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Teaching Effective Collaboration Skills

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Teaching Effective Collaboration Skills Powered By Docstoc
					 Teaching Effective
Collaboration Skills
     Success Beyond the Sandbox
                     Laurie Dinnebeil
      Laurie.dinnebeil@utoledo.edu
A presentation at the 2005 Inclusion
           Institute, Chapel Hill, NC
The Purpose of this Session is to:
   Describe major types of
    collaborative
    relationships:
       Coaching
       Consultation
       Supervision/Mentorship
       Teaming
   Discuss ways to
    prepare individuals to
    be effective partners
Teaching Skills for Effective
Collaboration
Dinnebeil, L.A., Buysse, V., Rush, D., &
  Eggbeer, L. (in press). Teaching Skills for
  Effective Collaboration. In P. Winton, J.
  McCollum, and C. Catlett (Eds.) Preparing
  effective professionals: Evidence and
  applications in early childhood and early
  intervention. Washington, DC: ZERO TO
  THREE Publishers.
What’s So Important About
Collaboration?
   The success of early education and
    intervention is dependent on the quality of
    relationships that adults have with children
    and each other
   Given that services to young children involve
    more than just one adult, the quality of the
    interactions between and among adults will
    have a direct impact on the quality of
    services.
Collaboration Defined
   Each person both teaches and learns.
   Mutual respect for the role of each individual
    is implied and demonstrated.
   A strong degree of reciprocity underlies each
    of these relationships.
   A joint goal helps to serve as a roadmap to
    collaborative work.
Major Types of Collaborative
Relationships

   Coaching
   Consultation
   Supervision/Mentorship
   Teaming
A Variety of People Can Serve
in a Variety of Roles
             EI/ECSE      ECE          Parent   Supervisor
             Professional Professional
Coach

Consultant

Supervisor

Team
Member
Coaching
Key Components of a Coaching Model
 Iterative and Interactive

 Reflection and Feedback

 Refine existing practices

 Develop new skills

 Promote continuous self-assessment and
  learning
Process of Coaching
1.   Agree to participate in coaching relationship
2.   Identify goals, expected outcomes and
     criteria for measuring learner’s mastery
3.   Observe one another, reflect on current
     and/or new skills,
4.   Learn and practice new skills, provide
     feedback
5.   Evaluate success of coaching plan
Consultation
   An indirect, triadic service delivery model in which a
    consultant and a consultee work together to address
    an area of concern or common goal for change.
Process of Consultation
1.   Gaining entry—clarify need for consultation and
     process, identify expected outcomes, delineate
     roles
2.   Gather additional information
3.   Use results of assessment to formulate observable
     and measurable outcomes
4.   Identify possible strategies; select one or more
5.   Consultee implements selected strategies
6.   Evaluate success of plan
Supervision/Mentorship
   Professional relationships designed to
    support knowledge and skill development,
    often in younger or less seasoned
    practitioner.
   Effective supervision or mentoring
    relationships are characterized by reflection,
    collaboration, and regularity.
Process of
Supervision/Mentorship
1.   Preparing for discussion
2.   Greeting and reconnecting
3.   Opening the dialogue and finding the agenda
4.   Information gathering and focusing on details
5.   Formulating hypotheses about the meaning of the
     issue being discussed
6.   Considering next steps—discuss options and
     make decision about issue.
7.   Closing— acknowledge end of session, briefly
     recap, consider what lies ahead
Descriptors of an Effective Team
(Friend & Cook, 2000)
   articulated goal understood by all team members,
   a climate in which all team members feel respected
    and valued,
   recognition that individual team members are
    accountable to the group,
   effective group process and “ground rules” that lay
    the foundation for the team’s work,
   appropriate leadership skills of all team members.
Process of Teaming
1.   Coming together—acknowledge role of
     team, clarify goals and objectives
2.   Identify problem and gather information
     about it
3.   Generate possible solutions; plan for
     solution
4.   Plan for and implement solution
5.   Evaluate success of solution
Common Features of All
Models
   Stages reflect a
    problem-solving
    approach to triadic
    intervention
   Stages are fluid, rather
    than fixed.
Outcomes of Collaborative
Models
Coaching                   Consultation
Skill-based               Supporting changes in

Focus on acquisition,     learning environments
fluency, maintenance       Supporting systems level
generalization             change
Supervision/Mentorship     Teaming
Support a practitioner’s  Can focus on all of the
ability to self-reflect on above—teaming is a
the work and her reaction broader construct
to it.
Requisite Knowledge, Skills
and Dispositions
                 Knowledge of
                      One’s discipline
                      Typical/atypical child
                       development
                      Setting and child’s
                       environment
                      The collaborative
                       process
Interpersonal Style
Successful collaborators are…
    Flexible, adaptable approach to interaction
    Able to consider others’ perspectives and are able
     to set aside their own beliefs or expectations if
     they interfere with a productive working
     relationship
    Are objective and make sound decisions based
     on the reality of a situation.
Interpersonal Skills
   Successful collaborators…
       put others at ease and are viewed as genuine and
        respectful
       are reflective and can engage in active listening
       ask good questions and provide/accept appropriate
        feedback from others.
       are aware of the nonverbal behaviors that support or
        undermine interpersonal relationships.
       understand and can apply principles of group processing
        and problem-solving to their work with others.

   Successful collaborators know how to “win friends
    and influence others.”
Attitudes, Values, and
Dispositions
Successful collaborators…
 Are ethical practitioners
 Are highly cognizant of their own values and biases
 Possess equal amounts of self-confidence and humility
 Appreciate that both partners possess unique knowledge and
  skills
 Are curious and eager learners
 Appreciate that they are guiding another person; they are not in
  control
 Understand that being a knowledgeable resource is not the same
  as being a “know it all”.
Preparing Individuals for
Collaborative Work
   Preparing individuals for work with other
    adults is complex and requires experiences
    along many different levels
   The kinds of learning experiences needed to
    support knowledge, skill, or attitude/value
    acquisition differs in complexity.
              Examples of Training Approaches and Learning Activities for Building Knowledge
                     and Skill Related to the Collaborative Process (Adapted from Harris, 1980
                     and McCollum & Catlett, 1997)




                                                                               Engaging in a collaborative relationship
(Learning outcomes from low to high)




                                        Attitudes,                             under the supervision of a professional;
                                           Values                              reflecting on the experience

                                                                 Observing other professionals engaged
          Desired Impact




                                             Skill               in collaborative relationships and
                                                                 analyzing their behavior

                                                       • Completing case studies
                                       Knowledge       • In-class/In-session simulations


                                                      • Reading
                                       Awareness      • Lectures
                                                      • Guided notes




                                                       Low                                         High

                                                     Complexity of synthesis and application required
Instructional Strategies to Promote Skill
Building and Collaborative Dispositions




Learners need genuine experiences to learn and apply
  critical skills. They should participate in group
  projects that require them to learn skills related to
  teamwork and collaboration.
For example…
Students in a ECSE Methods Class are
  required to work together to develop an IEP
  for a fictitious child with a disability.
Students are made aware that the goals of the
  project include enhancing their ability to work
  effectively with each other.
Students set ground rules for group work and
  provide written (anonymous) feedback to
  each other at the conclusion of the project.
Another Example
   Students work in teams to design and
    implement parent-child playgroups under the
    supervision of qualified personnel.
   In addition to gaining experience in
    conducting playgroups, students are aware
    that an explicit goal of the assignment is to
    learn to work together as a team.
Another Example
As part of a general “methods” course, preservice ECE
  teachers are required to videotape themselves
  teaching.
     Students partner with each other, viewing each other’s
      videotapes, provide written and verbal feedback
     Students are also required to provide a written reflection of
      the feedback process as well as a critique of their partner’s
      ability to provide feedback.
     The ability to provide and receive appropriate feedback is
      evaluated as part of the student’s course grade.
Another Example
As part of a mini-practicum, practicing ECSE
 professionals were required to design,
 implement, and evaluate a coaching or
 consultation plan. As part of this assignment,
 they identified an ECE professional who
 worked with a child with special needs.

See Dinnebeil & McInerney, 2001
Components of the Plan
Practicum Requirements were based on work by Wesley (1994) and
   were undertaken jointly between the student and her learning
   partner:
  1.   Identified child-focused goals and objectives,
  2.   Evaluated the child’s learning environment with the ECERS or ITERS
  3.   Identified components of the environment that could be enhanced to
       support the child’s learning,
  4.   Developed a plan to modify or enhance the environment,
  5.   Outlined child-focused intervention strategies to achieve the child’s
       learning goals,
  6.   Engaged in coaching or consultation strategies that helped their partner
       learn how to use the strategy,
  7.   Gave feedback to the learning partner, and
  8.   Monitored the child’s progress through easily implemented data
       collection strategies.
Another Example from Dr.
McWilliam…
   Students are required to develop an intervention
    checklist designed to help a learning partner use a
    specific strategy
   The checklist must outline operational steps to
    follow to correctly implement an intervention
    strategy.
   Students use the checklist to teach a learning
    partner to implement the strategy
   Both students and learning partners use the
    checklist to guide observations of each other and
    provide feedback about implementation
A Final Example
   In order to give students authentic
    opportunities for giving and receiving specific
    and appropriate feedback, an instructor holds
    a knitting session in class.
   Those who know how to knit are required to
    teach a classmate, in class how to knit.
   After the activity, discussion focuses on
    giving appropriate feedback and instruction to
    an adult learner.
Other Examples?
Challenges to Effective
Preparation

   Lack of exemplary practice settings
   Lack of practiced professionals
   Attitudes and values of the learners
    themselves (e.g., apprehension about being
    an “expert”, resistance to the model)
   Difficulty in supervising learners engaged in
    collaborative relationships
   Other challenges?
Discussion or Questions?

				
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