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Respiratory

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					 Respiratory
   System
By: Marty Ordinans
    Matt Price
Learning Target: Given a diagram, label
the structures of the respiratory system
                 Nasal
                 cavity
                          Soft plate
       Nostril
                            pharynx

                           larynx
                           trachea
  Right lung                           Left lung
                                        Primary
                                        bronchus
                                         Secondary
                                         bronchus
                                       Tertiary
                 diaphragm
                                       bronchus
Learning target: Match the structures of the respiratory system with their
                                function

• Nose                    Air spaces in skull that open into nasal cavities

                          Also known as the throat, it contains the nasopharynx,
• Nasal cavities          oropharynx and the laryngopharynx

• Sinuses                 Location of mucus membranes and cilia

• Pharynx                 Passage for air into lungs, cilia catch impurites

• Larynx                  Houses the vocal cords and is important for
                          swallowing, coughing and vomiting
• Trachea                 Soft spongy organs

• Bronchial tree          Where air enters and leaves the respiratory system

• Lungs                   Branched air ways leading from the trachea to the
                          microscopic air sacs in the lungs
Learning target: Investigate the warming function of the nasal passageways



                      Truth or Baloney
          Nasal passage ways heat inhaled air better
         than the mouth because the nose contains
         mucus membranes and a good blood supply.

                                                    True
                               less
            Mouth breathing is more desirable than
                breathing through the nose.

                                             Baloney
Learning target: Explain mechanisms of ventilation and the factors that affect
  breathing rate: respiratory areas of the brain, chemical levels, emotional
                            state, physical fitness.

Multiple choice:
Ventilation can be defined as:
A.   Movement of blood flow throughout the body
B.   Disposal of waste products
C.   Movement of air in and out of the lungs
D.   All of the above


Truth or Baloney:
Another name for ventilation is breathing.
                                               True
Fill in the Blank:
The membrane in the pleural cavity that firmly attaches
   to each lung surface is the ____________ pleura.
                                 Visceral


The membrane in the pleural cavity that forms part of
  the mediastinum and lines the inner wall of the
  thoracic cavity is the ___________ pleura.
                           Parietal
   What happens during inhalation?

• Contraction of external intercostal muscles
pulls ribs upward and outward

• Diaphragm contracts

• Volume of thoracic cavity increases

• Pressure in the pleural cavity decreases

• Lungs inflate as air rushes in
      What happens during expiration?

• Muscles of inhalation relax due to elastic recoil


• Volume of thoracic cavity decreases

• Pressure in the pleural cavity increases

• Lungs deflate
Multiple choice:
     If a person needs a maximum inhalation what
     additional muscles will be used?
A.   Gluteus maximus and gracilis
B.   Biceps and triceps brachii
C.   Deltoid and trapezius
D.   Sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor

Truth or Baloney:
     Surfactant is important to the respiratory
     process because it prevents complete
     deflation of the lungs.
                               True
How do each of these affect breathing
               rate?
Respiratory areas of   Better fitness results in
the brain              decreased rate

Chemoreceptors         Detect H+ ions and CO2 in CSF

Inflation reflex       Stimulate muscles, provides
                       basic rhythm of breathing
Emotions
                       Fear and pain increase
Physical fitness       breathing rate

                       Stretch receptors prevent over
                       inflation
  Learning target: Use a spirometer to determine lung
                volumes and capacities

Tidal volume                  The volume of air remaining in the
                              lungs after maximum exhalation

Inspiratory reserve volume    Equals VC + RV

                              The volume of air breathed in and
Expiratory reserve volume     out without conscious effort

                              The total volume of air that can be
                              exhaled after maximum inhalation
Vital Capacity
                              The additional volume of air that can
                              be forcibly exhaled after normal
Residual volume               exhalation

                              The addition volume of air that can
Total lung capacity           be inhaled with maximum effort
                              after a normal inspiration
Formulas:
VC = TV + IRV + ERV

TLC = VC + RV

Multiple choice:
What factors may affect a person’s vital
 capacity?
A.   Height
B.   Weight
C.   Respiratory disorder
D.   All of the Above
   Learning target: Explain the steps involved in the
                    breathing cycle

Ventilation                 Transport of O2 and CO2
                            through blood stream

External respiration        Breathing in and out

                            Gas exchange between
Transportation
                            the alveoli and the blood

Internal respiration        Gas exchange between
                            blood and cells
Multiple choice:
What is gas exchange?
A. Carbon dioxide going into the blood and oxygen coming out
B. Oxygen going into the blood and carbon dioxide coming out
C. Both going in and both coming out


What protein transports oxygen to cells?
A. Whey
B. Hemoglobin
C. Lipids
Truth or Baloney:
Ozone, particulate matter and carbon
 monoxide make it easier to breath.
  Baloney           Harder
Multiple Choice:
After hyperventilation, a person’s breathing rate
  would:
A. Decrease
B. Increase
C. Stay the same

After hypoventilation, a person’s breathing rate
   would:
A. Decrease
B. Increase
C. Stay the same
  Learning target: Match selected respiratory diseases
                 with their descriptions
Bronchitis          An infection that inflames the bronchial tube
                    membranes. Leads to excessive mucus and a cough

Cystic Fibrosis     Inherited illness that leaves mucus thick and sticky

                    Pulmonary disease with symptoms of chronic cough
Emphysema           and difficulty catching breath

Asthma              Inflammatory lung disease causing cough, chest
                    tightness, wheezing and mucus production

Cold                Mild fever, cough and runny nose

                    Blockage of upper airways disrupting sleep patterns
Pneumonia
                    Inflammation of lung tissue, making it hard to
                    breathe
Apnea
                Killin’ a Grit
Smoking can be harmful to the respiratory
 system in the following ways:
A. Excess mucus blocks air passages
B. Your head will become swollen
C. Diseases such as lung cancer and Bronchitis
   are common
D. Airways become narrow
Study Up!

				
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posted:9/8/2011
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