words’,
                                                                                        ‘Instructions’, ‘Topic’ - KIT
        How did Cold      Provide an overview of     Use cartoons to assess relations   In groups make a case for          Phillips (Edexcel), p.15-32
        War develop       the stages in the          between East and West as they      one event being a turning          Williamson, p.16-29;
                          development of Cold        stood at the end of the Cold       point.                             Edwards, p.1-36
        between 1944      War in Europe              War. List reasons why the WWII
        and 1953?                                    legacy was likely to increase
                          Key words: Truman          tensions. Complete an evidence
                          Doctrine, Marshall Plan,   chart on the attitudes of the
                          Iron Curtain,              members of the Grand Alliance
                          containment                in 1945. Take notes on the 6 key
                                               stages in the development of
                                               Cold War in Europe:
                                               conferences of Yalta and
                                               Potsdam, Russian influences in
                                               Eastern Europe, Churchill’s Iron
                                               Curtain Speech, Truman
                                               Doctrine and Marshall Plans,
                                               Czech Crisis (1948), Berlin
                                               Blockade.
Superpower           Understand the key        Complete an evidence chart          Write a short report stating      Phillips (Edexcel), p.23-4
diplomacy at         aims and achievements     highlighting the different aims     the hopes and aims of their
                     of Tehran, Yalta and      and achievements of the             government for Europe in
Yalta and            Potsdam conferences       Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam           1945 of the USSR, USA,
Potsdam and                                    conferences.                        Britain. Highlight in green
the end of                                     Use video footage from CNN          similarities and in red clear
the war in                                     ‘Cold War’ series and BBC           differences
Europe                                         ‘WWII Behind Closed Doors’.
                                               Compare the personalities of
                                               Churchill, Roosevelt & Stalin
                                               and assess how the changes of
                                               leadership (Atlee and Truman)
                                               helped increase or decrease
                                               tensions
The                  Understand the process    Annotate a map of Europe            Write a Soviet response to        Phillips (Edexcel), p.33-4;
‘Stalinisation’ of   and motives for Soviet    showing the dates and briefly       Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’        Wliiamson, p.55-65
                     expansion in Eastern      the processes by which Eastern      speech
Eastern Europe       Europe after 1945         European countries adopted
                                               Communism. Using source             Conduct some research into
                     Keywords: coalition       material and texts, e.g. timeline   the efficacy of US and Soviet
                     governments, Iron         of Soviet expansion establish a     aid packages. Did they
                     Curtain, coup d’état      list of reasons from the USSR’s     achieve any material benefits
                                               and the West’s perspective as to    or were they purely politically
                                               why Soviet expansionism             motivated?
                                               occurred.

How did the          To assess the response    Study Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’    Skills work: use sources in       You Tube – Churchill’s ‘Iron
West respond to      of the USA and            speech and assess the motives       Phillips (Edexcel) to assess      Curtain’ speech
                     Western nations to        and responses it provoked. Use      the motives for Truman
Soviet               Soviet expansionism       picture sources of war torn         Doctrine and the evidence the
expansionism?                                  Europe to examine reasons why       doctrine along with Marshall
                     Keywords: Iron Curtain,   the US instigated the Truman        Aid may have contributed
                    containment, Truman        doctrine. Take notes on Truman      significantly to development
                    Doctrine and Marshall      Doctrine, Marshall Plan and the     of Cold War
                    Plan, Cominform,           Soviet responses Cominform
                    Comecon                    and Comecon.

The division of     Understand the location    Annotate a map of Germany,          Skills work: Berlin Blockade,   Phillips (Edexcel), p.34-5
Germany and         of events of the           showing the location of Berlin in   use sources in Phillips to
                    Blockade, the causes       East Germany. List the causes       summarise interpretations of
the Berlin          and responses by West      of the Blockade from research.      causes of Blockade and
blockade            and USSR                   Take notes on the results of the    identify areas of agreement
                                               Blockade. Discuss reasons why       and disagreement
                                               USA did not feel threatened by
                                               fear of German revival and why
                                               USSR did by contrast.
Why did Cold        To examine the             Identify reasons for success of     Conduct a case study into the
War extend to       reasons for the            communism in China.                 NSC-68 and using the
                    expansion of Cold War      Study the events of the Korean      questions in Phillips
the Far East in     to the Far East, as a      War using maps to annotate the      (Edexcel), p.39-40 to
1950-3?             result of Chinese          advances and withdrawals of         structure the enquiry
                    Revolution, the Korean     both sides. Complete an
                    War, Vietnam               evidence table assessing the        Research task: examine the
                                               role of different groups in the     role of Molotov and Bevin in
                    Key words: Red Scare,      expansion of Cold War in the        the events of the early Cold
                    McCarthyism, domino        Far East: communist groups,         War.
                    theory. Bipolar,           nationalists in the Far East, the
                    ‘rollback’                 defeat of Japan, decline of
                                               European imperialism
Why did Cold        To assess US               Use contemporary cartoons to        Skills work: study differing    Phillips (Edexcel) p.47-71
War emerge?         responsibility for the     demonstrate different               interpretations of US
                    origins of Cold War. To    interpretations of the cause of     responsibility for Cold War,
The                 identify reasons for       Cold War. Research and itemise      and practice ways of
historiographical   Soviet expansionism.       reasons why the US can              supporting and challenging
debate.             To familiarise students    arguably be blamed for causing      interpretations using ‘own
                    with the range of          Cold War tensions.                  knowledge’
                    historiographical          Create a spider diagram
                    opinions on the origins    identifying reasons for Soviet      Exam practice, ‘How far do
                    of Cold War                expansionism, e.g. Stalin’s         you agree with the view that
                                               personality, permanent              Stalin’s foreign policy was a
                    Keywords: traditional or   revolution, traditional Russian     major contributing factor to
                    orthodox                   expansionism, defensive             the emergence of Cold War in
                    historiography,            actions. Write a judgement          the period 1945-50?’
                            revisionist, post-        paragraph on which was the
                            revisionist               most important factor.
                                                      Complete an evidence table on
                                                      different schools of
                                                      historiographical debate, e.g.
                                                      revisionists, post-revisionist etc.

Lesson series focus: the impact of the ‘Thaw’

5-8     How and for         The emergence of          Use photographs of Berlin to          Class debate, ‘To what extent   Phillips (Edexcel), p.72-9;
        what reasons        Khrushchev and de-        explain the nature and dangers        was the policy of Peaceful      Wliiamson, p.73-87
                            Stalinisation             of rising tensions between East       Coexistence’ a reflection of
        did the policy of                             and West                              changing personalities in the
        peaceful co-        Key words:                Study events and commentary           Soviet leadership
        existence           structuralism and         following Stalin’s death and
        develop?            intentionalism,           assess whether they support
                            ‘Peaceful Coexistence’    structuralist or intentionalist
                                                      perspectives. Create a spider
                                                      diagram identifying reasons for
                                                      the rise of the policy of ‘Peaceful
                                                      Coexistence’

        What was the        Soviet motives for, and   Study and take notes on the           Research – the personality      Phillips (Edexcel), p.80-87;
        immediate           moves towards,            Austrian State Treaty (1955) and      and attitudes of Dulles         Williamson, p.93-105
                            peaceful coexistence      Soviet withdrawal from Finland        towards US foreign policy
        impact of           including cuts in the     (1956). Highlight evidence that
        Khrushchev’s        Red Army and              shows a new response to               Skills work – source
        policy of           withdrawal from Austria   international relations. Itemise      investigation into the
        Peaceful            and Finland               the features of Eisenhower’s          achievements of the Thaw
        Coexistence?                                  approach to foreign policy.           (Phillips (Edexcel), p.87)
                            Key words:                Highlight evidence of change
                            brinkmanship, ‘New        from NSC-68 and Truman’s
                            Look’, ‘Flexible          foreign policy. Contrast
                            Approach’, the ‘Thaw’,    Eisenhower’s aims with those of
                            De-stalinsation           Kennedy, identifying similarities
                                                      and differences between the
                                                      ‘Flexible Approach’ and the
                                                      ‘New Look’. Identify possible
                                                      achievements of the ‘Thaw’ and
                                                      rank as part of a card sort.
        What do the          Internal threats to the   Study the events and                  Exam practice: ‘To what         Phillips (Edexcel), p.88-95
        Hungarian            Soviet system: East       consequences of both the              extent was the development
                             Germany, Poland           Hungarian Rising and the Berlin       of the post-Stalin thaw in
        Rising and the       and Hungary.              Crisis                                superpower relations
        Berlin Crisis tell                                                                   between 1953 and 1962 the
        us about the                                                                         result of Khrushchev’s policy
        nature of the                                                                        of ‘Peaceful Coexistence’?
        ‘Thaw’?
                                                                                             Skills work: identifying
                                                                                             factors, ranking them and
                                                                                             making links

Lesson series focus: the nuclear arms race

9-12    Why and how          Students understand       Look at examples of public            Class debate: Did the arms
        did an arms race     developments in           information films and brochures       race heighten or reduce the
                             nuclear and military      detailing what to do in a nuclear     possibility of war?
        develop              technologies and the      attack. Create a spider diagram
        between 1949         impact they had on the    identifying causes of the arms
        and 1963?            balance of power          race. Create a timeline detailing
                             between the               technological advances in the
                             superpowers               arms race and which
                                                       superpower led the race at that
                                                       time. Identify the impact of the
                                                       arms race on the nature of Cold
                                                       War conflict between 1949 and
                                                       1963
        Why did the          Causes, events and        Use maps to identify reasons          Watch one the DVDs              DVD, ‘!3 Days’, ‘Dr
        Cuban Missile        consequences of the       why the US felt threatened by         mentioned in the resources      Strangelove’
                             Cuban Missile Crisis.     developments in Cuba. Study           section and write a brief
        Crisis occur?                                  events leading up to the crisis,      assessment(or film review) of
                             Key words: hot line,      e.g. U2, Vienna Conference with       its usefulness in
                             Nuclear Test Ban          Khrushchev, Berlin, Bay of Pigs       understanding Cold War
                             Treaty, Détente           and assess the impact they had
                                                       on Kennedy’s actions during the       Exam practice: ‘To what
                                                       Cuban Missile Crisis. Complete        extent did the nuclear arms
                                                       an evidence chart for Kennedy         race make the world a more
                                                       and Khrushchev assessing              dangerous place in the years
                                                       whether Cuba represented a            1949-63?’
                                                       domestic or international political
                                                       problem. List the consequences
                                                       of Cuba

Lesson series focus: Sino-Soviet and US relations

13-16   How and why         Introduction to            Identify the role played by China   Case study: Ussuri River
        did relations       personality and ideas of   in advancing Communism in the       Dispute – use this dispute to
                            Mao and events of          post-war era, e.g. Sino-Soviet      examine the nature of Sino-
        between the         Chinese Revolution.        Treaty (1950), Korean War,          Soviet relations in this period
        USSR and            Examination of the         Taiwan Straits crises. Source
        China change in     nature of the              work – explore how the Taiwan
        the period 1949-    relationship between       crisis was used to strengthen
        76?                 China and USSR             China’s position. Identify
                                                       reasons for breakdown in
                            Key words: Sino-Soviet,    relations between China and
                            Great Leap Forward         USSR, using sources in Phllips
                                                       (Edexcel), p.126-7.
        What impact did     Investigation into the     Identify reasons for                Research task: research the         Phillips (Edexcel), p.130-135
        the Sino-Soviet     reasons for and            rapprochement between China         campaigns initiated by Mao          DVD ‘Forrest Gump’
                            consequences of the        and USA. Complete an evidence       (Great Leap Forward &
        split have on       breakdown of Sino-         chart recording the                 Cultural Revolution) and
        China’s             Soviet relations and       achievements of rapprochement       assess their impact on
        relationship with   rapprochement with         for China and USA. Brainstorm       international relations
        the USA             USA                        students for the implications of
        between 1970                                   the rapprochement for US-           Class debate: Who benefited
                            Key words: Ping Pong       Soviet relations. Use sources,      most from the Sino-Soviet
        and 1976?           Diplomacy                  e.g. Mao’s own accounts to see      split?
                                                       if students’ ideas are confirmed.
                                                                                           Essay: ‘How far was the Sino-
                                                                                           Soviet Split of the late 1960s
                                                                                           the result of ideological
                                                                                           differences between the two
                                                                                           communist powers?’

Lesson series focus: Détente

17-20   What were the       Identifying the causes     Show students images or             Skills work use sources in          Phillipis (Edexcel), p.137-44
        causes of           of improving relations     footage of the Apollo-Soyuz link-   Phillips (Edexcel), p.142 to
                            between the Soviet         up and discuss the significance     identify the contribution made
        Détente?            Union and the West         of the event in terms of East-      by Kissinger in the ‘realpolitik’
                                                       West relations                      of the period
                              Key words: ‘realpolitik’,   Create a spider diagram
                              rapprochement               identifying the causes of
                                                          improving relations between
                                                          East and West.
                                                          Study the careers of Nixon and
                                                          Kissinger and identify significant
                                                          contributions they made to the
                                                          process.
                                                          Research the economic
                                                          problems facing the world in the
                                                          1970s and assess the
                                                          contribution they made to the
                                                          pursuit of Détente
          What was            To assess the               Use cartoons or graphs showing       Pair work task – adopt the        Phillips (Edexcel), p.144-50;
          achieved by the     successes and               nuclear arms build up to explain     role of two differing US policy   Williamson, p.112-128
                              limitations of              the cost and futility of the arms    advisors, and write separate
          SALT treaties       international treaties,     race by the 1970s                    reports on the advantages of
                              such as SALT and            Create a scales chart assessing      continuing or dropping the
                              Helsinki                    the successes and limitations of     policy of détente. Exchange
                                                          SALT treaties. Make an overall       copies of each report and
                                                          judgement on the evidence            write up a final decision as
                                                          beneath. Note down the features      the President.
                                                          of the Helsinki Agreement and
                                                          use sources to assess the
                                                          achievements of the Agreement
                                                          in the view of commentators
          Why did Détente Identify the causes of          Case study into the rise of neo-     Research task – investigate       Phillips (Edexcel), p.154-55
          come to an end? the ending of Détente           conservatism in the USA and its      the reasons for the Soviet
                                                          impact on foreign policy. Create     invasion of Afghanistan and       DVD, ‘The Kite Runner’
                                                          a spider diagram assessing           the impact this had on
                                                          reasons why Détente came to          Détente
                                                          an end. Encourage student to
                                                          make links between different         Exam practice: ‘How
                                                          factors and to categorise them in    advantageous was the policy
                                                          order of importance                  of Détente to the
                                                                                               management of the USA’s
                                                                                               Cold War diplomacy with the
                                                                                               USSR in the 1970s?’

Lesson series focus: end of Cold War
21-4   How did Reagan     Assess the role of          Case study: Reagan, study his          Research – find out about the     Phillips (Edexcel), p.157-
       help begin about   Reagan in bringing          career and policy aims and             Strategic Defence Initiative      163; Williamson, p.135-139
                          about the end of Cold       assess their impact on US-             (SDI) and why the USSR
       an end to Cold     War                         Soviet relations. Source skills        viewed it as such a threat.
       War                                            activity in Phillips (Edexcel),        Compare alternative
                          Key words: militarised-     p.160-1                                perspectives on SDI using
                          counter revolution, SDI                                            sources such as those in
                                                                                             Phillips (Edexcel), p.162-3
       What factors       To understand the           Annotate a map of Eastern              Case study – Poland &
       weakened the       processes which led to      Europe detailing causes of             Solidarity movement. What
                          the collapse of Soviet      tensions in each country.              doe this reveal about the
       hold of the        Union’s control over        Create a spider diagram                challenges facing Communist
       Soviet Union       Eastern European            identifying major factors in the       governments and Soviet
       over Eastern       countries                   breakdown of Soviet control.           foreign policy?
       Europe in the                                  Make a judgement on what was           Conduct a SWOT analysis of
       early 1980s?       Key words: New              the major cause of the                 the Soviet Union’s foreign
                          Political Thinking,         breakdown.                             policy in the late 1980s
                          gerontocracy, glasnost      Identify reasons why the Soviet
                          & perestroika, Ostpolitik   leadership struggled to maintain
                                                      control.
       What were the      Study the way in which      Show students TV footage of            Source investigation – was        Phillips (Edexcel), p.171-6
       consequences       communist rule              collapse of Berlin Wall and            the collapse of the Berlin Wall
                          collapsed in Eastern        discuss what prompted and              a cause or consequence of
       of the ending of   Europe                      what would result from this            the end of Cold War?
       the Brezhnev                                   event.
       doctrine?          Key words: Velvet           Complete an evidence table
                          Revolution                  charting the processes and
                                                      consequences of collapse of
                                                      Soviet authority in a selected
                                                      number of Eastern European
                                                      states. Identify similarities in the
                                                      processes
       How did the        Study the events and        Create a timeline of events            Case study – Gorbachev.           Phillips (Edexcel), p.176-8
       Soviet Union       personalities which         showing collapse of Eastern            Research the political career
                          brought an end to the       European communist                     of Gorbachev. Compare his
       come to an end?    Soviet Union                governments and ending of              perception in the West and in
                                                      USSR.                                  USSR. Conduct source skills
                                                      Identify factors which led to end      task into his role in ending
                                                      of Soviet Union, e.g.                  Cold War in Phillips
                                                      personalities, failure of political    (Edexcel), p.177-8
                                                      reform, economic decline etc.
                                                                                   Essay: ‘How far do you
                                                                                   agree with the view that the
                                                                                   Cold War came to an end
                                                                                   because popular protest in
                                                                                   the Communist Bloc during
                                                                                   the 1980s weakened the
                                                                                   Soviet hold over Eastern
                                                                                   Europe
Why did the        Understand the             Use cartoons from the era to         Debate: who or what was          Phillips (Edexcel), p.188-192
Cold War come      problems facing            open discussion on the two           responsible for the ending of
                   historians in assessing    schools of thought – structuralist   Cold War?
to an end in the   the cause of the end of    and intentionalist – regarding the
1980s?             Cold War. Evaluate the     ending of Cold War                   Source activity – use the
                   role of key individuals,   Identify problems facing             sources and structured
                   esp. Pope John Paul II,    historians of the Cold War.          questions in Phillips
                   Ronald Reagan,             Study information on Pope John       (Edexcel), p.188-190
                   Margaret Thatcher,         Paul II, Ronald Reagan,
                   Mikhail Gorbachev          Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail           Exam practice – use the
                                              Gorbachev and present a case         sources and question in
                                              for each one having played the       Phillips (Edexcel), p.191-2 to
                                              key role in ending Cold War.         conduct timed exam practice.
                                              Rank their contribution in order
                                              of importance. Complete an
                                              evidence chart recording
                                              information to support the views
                                              of different historiographical
                                              schools on the ending of Cold
                                              War

				
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