John Brown Review! The Election of 1860 Election of 1860: two different races for presidency – one in the North and one in the South • Democratic Party splits along • Constitutional Union sectional lines [Moderate view on slavery]: – South Democrats [Extreme view – John Bell on slavery]: – Just wanted to preserve the • John Breckinridge Union • Defend slavery – Did not want fed to pass any new • Southern support laws on slavery – Southern Support – North Democrats [Moderate view on slavery]: • Republican [Extreme view on • Stephen Douglas slavery]: • Support popular sovereignty to decide if territories should be a – Abe Lincoln free or slave state – Opposed expansion of slavery in • Did not want fed to pass any the new territories new laws on slavery – Northern support • Northern support Political Cartoon Activity • What is going on in the cartoon? • What common symbol for a political campaign is used in the cartoon? • What is the message of the cartoon? Map Activity / Lincoln Votes In Hunterdon County • What can be concluded from the voting results of Bethlehem Township? Hunterdon County? • Map: – Which state split its vote? Why do you think that happened? – What do the results tell use about the presidential candidates? – How many states did Lincoln win? Election Outcome • Outcome made it clear that the country was sick and tired of compromise… • WARNING: – Southerners warned if Lincoln won the presidency, southern states would secede from the Union – Why? • Even though Lincoln promised he would not abolish slavery, they did not trust him… his victory would be a threat to their way of life. • Well, who won? – Lincoln won the election WHAT HAPPENS NOW!?!?!? Southern states secede… The Confederate States of America are born • Secede: Secession? – To withdraw from the Union • How is secession possible? – Southerners based arguments are states’ rights • States have certain rights that federal government cannot overrule • Federalism • Northerners were using their “majority” to force the South to abolish slavery – States voluntarily joined the Union so they could voluntarily leave it • South Carolina was the first to secede The Confederate States Of America • South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas • Feb. 1861: met in Montgomery, Alabama to form the CSA – Jefferson Davis is made president – Draft constitution • Supported states’ rights – Confederation: loose alliance between a group of states • Protect slavery – believed war could not be avoided The Response From The Union • Secession was unconstitutional!!! –Constitution prevented secession –States do not have the right to withdraw from the Union because the FEDERAL government is sovereign [supreme], not The North the States A Compromise? • Crittenden Compromise: – Tried to prevent secession – Proposed that slavery should be protected SOUTH of the Missouri Compromise and federal gov’t should reimburse the owners of fugitive slaves. – Presented to congress in 1861, but was defeated in Senate. Chart Activity • Why did these series of laws and events shatter the unity of the nation? • In your opinion, which law and/or event was the pivotal moment that the division between the North and South was just going to continue to increase? • Was civil war inevitable? Lincoln’s Inauguration Woot! I am president! Lincoln! • In 1818 Abraham Lincoln nearly died after being kicked in the head by a horse. • Proclaimed that there be a national Thanksgiving Day on the last Thursday of November. • Abraham Lincoln is the tallest president the United States has ever had. He stood 6 feet 4 inches tall. • Abraham Lincoln would keep notes and important papers in his stove-pipe hat. • In 1860 a little girl named Grace Bedell from Westfield, New York wrote a letter to Abraham Lincoln asking him to grow a beard. She told him the beard would help him be elected as President of the United States. Lincoln was the first President of the United States to wear a beard. • President Lincoln was our first U. S. President to be born outside of the original thirteen colonies. • Today there are no direct descendents of Abraham Lincoln. • He was the first president to be assassinated. • He patented a system to alter buoyancy of steamboats in 1849. • Even though he was strong, a talented wrestler, and proficient with an axe, Lincoln disliked killing and harming animals, even for food. Lincoln’s Inauguration Lincoln’s Inauguration • How did Lincoln's first inaugural address reflect southern secession? • What is the tone of Lincoln’s speech? • Do you think was his goal by presenting this speech? Secession Comparable? The American Revolution? • Who are the “abolitionists?” • How does Senator Toombs compare the Southern secession to the American Revolution? • Why does the Senator believe the South’s rights and liberties are in danger? • What is the purpose of Senator Toombs speech? Lincoln did not want to invade the South, but he would not abandon the gov’t’s forts in the South & they would soon need to be resupplied… the Northerners and Southerners waited to see what would happen next. To be continued… Brouhaha •The election of Abraham Lincoln as president in 1860 led seven Southern states to secede from the Union. Essential Questions • How did the Southern states justify secession? • What attempt did the North and the South make to compromise? What were the results? • Do you think the Southern states seceded to protect slavery or states’ rights? Explain. • Why did the Confederacy compare secession to the American Revolution?
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