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Intimate Partner Violence and Older Women by yaoyufang


									Intimate Partner Violence
       and Older Women

        Bridget Penhale
        Jenny Porritt
   Older women and staff who participated in the study
   Partner institutions:
      German Police University & Zoom NGO

      Institute for Conflict Research, Vienna

      Institute of Sociology, Hungarian Academy of
      University of Bialystok, Poland

      CESIS, Portugal

   EU funding within DAPHNE III Programme
DAPHNE Programme
   Focus on violence against women and children
   DAPHNE III, 2008-2013
   Older women as special focus
   3 projects
   AVOW study
   EUSTaCEA project
IPVoW study: background
   Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a serious
   Affects all countries, classes and cultures
   Little attention to older women
   DV services limited focus on older women
   Elder abuse services focus on vulnerability and
    care; neglect gender-specific issues
   Need to explore experiences of older women
Intimate Partner Violence and
older Women (IPVoW) study
   Study in 6 countries
   Germany, Austria, Hungary, Poland, Portugal
    and UK (Sheffield)
   Two year study
   Aim: investigate experiences
   Further understanding of help-seeking
    behaviours, support needs and barriers
   Mixed methods, multi-phase study
Study Phases
1)   Collection of available data from national sources
2)   Survey of service providers and interviews with
     Social services, Women’s Aid, NGOs, Police
3)   Interviews with older women

4)   Discuss findings and develop recommendations -
     National networks and International Expert Workshop
Phase One: National Data Sources
     Few explicit sources and limited data
       • Research papers
       • British Crime Survey and police data
       • Statistics from service providers
       •      (e.g. organisations for older people
         and domestic violence agencies)
National Data Sources
   Limitations
      Comparable data – e.g. prevalence/incidence; terminology
      Reliability of data
        • Sample bias
        • Cut off point DV statistics – 59 years
      Under-reporting
        • Police data concerned with ‘violent crimes’
        • Service data represents only those who have been able
          to engage
        • Self report - Internal barriers e.g. shame, fear, cognition
Phase Two – survey of service providers
     Service evaluation questionnaires: case knowledge
     Sent out Sept-Oct 2009
     Reminders sent
     Very low response rate: 20%
     Aim to collect data and obtain estimate of incidence
      not successful
     Possible reasons: survey length, time periods, lack
      of routine data collection (AVA collection)
     Responses from range of organisations
Phase Two: interviews with
   Social Services (Safeguarding, practitioners)
   Women’s Aid (including outreach)
   Voluntary Organisations/NGOs (AEA, Housing,
    Victim Support, DV Support projects)
   Survey respondents and other contacts
   35 in-depth interviews
   21 areas covered, 2 national organisations
Themes from Interviews
 Partner violence in older age
 Impacts of violence
 Support needs
 Barriers to help seeking
 Challenges for services
Phase Three – interviews with older women

 Interviewed 10 older women
 Not aimed to be representative
 Perspectives on situations
     Experience of violence in older age
     Help-seeking behaviour

     What helped, or hindered

     Ideas about service development
Interviews with older women
   Method
      Access women through service providers
         • Difficulties
              • Few older women engaging with services
              • Staff unable to contact women e.g. resources
              • Women not ready to share experiences
       Make direct contact with women
         • 50+ leaflets, article newspaper
         • Low response rate
         • Barriers – reluctance to talk about abuse, safety
Themes from interviews
 Experiencing life with violence
 Impacts of violence
 Leaving the relationship
 Help seeking experiences
 Needs of older women
Experiencing life with violence
   Types of violence
      All types of abuse – including physical
   Start of violence
      Early on in relationship, gradual/significant
       life events
   Characteristics of perpetrators
      Controlling and jealous
      ‘Clever’ and/or mind games
      Financial control
Impacts of violence
   Women
      Physical - suffocation, broken bones, black eyes..

      Emotional - loss of confidence, low mood, suicidal
       thoughts, PTSD
      Social - Strained relationships with family and
       friends, ‘Jekyll and Hyde’, left employment
   Children
      Witnessed abuse, ‘heavy handed’ in parenting

      Future relationships?
Leaving the violent relationship
   Of the 10 women interviewed 8 had left their partner....
   Advantages of leaving
      ‘Peace of mind’, no longer living in fear, improved
       relationships with children
   Difficulties experienced whilst or after leaving
      Financial implications, loss of family home, strain
       between family members, loneliness
      Increase in violence, partner found other ways to
Staying in the relationship
   2 woman interviewed were still in their relationships...
   Reasons for staying
      Felt safe, situation changed

      Stay in family home

      Financial security

      Put in perspective....

   Disadvantages of staying
      Unhappy relationship

      Resentment
Help-seeking experiences
   Most often spoke with family and friends
   Reluctance to seek help from support services –
    embarrassment, generational influences and lack of
    information or awareness of support services

   “ I am from the old school where you don’t say anything, you
    know, you keep quiet. You don’t tell people what is happening
    to you”

   Only involved police when a ‘serious incident’ occurred
Help-seeking experiences
   • Support from DV services – invaluable
   • Meeting with other women
   • Identifying abuse...

  Not being offered support
  Having to re-tell story to different individuals
  Accommodation – Lack of options
  Gaining financial independence
Help-seeking experiences
    “I sought help really from domestic violence unit and they
    have been absolutely fantastic. They really have. They have
    actually, literally saved my life. There is no doubt about that.
    They put me on the Freedom Programme and through that I
    have met some very good friends and it really changed
    everything ”

“My benefits were stopped at one point... I had absolutely
  horrendous time trying to sort it and now it’s been sorted and
  they have decided to cut it in half. My only option now is that
  I got a buyer for the house, but I just have to sell it at a really
  knocked down price”
Needs of older women
   Continuity of support – one named worker
   Appropriate accommodation
      Close to family and friends
      Options and choice available
   Practical support - financial support if unable to access
    financial assets
   More information on the support available, raising
    awareness and broadening people’s understanding of
    definition of ‘abuse/violence’
   Early intervention
      Education about domestic violence in schools
Final Phase
   National network meeting
     1. Dissemination of findings from UK

     2. Discussion and development of national
   International Expert Workshop
     1. Dissemination of findings from six partner countries

     2. Discussion and development of European
  Emerged from study and consultation
1. Future research and data collection
2. Service provision
3. Government and societal
Government and societal
   Resources
     Accommodation, staff, services
     Financial support available for those women
      who have pensions and/or savings but do not
      have direct access to this money
   Policies
     Development of policies and guidance
      outlining organisations’ responsibilities and
Government and societal
 Awareness raising, awareness raising,
  awareness raising….
 General public
 Older women
 Professionals
Next Steps
   Ongoing Dissemination
     1. Dissemination of findings within UK
     2. Dissemination at International level
   Follow-on project: Mind the Gap – March 2011
     1. Further attention to Police and Social Care
     2. Development of guidance manuals, template for
        training, PR material (6 countries)
 Thank you for listening
 Thank you for your interest
 Thank you for joining us to celebrate
  World Elder Abuse Awareness day:
 Together we are strong…..
Contact details
 Bridget Penhale
 School of Nursing and Midwifery
 UEA, Norwich, UK
 Tel: +44 (0)1603 597016

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