A.P. GOVERNMENT: CHAPTER 20 – FOREIGN AND DEFENSE POLICY-MAKING Lineberry Chapter Objectives; 1. Understand how the instruments of foreign policy differ from those of domestic policy. 2. List the major international and regional organizations and describe their roles in the realm of international relations. 3. Determine how multinational corporations, groups, and individuals operate as actors in international relations. 4. Identify the primary policymakers involved in foreign policy decision making. 5. Delineate the major institutions of the U.S. national security establishment. 6. Ascertain how the president and Congress share constitutional authority over foreign and defense policy. 7. Briefly outline American diplomatic history from the period of isolationism to contemporary involvement in international relations. 8. Contrast the policy of détente with prior policies such as containment and brinksmanship. 9. Compare the general attitudes of liberals and conservatives toward defense expenditures and domestic policy expenditures. 10. Summarize how domestic political concerns, budgetary limitations, and ideology all have a role in influencing decisions regarding the structure of defense policy. 11. Outline the major arms agreements negotiated by the United States and other nations on arms limitations and nuclear reduction. 12. Explain why the Middle East is such an important component of American foreign policy. ** 13. Discuss the impact that 9/11 has had on U.S. foreign, military, and domestic policies. ***NOTE: The text was produced before 9/11 and is void of foreign policy and military events since that time. The notes below primarily come from Wilson which covered these topics in separate chapters. I was reluctant to add too much as things are changing almost daily. AP GOVERNMENT LECTURE AND DISCUSSION QUESTIONS – FOR FOREIGN POLICY I. Background Information: A. Foreign policy simply refers to how one country interrelates with another, including such aspects as: diplomacy, foreign trade and aid, espionage, dissemination of information, and the use of military force. B. The primary concern of foreign policy is maintaining the national security and sovereignty of a nation. A nation's foreign policy goals are often determined by the degree of threats (whether real or imagined) to national security. Currently, the U.S. has several foreign policy goals: 1. defending the U.S. against attacks from other nations, 2. supporting humanitarian interests, 3. protecting weaker nations against foreign aggression, 4. supporting democracy in other nations, 5. protecting jobs of American workers, 6. securing a favorable balance of trade, 7. defending our allies and participating in mutual defense alliances, 8. getting involved with the United Nations peace-keeping activities, 9. achieving worldwide arms control, and 10. giving aid to foreign countries. C. American foreign policy goals can be divided into 7 major periods: 1. 1800-1868 - Besides pursuing a policy of isolationism and nonalignment, the U.S. also adopted a policy of Manifest Destiny, thus domestic and foreign policy somewhat merge (i.e.) Louisiana Purchase, Monroe Doctrine, Mexican War, and Emancipation Proclamation. 2. 1870-1917 - Growth of U.S. imperialism in the western hemisphere, acquisition of territory, and intervention in Latin America (i.e.) acquires Samoan Islands, Hawaii, fights Spanish- American War (obtaining Guam, Puerto Rico, & Philippines), builds Panama Canal, and Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine announced. 3. 1917-45 - Wilson is unable to sustain U.S. neutrality during W.W.I, does help negotiate Versailles Treaty and initiate League of Nations. U.S. fails to join and returns to isolationism which is further reinforced during Depression. U.S. is drawn into W.W. II after Lend-Lease Act, German unrestricted submarine warfare, trade embargo against Japan, and the bombing of Pearl Harbor. 4. 1945-1962 - After W.W. II, the cold war lines were drawn in Europe and Truman initiates containment policies via NATO, the Marshall Plan, and the Truman Doctrine. The Korean War becomes our first 'police action' and U.N. cooperative effort against communism. Eisenhower builds up nuclear superiority and adopts policies of deterrence and brinkmanship which come to a climax with the Cuban Missile Crisis under JFK. 5. 1962-78 - Escalation of the Vietnam War divides the American public and compromises legitimacy to fight cold war (i.e.) public protests, War Powers Act enacted by Congress, unfavorable media. Nixon 'thaws' cold war with policy of detente, visits Moscow & Peking, and SALT I Treaty passed. 6. 1978-87 - Cold war heats up, detente dissolves after soviets invade Afghanistan. Carter initiates Camp David Peace Accords trying stabilize the Middle-East, however coup in Iraq results in U.S. hostages. Reagan increases defense spending, Gorbachev initiates policies of glasnost and peristroika, and despite suspicions the Intermediate Nuclear Force Treaty is passed. Reagan gives aid to national liberation movements in several countries (e.g.) Chile, Nicaragua, Grenada, El Salvador, etc., however illegal aid to guerillas in Nicaragua leads to Iran-Contra scandal. 7. 1987-99 - U.S. becomes sole world superpower and Bush announces policy of a 'new world order.' Bush envisions the U.S. working with the U.N. to achieve world peace and deal with regional aggression. Policy results in increased U.S. military involvement and further division between isolationists vs. interventionists (i.e.) Persian Gulf War, Somalia, Bosnia, Haiti, Yugoslavia, etc.. Despite rise as superpower, third world terrorism becomes a major threat to national security. 8. 9/11/2001 – results in ‘war on terrorism’, passage of the PATRIOT Act, addition of the Dept. of Homeland Security to Cabinet status, and U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. 9. 3/2003 – U.S. invasion of Iraq after U.N. weapon inspections come up empty and U.N. fails to approve collective intervention. Becomes first time U.S. invades another country under rationale of preemptive strike. Later, H.W. Bush comes criticism for misleading public with faulty intelligence reports. On-going military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq cost $1 billion and $4 billion dollars per month, respectively. First serious attempt at ‘nation building’ since Marshall Plan following W.W. II. D. Foreign policy options spectrum - from little to maximum intervention isolationism > neutrality > foreign aid > diplomacy > economic sanctions > political pressure (collective security pacts)> blockade> military intervention > declared war E. Fearing centralized power in setting foreign policy, the founders gave specific powers to the president and Congress. Congress rarely challenges the president on foreign policy and defense issues without public support, thus the president and Congress both pursue public opinion before pursuing their agendas. Americans are much more likely to be apathetic on foreign policy issues than domestic, less apt to be informed of foreign policy issues, and therefore subject to spin by the president and Congress. F. As the U.S. slowly rose to an economic and military superpower, Congress has generally allowed the president to initiate policy and oppose him later if the policy becomes unpopular. Often this is simply smart politics by both institutions. Foreign policy allows presidents to appear quite the leader and exalt their authority, critical hesitation allows Congress to wait on public opinion and choose the popular side. G. Foreign policy decisions are just as often to be reactive than proactive as presidents often have limited control of events in other countries. Likewise, decisions often have to be made relatively quick and lengthy congressional debate is often not feasible. Recent presidents have made greater use of executive agreements which do not need the approval of Congress. H. Foreign policy can be quite paradoxical depending on the issue, location, perceived threat, potential solutions, and economic significance. Freeing Kuwait from Iraq and restoring Middle- East stability was spun as a perceived military threat, yet in reality it was more an economic threat to our oil imports. The air campaign against Milosovich was spun as an effort to protect national security and restore human rights, yet China is guilty of both and we are trying to improve trade relations with them. Where, when, and how we opt to get involved overseas becomes very cross- cutting!! I. Pros and cons of providing foreign aid: Pros 1. aid can deter greater future costs (e.g.) better to continue giving 'loans' to the USSR now than let them return to communism and escalate defense spending 2. stable economic systems encourage democratic-style governments 3. foreign aid can act as categorical grants (e.g.) provide for U.S. naval/air bases within country, influence social/economic policy 4. can be differed between humanitarian and/or military/political Cons 1. most Americans view foreign aid as client politics and subject to free riders - broad costs w/ narrow benefits 2. problem of relative deprivation - money should be spent on U.S. citizens - solve our problems first, then worry about others 3. misperception on how much of budget goes to foreign nations (e.g.) average American believes 20-25% of budget goes out of country, yet less than 1.8% is spent for military/humanitarian/economic aid J. Transition of American worldviews (perception of threat to U.S. based upon past events and how to deal with them in future) is shaped by three contemporary paradigms (a set example): Worldviews: 1. isolationism - avoid threats, avoid foreign involvement – result of W.W.I, but ended with attack on Pearl Harbor 2. anti-appeasement - short-term compromises may lead to long-term intervention - result of Munich Agreement and W.W. II 3. disengagement - think carefully before picking one's fights, be careful in analyzing short & long-term goals *** Note: Since the fall of the USSR and the Persian Gulf War in 1991 the U.S. is experiencing a transition period in foreign and military policy. The Kosovo crisis culminated in an ideological shift between the Democrats and Republicans - the former tended to favor disengagement, the latter anti-appeasement; however, Kosovo shifted Democrats' as 'humanitarian interventionists' and Republicans' as 'careful disengagers.' Clinton spun the public perception from broad costs/narrow benefits to broad costs/broad benefits, and used air attacks hoping to reduce casualties. *** Rhetorical Questions: Should the U.S. have gotten involved? Did Clinton get lucky that the war ended before having to use ground troops? Did the U.S. and Great Britain change the primary purpose of NATO from that of a defensive reactionary pact to an aggressive offensive pact? Is the U.S. absorbing too much of the monetary costs of such 'mutual' military operations? K. Recent controversies: (does not include post 9/11 events) 1. North Korean missile development - An unpredictable government with the capability of launching missiles over 2,000 miles. Japan is debating whether to amend their constitution to allow military rearmament. Will this destabilize the East Asia region? 2. China steals U.S. nuclear secrets over a 20 year period - Has U.S. nuclear security become too lax? Will we have to decide whether China trade relations are less important than national security? 3. Continued third world acts of terrorism - Are there more Saddams out there? Shouldn't we be just as concerned with 'truck bombs,' various radical fringe groups, chemical weapons, etc.. 4. Continued downsizing of the U.S. military - Can we fight 2 or 3 front wars? What happens when the Middle-East, Eastern Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe all experience destabilizing crises?? 5. Continued unstability in the Russian Republic - Economy continues to crumble, leadership problems, and continued regional conflicts 6. Growing rivalries - India vs. Pakistan, South vs. North Korea, China vs. Taiwan, etc. - Will the U.S. be forced to intervene? Could escalations lead to the use of nuclear weapons? II. Terms: Be able to apply and define the following terms: A. isolationism vs. interventionism / 'hawks vs. doves'/ superpower/ 'world policeman' B. commander-in-chief / imperial presidency / police actions / War Powers Act of 1973 C. Cold War / iron curtain D. containment E. deterrence / M.A.D. F. collective security pacts / NATO / Warsaw Pact G. worldview / Munich paradigm / anti-appeasement / Pearl Harbor paradigm / Vietnam paradigm / domino theory H. treaties / executive agreements I. Richard Nixon / detente / SALT I / Moscow & Peking meetings J. Mikhail Gorbachov / peristroika / glasnost / coup de etat K. Cuban missile crisis / brinkmanship / embargoes L. CIA M. National Security Advisor / National Security Council N. Secretary of State / Secretary of Defense O. United Nations / UN Secretary General / the Security Council (permanent members) / General Assembly / International Court of Justice P. State Department / diplomatic relations / ambassadors / embassies III. Discussion Questions: A. What are the expressed powers of the president and Congress regarding the use of foreign policy? B. Describe the expectations of the original relationship between the president and Congress in setting foreign policy; Discuss how this relationship changed throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Provide evidence to support your position. C. Why does the U.S. prefer isolationism throughout the 19th century? Why does the U.S. have the option of adopting isolationism, unlike most European nations during the same time period? What are the primary purposes of the Monroe Doctrine and Roosevelt Corollary? D. Discuss how the following wars/police actions helped to redefine U.S. foreign policy interests: 1. Spanish-American War 2. World War I 3. World War II 4. Korean War 5. Vietnam War 6. Invasion of Panama 7. Persian Gulf War / "Operation Desert Storm" > "Desert Shield" 8. Kosovo intervention 9. U.S. invasions of Afghanistan & Iraq E. Discuss the roles that the following positions play in assisting the president with foreign policy decisions: 1. Secretary of State 2. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 3. National Security Advisor 4. Director of the Central Intelligence Agency 5. Secretary of Defense 6. Chairmen of the Senate & House Foreign Relations Committees 7. Chairmen of the Senate & House Armed Services Committees F. When George Bush addressed the nation prior to the Persian Gulf War he stated, "This will not be another Vietnam." Discuss the implications of this statement in regard to the following: 1. the length of the war 2. the overwhelming use of military air, ground, and naval forces 3. media coverage of the war 4. calling Congress into special session to debate and vote on authorizing the use of military forces 5. organizing a coalition of 32 other nations to help fight the war, including all Middle-East nations 6. obtaining the support of the U.N. Security Council and General Assembly 7. the emphasis on the use of air and naval air attacks more than infantry 8. limiting the goal of U.S. involvement to support U.N. resolution 781 (the removal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait) and not expanding it to include the invasion of Iraq and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power G. What is meant by a 'worldview?' How have past events influenced current U.S. worldviews? Why does no single worldview dominate the American foreign policy making process? Why are American worldviews in a current transition period? H. Why is giving U.S. foreign aid to other countries so controversial? Discuss the different types of foreign aid that can be given; Why are some types more acceptable to Americans than others? IV. Rhetorical Questions: A. Why does the application of M.I.C.E. become more complex when applied to foreign policy? B. Are most modern presidents experienced in foreign policy when they come to power? Which departments or individuals do you think they depend upon most? Why? C. Why have current diplomatic and trade relations between the U.S. and China been a major ideological conflict between the Republican and Democratic parties? What are the pros and cons of taking a hard-line stance on Chinese nuclear proliferation? What are the pros and cons of improving trade with China and encouraging them to adopt a more capitalistic economic philosophy? D. There is an unwritten rule among modern presidents to switch their agenda from domestic issues to foreign policy issues when their popularity declines; Why is focusing on foreign policy expected to help a president's public approval rating? How can excessive focusing on foreign policy issues hurt a president's popularity? AP GOVERNMENT BACKGROUND & DISCUSSION QUESTIONS – on Military Policy I. Background Information: A. Defense policies are closely tied to the foreign policy goals of the nation. Thus national security and vital national interests are two of the overriding objectives in developing a defense budget and operation. B. Following the Revolutionary War the U.S. military was almost completely dissolved (1,700 troops and 14 ships) for three reasons: 1. the country had little money to fund a large standing army and was crippled by a large war debt, 2. the states still relied on militias and feared a strong national army, and 3. limited threats to national security from foreign countries. C. Traditionally, the U.S. has rearmed the military during periods of perceived threats only to downsize during peacetime. The relatively recent rise of the U.S. as the sole 'superpower' has brought into conflict just how much should we continue to downsize? In 1987, military spending composed 26% of the federal budget, following the end of the Cold War in 1991 the U.S. experienced a 'peace dividend,' and by 2000 spending is expected to drop to 15%. Critics have complained that Clinton has cut the military to the bone and hope to increase military spending. Expect a future battle over increasing military personnel/preparedness (increasing pay, small ticket items) vs. big ticket items (F-22 jets, anti-ballistic defense system). D. The founding concepts of checks and balances and separation of powers have been applied to the organization of the military. Each branch has its own specific duties, their own budgets, cannot be merged under the command of a single commander, are supervised by a civilian (Secretary of Defense) who is appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate, depend upon Congress for funding, can be mobilized by the president, and organized under a very complex bureaucratic structure. In addition, they can receive emergency support from the various state national guards (today's militias). E. Problem of interservice rivalry (competition among military branches) 1. each lobbies Defense Dept. for greater spending programs, even though such increases are usually done incrementally, 2. each desire major roles in major military operations, and 3. pride/ego sometimes discourages branches from working together. F. Volunteer vs. conscription force - During peacetime the military depends upon volunteers, however starting with the Civil War the 'draft' was used to meet personal demands. From 1940 to 1973 the Selective Service Act was re-enacted by Congress. In 1980, Carter instituted mandatory registration of 18 yr. olds, though Congress has considered 3 times during the 90s to abolish it. Due in part to the 'baby bust' and that military pay hasn't risen to compete with the private sector, military recruitment numbers have decreased the last 4 years. Some recruits use the military to obtain free training only to move on to the private sector for better pay. During the Kosevo air war Congress passed a law prohibiting pilots, flight mechanics, etc., from retiring. Several nations solve their recruitment problem by making military service mandatory for two years between 18-26. **** Update: Sec. Of Defense Rumsfeld is on record of opposing the draft preferring to use soldiers who want to be in the service. Because of the Iraqi invasion and increased homeland security, many national guard units have been deployed to provide additional troops. G. Other recent controversies in the military: 1. Every post-W.W.II president except for Reagan and Clinton had served in the military. Clinton is the first Vietnam era 'boomer' to have actively tried to avoid the draft, thus hurting his authority to serve as commander-in-chief. In addition, in 1993 he pursued the gay rights issue resulting in the "don't ask, don't tell" policy. HW Bush avoided the draft by ‘serving’ in the Texas Air National Guard. 2. Despite being ruled exempt from the draft more women are joining the military. In the 1980s women were accepted to West Point & the Naval Academy. Starting in 1994 they were admitted to public military schools (Cidadel, V.M.I.). In 1993 Congress allowed women to participate in combat situations, except where it might compromise morale. From 1995-99 several instances of sexual harassment and relationships were reported by press. 3. The use of high-tech weapons (i.e.) cruise missiles, stealth fighters, etc., allow fewer ground troops to be used but result in fewer American lives lost. Wars are getting less costly in American lives but more costly in dollars (Persian Gulf cost over $86 billion, Kosovo over $30 billion). Can future wars be fought without the massive use of ground troops? H. After the Korean War the defense budget did not return to peacetime levels due to perceived threats by the Soviets. While spending on personnel decreased, spending on 'big-ticket' items increased (ships, planes, tanks, nuclear weapons, etc.). Between 1980-90 the military experienced the largest military build-up during peacetime in history. Despite running massive annual federal debts the Congress continued to approve such funding, especially when the weapons were assigned to be built in their districts/states. I. Military spending must be taken into context and compared as a percentage of the total federal budget and GNP. While the U.S. spent over $280 billion in defense in 1999, it only composed 16% of the budget and less than 3.5% of the GNP. Other nations may spend 5-10 times less than the U.S. but it may compose 4-5 times more of their GNP. J. The military-industrial complex and iron/dissident triangles: 1. The military-industrial complex refers to the supposed alliance between the Defense Department and the defense industry who are contracted to build big-ticket hardware. 2. The iron triangle refers to an issue network between the Defense department/military branches, the defense contractors, and the House/Senate Armed Services Committees who approve spending. All 3 have a mutual concern for the building of expensive high tech weapons. 3. The dissident triangle refers to an issue network between bureaucratic whistleblowers, the media, and members of Congress who are concerned with waste, fraud, and over-priced weapons. All 3 groups simply want 'the best bang for the buck' and do not oppose defense spending as a whole. K. 'Guns vs. Butter' argument (defense vs. domestic spending): Every dollar spent on weapons is one less dollar spent on education, health care, etc.. The argument becomes very cross-cutting due to: 1. growing costs of high tech weapons - 1/3 of the military budget is devoted to weapons research, development, and procurement 2. isolationists vs. interventionists - When should the U.S. intervene in other countries? Is the U.S. playing too large a role in the U.N. and N.A.T.O.? Are we paying too great a cost compared to other nations? (foreign policy 'free riders') 3. during peacetime the public focuses more on domestic issues, currently the most popular issues are: health care, education, social security, and crime prevention. L. Is there really waste and fraud within the military budget? YES: 1. The defense budget suffers from its own intrinsic bureaucratic pathologies which encourage waste and over-spending. a. gold-plating - the desire for military superiority may require production of (excessively) elaborate weapons b. low estimates - contracts are given based upon lowest bids, some contractors may deliberately give low bids just to get the contract only to jack-up costs later - fearing the loss of past costs, additional money may be appropriated c. sole sourcing - depending on the requirements of the product requested there may only be a handful of contractors able to produce it, thus they can increase costs if the military wants the product bad enough d. stretching out costs - in order to decrease annual production costs weapons may be produced over a number of years which actually increases the total cost of each product 2. The Defense Department is reluctant to impose harsh penalties on contractors fearing that they will close and/or not make bids in the future, despite fraud weapons are still produced. 3. Congress uses the military budget as a means of sending 'pork' to their states/districts. 4. Excessive bureaucratic standards may insure higher quality but at an obviously higher cost. NO: 1. Failure to stretch out costs, fine contractors, etc., will result in the closing of plants, the firing of trained professionals, etc.; however, when such weapons are needed later it will cost even more to reopen, rehire, retrain, etc. 2. The myth of the $435 hammer is due to Pentagon accounting procedures and exploited by the media - when R & D costs are added to manufacturing costs and then itemized, everything will appear unreasonable 3. High standards provide efficiency and save lives, human lives are worth any extra costs M. With the exception of taxes there is probably no policy-process that can be perceived from all M.I.C.E. perspectives as military/foreign policy. N. Despite passage of the War Powers Act of 1973 it has never been used by Congress, thus the Supreme Court has never had to rule on it. While presidents deny its constitutionality, they are aware of the problems of Vietnam and try to avoid similar mistakes as to not give Congress the opportunity to use the War Powers Act. 1. state the threat to U.S. national security and state our goals, 2. obtain public & U.N. support for the military operation, 3. encourage Congress to debate the use of troops, and 4. use overwhelming force to end the crisis within 60 days. O. Military 'pork' to states and base closing: 1. The 3 states which receive the most defense spending are: Calif., Virginia, and Maryland 2. Spending often influenced by geography and congressmen on commitees. 3. Base closings become major 'turf' fights during peacetime II. Terms: Be able to define and apply the following: A. House/Senate Armed Service Committees B. military-industrial complex C. National Security Act D. peace dividend / 'The Fall of the Wall' E. interservice rivalry F. Joint Chiefs of Staff/ Chairman of the JCS G. iron/dissident triangles H. specified vs. unified commands I. readiness / personnel J. declaration of war / police action / War Powers Act K. cost overruns / gold-plating / sole-sourcing / stretch outs / low estimates L. big-ticket hardware vs. small-ticket items M. guns vs. butter argument N. Strategic Defense Initiative ('Star Wars') / S.D.I. / ABMs O. hawks vs. doves P. base closings III. Discussion Questions: A. Discuss the evolution of military forces in the U.S.; Why have we become more dependent upon a national force than assorted state militias? B. Why did the U.S. tend to rearm during wartime and downsize during peacetime; How does this trend change after the Korean War? C. Discuss the pros and cons of the military budget increases during the Reagan administration. D. Cite the expressed powers that the president and Congress have regarding military policy. E. How has the War Powers Act changed the relationship between the president and Congress? Cite examples. F. How has military and defense policy become a major cross-cutting ideological issue among the following groups: 1. the president vs. Congress 2. the public vs. the government 3. conservatives vs. liberals 4. iron vs. dissident triangles G. Why is the military experiencing recent recruitment and retention problems; What solutions have been proposed? H. Why has the conflict between spending more on big-ticket hardware than on small-ticket items escalated since the end of the Yugoslavia bombing operation? Has the Chinese infiltration of nuclear weapon's secrets helped or hurt this conflict? Explain. I. Give several examples of how military policy and defense spending can be perceived under each of the four M.I.C.E. policy-processes. IV. Rhetorical Question: A. Conservatives criticize liberals for government activism and social engineering, recently several military officials have opposed government intervention that has been inclusive of women and gays in the services. Liberals argue that the military is simply another agency within the government and should not be discriminatory. Military officials argue that such actions hurt morale and compromise effectiveness. Who is right? Should the military be sovereign in matters of personnel policy? Provide support. B. Several nations impose compulsory military service upon their citizens, some of these for both male and female; Discuss the merits of implementing such a policy in the United States.