The Election of

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					John Brown
The Election of 1860
  Election of 1860: two different races for
   presidency – one in the North and one in the
• Democratic Party splits along              • Constitutional Union
  sectional lines                              [Moderate view on slavery]:
   – South Democrats [Extreme view              – John Bell
     on slavery]:                               – Just wanted to preserve the
       • John Breckinridge                        Union
       • Defend slavery                         – Did not want fed to pass any new
       • Southern support                         laws on slavery
                                                – Southern Support
   – North Democrats [Moderate
     view on slavery]:                       • Republican [Extreme view on
       • Stephen Douglas
       • Support popular sovereignty to
         decide if territories should be a      – Abe Lincoln
         free or slave state                    – Opposed expansion of slavery in
       • Did not want fed to pass any             the new territories
         new laws on slavery                    – Northern support
       • Northern support
 Political Cartoon Activity
• What is going on in the
• What common symbol for a
  political campaign is used in the
• What is the message of the
   Map Activity /
  Lincoln Votes In
 Hunterdon County
• What can be concluded
  from the voting results
  of Bethlehem
  Township? Hunterdon

• Map:
  – Which state split its
    vote? Why do you
    think that
  – What do the results
    tell use about the
  – How many states
    did Lincoln win?
         Election Outcome
• Outcome made it clear that the country
  was sick and tired of compromise…
   – Southerners warned if Lincoln won
     the presidency, southern states would
     secede from the Union
   – Why?
      • Even though Lincoln promised he
         would not abolish slavery, they did
         not trust him… his victory would
         be a threat to their way of life.
• Well, who won?
   – Lincoln won the election

 Southern states secede…
 The Confederate States of
     America are born
• Secede:
   – To withdraw from the Union
• How is secession possible?
   – Southerners based arguments are states’ rights
      • States have certain rights that federal government
        cannot overrule
      • Federalism
      • Northerners were using their “majority” to force the
        South to abolish slavery
   – States voluntarily joined the Union so they could
     voluntarily leave it
• South Carolina was the first to secede
   The Confederate States Of America
• South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida,
  Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and
• Feb. 1861: met in Montgomery,
  Alabama to form the CSA
   – Jefferson Davis is made
   – Draft constitution
      • Supported states’ rights
          – Confederation: loose
            alliance between a group
            of states
      • Protect slavery
   – believed war could not be
The Response From The Union
• Secession was
    prevented secession
   –States do not have the
    right to withdraw from
    the Union because the
    FEDERAL government is
    sovereign [supreme], not
                               The North

    the States
A Compromise?
• Crittenden Compromise:
  – Tried to prevent secession
  – Proposed that slavery should
    be protected SOUTH of the
    Missouri Compromise and
    federal gov’t should reimburse
    the owners of fugitive slaves.
  – Presented to congress in 1861,
    but was defeated in Senate.
        Chart Activity
• Why did these series of laws and events
  shatter the unity of the nation?

• In your opinion, which law and/or event was
  the pivotal moment that the division
  between the North and South was just going
  to continue to increase?

• Was civil war inevitable?
Lincoln’s Inauguration
             Woot! I
• In 1818 Abraham Lincoln nearly died after being
  kicked in the head by a horse.
• Proclaimed that there be a national Thanksgiving
  Day on the last Thursday of November.
• Abraham Lincoln is the tallest president the United
  States has ever had. He stood 6 feet 4 inches tall.
• Abraham Lincoln would keep notes and important
  papers in his stove-pipe hat.
• In 1860 a little girl named Grace Bedell from
  Westfield, New York wrote a letter to Abraham
  Lincoln asking him to grow a beard. She told him
  the beard would help him be elected as President
  of the United States. Lincoln was the first President
  of the United States to wear a beard.
• President Lincoln was our first U. S. President to be
  born outside of the original thirteen colonies.
• Today there are no direct descendents of Abraham
• He was the first president to be assassinated.
• He patented a system to alter buoyancy of
  steamboats in 1849.
• Even though he was strong, a talented wrestler,
  and proficient with an axe, Lincoln disliked killing
  and harming animals, even for food.
Lincoln’s Inauguration
 Lincoln’s Inauguration
• How did Lincoln's first
  inaugural address reflect
  southern secession?

• What is the tone of
  Lincoln’s speech?

• Do you think was his goal
  by presenting this speech?
      Secession Comparable? The
        American Revolution?
• Who are the “abolitionists?”
• How does Senator Toombs
  compare the Southern secession
  to the American Revolution?
• Why does the Senator believe
  the South’s rights and liberties
  are in danger?
• What is the purpose of Senator
  Toombs speech?
Lincoln did not want to invade the South, but
he would not abandon the gov’t’s forts in the
    South & they would soon need to be
resupplied… the Northerners and Southerners
    waited to see what would happen next.

             To be continued…
•The election of
 Abraham Lincoln
 as president in
 1860 led seven
 Southern states to
 secede from the
    Essential Questions
• How did the Southern states justify
• What attempt did the North and the South
  make to compromise? What were the
• Do you think the Southern states seceded to
  protect slavery or states’ rights? Explain.
• Why did the Confederacy compare secession
  to the American Revolution?

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