Document Sample

       Lineberry Chapter Objectives;
          1. Understand how the instruments of foreign policy differ from those of domestic policy.
          2. List the major international and regional organizations and describe their roles in the realm of
             international relations.
          3. Determine how multinational corporations, groups, and individuals operate as actors in
             international relations.
          4. Identify the primary policymakers involved in foreign policy decision making.
          5. Delineate the major institutions of the U.S. national security establishment.
          6. Ascertain how the president and Congress share constitutional authority over foreign and
             defense policy.
          7. Briefly outline American diplomatic history from the period of isolationism to contemporary
             involvement in international relations.
          8. Contrast the policy of détente with prior policies such as containment and brinksmanship.
          9. Compare the general attitudes of liberals and conservatives toward defense expenditures
             and domestic policy expenditures.
         10. Summarize how domestic political concerns, budgetary limitations, and ideology all have a
            in influencing decisions regarding the structure of defense policy.
        11. Outline the major arms agreements negotiated by the United States and other nations on
          limitations and nuclear reduction.
      12. Explain why the Middle East is such an important component of American foreign policy.
   ** 13. Discuss the impact that 9/11 has had on U.S. foreign, military, and domestic policies.

***NOTE: The text was produced before 9/11 and is void of foreign policy and military events since that
         time. The notes below primarily come from Wilson which covered these topics in separate
         chapters. I was reluctant to add too much as things are changing almost daily.


 I. Background Information:

   A. Foreign policy simply refers to how one country interrelates with another, including such aspects
       as: diplomacy, foreign trade and aid, espionage, dissemination of information, and the use of
         military force.

   B. The primary concern of foreign policy is maintaining the national security and sovereignty of a
         nation. A nation's foreign policy goals are often determined by the degree of threats (whether
real         or imagined) to national security. Currently, the U.S. has several foreign policy goals:
       1. defending the U.S. against attacks from other nations,
       2. supporting humanitarian interests,
       3. protecting weaker nations against foreign aggression,
       4. supporting democracy in other nations,
       5. protecting jobs of American workers,
       6. securing a favorable balance of trade,
       7. defending our allies and participating in mutual defense alliances,
       8. getting involved with the United Nations peace-keeping activities,
       9. achieving worldwide arms control, and
      10. giving aid to foreign countries.
     C. American foreign policy goals can be divided into 7 major periods:
        1. 1800-1868 - Besides pursuing a policy of isolationism and nonalignment, the U.S. also
adopted                a policy of Manifest Destiny, thus domestic and foreign policy somewhat merge (i.e.)
           Purchase, Monroe Doctrine, Mexican War, and Emancipation Proclamation.
        2. 1870-1917 - Growth of U.S. imperialism in the western hemisphere, acquisition of territory,
and                  intervention in Latin America (i.e.) acquires Samoan Islands, Hawaii, fights Spanish-
           War (obtaining Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippines), builds Panama Canal, and Roosevelt
               Corollary to Monroe Doctrine announced.
        3. 1917-45 - Wilson is unable to sustain U.S. neutrality during W.W.I, does help negotiate
             Versailles Treaty and initiate League of Nations. U.S. fails to join and returns to isolationism
                 which is further reinforced during Depression. U.S. is drawn into W.W. II after Lend-Lease
Act,                     German unrestricted submarine warfare, trade embargo against Japan, and the
bombing of                    Pearl Harbor.
        4. 1945-1962 - After W.W. II, the cold war lines were drawn in Europe and Truman initiates
               containment policies via NATO, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine. The Korean
War                     becomes our first 'police action' and U.N. cooperative effort against communism.
Eisenhower                            builds up nuclear superiority and adopts policies of deterrence and
brinkmanship which come                    to a climax with the Cuban Missile Crisis under JFK.
        5. 1962-78 - Escalation of the Vietnam War divides the American public and compromises
               legitimacy to fight cold war (i.e.) public protests, War Powers Act enacted by Congress,
                  unfavorable media. Nixon 'thaws' cold war with policy of detente, visits Moscow & Peking,
and                SALT I Treaty passed.
        6. 1978-87 - Cold war heats up, detente dissolves after soviets invade Afghanistan. Carter
initiates              Camp David Peace Accords trying stabilize the Middle-East, however coup in Iraq
results in
           U.S. hostages. Reagan increases defense spending, Gorbachev initiates policies of glasnost
             and peristroika, and despite suspicions the Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty is passed.
                 Reagan gives aid to national liberation movements in several countries (e.g.) Chile,
Nicaragua,                 Grenada, El Salvador, etc., however illegal aid to guerillas in Nicaragua leads to
Iran-Contra                  scandal.
        7. 1987-99 - U.S. becomes sole world superpower and Bush announces policy of a 'new world
             order.' Bush envisions the U.S. working with the U.N. to achieve world peace and deal with
                 regional aggression. Policy results in increased U.S. military involvement and further
division                  between isolationists vs. interventionists (i.e.) Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Bosnia,
Haiti,                        Yugoslavia, etc.. Despite rise as superpower, third world terrorism becomes a
major threat to                 national security.
        8. 9/11/2001 – results in ‘war on terrorism’, passage of the PATRIOT Act, addition of the Dept.
           of Homeland Security to Cabinet status, and U.S. invasion of Afghanistan.
        9. 3/2003 – U.S. invasion of Iraq after U.N. weapon inspections come up empty and U.N. fails
           to approve collective intervention. Becomes first time U.S. invades another country under
           rationale of preemptive strike. Later, H.W. Bush comes criticism for misleading public with
           faulty intelligence reports. On-going military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq cost $1 billion
           and $4
           billion dollars per month, respectively. First serious attempt at ‘nation building’ since Marshall
           Plan following W.W. II.

   D. Foreign policy options spectrum - from little to maximum intervention
        isolationism > neutrality > foreign aid > diplomacy > economic sanctions > political pressure
           (collective security pacts)> blockade> military intervention > declared war

   E. Fearing centralized power in setting foreign policy, the founders gave specific powers to the
         president and Congress. Congress rarely challenges the president on foreign policy and
defense             issues without public support, thus the president and Congress both pursue public
opinion before             pursuing their agendas. Americans are much more likely to be apathetic on
foreign policy issues             than domestic, less apt to be informed of foreign policy issues, and
therefore subject to spin by the       president and Congress.

     F. As the U.S. slowly rose to an economic and military superpower, Congress has generally allowed
         the president to initiate policy and oppose him later if the policy becomes unpopular. Often this
        simply smart politics by both institutions. Foreign policy allows presidents to appear quite the
          leader and exalt their authority, critical hesitation allows Congress to wait on public opinion and
        choose the popular side.

     G. Foreign policy decisions are just as often to be reactive than proactive as presidents often have
         limited control of events in other countries. Likewise, decisions often have to be made relatively
           quick and lengthy congressional debate is often not feasible. Recent presidents have made
             greater use of executive agreements which do not need the approval of Congress.

    H. Foreign policy can be quite paradoxical depending on the issue, location, perceived threat,
           potential solutions, and economic significance. Freeing Kuwait from Iraq and restoring Middle-
East            stability was spun as a perceived military threat, yet in reality it was more an economic
threat to             our oil imports. The air campaign against Milosovich was spun as an effort to protect
        security and restore human rights, yet China is guilty of both and we are trying to improve trade
          relations with them. Where, when, and how we opt to get involved overseas becomes very
cross-           cutting!!

     I. Pros and cons of providing foreign aid:
          1. aid can deter greater future costs (e.g.) better to continue giving 'loans' to the USSR now
than               let them return to communism and escalate defense spending
          2. stable economic systems encourage democratic-style governments
          3. foreign aid can act as categorical grants (e.g.) provide for U.S. naval/air bases within
country,                influence social/economic policy
          4. can be differed between humanitarian and/or military/political

        1. most Americans view foreign aid as client politics and subject to free riders - broad costs w/
             narrow benefits
        2. problem of relative deprivation - money should be spent on U.S. citizens - solve our
problems              first, then worry about others
        3. misperception on how much of budget goes to foreign nations (e.g.) average American
             believes 20-25% of budget goes out of country, yet less than 1.8% is spent for
               military/humanitarian/economic aid

     J. Transition of American worldviews (perception of threat to U.S. based upon past events and
            how to deal with them in future) is shaped by three contemporary paradigms (a set
          1. isolationism - avoid threats, avoid foreign involvement – result of W.W.I, but ended with
               attack on Pearl Harbor
          2. anti-appeasement - short-term compromises may lead to long-term intervention - result of
                Munich Agreement and W.W. II
          3. disengagement - think carefully before picking one's fights, be careful in analyzing short &
               long-term goals

       *** Note: Since the fall of the USSR and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 the U.S. is experiencing a
              transition period in foreign and military policy. The Kosovo crisis culminated in an
           shift between the Democrats and Republicans - the former tended to favor disengagement,
the                     latter anti-appeasement; however, Kosovo shifted Democrats' as 'humanitarian
interventionists'             and Republicans' as 'careful disengagers.' Clinton spun the public perception
from broad                        costs/narrow benefits to broad costs/broad benefits, and used air attacks
hoping to reduce                     casualties.

      *** Rhetorical Questions: Should the U.S. have gotten involved? Did Clinton get lucky that the
war              ended before having to use ground troops? Did the U.S. and Great Britain change the
          purpose of NATO from that of a defensive reactionary pact to an aggressive offensive pact?
Is           the U.S. absorbing too much of the monetary costs of such 'mutual' military operations?

       K. Recent controversies: (does not include post 9/11 events)
          1. North Korean missile development - An unpredictable government with the capability of
               launching missiles over 2,000 miles. Japan is debating whether to amend their
constitution to               allow military rearmament. Will this destabilize the East Asia region?
          2. China steals U.S. nuclear secrets over a 20 year period - Has U.S. nuclear security become
               too lax? Will we have to decide whether China trade relations are less important than
national               security?
          3. Continued third world acts of terrorism - Are there more Saddams out there? Shouldn't we
be                 just as concerned with 'truck bombs,' various radical fringe groups, chemical weapons,
          4. Continued downsizing of the U.S. military - Can we fight 2 or 3 front wars? What happens
                when the Middle-East, Eastern Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe all experience
                  destabilizing crises??
          5. Continued unstability in the Russian Republic - Economy continues to crumble, leadership
               problems, and continued regional conflicts
          6. Growing rivalries - India vs. Pakistan, South vs. North Korea, China vs. Taiwan, etc. - Will
the               U.S. be forced to intervene? Could escalations lead to the use of nuclear weapons?

II. Terms: Be able to apply and define the following terms:

   A. isolationism vs. interventionism / 'hawks vs. doves'/ superpower/ 'world policeman'

   B. commander-in-chief / imperial presidency / police actions / War Powers Act of 1973

   C. Cold War / iron curtain

   D. containment

   E. deterrence / M.A.D.

   F. collective security pacts / NATO / Warsaw Pact

   G. worldview / Munich paradigm / anti-appeasement / Pearl Harbor paradigm / Vietnam paradigm /
        domino theory
   H. treaties / executive agreements

   I. Richard Nixon / detente / SALT I / Moscow & Peking meetings

   J. Mikhail Gorbachov / peristroika / glasnost / coup de etat

  K. Cuban missile crisis / brinkmanship / embargoes

   L. CIA

  M. National Security Advisor / National Security Council

  N. Secretary of State / Secretary of Defense

  O. United Nations / UN Secretary General / the Security Council (permanent members) / General
      Assembly / International Court of Justice

  P. State Department / diplomatic relations / ambassadors / embassies

III. Discussion Questions:

   A. What are the expressed powers of the president and Congress regarding the use of foreign

   B. Describe the expectations of the original relationship between the president and Congress in
setting         foreign policy; Discuss how this relationship changed throughout the 19th and 20th
centuries.           Provide evidence to support your position.

   C. Why does the U.S. prefer isolationism throughout the 19th century? Why does the U.S. have the
       option of adopting isolationism, unlike most European nations during the same time period?
      What are the primary purposes of the Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary?

   D. Discuss how the following wars/police actions helped to redefine U.S. foreign policy interests:
       1. Spanish-American War
       2. World War I
       3. World War II
       4. Korean War
       5. Vietnam War
       6. Invasion of Panama
       7. Persian Gulf War / "Operation Desert Storm" > "Desert Shield"
       8. Kosovo intervention
       9. U.S. invasions of Afghanistan & Iraq

   E. Discuss the roles that the following positions play in assisting the president with foreign policy
      1. Secretary of State
      2. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
       3. National Security Advisor
       4. Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
       5. Secretary of Defense
       6. Chairmen of the Senate & House Foreign Relations Committees
       7. Chairmen of the Senate & House Armed Services Committees

    F. When George Bush addressed the nation prior to the Persian Gulf War he stated, "This will not
be         another Vietnam." Discuss the implications of this statement in regard to the following:
       1. the length of the war
       2. the overwhelming use of military air, ground, and naval forces
       3. media coverage of the war
       4. calling Congress into special session to debate and vote on authorizing the use of military
       5. organizing a coalition of 32 other nations to help fight the war, including all Middle-East
       6. obtaining the support of the U.N. Security Council and General Assembly
       7. the emphasis on the use of air and naval air attacks more than infantry
       8. limiting the goal of U.S. involvement to support U.N. resolution 781 (the removal of Iraqi forces
            from Kuwait) and not expanding it to include the invasion of Iraq and the removal of Saddam
          Hussein from power

   G. What is meant by a 'worldview?' How have past events influenced current U.S. worldviews? Why
       does no single worldview dominate the American foreign policy making process? Why are
        American worldviews in a current transition period?

   H. Why is giving U.S. foreign aid to other countries so controversial? Discuss the different types of
       foreign aid that can be given; Why are some types more acceptable to Americans than others?

IV. Rhetorical Questions:

   A. Why does the application of M.I.C.E. become more complex when applied to foreign policy?

   B. Are most modern presidents experienced in foreign policy when they come to power? Which
        departments or individuals do you think they depend upon most? Why?

   C. Why have current diplomatic and trade relations between the U.S. and China been a major
       ideological conflict between the Republican and Democratic parties? What are the pros and
cons       of taking a hard-line stance on Chinese nuclear proliferation? What are the pros and cons
           of improving trade with China and encouraging them to adopt a more capitalistic economic

   D. There is an unwritten rule among modern presidents to switch their agenda from domestic issues
to      foreign policy issues when their popularity declines; Why is focusing on foreign policy expected
       help a president's public approval rating? How can excessive focusing on foreign policy issues
hurt       a president's popularity?


 I. Background Information:

  A. Defense policies are closely tied to the foreign policy goals of the nation. Thus national security
and        vital national interests are two of the overriding objectives in developing a defense budget

  B. Following the Revolutionary War the U.S. military was almost completely dissolved (1,700 troops
        and 14 ships) for three reasons:
      1. the country had little money to fund a large standing army and was crippled by a large war
      2. the states still relied on militias and feared a strong national army, and
      3. limited threats to national security from foreign countries.

   C. Traditionally, the U.S. has rearmed the military during periods of perceived threats only to
downsize            during peacetime. The relatively recent rise of the U.S. as the sole 'superpower' has
brought into
       conflict just how much should we continue to downsize? In 1987, military spending composed
26%            of the federal budget, following the end of the Cold War in 1991 the U.S. experienced a
'peace              dividend,' and by 2000 spending is expected to drop to 15%. Critics have complained
that Clinton            has cut the military to the bone and hope to increase military spending. Expect a
future battle over         increasing military personnel/preparedness (increasing pay, small ticket items)
vs. big ticket items        (F-22 jets, anti-ballistic defense system).

   D. The founding concepts of checks and balances and separation of powers have been applied to
the           organization of the military. Each branch has its own specific duties, their own budgets,
cannot be            merged under the command of a single commander, are supervised by a civilian
(Secretary of                Defense) who is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate,
depend upon Congress             for funding, can be mobilized by the president, and organized under a
very complex bureaucratic            structure. In addition, they can receive emergency support from the
various state national guards          (today's militias).

     E. Problem of interservice rivalry (competition among military branches)
        1. each lobbies Defense Dept. for greater spending programs, even though such increases are
             usually done incrementally,
        2. each desire major roles in major military operations, and
        3. pride/ego sometimes discourages branches from working together.

   F. Volunteer vs. conscription force - During peacetime the military depends upon volunteers,
however          starting with the Civil War the 'draft' was used to meet personal demands. From 1940 to
1973 the
       Selective Service Act was re-enacted by Congress. In 1980, Carter instituted mandatory
         registration of 18 yr. olds, though Congress has considered 3 times during the 90s to abolish it.
Due         in part to the 'baby bust' and that military pay hasn't risen to compete with the private sector,
military        recruitment numbers have decreased the last 4 years. Some recruits use the military to
obtain free           training only to move on to the private sector for better pay. During the Kosevo air
war Congress                  passed a law prohibiting pilots, flight mechanics, etc., from retiring. Several
nations solve their            recruitment problem by making military service mandatory for two years
between 18-26.
**** Update: Sec. Of Defense Rumsfeld is on record of opposing the draft preferring to use soldiers
      who want to be in the service. Because of the Iraqi invasion and increased homeland security,
      many national guard units have been deployed to provide additional troops.

  G. Other recent controversies in the military:
    1. Every post-W.W.II president except for Reagan and Clinton had served in the military. Clinton
        is the first Vietnam era 'boomer' to have actively tried to avoid the draft, thus hurting his
        authority to serve as commander-in-chief. In addition, in 1993 he pursued the gay rights issue
        resulting in the "don't ask, don't tell" policy. HW Bush avoided the draft by ‘serving’ in the Texas
        Air National Guard.

     2. Despite being ruled exempt from the draft more women are joining the military. In the 1980s
           women were accepted to West Point & the Naval Academy. Starting in 1994 they were
        admitted to public military schools (Cidadel, V.M.I.). In 1993 Congress allowed women to
        participate in   combat situations, except where it might compromise morale. From 1995-99
        several instances of sexual harassment and relationships were reported by press.

      3. The use of high-tech weapons (i.e.) cruise missiles, stealth fighters, etc., allow fewer ground
           troops to be used but result in fewer American lives lost. Wars are getting less costly in
         American lives but more costly in dollars (Persian Gulf cost over $86 billion, Kosovo over $30
           billion). Can future wars be fought without the massive use of ground troops?

   H. After the Korean War the defense budget did not return to peacetime levels due to perceived
         threats by the Soviets. While spending on personnel decreased, spending on 'big-ticket' items
      increased (ships, planes, tanks, nuclear weapons, etc.). Between 1980-90 the military
experienced           the largest military build-up during peacetime in history. Despite running massive
annual federal
     debts the Congress continued to approve such funding, especially when the weapons were
        assigned to be built in their districts/states.

   I. Military spending must be taken into context and compared as a percentage of the total federal
        budget and GNP. While the U.S. spent over $280 billion in defense in 1999, it only composed
16%            of the budget and less than 3.5% of the GNP. Other nations may spend 5-10 times less
than the            U.S. but it may compose 4-5 times more of their GNP.

  J. The military-industrial complex and iron/dissident triangles:
     1. The military-industrial complex refers to the supposed alliance between the Defense
Department             and the defense industry who are contracted to build big-ticket hardware.
     2. The iron triangle refers to an issue network between the Defense department/military branches,
           the defense contractors, and the House/Senate Armed Services Committees who approve
              spending. All 3 have a mutual concern for the building of expensive high tech weapons.
     3. The dissident triangle refers to an issue network between bureaucratic whistleblowers, the
media,               and members of Congress who are concerned with waste, fraud, and over-priced
weapons. All
        3 groups simply want 'the best bang for the buck' and do not oppose defense spending as a

  K. 'Guns vs. Butter' argument (defense vs. domestic spending): Every dollar spent on weapons is
one         less dollar spent on education, health care, etc.. The argument becomes very cross-cutting
due to:
     1. growing costs of high tech weapons - 1/3 of the military budget is devoted to weapons research,
          development, and procurement
     2. isolationists vs. interventionists - When should the U.S. intervene in other countries? Is the U.S.
          playing too large a role in the U.N. and N.A.T.O.? Are we paying too great a cost compared to
            other nations? (foreign policy 'free riders')
     3. during peacetime the public focuses more on domestic issues, currently the most popular
issues           are: health care, education,       social security, and crime prevention.

  L. Is there really waste and fraud within the military budget?

          1. The defense budget suffers from its own intrinsic bureaucratic pathologies which encourage
               waste and over-spending.
             a. gold-plating - the desire for military superiority may require production of (excessively)
                  elaborate weapons
             b. low estimates - contracts are given based upon lowest bids, some contractors may
                   deliberately give low bids just to get the contract only to jack-up costs later - fearing
the                      loss of past costs, additional money may be appropriated
             c. sole sourcing - depending on the requirements of the product requested there may only
be                  a handful of contractors able to produce it, thus they can increase costs if the military
                      wants the product bad enough
             d. stretching out costs - in order to decrease annual production costs weapons may be
                   produced over a number of years which actually increases the total cost of each
       2. The Defense Department is reluctant to impose harsh penalties on contractors fearing that
            they will close and/or not make bids in the future, despite fraud weapons are still
       3. Congress uses the military budget as a means of sending 'pork' to their states/districts.
       4. Excessive bureaucratic standards may insure higher quality but at an obviously higher cost.

         1. Failure to stretch out costs, fine contractors, etc., will result in the closing of plants, the firing
of                trained professionals, etc.; however, when such weapons are needed later it will cost
even                  more to reopen, rehire, retrain, etc.
         2. The myth of the $435 hammer is due to Pentagon accounting procedures and exploited by
the                   media - when R & D costs are added to manufacturing costs and then itemized,
everything will
            appear unreasonable
         3. High standards provide efficiency and save lives, human lives are worth any extra costs

     M. With the exception of taxes there is probably no policy-process that can be perceived from all
         M.I.C.E. perspectives as military/foreign policy.

   N. Despite passage of the War Powers Act of 1973 it has never been used by Congress, thus the
        Supreme Court has never had to rule on it. While presidents deny its constitutionality, they are
          aware of the problems of Vietnam and try to avoid similar mistakes as to not give Congress
the            opportunity to use the War Powers Act.
      1. state the threat to U.S. national security and state our goals,
      2. obtain public & U.N. support for the military operation,
      3. encourage Congress to debate the use of troops, and
      4. use overwhelming force to end the crisis within 60 days.

     O. Military 'pork' to states and base closing:
        1. The 3 states which receive the most defense spending are: Calif., Virginia, and Maryland
          2. Spending often influenced by geography and congressmen on commitees.
          3. Base closings become major 'turf' fights during peacetime

II. Terms: Be able to define and apply the following:

    A. House/Senate Armed Service Committees

    B. military-industrial complex

    C. National Security Act

    D. peace dividend / 'The Fall of the Wall'

    E. interservice rivalry

    F. Joint Chiefs of Staff/ Chairman of the JCS

    G. iron/dissident triangles

    H. specified vs. unified commands

     I. readiness / personnel

    J. declaration of war / police action / War Powers Act

    K. cost overruns / gold-plating / sole-sourcing / stretch outs / low estimates

     L. big-ticket hardware vs. small-ticket items

    M. guns vs. butter argument

    N. Strategic Defense Initiative ('Star Wars') / S.D.I. / ABMs

    O. hawks vs. doves

     P. base closings

III. Discussion Questions:

    A. Discuss the evolution of military forces in the U.S.; Why have we become more dependent upon
a         national force than assorted state militias?

    B. Why did the U.S. tend to rearm during wartime and downsize during peacetime; How does this
        trend change after the Korean War?

    C. Discuss the pros and cons of the military budget increases during the Reagan administration.

    D. Cite the expressed powers that the president and Congress have regarding military policy.
    E. How has the War Powers Act changed the relationship between the president and Congress?
Cite      examples.

     F. How has military and defense policy become a major cross-cutting ideological issue among the
            following groups:
        1. the president vs. Congress
        2. the public vs. the government
        3. conservatives vs. liberals
        4. iron vs. dissident triangles

     G. Why is the military experiencing recent recruitment and retention problems; What solutions have
         been proposed?

     H. Why has the conflict between spending more on big-ticket hardware than on small-ticket items
         escalated since the end of the Yugoslavia bombing operation? Has the Chinese infiltration of
           nuclear weapon's secrets helped or hurt this conflict? Explain.

     I. Give several examples of how military policy and defense spending can be perceived under each
of         the four M.I.C.E. policy-processes.

IV. Rhetorical Question:

   A. Conservatives criticize liberals for government activism and social engineering, recently several
        military officials have opposed government intervention that has been inclusive of women and
gays             in the services. Liberals argue that the military is simply another agency within the
government and               should not be discriminatory. Military officials argue that such actions hurt
morale and                              compromise effectiveness. Who is right? Should the military be
sovereign in matters of personnel           policy? Provide support.

     B. Several nations impose compulsory military service upon their citizens, some of these for both
          male and female; Discuss the merits of implementing such a policy in the United States.