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INTERVIEWING

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INTERVIEWING Powered By Docstoc
					INTERVIEWING
Kinds of Information Sought
• OPINIONS
  – Store owner
     •   Ask “”# of refunds” –25
     •   Actual 10 – is owner overstating
     •   Instead ask “major concerns”
     •   Refunds too high – key problem
• FEELINGS
  – Interviewee know co‟s better than you do
  – Listen to feelings of respondent
  – “I feel happy you‟re working on this project”
• GOALS
  – Facts explain past performance
  – Goals project organization‟s future
  – Can only be obtained by interviewing
REMEMBER
 -you are establishing a relationship
 with a stranger
 -must build trust & understanding
 quickly
 -but must maintain control
 -best to do this is by planning
PLANNING THE INTERVIEW
• Read Background Material
  – Try to build common vocabulary
  – Maximize time spent instead of asking general
    background questions

• Establish objectives
  – Four to six key areas to include
     •   Information source
     •   Information formats
     •   Decision making frequency
     •   Qualities of information
     •   Decision making style
• Who to Interview
  – Include key people affected
  – Sample members
  – Balance so that many user‟s needs are
    addressed
  – Organizational contact for assistance

• Prepare the Interview
  – Prepare person to be interviewed
  – 45 minutes average
  – If you go over you‟re taking them away
    from their work
• Decide on Questions & Structure

  – Write questions to cover key areas
  – Proper questioning techniques are heart
    of interview
  – Open-ended / closed-ended
    • Each question can accomplish something a
      little different from the other
    • Each has benefits & drawbacks


  – Structure funnel, diamond or pyramid
    OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
“OPEN” refers to interviewees options for responding
  They are open i.e. two words or two paragraphs

Benefits
     -putting interviewee at ease
     -providing richness of detail
     -allowing spontaneity
     -providing avenues that may have gone untapped
     -allows interviewer to pick up interviewees
      vocabulary which reflects his education, values
      attitudes & beliefs
     -more interesting
Drawbacks
    -too much irrelevant detail
    -possibly losing control
    -cost/benefit i.e. too much time
 for      information gathered
    -difficult to analyze
    -giving impression interviewer is on
     a fishing expedition with no real
     objective
    CLOSED QUESTIONS
• Responses are „closed‟ to the
  interviewees since can only reply with
  a finite word i.e. 1,3,etc.
  – Multiple choice on exam is an example
• Bipolar question
  – Allows interviewee only a choice on
    either pole i.e. yes/no
• T/F exam
Benefits
    -save time
    -easily compare interviews
    -get to the point
    -keep control
    -cover lots of ground quickly
    -get to relevant data
Drawbacks
    -boring
    -failing to reach rich detail
    -failing to build rapport with interviewee
              PROBES
• Third type of question
• Follow-up i.e. “WHY?” “Can you give
  me an example?”
• Purpose is to go beyond initial answer
• Can be open-ended or closed
• Interviewers reticent to PROBE
   QUESTION PITFALLS
• Leading Questions
  – Lead interviewee to response you want

• Double-Barreled Questions
  – One question mark for two questions
  – Data may suffer
  – Interviewee might only consider one
    question, (mistake or not)
Arrange Questions in Logical
        Sequence
• Pyramid Structure
  – Uses very detailed, often closed questions to
    start then expands topic by allowing open-
    ended question & more generalized responses
• When Used
  – If you believe interviewee needs to warm-up to
    topic
  – If interviewee seems reluctant to address the
    topic
• Funnel Structure
  – Begins with generalized, open-ended
    questions
  – Then narrows possible responses with
    closed questions


• When used
  – Provides easy non-threatening way to
    begin an interview
  – When interviewee is emotional about
    topic & needs freedom to express those
    emotions
• Diamond-Shaped Structure
  – Combines strength of both but takes
    longer


• When used
  – Keeping your interviewee‟s interest &
    attention through a variety of questions
     STRUCTURED vs.
UNSTRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
UNSTRUCTURED                  STRUCTURED
Hard       evaluation              Easy
High       time req‟d              Low
Much       training req‟d          Limited
Much       allows spontaneity      Little
Much       provides interviewee    Limited
                 insight
Great      flexibility             Little
Low        interview control       High
Low        precision               High
Low        reliability             High
Making a Record of an Interview
 • Can use a tape recorder or pen
 • Important to make permanent record
   during interview

 TAPE
        -who are you interviewing?
        -tell that you will be taping
        -tell what you will do with tape
        -be truthful, reassure confidentiality
        -If refused, accept restraint
             NOTETAKING
• KEY WORDS
• Advantages
  –   Keeps interviewer alert
  –   Aids recall of important questions
  –   Shows interest of interviewer
  –   Demonstrates preparedness
• Disadvantages
  – Lose eye contact / rapport
  – Lose train of conversation
  – Interviewee hesitates to speak when notes are
    being made
  – Too much attention to facts & little to feelings
    & opinions
       B4 THE INTERVIEW
•   Day previous confirm time & place
•   Co-ordinate appointments
•   Gather necessary material
•   Dress appropriately
•   Arrive early
•   Check interview room for setup and
    equipment
CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW

• Firmly shake interviewee‟s hand – male or
  female
• Establishes credibility & trustworthiness
• Give your name & why you chose to interview
  him or her
• If taping, ask permission & check equipment
• Ask interviewee for examples to provide
  details
WRITING INTERVIEW REPORT

 • Write as soon as possible to capture essence
   of interview ”IMP”
 • Review report with respondent
 • Establishes your credibility / reliability &
   attention to detail
JOINT APPLICATION DESIGN
          (JAD)

 • Developed by IBM
 • Purpose:
   – Cut time / cost of personal interviews
   – Improves quality of results
 • Is a technique that allows the S.A> to
   accomplish analysis in a group setting
 • Requires skill & training
• Advantages
  –   Accurate record
  –   Frees interviewer to listen & respond
  –   Better eye contact hence better rapport
  –   Allow replay for other team members

• Disadvantages
  – Interviewee nervous & less apt of respond
    freely
  – Interviewer less apt to listen
  – Difficulty to locate important passage
  – Time consuming
        Observe Business Processes &
                Workflows
•   Allows S.A. to see reality of a situation
•   Checks validity of information gathering
•   Keep low profile
•   Do not interrupt those working
•   Do not influence those being observed
•   Hawthorne Effect W/E-a920‟s
    – i.e. What you see may not be what you get
• Supplements interview
• Office / computer
• If observations do not support interview that is a
  signal – tread carefully
           PROTOTYPE
• An initial working model of a complex
  entity
• Many types - throw away, discovery,
  design & evolving prototypes

				
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posted:9/8/2011
language:English
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