resp system test review by wuyunqing

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									M. Keffer                                         Human Biology             795b16dc-81f6-496a-9433-652bb78b7c2b.doc


 Respiratory system and fitness review for test
     1. lung anatomy -- all diagrams and terms from coloring sheets
            a) pharynx
            b) trachea
            c) thyroid cartilage
            d) cricoid cartilage
            e) bronchus
            f) bronchiole
            g) primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchioles – which are biggest?
            h) Alveolus/alveoli
            i) Inner pleural membrane
            j) Outer pleural membrane
            k) Diaphragm
            l) Pulmonary capillaries
            m) Pulmonary venule
            n) Pulmonary arteriole
            o) Alveolar macrophage
     2. Energy Expenditure calculations (MET x mass x time x factor)
            a) If you work out by running, for 45 minutes, at a pace of an 8-min mile – how many kcal will
                you burn?
     3. Target heart rate and Training zone (pros and cons of training in the three
         different zones)
            a) What is YOUR target heart rate?
            b) What is the target heart rate for a person who has a resting heart rate of 85?
            c) What are the pros and cons of training at a heart rate ABOVE, AT, and BELOW your target
               heart rate?
     4. factors contributing to CRF (cardiorespiratory fitness)
            a) what are the four main factors that contribute to CRF?
            b) Which of these factors are most changeable by training?
            c) What is the role of the heart rate maximum? What does it mean?
     5. schematic diagram: systemic and pulmonary circulation (see powerpoint)
            a) where does blood go when it leaves the aorta?
            b) What level of oxygen (high or low) would you find in the pulmonary venules?
            c) What level of oxygenation would you expect in the pulmonary arterioles?
            d) What oxygen level would you expect in the systemic arterioles? In the systemic venules?
     6. Respiratory disorders (asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis)
            a) What happens to bronchioles during an asthma attack? WHY does this happen?
            b) What happens to alveoli when a person has emphysema? What overall long-term effect does
               this have on a person?
            c) What is the role of elasticity in emphysema?
            d) How does the body deal with an initial infection with tuberculosis bacteria? What does the
               lung do with it?
            e) How/why does tuberculosis become extremely dangerous in a person?
     7. phys fx smoking
            a) what happens to the ciliary escalator when a person smokes a cigarette?
            b) What TWO main areas of smooth muscles are affected by nicotine?
            c) Why does a person who smokes tend to have high blood pressure?
            d) What is one main health problem that occurs as a result of long-term hypertension?
            e) What is cor pulmonale? Why does it happen? What is the eventual long-term danger of cor
               pulmonale?



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M. Keffer                                        Human Biology             795b16dc-81f6-496a-9433-652bb78b7c2b.doc

     8. lung volume activity and lab
            a) what process was used to find out a person’s lung volume?
     9. pleural membranes
            a) what is the purpose of the pleural membranes?
            b) how do the pleurae help the lungs do their job?
            c) What is surfactant?
            d) Why is surfactant needed for infants, particularly?
            e) What problem happens for premature infants, with regard to their lungs?
            f) How does a “collapsed lung” happen? Relate this to pleural membranes and surface tension.
            g) What is the role of surface tension in the lungs?
     10. Show the path of the main respiratory fuels and gases, from lungs, to muscle
         cells, back to lungs.




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