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									6 Leadership Styles; Identifying and
         Understanding Leadership
   Introduction to Leadership

   The Six Styles of Leadership

   Which One Are You?

   Quotes

   Who Are We Going To See
   George Litwin and Robert Stringer of Harvard
    Business School studied the behaviour of
    managers as leaders in various settings. They
    concluded that managers exhibit a variety of
    patterned behaviours that can be described
    generally by one or more of 6 fundamental
    managerial styles.
   According to what I've read, managers often
    mistakenly assume that leadership style is a
    function of their personality rather than a
    strategic choice. As a result, they choose one
    style that suits their temperament when
    instead they should select a style that best
    addresses the demands of a particular
    situation. Of course, this is much easier said
    than done.
   The research goes on to show that the most
    successful leaders have strengths in several
    emotional intelligence competencies
    including self-awareness, self-regulation,
    motivation, empathy, and social skill.
    Furthermore, there are six basic styles of
    leadership with each making use of the key
    components of emotional intelligence in
    different combinations. Finally, the best
    leaders are familiar with not just one style of
    leadership, but rather they make use of
    several and have the flexibility to switch
    between styles as the circumstances dictate.
   Why is leadership style important? Because it
    directly impacts the organizational climate
    which in turn accounts for nearly a third of
    financial performance. That's a large enough
    percentage that it warrants becoming familiar
    with the styles that Litwin and Stringer
    identified. Here they are:
   From my experience in the corporate world, this
    is the most common style. It is the "do what I tell
    you to do" technique that many people rely on
    because it seems easy. It's also the style that
    junior managers or those that are frustrated will
    fall back on. The unfortunate result is that in
    most situations, coercive leadership inhibits the
    organization's flexibility and dampens
    employees' motivation. I would argue that this is
    a good technique for leaders and managers to
    use with junior personnel who simply don't have
    the knowledge to make informed decisions.
   I don't like the name of this style. The term
    has negative connotations for me and yet it is
    a style that is effective in many situations. An
    authoritative leader uses the "come with me"
    approach by stating the overall goal, but
    giving people the freedom to choose their
    own means of achieving it. This style works
    especially well when a business is adrift. It is
    less effective when the leader is working with
    a team of experts who are more experienced
    than he is. As my familiarity in a particular
    area or with a particular business unit
    increases, I believe I respond well to this form
    of management.
   I'm not too familiar with the pure affiliative
    style of leading and managing, but I have
    seen the negatives that such a technique can
    have. This style believes that "people come
    first" and is particularly useful for building
    team harmony or increasing morale. The
    negative? Its exclusive focus on praise can
    allow poor performance to go uncorrected. I
    don't know about you, but having a happy-
    go-lucky manager who doesn't cut people
    that aren't pulling their weight doesn't make
    want to work particularly hard.
   According to the research, this style's impact on
    organizational climate is not as high as most
    people might imagine. There's no question that
    by giving workers a voice in decisions,
    democratic leaders build organizational flexibility
    and responsibility and help generate fresh ideas.
    The downside is that such a style can lead to
    endless meetings and confused employees who
    feel leaderless. I think a lot of managers use this
    style exclusively when they first start out as they
    fail to realize that they're not employed to be
    everyone's friend, but rather to move the
    business forward.
   On paper the pacesetting style sounds quite
    exhilarating (to me anyway) since the leader who
    sets high performance standards and exemplifies
    them himself has a very positive impact on
    employees who are self-motivated and highly
    competent. The problem is that many employees
    who are just at work because they need to pay
    their rent tend to feel overwhelmed by such a
    leader's demands for excellence--and to resent
    his tendency to take over a situation. I think this
    style shouldn't be confused with the "just do it"
    attitude that some managers exhibit without
    providing any direction, resources, or time.
   This last style focuses more on personal
    development than on immediate work-related
    tasks. It works well when employees are
    already aware of their weaknesses and want
    to improve, but not when they are resistant to
    changing their ways. I'd hazard a guess and
    say that this style will only be effective with a
    small percentage of people on any given
   What Works for Human Resources

   Making the Most of Leadership Qualities and

            By Lisa Maloney
   How to get the biggest return on your
    investment in leadership qualities and skills.
   Leadership skill means more than just
    steering your own career effectively. You
    should also be able to recognize, inspire and
    develop the best in others. For a CEO or
    business owner, that means setting high
    standards in leadership excellence for
    employees and contractors, then making sure
    they have the tools to meet those standards.
   Making the most of leadership qualities and skills
    means putting the right people with the right
    leadership qualities in the right place at the right
    time. This, in turn, demands that you:

    1. Understand the difference between
    management and leadership.

    2. Find ways to evaluate whether a given
    employee has the skills needed for leadership.

    3. Recognize that leaders are made and give your
    employees a chance to focus on improving
    leadership skills.
   Recognize that all managers may not have
    leadership skills
   Managers handle things as they come and
    make sure the company and its employees
    can 'manage' or get by. Leaders, on the other
    hand, actively visualize, seek to improve and
    find ways of getting others involved in and
    invested in a shared vision of excellence.
    Make sure that you know the difference
    between what it means to cope or to excel,
    then pass that knowledge on to your
   Learn how to measure the qualities and skills
    for effective leadership
   'Leadership ability' may seem like an
    ephemeral quality that's hard to pin down,
    but using professional evaluation tools can
    help you to quantify what you're looking for
    and, over time, evaluate employee progress
    in areas like staying focused, honesty and
   Encourage employees to develop latent
    leadership talents into effective leadership
   Leaders must be given the opportunities and
    support they need to bloom. Look for
    potential business leadership qualities, like
    the ability to visualize and to measure
    progress, in your prospective employees.
    Then make sure to give them the chance to
    develop into effective team leaders.
   Management is doing things right; leadership
    is doing the right things. ~ Peter Drucker

   Leadership is the art of getting someone else
    to do something you want done because he
    wants to do it. ~ Dwight Eisenhower
   I suppose leadership at one time meant
    muscles; but today it means getting along
    with people. ~ Mahatma Gandhi

   It is better to lead from behind and to put
    others in front, especially when you celebrate
    victory when nice things occur. You take the
    front line when there is danger. Then people
    will appreciate your leadership. ~ Nelson
   If I have seen farther than others, it is
    because I was standing on the shoulder of
    giants. ~ Issac Newton
   If you want anything said, ask a man. If you
    want something done, ask a woman. ~
    Margaret Thatcher
   Psycho-Geometrics – Susan Dellinger, Ph.D.

   Medicine Wheel: Earth Astrology – Sun Bear
    and Wabun

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