The Paragraph

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					The Paragraph
                                        Topic Sentence

   Supporting Sentences                Closing Sentence

    For the sake of this class you
    must have at least 4
    Can you identify the parts?
   There are three reasons why Canada is one of
    the best countries in the world. First, Canada has
    an excellent health care system. All Canadians
    have access to medical services at a reasonable
    price. Second, Canada has a high standard of
    education. Students are taught by well-trained
    teachers and are encouraged to continue studying
    at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean
    and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have
    many parks and lots of space for people to live.
    As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

4 Modes/Types
          Descriptive             Characteristics
 describes an object, place, or     Elaborate use of sensory
 person in a way that creates        details;
 a vivid impression in the          Details which go beyond the
 reader's mind, enabling the         general, e.g., The house was
 reader to visualize and to feel     big and nice;
 that he/she is very much part      Details which enable the
 of the writer's experience.         reader to picture or relive
                                     what the writer is telling,
     Author’s Purpose                e.g., The massive brick
 Entertain; express a feeling        structure sprawled across a
                                     quarter acre of ground and
                                     rose more than sixty feet into
                                     the air.
Descriptive Example
   Towering trees surround the sides of my tree
    fort. Forest sounds sing me to sleep when I
    stay the night in my favorite
    place. Occasionally, when the moon is out, I
    hear the movement of animals in the
    brush. In a flash I'm awake and sitting
    up. When the noise ceases, I can sleep
    again. The only time I can't go back to sleep
    is when the coyotes laugh at me from the hills
    behind our property. Laughing coyotes can
    make any kid's mind play tricks.
4 Modes/Types of Writing
       Narrative               Characteristics:
 recounts a personal            use of first or third-person

 experience or tells a story     narrator;
 based on a real event or       plot, characters, setting;
 on an imagined event. All      dialogue;
 details come together in       showing, not telling;
 an integrated way to
                                events organized in time-
 create some central
                                 order sequence (although
 theme or impression
                                 flashbacks and other
                                 organizational patterns
  Author’s Purpose               are also used).
 Entertain, tell a story
    Narrative Example
   Larry suddenly woke up from a deep sleep. The sun was dazzling his
    half-open eyes, and he couldn’t figure out what time it was. The door
    to his room was closed; the house was immersed in some sort of
    reckless silence. He slowly got out of his bed and approached the
    bench right next to the window. For a moment, he thought, he heard a
    tapping sound coming from the attic. Then again he heard the sound,
    only this time it seemed to be somewhat closer. He looked outside the
    window and saw a man going by the left side of the road. On seeing
    Larry, the man approached his garden’s fence and whistled. At this
    point, Larry recognized Nick and waved his hand. He quickly got
    dressed and was about the get down to open the gate, but he again
    heard someone murmuring in the other part of the house. Larry
    decided to go to the attic and see what was causing this, now
    buzzing, sound. He got to the second floor of his house and looked
    toward the attic. He quickly opened its door and looked inside.
    Nothing was found. He was about to turn back and attend to his guest
    when he, suddenly, slipped on the stairs and fell. He called out to
    Nick to help him get up.
4 Modes/Types of Writing
   Expository
    gives information, explains      Characterized by:
    something, clarifies a            development of a main
    process or defines a               idea;
    concept. Though objective
    and not dependent on              support of the main idea
    emotion, expository writing        using examples, details,
    may be lively, engaging,           and/or facts;
    and reflective of the writer's    presentation of logically
    underlying commitment to           organized information;
    the topic                         commitment to the topic.

       Author’s Purpose
    Inform, explain, describe
Expository Sample
    A disease that causes chronic gastrological disorders,
    IBD, is envisioned in a spectrum of severities. Cats can
    vomit heavily, and suffer from continuous diarrhea.
    Reasons for the disease are yet unknown. Bacterial
    infections, gastrological irritation, lack of vitamins are
    often quoted as factors contributing to the development of
    the disease. Veterinarians, treating IBD in cats, usually
    prescribe medicine and advice on the dietary
    management as well as make surgical choices. If
    untreated, IBD, can be fatal for cats. Research -
    conducted mostly by pet owners - shows that a cat’s diet
    can be critical. Further research will include inspection of
    several vaccines. So far, grain-free, raw meat diet has
    already proved to be largely beneficial.
4 Modes/Types of Writing
   Persuasive                Characterized by:
    attempts to convince       topic or issue stated;
    the reader that a point    position of writer clearly
    of view is valid or         stated;
    persuade the reader to     argument supported by
    take a specific action.     reasons, examples
                                and/or facts.
     Author’s Purpose
       To persuade
Persuasive Sample
     Although many of us find fast food convenient when we are in a rush, it is a
    bad idea to eat it too much or too often. Recently, McDonald’s in Canada
    has had the two dollar deal: a Big Mac and small fries. This is a very big
    temptation, and even my son (who doesn’t normally eat at McDonald’s)
    bought this meal last week. But what did he eat when he ate a Big Mac and
    fries? First, in the hamburger he got 570 calories, with almost half of them
    (280 calories) coming from fat. Ten grams of this fat is saturated, the most
    dangerous kind, the kind which is harmful to our heart. The Canadian Food
    Guide recommends that we "choose lower-fat foods more often." Now,
    remember that my son also gets a small fries! Unfortunately, there are
    another 210 calories in the fries, with 10 more grams of fat (1.5 grams of it
    saturated). I’m sure he bought a drink as well, which adds another 150
    calories (small size). Now, imagine he eats this dinner more than once a
    week! A two dollar meal contains a lot of fat. So, although it is very
    convenient (and cheap) to buy fast food, it is quite alarming to see just how
    much fat we are eating—I think I’ll go and eat an apple, instead! (Written as
    an example of persuasive writing, using facts to support opinions)
Which one?
Fishing at Horning’s Hideout proved to be an enjoyable
outing for Jeff and his family. All family members rose early in the
morning excited to prepare for the trip. Mother packed food for
the family as well as her books and needlework. Father checked
the car to make certain it was ready for the drive. Then with
Father’s help, Jeff and his brother readied their fishing poles
along with the books and toys which would entertain them on the
hour’s drive. When the family arrived at their destination, they
stopped by the office to purchase some worms to use as bait.
Cheerfully walking along the narrow path, the family transported
their gear all the way around the small pond looking for just the
right place to cast their lines. In hopes that fish would be lurking
in the shadows, Jeff and his brother decided to fish from a shady
area along one side of the pond.
Which one?
   The cell is the fundamental structural unit of all living organisms.
    Some cells are complete organisms, such as the unicellular bacteria
    and protozoa; others, such as nerve, liver, and muscle cells, are
    specialized components of multicellular organisms. Cells range in
    size from the smallest bacteria like mycoplasmas, which are 0.1
    micron in diameter, to the egg yolks of ostriches, which are about 8
    cm (about 3 in) in diameter. Although they may differ widely in
    appearance and function, all cells have a surrounding membrane
    and an internal, water-rich substance called the cytoplasm, the
    composition of which differs significantly from the external
    environment of the cell. Within the cell is genetic material,
    deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), containing coded instructions for the
    behavior and reproduction of the cell and also the chemical
    machinery for the translation of these instructions into the
    manufacture of proteins.
Which one?
 Homework is an important part of the learning process in middle school.
 One reason is that homework gives students additional practice of skills
 covered in class. Middle school classes are too short to teach a new
 concept and practice it sufficiently for students to master. Students need
 both guided practice in class and independent practice at home. Another
 reason for homework is that it provides time to complete longer
 assignments. For example, the ideal composition process allows time for
 students to think and to reflect on their ideas, as well as time to revise and
 to proofread their writing. Also, reports and special projects often require
 research that can not always be done at school. In addition, since all
 students do not work at the same speed, giving students time at home to
 finish work keeps them from falling behind. Finally, the most important
 reason for homework is that it ensures review. New material and old
 material are practiced in daily assignments. Students who do their
 homework daily are prepared for tests and make better grades. In
 conclusion, not only is homework essential to mastering new skills and
 maintaining previously learned skills, but it also guarantees constant review
 and provides time for longer assignments, as well as additional time for
 students who need it. Students, do your daily homework, make better
 grades, and learn more!
Which one?
 On one corner of my dresser sits a smiling toy clown on a tiny
 unicycle--a gift I received last Christmas from a close friend. The
 clown's short yellow hair, made of yarn, covers its ears but is parted
 above the eyes. The blue eyes are outlined in black with thin, dark
 lashes flowing from the brows. It has cherry-red cheeks, nose, and
 lips, and its broad grin disappears into the wide, white ruffle around
 its neck. The clown wears a fluffy, two-tone nylon costume. The left
 side of the outfit is light blue, and the right side is red. The two colors
 merge in a dark line that runs down the center of the small outfit.
 Surrounding its ankles and disguising its long black shoes are big
 pink bows. The white spokes on the wheels of the unicycle gather in
 the center and expand to the black tire so that the wheel somewhat
 resembles the inner half of a grapefruit. The clown and unicycle
 together stand about a foot high. As a cherished gift from my good
 friend Tran, this colorful figure greets me with a smile every time I
 enter my room.
Your Turn

   In groups of 4
   Randomly choose an object
   Each student is responsible for writing in one
    of the four modes of writing.
   All students check/revise/edit group’s work
   Be prepared to share!!

   Check your folder.!!!

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