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									      Labour Market Statistics 2003




Labour Market Statistics
        2003




                    i
           Labour Market Statistics 2003




        Published in December 2003 by
            Statistics New Zealand
                 Te Tari Tatau
           Wellington, New Zealand

        Catalogue Number 60.002
            ISSN 0-1171-283X
Recommended retail price $30.00 (including GST)

                         ii
                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




Preface
Labour Market Statistics is Statistics New Zealand’s main reference publication
of labour market related statistics. Published annually, it brings together a
comprehensive range of up-to-date statistics about New Zealand’s labour market
and employment situation. It includes statistics on people employed, unemployed
and not in the labour force, education and training, labour income and labour
costs, hours of work, industrial relations, ethnic groups and other
socio-demographic outputs. International comparisons of a selection of labour
market statistics are also provided.
Labour Market Statistics 2003 will be of interest to all New Zealanders, as social,
economic and business decisions based on information about the labour market
affect us all.
Statistics New Zealand welcomes comments from readers on the content and
format of this report.




Brian Pink
Government Statistician




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Labour Market Statistics 2003




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                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




Acknowledgement
This report was prepared by the Labour Market Statistics Division and published
by the Information and Publishing Services Division of Statistics New Zealand.

Further information
For further information on the statistics in this report, or on other reports or products,
contact our Information Centre.

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                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003




Standards
Percentage changes                                              Changes of base
Percentage movements are, in a number of cases,                 Where consecutive figures have been compiled on
calculated using data of greater precision than                 different bases and are not strictly comparable, a
published. This could result in slight variations.              footnote is added indicating the nature of the
                                                                difference.
Rounding procedures
On occasion, figures are rounded to the nearest                 Values
thousand or some other convenient unit. This may                All values are shown in New Zealand currency,
result in a total disagreeing slightly with the total of        except where otherwise stated.
the individual items as shown in tables. Where figures
are rounded the unit is in general expressed in words           Source
below the table headings, but where space does not              All data is compiled by Statistics New Zealand, except
allow this the unit may be shown as (000) for                   where otherwise stated.
thousands, etc.
In previous editions of Labour Market Statistics,               Symbols
variations in the procedure used for calculating totals         The interpretation of the symbols used throughout
existed, with some being calculated from pre-                   this report is as follows:
rounded figures. In this edition all totals have been             C     confidential
calculated from unrounded data, this means a
                                                                   E    early estimate
minority of totals differ slightly from those published
previously.                                                        P    provisional
                                                                  R     revised
Total population estimates                                         S    suppressed
Age-and-sex-specific estimates are rounded to the                   -   nil or zero
nearest 10.
                                                                   --   figure(s) not available
New Zealand totals are rounded to the nearest 100.                 ..   figure too small to be expressed
                                                                  ...   not applicable
National and subnational population
projections
National population projections are rounded to the
nearest 1,000.
Subnational population projections are rounded to
the nearest 100.




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                                                                Labour Market Statistics 2003




Contents
Preface ..............................................................................................................................................     iii
Acknowledgement ...............................................................................................................................             v
Standards ............................................................................................................................................     vi
List of tables ........................................................................................................................................   viii
Labour market indicators .....................................................................................................................              1
Labour market highlights .....................................................................................................................              2
Earnings, income and hours indicators ................................................................................................                      3
Earnings, income and hours highlights ................................................................................................                      4

List of Articles
Article 1 Labour market overview ........................................................................................................                   5
Article 2 Linked employer-employee data (LEED) ...............................................................................                              9
Article 3 A profile of persons not in the labour force ............................................................................                       21
Article 4 Reconciling labour volume measurement: The issues and examples ...................................                                              27

List of Parts
Part 1 The labour force ....................................................................................................................              41
Part 2 Employment ..........................................................................................................................              55
Part 3 Unemployment ......................................................................................................................                69
Part 4 People not in the labour force ................................................................................................                    83
Part 5 Education and training ...........................................................................................................                 89
Part 6 Labour cost and labour income .............................................................................................                        95
Part 7 Hours of work ........................................................................................................................ 105
Part 8 Ethnic groups ........................................................................................................................ 115
Part 9 Industrial relations ................................................................................................................. 131
Part 10 International comparisons ..................................................................................................... 139
Part 11 Socio-demographic characteristics of the population ............................................................ 145
Explanatory notes ................................................................................................................................ 153
Available labour market information ..................................................................................................... 165




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                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




List of tables
Part 1 The labour force ...................................................................................................................     41
        1.01 People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force, by sex ............................                                       42
             1.02     People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force, by age group ..................                                  43
             1.03     Labour force participation rates, by age group and sex ..............................................                     46
             1.04     People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force,
                      by regional council area ..............................................................................................   47
             1.05     People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force,
                      by educational attainment and sex .............................................................................           49
             1.06     People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force,
                      by country of birth and sex, average for year ended March 2003 ...............................                            52
             1.07     Transition probabilities between types of labour force status ......................................                      53
             1.08     Labour force projections, 1996 (base)-2051 ...............................................................                54
Part 2 Employment ..........................................................................................................................    55
        2.01 People employed, by status in employment and sex ..................................................                                56
             2.02     People employed, by full-time and part-time status and sex .......................................                        57
             2.03     People employed, by full-time and part-time status, age group and sex,
                      average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................             58
             2.04     People employed, by industry and sex .......................................................................              59
             2.05     People employed, by occupation and sex, 1992–2003 ...............................................                         60
             2.06     People employed, by regional council area and industry,
                      average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................             61
             2.07     Filled jobs, by status in employment, institutional sector and sex ...............................                        62
             2.08     Filled jobs, by status in employment, industry and sex ...............................................                    63
             2.09     Multiple-job holders, by full-time and part-time status and sex ...................................                       67
             2.10     Multiple-job holders, by occupation in main job and sex,
                      average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................             67
             2.11     People employed who are looking for another job,
                      by full-time and part-time status of job seeker and sex ..............................................                    68
             2.12     People employed part-time, who want additional hours of work by sex ......................                                68
Part 3 Unemployment .....................................................................................................................       69
        3.01 People unemployed, looking for full-time or part-time work by sex .............................                                    70
             3.02     People unemployed, by age group and sex ................................................................                  71
             3.03     People unemployed, unemployment rates by age group and sex ...............................                                72
             3.04     People unemployed, duration of unemployment by sex ..............................................                         73
             3.05     Long-term unemployed, by age group ........................................................................               74
             3.06     Long-term unemployed, by educational attainment ....................................................                      75
             3.07     People unemployed, by occupation sought and sex ...................................................                       76
             3.08     People unemployed, by reason for leaving last job and sex .......................................                         77
             3.09     People unemployed, by job search methods and sex .................................................                        78
             3.10     People unemployed, by work experience and sex ......................................................                      79
             3.11     The jobless, those without a job and who want a job by sex .......................................                        80
             3.12     Alternative measures of unemployment .....................................................................                81




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                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003




List of tables (continued)
Part 4 People not in the labour force .............................................................................................              83
        4.01 People in the labour force and people not in the labour force, by sex .........................                                     84
            4.02      People not in the labour force, by age group and sex .................................................                     85
            4.03      People not in the labour force, by main activity and sex .............................................                     86
            4.04     People not in the labour force, those intending to look for work within
                     the next two years by sex ...........................................................................................       87
Part 5 Education and training ........................................................................................................           89
        5.01 Highest educational qualification, by labour force status and sex,
             average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................                       90
            5.02     Highest educational qualification, by age group and sex,
                     average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................               91
            5.03     Highest educational qualification of people employed, by industry and sex,
                     average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................               92
            5.04     Highest educational qualification of people employed, by occupation and sex,
                     average for year ended March 2003 ...........................................................................               93
            5.05     Number of formal tertiary students, by highest qualification award level and sex,
                     as at 31 July 2002 ......................................................................................................   94
            5.06     Students enrolled in formal qualifications at tertiary education providers,
                     by field of study, year of enrolment and sex, as at 31 July ..........................................                      94
            5.07      Industry trainee stocks in selected industry training organisations, as at 30 June ......                                  94
Part 6 Labour cost and labour income ..........................................................................................                  95
        6.01 Average earnings, by sex ...........................................................................................                96
            6.02      Average total hourly earnings, by institutional sector and sex .....................................                       97
            6.03      Average total hourly earnings, by industry and sex .....................................................                   98
            6.04      Average weekly income for all people, aged 15 years and over by sex ......................                                 99
            6.05      Average weekly income for all people, aged 15 years and over by age group ............ 100
            6.06     Average and median hourly earnings for those earning income
                     from wage/salary jobs, by main job occupation and sex ............................................. 101
            6.07     Average hourly and weekly income for those earning income from
                     wage/salary jobs, by full-time and part-time status and sex ........................................ 103
Part 7 Hours of work ....................................................................................................................... 105
        7.01 Average weekly paid hours, by sex ............................................................................ 106
            7.02      Average weekly paid hours, by industry ...................................................................... 107
            7.03     People employed: actual and usual weekly hours worked, by sex,
                     average for year ended March 2003 ........................................................................... 108
            7.04     Average usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by full-time and part-time status and sex .................................................................... 109
            7.05     People employed: usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by status in employment, average for year ended March 2003 .................................. 109
            7.06     People employed: usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by age group, average for year ended March 2003 .................................................... 110
            7.07     People employed: usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by industry, average for year ended March 2003 ........................................................ 110
            7.08     People employed: usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by occupation, average for year ended March 2003 ...................................................                        111




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                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003




List of tables (continued)
Part 7 Hours of work (continued)
        7.09 Total actual hours worked in all jobs during an average week in a year ......................                                 111
            7.10     Average actual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by full-time and part-time status and sex .................................................................... 112
            7.11     Average actual weekly hours worked in main job,
                     by industry and sex, average for year ended March 2003 .......................................... 113
Part 8 Ethnic groups ....................................................................................................................... 115
        8.01 People employed, unemployed and not in the labour force,
              by ethnic group and sex ............................................................................................. 116
            8.02      People employed, by ethnic group and industry ......................................................... 119
            8.03      People employed, by ethnic group and occupation .................................................... 120
            8.04      People employed, by ethnic group, full-time and part-time status and sex ................. 121
            8.05     People unemployed by ethnic group, looking for full-time or part-time work by sex .... 122
            8.06      Long-term unemployed, by ethnic group .................................................................... 123
            8.07     Highest educational qualification, by ethnic group and sex,
                     average for year ended March 2003 ........................................................................... 124
            8.08     Number of formal tertiary students, by highest qualification award level
                     and ethnic group, as at 31 July 2002 .......................................................................... 125
            8.09     People employed: average usual weekly hours worked in all jobs,
                     by ethnic group, full-time and part-time status and sex .............................................. 126
            8.10     Average and median hourly earnings for those earning income
                     from wage/salary jobs, by ethnic group and sex ......................................................... 127
            8.11     Average weekly income for all people, aged 15 years and over by ethnic group ........ 129
            8.12     Ethnic group (grouped total responses) by age group and sex,
                     for the census usually resident population count, 2001 .............................................. 130
Part 9 Industrial relations ............................................................................................................... 131
        9.01 Work stoppages ......................................................................................................... 132
            9.02      Work stoppages, by regional council area .................................................................. 133
            9.03      Work stoppages, by industry ...................................................................................... 134
            9.04      Work stoppages, by institutional sector ...................................................................... 135
            9.05      Work stoppages, by duration ...................................................................................... 136
            9.06      Work stoppages, by cause of stoppage, year ended 31 December 2002 ................... 137
            9.07     Work stoppages, by method of resolution of issue of dispute,
                     year ended 31 December 2002 .................................................................................. 137
            9.08      Registered unions, number of unions by size of membership .................................... 138
Part 10 International comparisons ................................................................................................... 139
        10.01 Civilian labour force, selected countries ..................................................................... 140
           10.02      Civilian employment, selected countries ..................................................................... 141
           10.03      Distribution of civilian employment, by economic sector, selected countries .............. 142
           10.04      Persons unemployed, standardised unemployment rates, selected countries ............ 143




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                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




List of tables (continued)
Part 11 Socio-demographic characteristics of the population ...................................................... 145
        11.01 Census usually resident population count, 1951–2001 ............................................... 146
         11.02    Estimated resident population, by age group and sex ................................................ 147
         11.03    Permanent and long-term migration, New Zealand .................................................... 148
         11.04    Permanent and long-term migration, by age group and sex, New Zealand ................ 149
         11.05    Permanent and long-term migration, by occupation, 1992–2003 ................................ 152




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                                      Labour Market Statistics 2003




Summary table
Labour market indicators
New Zealand 2000–2003
                                                         2000           2001          2002          2003

Household Labour Force Survey
Average for year ended March
Employed
        Males                                            960,700        977,800     1,003,200     1,028,200
        Females                                          795,800        811,400       836,100       855,600
        Total Both Sexes                               1,756,500      1,789,200     1,839,300     1,883,800
Unemployed
        Males                                            69,500         61,100        56,000        53,400
        Females                                          54,500         48,000        46,600        47,900
        Total Both Sexes                                124,000        109,100       102,600       101,300
Total Labour Force
        Males                                          1,030,100      1,038,800     1,059,200     1,081,600
        Females                                          850,300        859,400       882,700       903,500
        Total Both Sexes                               1,880,400      1,898,200     1,941,900     1,985,100
Not in the Labour Force
        Males                                            370,900        371,600      366,500        374,700
        Females                                          629,600        630,400      621,200        626,900
        Total Both Sexes                               1,000,400      1,002,000      987,700      1,001,500
Working-Age Population
        Males                                          1,401,000      1,410,400     1,425,700     1,456,300
        Females                                        1,479,900      1,489,800     1,503,900     1,503,300
        Total Both Sexes                               2,880,900      2,900,300     2,929,600     2,986,600
Labour Force Participation Rate (%)
        Males                                           73.5           73.7          74.3          74.3
        Females                                         57.5           57.7          58.7          59.0
        Total Both Sexes                                65.3           65.5          66.3          66.5
Unemployment Rate (%)
        Males                                           6.7            5.9            5.3           4.9
        Females                                         6.4            5.6            5.3           5.3
        Total Both Sexes                                6.6            5.7            5.3           5.1

Quarterly Employment Survey
As at March
Full-time Paid Employees
        Males                                           523,700 R      529,600 R     558,400 R     573,800 R
        Females                                         366,100 R      377,000 R     389,400 R     407,300 R
        Total Both Sexes                                889,700 R      906,600 R     947,800 R     981,100 R
Part-time Paid Employees
        Males                                           119,800 R      125,100 R     123,400 R     116,000 R
        Females                                         290,500 R      308,200 R     305,000 R     319,900 R
        Total Both Sexes                                410,200 R      433,300 R     428,400 R     435,900 R
Full-time Equivalent Employees
        Males                                            583,500 R      592,200 R     620,100 R     631,800 R
        Females                                          511,300 R      531,100 R     541,900 R     567,200 R
        Total Both Sexes                               1,094,900 R    1,123,300 R   1,162,000 R   1,199,000 R
Filled Jobs
        Males                                            712,600 R      722,700 R     753,800 R     762,700 R
        Females                                          694,300 R      721,200 R     733,400 R     765,700 R
        Total Both Sexes                               1,406,900 R    1,443,900 R   1,487,200 R   1,528,400 R




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                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003




Labour market highlights
Household Labour Force Survey                                      Quarterly Employment Survey
The labour force participation rate increased by                   Filled jobs increased by 2.8 percent to 1,528,400
0.2 percentage points to 66.5 percent for the year                 as at March 2003.
ended March 2003.
                                                                   Full-time paid employees increased by 3.5 percent
The number of people employed increased by                         to 981,100 as at March 2003.
2.4 percent to 1,883,800 for the year ended March
2003.

The number of people unemployed decreased by
1.3 percent to 101,300 for the year ended March
2003.

             Labour Force Participation Rate                                      Full and Part-time Employees
                Average for year ended March                                                 As at March
           Percent                                                            Number (000)
    67                                                                1,000


    66                                                                 800

                                                                       600            Full-time paid employee
    65

    64                                                                 400


    63                                                                 200
                                                                                         Part-time paid employee

     0
    62                                                                   0
         88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03                      89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
                              Year                                                                 Year

The number of people not in the labour force                       Part-time paid employees increased by 1.8 percent
increased by 1.4 percent to 1,001,500 for the year                 to 435,900 as at March 2003.
ended March 2003.
                                                                   Full-time equivalent employees increased by
The working age population increased by 1.9                        3.2 percent to 1,199,000 as at March 2003.
percent to 2,986,600 for the year ended March 2003.

                     People Employed                                            Full-time Equivalent Employees
                Average for year ended March                                                 As at March
           Number (000)                                                        Number (000)
   1,900                                                              1,300

   1,800                                                              1,200

   1,700
                                                                      1,100
   1,600
                                                                      1,000
   1,500
                                                                        900
   1,400

   1,300                                                                800
           88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03                    89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
                                Year                                                               Year




                                                               2
                                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003




Summary table
Earnings, income and hours indicators
New Zealand 2000–2003
                                                                   2000          2001              2002              2003

Quarterly Employment Survey
As at March
Average Total Hourly Earnings ($)
      Males                                                    18.85      R     19.51       R     20.18       R     20.62       R
      Females                                                  15.91      R     16.37       R     17.02       R     17.47       R
      Males and Females Combined                               17.56      R     18.11       R     18.77       R     19.21       R
Average Total Weekly (FTEs)(1) Paid Hours
      Males                                                    40.15      R     40.16       R     40.11       R     40.67       R
      Females                                                  36.07      R     35.76       R     36.72       R     36.87       R
      Males and Females Combined                               38.25      R     38.08       R     38.53       R     38.88       R
Average Total Weekly (FTEs)(1) Earnings ($)
      Males                                                   756.93      R    783.36       R    809.42       R    838.84       R
      Females                                                 574.07      R    585.40       R    624.87       R    644.36       R
      Males and Females Combined                              671.53      R    689.75       R    723.36       R    746.84       R

Private Sector Average
  Ordinary Time Hourly Earnings ($)                            16.60      R     17.11       R     17.54       R     17.98       R

Public Sector Average
  Ordinary Time Hourly Earnings ($)                            21.08      R     21.87       R     23.44       R     23.85       R

Total Weekly Gross Earnings ($)                             735,232,500 R     774,794,400 R     840,522,900 R     895,487,200 R

Total Weekly Paid Hours                                      41,872,800 R      42,775,800 R      44,770,600 R      46,614,000 R

Household Labour Force Survey
Average for year ended March
Total Actual Hours Worked During
 an Average Week in a Year                                   61,916,000        62,736,000        63,890,000        65,868,000

Average Actual Weekly
  Hours Worked in All Jobs
     Males                                                     40.39            39.93             39.65            39.85
     Females                                                   29.39            29.41             29.16            29.40
     Males and Females Combined                                35.40            35.16             34.88            35.10
Average Usual Weekly
  Hours Worked in All Jobs
     Males                                                     43.21            43.05             42.92            42.88
     Females                                                   31.89            32.05             31.92            32.05
     Males and Females Combined                                38.08            38.07             37.92            37.96

New Zealand Income Survey
June quarter only
Average Hourly Earnings for Those Earning
  Income from Wage/Salary Jobs ($)
     Males                                                     16.71            17.69             17.94            19.03
     Females                                                   14.47            14.94             15.34            16.57
     Males and Females Combined                                15.62            16.34             16.67            17.82
Median Hourly Earnings for Those Earning
  Income from Wage/Salary Jobs ($)
     Males                                                     14.60            15.00             15.34            15.70
     Females                                                   12.53            13.14             13.46            13.80
     Males and Females Combined                                13.54            14.00             14.50            14.98
Average Weekly Income for All People(2) ($)
     Males                                                    559.00            591.00            635.00      R    674.00
     Females                                                  340.00            363.00            397.00      R    410.00
     Males and Females Combined                               447.00            474.00            513.00      R    539.00
Average Weekly Household Income(2) ($)                        967.00          1,033.00          1,116.00      R   1171.00
(1)   Full-time equivalent employees.
(2)   Statistics prior to 2002 do not include investment income.



                                                                     3
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003




Earnings, income and hours highlights
Quarterly Employment Survey                                        Household Labour Force Survey
Male average total hourly earnings increased by                    Total actual hours worked in all jobs during an
2.2 percent to $20.62 as at March 2003.                            average week in a year increased by 3.1 percent to
                                                                   65,868,000 for the year ended March 2003.
Female average total hourly earnings increased
by 2.6 percent to $17.47 as at March 2003.                         Average actual weekly hours worked in all jobs
                                                                   increased by 0.6 percent to 35.10 for the year ended
Average total weekly (FTEs) paid hours for males                   March 2003.
was 40.67, while for females it was 36.87 as at March
2003.

            Average Total Hourly Earnings                           Total Actual Hours Worked in All Jobs During an
                         As at March                                             Average Week in Year
                                                                                         Year ended March
         Dollars
    22                                                                         Hours worked
                                                                      70,000
    20
                                                                      65,000
    18          Males

    16                                                                60,000
    14
                                        Females                       55,000
    12

    10                                                                50,000

     0
     8
                                                                      45,000
         89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
                                                                               88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03
                                Year
                                                                                                    Year

New Zealand Income Survey
The age group 45 to 49 years received the highest average weekly income ($766.00) from all sources for
all people in the June 2003 quarter.

                                        Average Weekly Income from All Sources by Age
                                                        June 2003 quarter
                              Dollars
                        800
                        700
                        600
                        500
                        400
                        300
                        200
                        100
                         0
                              15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64            65
                                                                                                   and over
                                                         Age group (years)




                                                               4
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




Article 1

Labour market overview 2003
This article was prepared by Helen Sears, Labour              The HLFS measures the number of people
Market Analyst, Labour Market Statistics Division,            employed, while the QES measures the number of
Statistics New Zealand.                                       filled jobs. This year, the QES and HLFS have shown
                                                              a similar pattern of continued employment growth.
1     Introduction
New Zealand’s labour market has improved over the             The average number of people employed (as
year to March 2003, from its already strong position          measured by the HLFS) for the year ended March
in the March 2002 year, reflecting continuing growth          2003 stood at 1,883,800. Employment has been
in the New Zealand economy. This year saw the                 growing for the last four years, with a growth rate for
highest March year growth rate of the working age             this year of 2.4 percent, compared with a rate of
population since 1996, due predominantly to strong            2.8 percent for the March 2002 year. The 2.8 percent
net gains in permanent and long-term migration. This          growth rate over the March 2002 year was the highest
large increase in the working age population has              March year growth rate since 1997. These results
fuelled demand for labour in the domestic sector,             are mirrored by the QES, with the number of total
while at the same time providing a larger work force          filled jobs as at March 2003 increasing 2.8 percent
to help meet this demand. The strength of labour              over the year to 1,528,400. This growth rate was
demand has created a ‘tight’ labour market, with              again slightly lower than the 3.0 percent growth rate
growth in employment, increasing hours worked and             of the previous March year.
hours paid for, and falling levels of unemployment
                                                              Full-time work has been the major driver of the
over the year. The tightness of New Zealand’s labour
                                                              employment growth over the year, with HLFS
market has contributed to continually increasing
                                                              full-time employment growing 2.8 percent and QES
average hourly earnings and average weekly and
                                                              full-time paid employees growing 3.5 percent. This
hourly income over the year.
                                                              compares with part-time employment growth of
This paper will give an overview of labour market             1.3 percent, and 1.8 percent growth for part-time paid
results for the year ended March 2003 (unless                 employees. The growth in part-time paid employees
otherwise stated), using data from a variety of               followed a fall in the previous year, which was the
Statistics New Zealand surveys. The topics that will          only recorded fall since Statistics New Zealand
be covered include the working age population and             started publishing the QES. Full-time employment
migration, employment and job growth,                         has not only dominated growth over the last year,
unemployment, the labour force, hours of work,                but has also driven the strong employment growth
earnings and income, and industrial relations.                that has been seen over the last four years.

2     The working age population                              Growth in QES filled jobs was far greater for females
                                                              than for males in the year ended March 2003. This
      and migration                                           is the one area where the results of the two surveys
The working age population grew 1.9 percent in the            are not consistent. HLFS results show that
March 2003 year to 2,986,600. This is the strongest           employment growth for males was marginally
March year growth rate since 1996. Growth in the              stronger than for females over the year. The QES
working age population is influenced by both natural          result was in line with the longer-term pattern of
increase and migration flows. Migration flows have            female filled job growth generally outweighing that
dominated this year’s increase, with more than half           for males.
due to a net gain of permanent and long-term
migrants. Net migration trends have fluctuated over           HLFS industry statistics show that the wholesale and
recent years, according to the state of the domestic          retail trade industry was the largest employer over
and international economies. Between 1999 and                 the March 2003 year with 327,200 employed, while
2001, New Zealand experienced a trend of net                  the mining industry was the smallest with just 4,100
migration losses. Since then, the trend has reversed,         employed. The most consistent drivers of the
with net migration gains for both of the last two March       employment growth over the last four years have
years.                                                        been the education, and health and community
                                                              services industries, growing 16.0 percent and
3     Employment and job growth                               23.0 percent, respectively over that period. QES
This section presents employment statistics from              results are consistent with the HLFS in that they show
both the Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) and                the wholesale and retail trade industry as the largest
the Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS). The                 employer as at March 2003. However, in the QES, it
two surveys measure employment in different ways.             is possible to separate wholesale and retail trade


                                                          5
                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003



into individual categories. With wholesale and retail           Breaking down unemployment data by region shows
trade separated, the manufacturing industry was the             that the highest unemployment rate was in Northland
largest employer as at March 2003. The QES also                 at 8.7 percent, while the lowest rate was in the
showed that the education industry experienced                  Tasman/Nelson-Marlborough/West Coast region at
strong growth with a 6.4 percent increase over the              3.5 percent. These regions have maintained their
year .                                                          placings for the last three March years.

Employment growth over the year was concentrated                Unemployment data by ethnicity shows that Mäori
among those aged 55 years and over, with the 55 to              had the highest unemployment rate at 11.3 percent,
59-year age group experiencing 10.6 percent growth.             followed by Pacific peoples at 8.9 percent, the ‘other’
In contrast, employment fell for both the 25 to 29              ethnic group at 8.1 percent and European/Päkehä
and 50 to 54-year age groups. The Mäori, Pacific                at 3.8 percent. This order has remained unchanged
peoples and ‘other’ ethnic groups have experienced              since 1996, although the fall in the unemployment
high rates of growth relative to the European/Päkehä            rate over the last year was not as marked for the
ethnic group over the year to March 2003. The growth            European/Päkehä ethnic group as it was for the other
rates for the Mäori, Pacific peoples and ‘other’ ethnic         three. The unemployment rate for the European/
groups were 8.4 percent, 7.6 percent and 8.7 percent,           Päkehä ethnic group has fallen by 1.1 percentage
respectively, while the employment growth rate for              points over the last four years, while the
the European/Päkehä ethnic group was just                       unemployment rate for Mäori has fallen by
1.0 percent.                                                    4.2 percentage points, bringing the two rates closer
                                                                together over that period.
4      Unemployment
The average unemployment level for the year ended               5      The labour force
March 2003 was 101,300. This was a fall of                      The labour force consists of the employed and the
1.3 percent from the previous year. As figure 1 shows,          unemployed as measured in the HLFS. With the
this fall follows much larger falls in the three previous       increase in the numbers of employed outweighing
years; prior to 2000, the number of unemployed had              the decrease in unemployed over the year, the March
risen for three consecutive years.                              2003 year saw the size of the labour force grow by
                                                                2.2 percent to 1,985,100. This compares with
Figure 1                                                        2.3 percent growth in the March 2002 year and
                  People Unemployed                             0.9 percent growth in the March 2001 year. The
               Average for year ended March                     increase in the size of the labour force was slightly
           Thousand                                             larger than the increase in the working age
    180                                                         population, leading to an increase of 0.2 percentage
    160                                                         points in the labour force participation rate to
                                                                66.5 percent for the year ended March 2003. This
    140                                                         continues the trend of increasing labour force
    120                                                         participation, which began in the March 2000 year,
                                                                and the current rate is the highest since the survey
    100
                                                                began.
     80
                                                                The labour force participation rate for males is higher
     60                                                         than that for females, with average rates for the year
     40                                                         ended March 2003 of 74.3 percent and 59.0 percent,
       88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03          respectively. The male labour force participation rate
                            Year                                has fluctuated between 73.0 percent and
                                                                74.6 percent since 1993, while the female rate has
An important social and economic indicator is the               shown an upward trend from 53.9 percent in 1993.
number of people who have been unemployed long                  The European/Päkehä ethnic group has the highest
term (more than six months). Numbers of long-term               participation rate of all ethnic groups at 68.0 percent,
unemployed have fallen for each of the past four                followed by the Mäori, Pacific peoples and ‘other’
years, with the fall in the March 2003 year being               ethnic groups, in that order. The labour force has
8.8 percent. This compares with a fall in overall               aged over recent years with the older age groups
unemployment of 1.3 percent.                                    increasing their share of the labour force while the
                                                                younger age groups have reduced theirs. There has
The average unemployment rate also fell in the                  been a 7.1 percent increase over the last four years
March 2003 year, dropping to 5.1 percent, the lowest            in the number of 15 to 24 year olds who are not in
rate for a March year since 1988. This, combined                the labour force. The main driver of this increase in
with falling long-term unemployment, reflects the tight         non-participation among the younger age groups,
state of the New Zealand labour market.                         was an increase in the numbers of 15 to 24 year
                                                                olds whose main activity was studying.


                                                            6
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




6     Hours of work                                           over the year, with legislators, administrators and
                                                              managers showing the largest increase of all
Total actual hours worked in all jobs during an
                                                              occupations, up 16.2 percent to $26.67. Average
average week in the March 2003 year were
                                                              hourly earnings grew 8.0 percent for females and
65,868,000. The growth rate for this series was
                                                              6.1 percent for males.
3.1 percent over the year, the highest growth rate in
total actual hours worked since the March 1996 year.          8      Industrial relations
This is consistent with the annual increase in the
                                                              Industrial relations are an important factor in
number of people employed that was mentioned
                                                              evaluating the degree of harmony in our labour
above. Also contributing to this strong growth was
                                                              market, and have a significant impact on our labour
an increase in the average number of hours people
                                                              force. Industrial relations are evaluated by measuring
are working each week. Total average weekly hours
                                                              the number, type and extent of work stoppages.
worked increased by 0.6 percent to 35.1 over the
year ended March 2003. Increasing total actual                There were 46 stoppages in the year ended
weekly hours worked reflects the fact that full-time          December 2002, the largest number of stoppages
employment growth has been stronger than that for             in a December year since 1996. The 2002 year also
part-time over the year.                                      saw the largest number of people involved since
                                                              1996. Longer-term analysis shows that the number
Total average weekly paid hours from the QES were
                                                              of stoppages has fallen markedly in the last decade
38.88, up 0.9 percent on the previous year. Growth
                                                              from the high levels reached in the 1970s and 1980s.
in the 2003 March year was driven by males, and by
                                                              Despite the large numbers of people involved in
a large increase in overtime hours for both sexes.
                                                              stoppages in the December 2002 year, there were
The growth rate for males was 1.4 percent and for
                                                              less days of work lost than in the previous year, and
females was 0.4 percent, while the overall growth
                                                              the stoppages were much less costly in terms of
rates for overtime and ordinary time hours were
                                                              wages and salaries lost. The December 2002 year
5.5 percent and 0.8 percent respectively. These
                                                              saw a loss of $4,979,000 in wages and salaries,
results are in contrast to the 2002 results that showed
                                                              compared with a loss of $7,682,000 in the previous
growth being dominated by females and ordinary time
                                                              December year. The public sector recorded greater
hours.
                                                              losses than the private sector with losses of
7     Earnings and income                                     $4,138,000 and $841,000, respectively. The most
                                                              common cause of the stoppages continued to be
QES figures show that average total hourly earnings           ‘dispute over wage provisions of employment
increased by 2.3 percent in the year ended March              agreement’ while the most common resolution
2003 to $19.21. This growth rate was lower than the           method continued to be ‘negotiations between
2.6 percent average over the past 10 years. Growth            employer and employee or their representatives’.
in earnings was slightly stronger for ordinary time
earnings than it was for overtime, and growth in total        9      Conclusion
average hourly earnings was slightly stronger for             The statistics presented in this overview have
females than for males. Private sector earnings               highlighted the consistencies between the different
increased more than public sector earnings with               measures of the state of New Zealand’s labour
growth rates of 2.6 percent and 1.8 percent,                  market in the March 2003 year. The data shows a
respectively. This was a reversal from the previous           strong labour market, from which all groups in the
year. The industry with the highest average total             working age population have benefited. There are
hourly earnings as at March 2003 was electricity, gas         some demographic groups who have improved their
and water supply, while the accommodation, cafes,             relative position in the labour market over the year,
and restaurants industry had the lowest average               including females, older people, and all three minority
earnings.                                                     ethnic groups. Females have improved both their rate
                                                              of labour force participation and their level of average
Income data from the New Zealand Income Survey
                                                              hourly earnings relative to males. Older people have
(NZIS) has shown a similar long-term pattern of
                                                              increased their share of the labour force while
earnings to that shown by the QES. However, the
                                                              younger people have decreased theirs. Relative
growth this year has been stronger than that shown
                                                              improvement is most marked for the three minority
by QES earning measures. Gross average weekly
                                                              ethnic groups, with far stronger employment growth
income for all people aged 15 years and over
                                                              rates, and unemployment rates falling more markedly
increased 5.1 percent over the year ended June 2003
                                                              than for the European/Päkehä ethnic group over the
to $539 per week. Average hourly earnings for those
                                                              year.
earning wages and salaries increased 6.9 percent




                                                          7
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




As a result of strong working age population growth            continued to have a positive impact on the New
and high demand for labour, the New Zealand                    Zealand labour market over 1997. This suggests that
economy experienced strong employment growth,                  the strong growth in working age population over the
a large drop in the number of unemployed, and an               last two years is likely to continue to have a positive
increase in labour force participation over the March          impact on the New Zealand labour market in the
2003 year. This picture is similar to that seen in 1996.       immediate future.
The strong working age population growth in 1996




                                                           8
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




Article 2

Linked employer-employee data (LEED)
This article was compiled by Tas Papadopoulos,                   The large-scale use and integration of administrative
Labour Market Analyst, Labour Market Statistics                  data for statistical measurement presents new
Division, Statistics New Zealand.                                challenges for Statistics New Zealand. This paper
                                                                 summarises these challenges by discussing issues
1      Background                                                relating to proposed new official employment and
This paper summarises initial investigations by                  business statistics, policy research uses, data quality
Statistics New Zealand, in collaboration with the                and methodology, confidentiality, data security and
Department of Labour and the Inland Revenue                      privacy.
Department, into the viability of creating a linked
employer-employee dataset (LEED). This dataset                   2     Prototype official statistical
would be created from existing, full coverage                          outputs
administrative data from the Inland Revenue                      The first stage of the project attempted to identify
Department’s tax system and Statistics New                       the potential of the data to provide new official
Zealand’s Business Frame.                                        statistics that provide information for debate,
                                                                 decision-making and research, both within
Development work that has taken place over the year
                                                                 government and by the wider population, without
to 30 September 2003 provides new insights into
                                                                 increasing respondent load. After discussion with key
the operation of the labour market and business
                                                                 users, and in line with similar developments
performance. Prototype series have been created
                                                                 internationally, priority has been given to assessing
on job and worker flows, employment tenure, multiple
                                                                 the potential to provide new measures of labour
job holding and business demography. These
                                                                 market dynamics, as well as enhanced measures of
measures have the potential to provide new and
                                                                 business dynamics.
improved official statistics that are useful for strategic
labour force and business planning (for regional                 Considerable uncertainty currently exists regarding
councils, strategic planners, central government and             the process by which the New Zealand labour market
business planning). In addition, the infrastructure also         adjusts to economic and social change. Official
has the potential to provide useful statistical                  statistics exist that measure the net change in
information on policy questions such as skill                    employment between two points in time; however,
shortages, firm dynamics, business performance,                  the mechanism by which the market moves between
benefit to work transitions, productivity, human capital         those two points is largely unknown. For example,
development, multiple job holding, precarious work,              no measures are produced that show the number of
and gender pay issues.                                           new jobs created, the number of existing jobs
                                                                 destroyed, or the number of workers who change
This initiative follows the successful development of
                                                                 jobs, or enter or leave the labour force.
similar datasets by a number of European and North
American official statistical agencies, including the            The production of prototype series from LEED has
USA, Canada, France, Sweden and Germany.                         shown that the data can support a range of new
                                                                 statistical outputs that will answer these and many
Initial funding for this work was obtained from the
                                                                 other questions. The proposed outputs and the
Cross-Departmental Research Pool for two years
                                                                 information gaps they address are outlined in
from June 2002 to July 2004. The Department of
                                                                 table 1:
Labour has provided additional funding and support
from the Skills Action Plan to facilitate input from
international and New Zealand subject area experts.
These collaborative efforts have enhanced the speed
and quality of the development.




                                                             9
                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003



Table 1

                                               Proposed Official Outputs

      Statistic                      Information gap                               Examples of questions the data has the
                                                                                   potential to answer

      Job flows - job creation       Statistics on net changes in jobs, as         What industries/sectors are
      and destruction.               published from measures such as the           creating/destroying jobs?
                                                                      (1)
                                     Quarterly Employment Survey, are
      The number of jobs             based on a comparison of the number           In what regions is job creation/destruction
      created/destroyed by           of jobs at two points in time. Such           occurring?
      either new/ceased              measures do not provide any
      businesses or the              information on how many jobs were             To what extent do job creation/destruction
      expansion/contraction of       created or destroyed between these            rates vary by firm size or other firm
      employment by existing         two points (the gross creation and            characteristics?
      businesses.                    destruction of jobs that occurs to
                                     achieve a given net change).

                                     This information is important in
                                     understanding business and labour
                                     market adjustment processes and
                                     outcomes.
      Worker flows - employee        Below the level of job flow statistics are    What industries are gaining/losing the
      accessions and                 worker flow statistics, which measure         most workers? Is employment expanding
      separations.                   flows of individual employees into and        or contracting as a result?
                                     out of businesses. Earnings outcomes
      The number of new              for workers can also be assessed.             Which industries are gaining/losing older
      employees added to or                                                        workers/younger workers? Are there
      removed from the payroll       These statistics report how individuals       differences by sex?
      of an employer during a        and firms adjust to changing economic
      period.                        signals.                                      What type of workers (older/younger,
                                                                                   male/female) have higher/lower turnover
                                     No information has previously existed         rates?
                                     on these flows, which provide an
                                     insight into the relationship between         What regions are gaining/losing
                                     business performance and work force           employees?
                                     compositions and the dynamics and
                                     outcomes of employees' labour market          Are new workers being drawn from a pool
                                     experience.                                   of previous employees or are they new to
                                                                                   the firm?

                                                                                   What are the earnings outcomes for these
                                                                                   different groups (eg incumbent workers v
                                                                                   new hires)?

      Employment tenure              This is a new statistic that is designed      Are some industries characterised by
                                     to measure worker stability in the            short-term employment?
      Employment tenure is           labour market.
      defined as the length of                                                     Are some workers more likely to be in
      time an individual is          It can also provide insights into periods     short-term employment than others? Does
      employed continuously by       of non-employment.                            this persist over time?
      a specific employer.
                                                                                   Are there differences in earnings
                                                                                   outcomes for these different groups?

                                                                                   Is there a relationship between employee
                                                                                   turnover and business performance?




(1)   In theory, the QES could produce estimates of these flows although they would be based on sample data and would have sample,
      coverage and other possible quality constraints.


                                                                 10
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003



Table 1
continued
                                          Proposed Official Outputs

 Statistic                      Information gap                               Examples of questions the data has the
                                                                              potential to answer
 Multiple job holding           Currently surveyed in the HLFS.               How many people hold more than one job
                                Information collected is limited and          and what are their earnings in each?
 The number of different        focuses on main job. No information on
 businesses in which a          other income sources, eg receipt of           Does multiple job holding vary by the age,
 worker is employed at a        benefit.                                      sex or industry or region?
 point in time.
                                                                              How many multiple jobholders are also
                                                                              receiving income support?

                                                                              What is the income distribution of multiple
                                                                              jobholders?
 Business demography            Existing statistics provide an annual         What is the probability that a new
                                snapshot of the structure and                 business will survive after one, two or
 Statistics on the              characteristics of New Zealand                three years of operation?
 demographics of business       business.
 including counts of births                                          What proportion of businesses grow or
 and deaths. These              The figures have known weaknesses in contract over time?
 statistics often incorporate   relation to inter-period comparisons
 a size measure and can         and aggregate counts of firm         What are the characteristics of businesses
 be produced at different       births/deaths.                       that grow/contract over time?
 structural
 (ie Geo/Ent) and               LEED offers the potential to address          How are these factors related to their
 geographic levels.             these weaknesses and to move from             workforce composition?
                                annual to quarterly outputs.
                                                                              How do these measures vary by industry
                                                                              and region?




                                                           11
                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003



In addition, the LEED data has potential to:                               One of the objectives of this investigation has been
                                                                           to identify specific strengths and weaknesses in the
      q   Contribute to the development of an economy-                     data when used to undertake policy research, with
          wide measure of labour volume that will also                     the following points being noted in relation to the
          enhance the measurement of productivity. For                     current work.
          example, employees’ monthly earnings could be
          deflated directly to form a volume series, or hours              3.1     Strengths
          could be modelled using other data sources.                        q   Universal coverage of benefit recipients (analysis
                                                                                 could be broadened to incorporate other types
      q   Replace direct surveying for small and medium-                         of assistance, such as ACC outcomes).
          sized business currently in the QES sample,
          reducing respondent load and increasing the                        q   Ability to undertake longitudinal analysis across
          quality of estimates.                                                  employment/benefit boundaries – facilitates
                                                                                 cohort/flow analysis.
      q   Support detailed industry and regional statistics
          – universal coverage effectively eliminates                        q   Ability to support measures of duration in
          sample error.                                                          particular states.
      q   Support outputs at a finer level than published to                 q   Ability to identify joint employment earnings/
          feed into official derived statistics such as the                      benefit receipt.
          National Accounts.
                                                                             q   Ability to answer a range of questions around
The research findings reported below indicate that                               earnings of those that leave a state of
LEED would also support new measures of stable                                   dependency, such as do they have higher
and sustainable employment, during and after                                     incomes or not?
government benefit receipt, including information on
earnings outcomes.                                                           q   Ability to progress, for the first time, the
                                                                                 development of stable employment outcome
3           Research potential                                                   indicators – including actual earnings outcomes,
Investigations have confirmed the potential of the                               multiple job holding and the patterns of
data to support policy-relevant research. Preliminary                            movement through subsequent employment.
research has produced for the first time information                         q   Ability to provide a basis for moving beyond this
on the dynamics and earnings outcomes for                                        into sustainable employment outcome indicators.
government beneficiaries moving into and out of
employment, filling a critical information gap.(2) This                    3.2     Limitations of the current work
work provides a first step towards producing official                        q   The bundling of benefit types (eg unemployment,
indicators of stable and sustainable employment.                                 sickness, invalids, widows, DPB) that appear
This research therefore has a direct outcome in                                  heterogeneous in relation to their employment/
relation to improving the scope of official employment                           benefit behaviour has impacted on this initial
statistics.                                                                      research.
The datasets created have the potential to provide                           q   ‘Raw’ status of the base data – this is an interim
further information on a wide range of employment                                issue but one that will require further work.
and firm-based policy questions. With further
development, this work should lead to a range of                             q   Absence of important socio-demographic
official statistics that will:                                                   variables such as ethnicity.

      q   assist in developing a picture of people’s                       3.3     Next steps for the current work
          dependence on benefits                                           There appear to be a number of relevant areas for
                                                                           further investigation within the current work, including:
      q   provide information on the employment/earnings
          outcomes of a range of government social                           q   The investigation of detailed industry and regional
          assistance systems, and allow for more technical                       labour market indicators of stable employment
          evaluation of proposed change, and                                     outcomes. This level of detail potentially available
                                                                                 within the LEED infrastructure is often important
      q   provide further information on firm performance                        for regional planners and policy makers when
          and outcomes.                                                          advising decision-makers on policy change.

(2)   To enable this work to be progressed, SNZ seconded two researchers from the Department of Labour’s (DoL) Labour Market
      Policy Group. Senior research staff from The Treasury and DoL provided expert peer review and input. As a consequence of
      interim data issues and available time, the research results are illustrative of the potential information value that can be derived
      from LEED rather than being a source of authoritative statistics. Many of the base data issues identified will effectively be eliminated
      once the proposed cleaning and repair processes have been implemented.


                                                                      12
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003




      q   An investigation of firm-specific versus individual-         subject to a high level of encryption and transferred
          specific effects on employment outcomes and                  by secure courier. The key to unencrypt the data has
          the income of individuals.                                   been physically secured and is released only for
                                                                       specific use.
      q   Work into how low income earners escape low
          paid jobs; that is, to escape low pay do individuals         SNZ’s standard security measures and protocols
          change jobs, locations or industries? Or do a                govern the management of the LEED data. In terms
          number of people escape low pay through pay                  of the requirements for maintaining confidentiality and
          increases (or increased hours of work) from their            privacy of information, SNZ is required to comply with
          current employer?                                            the confidentiality provisions of the Statistics Act and
                                                                       also the Security in the Government Sector (SIGS)
Further avenues for research(3) appear to be quite                     protocols. To this end, SNZ operates a ‘need to know’
broad. An example of a possible future research area                   policy, which prohibits any staff, other than those
would be further investigations into firm dynamics                     actually working on a particular survey or process,
and firm growth (building on the current LEED output)                  from seeing confidential information.
aimed at developing more reliable official statistical
measures of firm and economic performance and                          Additional security arrangements for the LEED data
productivity.                                                          include:

4           Confidentiality                                                q   all servers and backup tapes being held under
                                                                               SNZ’s highest level of physical security
The longitudinal linking of employer and employee
data presents new confidentiality challenges. These                        q   all LEED data directories and associated
challenges arise from the universal nature of the                              workspaces being secured on a server dedicated
dataset created and the subsequent ability to track                            to integration (access is only authorised for those
both business and individual characteristics over                              project personnel who need to access data for
time.                                                                          specific tasks and to selected IT administrators
                                                                               who are required to maintain the IT system)
Despite these concerns, existing practices such as
the random rounding of counts will provide a high                          q   the date/time/user and mode of access (read/
level of protection for individual data in official                            write) to all datasets in the LEED directories being
statistical outputs.                                                           logged
The protection of business data in a small economy                         q   no data being copied or stored in non-LEED
such as New Zealand is more problematic. Existing                              directories or servers
practices, such as the application of cell suppression
for business magnitude data, are in theory applicable                      q   all LEED-related network traffic being encrypted
in this situation. However, they are likely to require                         when this facility is implemented on the SNZ
unsustainable levels of manual input and result in                             WAN, and
the unnecessary suppression of significant volumes
of valuable data.                                                          q   a quarterly audit being undertaken by the SNZ
                                                                               Security Office to ensure compliance is
New practices are now emerging internationally that                            maintained.
confidentialise information through the addition of
statistical ‘noise’ to unit record data. These                         6         Access
techniques appear robust and efficient in protecting                   It is likely that some individuals will have concerns
both standard and customised outputs. It is proposed                   regarding the use of information about them in
that detailed work be undertaken on the application                    projects such as LEED, including the potential that:
of these techniques to ensure the confidentiality of
any LEED outputs.                                                          q   information might be used in a manner that is
                                                                               detrimental to their personal circumstances
5           Data security                                                  q   information might be released that identifies them
SNZ and IRD have a data supply agreement that                                  and aspects of their personal affairs
governs the transfer of data for statistical purposes
to SNZ. This process is undertaken under section                           q   unrelated information might be collected about
81(4)(d) of the Tax Administration Act 1994. For the                           them in an ever-growing database for
first stage of LEED a one-off data transfer process                            non-specific purposes.
was employed. As agreed with IRD, the data was



(3)   Avenues for broader research will always need to be assessed on their individual merits and associated costs.


                                                                  13
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003



SNZ has addressed these concerns by ensuring that:                     Following the McLennan review,(4) SNZ has been
                                                                       working to enhance its existing processes to provide
      q   the data is only used for statistical purposes               effective and safe microdata access mechanisms.
      q   direct identifiers are removed as early as possible          This involves ensuring the protection of individual
          during processing                                            and business privacy and use. SNZ’s objective is to
                                                                       achieve the best outcome for both the users and
      q   no identifiable information will be released                 suppliers of the statistics. This means:

      q   the development meets the requirements of the                    q   allowing the use of microdata in appropriate ways
          Privacy Act, and                                                     to meet justified research demands, while

      q   formal authorisation is required, including                      q   protecting the supply of information from
          consultation with the Privacy Commissioner,                          respondents, and
          before additional data can be linked to the current
                                                                           q   complying with relevant legislation.
          framework.
                                                                       SNZ is developing a range of options based on best
Outputs from LEED will be in one of two forms:
                                                                       international practice that would allow microdata to
      1. Published official statistics                                 be used to meet research needs while protecting the
                                                                       confidentiality of the data. For data such as LEED,
      2. Statistical research results drawn from                       new techniques involving synthetic datasets, remote
         anonymised unit record datasets.                              access, etc are being explored. The combination of
                                                                       business and individual records on a longitudinal
The production of official statistics will be undertaken
                                                                       basis in a small country such as New Zealand
in accordance with standard SNZ production and
                                                                       presents confidentiality challenges that mean it is
publication processes. No issues of concern appear
                                                                       unlikely that any unit record dataset will be able to
to exist relating to these outputs.
                                                                       be released outside SNZ. This may be inconvenient
Access to micro record data for bona fide statistical                  to some researchers but will nevertheless provide
research is seen as an important component of the                      the potential for controlled access ensuring that extra
programme. It is apparent from the initial research                    value is derived from use of the data.
findings and discussions with potential users that a
significant proportion of the value derivable from                     7         Data quality issues
LEED arises from such research. Section 37c of the                     7.1       IRD data
Statistics Act provides the Government Statistician                    In order to administer the tax Acts, IRD collects a
with authority to provide access for approved                          range of data related to employment activity in New
government researchers to unidentified unit record                     Zealand. This information provides the backbone of
data. The potential for access by private researchers                  the prototype LEED dataset. The IRD collects this
is more constrained and can in some cases be                           information to support the efficient operation of the
provided if the research contributes directly to the                   New Zealand taxation system. The use of this
work of SNZ.                                                           information as a base for the production of official
                                                                       statistics places new and quite different demands
As data steward of the base LEED data, IRD has                         on this data, both in terms of the variables of interest,
agreed that SNZ will manage requests for microdata                     and its alignment with relevant statistical concepts.
access in terms of the provisions of the Statistics                    Any comments made relate to this new use of the
Act. However, IRD has also noted that, while such                      data and should not be taken as indicative of any
access may not be unlawful under the Tax                               inability of the data to meet its primary operational
Administration Act, the Act does require the secrecy                   function.
of tax data in all but a few circumstances. SNZ has
one of the few exemptions to a general prohibition                     Input data was sourced from the IRD to allow the
on tax data being provided to other parties. Further                   investigations specified in the Stage 1 work plan to
work is required to clarify access arrangements                        be completed. The data relates to a three-year period
beyond SNZ, ie Data Laboratory access that will meet                   from April 1999 to March 2002. Prior to April 1999,
IRD’s legislative requirements. At present any                         employers did not provide individual employee data
microdata access requests will be forwarded to IRD                     to the IRD on a monthly basis. Therefore the series
for comment prior to approval.                                         can not be produced before this point.




(4)   Conducted in 2002 by Mr W McLennan, a former Australian and United Kingdom Chief Statistician, into the barriers to access unit
      record and small area data faced by staff of government departments and by non-governmental and community researchers.


                                                                  14
                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003




The data obtained was in the form of identified unit              q   The use of complete, rather than sample, data
records drawn from monthly payroll, annual income                     is required to support the proposed outputs and
tax and registration files. This included information                 the anticipated use of this data (ie to support
on individuals’:                                                      reporting on the longitudinal dynamics of
                                                                      employment and business performance, regional
  q   names, addresses, dates of birth, IRD numbers,                  estimates, potential links to sample survey data
      resident indicator (NZ or overseas)                             or other administrative sources, and the possible
  q   taxable earnings (plus earnings not liable, and                 identification of sub-populations for targeted
      lump sum indicator) for work performed including                surveys).
      social security payments taxed at source                  The strength of the LEED data in general and of the
  q   tax deductions (PAYE, withholding tax, family             EMS in particular is in its coverage. Every taxpayer
      support tax credit, student loan indicator and            that pays tax at source on income related to labour
      amount)                                                   input is captured. Being effectively a census, outputs
                                                                can potentially be produced for very small groups of
  q   employment start and finish dates.                        interest without introducing sample error. Each
                                                                employer and employee carries a unique identifier,
This data forms a complete (excluding undeclared                and the two are linked. The identifiers are generally
income), longitudinal dataset, detailing employee               stable over time, which means that the data is
labour market earnings over the reference period.               longitudinal, ie the data enables a dynamic picture
The annual income tax returns provide a similar                 of the relationship between employers and
record set for the self-employed. As the main social            employees to be developed.
security benefits are also taxed at source, monthly
information on individual benefit recipients is also            7.1.2 IRD data issues
contained in this data.                                         In some areas, the use of administrative data is
                                                                limited because gaps or inconsistencies exist
To date, investigations have focused on the EMS                 between the ideal statistical concepts and the source
data and supporting client information. The EMS                 data. While some inconsistencies do exist for
records monthly payments by employers to each of                employment measures, none is considered
their employees. Detailed investigation of the annual           significant enough to undermine the validity of
returns relating to the self-employed has been                  statistical measures based on this data. The following
deferred to the next stage of the project.                      are the most significant of these issues:
7.1.1 Major findings                                              q   The data contains a number of critical links. In
The LEED team has investigated the quality and                        general these are of a high quality although repair
characteristics of the data in relation to anticipated                and cleaning is still required. This is a non-trivial
statistical use:                                                      set of tasks, which is reported on separately in
                                                                      section 8 below.
  q   The EMS and supporting IRD data has proven
      to be of high quality and, in most instances, the           q   While the IRD and SNZ make similar distinctions
      collection variables support, or will support,                  between employees and the self-employed, the
      following cleaning and repair, the statistical                  distinction is not easily applied in statistical
      measures proposed.                                              measures, given the different reporting
                                                                      arrangements for the two groups within the IRD
  q   Where data values are missing or erroneous,
                                                                      data, ie monthly EMS and annual IR3. In addition,
      imputed values can be produced with confidence.
                                                                      to overcome the time lag inherent in the filing of
      Remaining inaccuracies will not significantly
                                                                      IR3 returns, it will be necessary to investigate
      affect the proposed output statistics.
                                                                      the potential to develop an ongoing activity
  q   While detailed work has not been completed on                   indicator (and possibly model earnings) from
      the self-employed income data, it appears likely                returns of GST turnover.
      that the annual returns will be of similar quality
      and allow for the employer-employee dataset to
      be augmented by a comprehensive annual
      measure of self-employment and earnings.




                                                           15
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003



  q   The EMS captures all persons engaged in paid               Investigations have shown that the BF will support
      employment in the month covered by the return,             the main requirement of the LEED project; that is,
      regardless of the timing or the length of that             for a comprehensive longitudinal frame. In
      employment. In contrast, many official labour              conjunction with Statistics New Zealand’s Business
      market statistics are based on employment at a             Frame section, the LEED project has been able to
      specific point in time (often a specific pay period        realise the inherent potential contained in the existing
      in a quarter). To the extent that employees                BF history tables to produce a robust longitudinal
      change jobs during the EMS reference period                Business Frame (LBF) series at geographic (Geo)
      (one month), they will be counted as having two            and enterprise (Ent) unit level.
      jobs during that period, which will upwardly bias
      both the number of jobs, and the number of                 The new LBF, with its economy-wide coverage and
      multiple job holders. A prototype method to                basic data items such as employment, location,
      address this issue has been developed but has              industrial activity and firm ownership relationships,
      yet to be implemented.                                     has many potential uses including:

  q   About 1 percent of EMS employee records for a                  q   as a base for an enhanced measure of business
      month currently records earnings of less than                      demography (eg birth/death rates, enterprise
      $8 (the adult minimum wage). It appears some                       survival and age profiles, etc)
      of these entries may not relate to current
                                                                     q   identifying and tracking the components of
      employment. Further investigation is required to
                                                                         enterprises involved in structural change
      establish a minimum earnings cut-off.
                                                                     q   as a frame for linking LEED and other business
7.1.3 Cleaning of the IRD data for                                       surveys, such as the Annual Enterprise Survey,
      statistical purposes                                               allowing the use of business survey data
Despite the overall high quality of the base data,                       longitudinally for productivity and performance
significant cleaning and transformation will be                          measurement.
required before robust official statistical series can
be produced from the ‘raw’ data. Table 2 summarises
work undertaken to derive or clean key output
                                                                 8         Unit record links
variables.                                                       8.1       Description of links
                                                                 LEED is a data integration project that uses unit
7.2     SNZ Business Frame data                                  record linkage to establish relationships between
The Business Frame (BF) is a list of businesses that             entities across time and across different datasets.
is mainly used by SNZ as a frame from which to                   The resulting integrated LEED dataset provides a
select samples for business surveys. The BF is                   rich and powerful source of information because of
structured by standard statistical units, (enterprises           the variety of links that are available in one place.
and geographic units) and this structure can be used             The number of different links also means that the
as a basis for LEED. In addition, the BF has a                   record linkage itself is a complex process.
standard industrial classification (the ANZSIC) code,
                                                                 There are seven unit record links within the LEED
sector (public/private) and geographic meshblock for
                                                                 dataset. Two sources of data are brought together –
each unit. Using these variables from the BF allows
                                                                 the tax administration data from IRD, and SNZ BF
LEED to utilise these standard classifications.
                                                                 data. Two different entities are involved – businesses
The BF has been designed to support current point-               and people. Links over time exist within each source
in-time snapshots of business populations. LEED is               and between these two entities. The arrows in
an example of an emerging new demand for a frame                 figure 1 show these links.
that forms the basis of longitudinal outputs. BF history
tables can be used to create snapshots of the BF in
previous periods. This method has been applied to
multiple time periods to create a longitudinal series
for each enterprise on the BF from April 1999 to
March 2002.




                                                            16
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003



Table 2
                             Fitness for Use of Raw and Cleaned Data
                                 (excludes linking issues – see section 8)
    Variable             Fitness for use of the         Need and feasibility of       Fitness for use of
                         raw data for statistical       cleaning.                     cleaned data for
                         analysis                                                     statistical analysis
    Sex                This field does not exist in   This is a critical output     98.5% derived from title,
                       the IRD tables.                variable. It can be derived   1.5% derived from first
                                                      from sex-specific titles or   name.
                                                      first names from IRD
                                                      tables.
    Date of birth      This field exists in the IRD   This is a critical output     96.3% from IRD
                       tables. Less than 4% of        variable. Missing values      records, 3.7% imputed.
                       employee IRD numbers           can be filled using
                       have missing date of birth.    nearest neighbour
                                                      imputation.
    Start and finish   This field exists in the IRD   These dates are essential     50% of end dates are as
    dates of jobs      tables, but is not well        for the production of point   supplied on the EMS.
                       used.                          in time employment            All other dates have
                                                      statistics. It can be         been imputed avoiding
                                                      randomly imputed within       unnecessary overlaps of
                                                      the first or last month of    jobs and periods of
                                                      non-zero payment.             unemployment.
    Gross earnings     1,874 (0.002%) records of      This is a critical output     All detected errors have
                       non-zero gross earnings        variable. Unlikely values     been replaced with
                       have a detectable error        can be replaced with          statistically consistent
                       when compared with the         values imputed by             values.
                       PAYE amount and the            applying a typical rate to
                       individual's earnings          the PAYE amount.
                       history.
    Addresses of       Addresses are time-         Demand is anticipated for        To be tested.
    individuals        specific, and there may be  regional outputs to as fine
                       several categories of       a standard level as
                       address active for          possible (subject to
                       individuals at any one      privacy & confidentiality).
                       time.                       A history series of "best"
                                                   addresses for all
                       Most addresses are coded employees has been
                       to NZ post code. IRD have produced. Testing is in
                       recently established an     progress to convert these
                       automated individual        to a geographical
                       address updating process classification, possibly as
                       based on NZ Post            fine as urban area.
                       address maintenance -
                       the quality of this address
                       maintenance is being
                       investigated.




                                                       17
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003



Figure 1

                                         Unit Record Links in LEED data

                     IRD data - tax records                                     SNZ data - Business Frame

                     Employee A                                      1                                Geo A
                                           Employer Z                         Enterprise Z
  Time 1
                     Employee B      2                                                       7        Geo B


                 3                                 4                                  5                        6


                     Employee B
                                                                                                      Geo A
  Time 2                                   Employer Z                       Enterprise Z

                     Employee C                                                                       Geo B



                                                                                                       Geo A
                     Employee B

                                            Employer Z                        Enterprise Z             Geo B
  Time 3             Employee C
                                                                                                       Geo C
                     Employee D




The link between the tax and BF data is:                          The main issues are:

  q   between the same business at enterprise level                1. Group employer returns – A group return occurs
      in a given time period (link 1).                                where a tax employer reports for a number of
                                                                      businesses under one IRD number. In this
Links within the tax data are:                                        situation, the IRD reporting unit and BF statistical
                                                                      unit will not align and an incorrect link will be
  q   between a person (ie employee) and business
                                                                      made to a BF enterprise.
      (ie employer) in a given time period (link 2)
                                                                   2. Employees to geographic unit – The integration
  q   for the same person over time (link 3)
                                                                      of the tax data with the LBF means that the
  q   for the same business over time (link 4).                       employees are linked to the corresponding
                                                                      enterprise on the BF. Because the employer on
Links within the BF data are:                                         the tax side is normally an enterprise, it is not
                                                                      possible to link employees directly to their
  q   for the same business over time at enterprise                   geographic unit for multi-Geo enterprises. The
      level (link 5)                                                  ability to provide regional breakdowns will be
  q   for the same business over time at Geo level                    restricted until a method for assigning a Geo to
      (link 6)                                                        employees of multi-Geo enterprises is
                                                                      developed. A model that assigns a Geo (and
  q   between an enterprise and its Geos in a given                   thus an enterprise) to an employee may also
      time period (link 7).                                           best solve the group returns problem.

The longitudinal Business Frame discussed above                    3. True births and deaths – There is widespread
establishes the links within the BF data.                             interest in comparing the characteristics of new
                                                                      businesses (births) and businesses which cease
8.2     Linking issues                                                operation (deaths) with continuing businesses.
The IRD number issued by IRD to businesses and                        Births appear in the data as new IRD numbers,
individuals is a high quality numeric identifier available            and deaths as an IRD number that is no longer
in both the tax data and on the BF. In the first instance,            used. There are a number of reasons (such as
an exact match on IRD number will create the links                    a change in legal status or change in ownership)
in all the cases listed above. However, a number of                   for a continuing business to be issued with a
problems arise if reliance is placed solely on the                    new IRD number and to stop using the old one.
reported IRD number, which will have significant                      These changes in IRD number for purely
impact on some of the key outputs and analysis.                       administrative reasons inflate the number of


                                                             18
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




      births and deaths, and consequently upwardly               A privacy impact assessment (PIA) has been
      bias business demographic and job and worker               prepared for this project in accordance with SNZ’s
      flow statistics. The absolute number of                    data integration protocol requirements. Over the last
      businesses wrongly classed is small in relation            two years, SNZ has held ongoing discussions with
      to the total number of businesses, but because             the Office of the Privacy Commissioner regarding
      there are also only a small number of births and           appropriate safeguards and processes to govern
      deaths, the bias is likely to be significant.              data linking for statistical purposes. The risks to
                                                                 individual privacy arising from the LEED project have
    4. Errors in employee IRD number – There are 2               been identified and processes developed that will
       percent of employee records where the                     ensure that privacy is not jeopardised.
       employee IRD number is missing and a smaller
       number of records where the employee IRD                  10     Future of the LEED project
       number is recorded incorrectly. Like the birth and
                                                                 This paper has summarised the progress through to
       death issue, the absolute number of records
                                                                 30 September 2003, the end of Stage 1 of the project.
       involved at any particular time is small, but even
                                                                 There are three further stages proposed for the LEED
       a small number of missing or incorrectly
                                                                 development process:
       identified records can have serious
       consequences for longitudinal analysis. Where             Stage 2
       an employee IRD number is missing or wrongly              Further development of the preliminary core linked
       recorded, either a record for a person is missing,        employer-employee database, which involves the
       creating a break in their employment history, or          development of initial statistical output and testing
       an additional record is added to their                    of this output. This stage also includes the
       employment history. False transitions are                 development of an investigatory project specific
       created and measures of flows are increased.              integrated dataset within a data laboratory
                                                                 environment. The preliminary target date is 30 June
      Each of the issues above involves work in                  2004.
      specialised statistical areas for which
      mathematical statisticians are needed who have             Stage 3
      the ability to apply probabilistic matching                Refinement of the on-going statistical programme
      techniques. Initial development work is being              using findings of further investigatory work to refine
      carried out on small samples of data. The                  and develop range of statistical output. The
      methods developed then need to be applied to               preliminary target date is 30 June 2005.
      the full dataset and an analysis of the effects on
                                                                 Stage 4
      key statistical outputs carried out. This will be a
                                                                 Full augmentation of core linkage with additional
      resource intensive process. However,
                                                                 datasets to meet specific statistical and research
      experience at the US Bureau of the Census and
                                                                 needs. Full data integration policies and principles
      progress already made by SNZ suggests that
                                                                 will be put in place. The preliminary target date is 30
      practical methods for reducing these biases can
                                                                 June 2006.
      be developed.
                                                                 11     Conclusion
9       Privacy                                                  LEED has the potential to make the single most
In most instances, data linking will increase the
                                                                 significant advance in recent years in statistical
information that is available about an individual or
                                                                 information. In doing so, it will make use of existing
business beyond that which they might be aware of.
                                                                 information, resulting in little or no demand on
Other privacy risks associated with data integration
                                                                 respondents for additional information. It therefore
projects may also exist, such as the security of stored
                                                                 fits well with the strategic goals of SNZ and
data. Careful management of the information and
                                                                 government.
linking processes is needed to ensure that privacy is
protected and the security of the information is                 The creation of a LEED database is feasible. This
maintained while achieving the benefit from use of               conclusion has been reached following an
the data.                                                        examination of the quality and characteristics of the
                                                                 input data, its ability to support the proposed use,
The information created by the LEED project will be
                                                                 and an examination of the legal context and issues
in the form of unidentified unit record datasets that
                                                                 surrounding the imperative to protect individual
will be used to produce official statistics and support
                                                                 privacy and data confidentiality. While significant
statistical research. No information will be published
                                                                 work is required to transform the base data from an
from the datasets that would allow for the
                                                                 administrative to a statistical dataset, work to date
identification of any individual or business.
                                                                 confirms that the data can be cleaned to a standard
                                                                 where it will support the production of official outputs
                                                                 and support policy research.

                                                            19
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003



The universal nature of the administrative data used           More information on the LEED project, including
in LEED makes possible the production of many new              access to the full Stage 1 LEED feasibility report, is
statistics that could not otherwise be compiled without        available free from the Statistics New Zealand
imposing an excessive burden on respondents. The               website at:
resulting statistics have the potential to provide
information for policy development, monitoring,                http://www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/
debate, and decision-making both within government             prod_serv.nsf/htmldocs/Linked+Employer-
and by the wider community.                                    Employee+Data+(LEED)




                                                          20
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




Article 3

A profile of persons not in the labour force
This article was prepared by Kunal D’Souza, Labour             Persons not in the labour force include retired people,
Market Analyst, Labour Market Statistics Division,             those involved in childcare or family responsibilities,
Statistics New Zealand.                                        students who are not engaged in or pursuing
                                                               employment, and those unable to work due to
1     Introduction                                             physical or mental disability. It also includes those
Models based on basic economic theory partition                who are ‘jobless’. This is not the same concept as
those who are not employed into two groups: the                the ILO definition of unemployed, which is those
‘unemployed’ and those ‘not in the labour force’. The          people who are not considered to be ‘actively seeking’
inclusion of the former in the ‘labour force’ reflects         work, or those who during the reference week have
the view that the unemployed are treated as a labour           been unavailable for work.
force reserve, or a group whose attachment or
proximity to the labour market is sufficiently strong          3      Significance of persons not in
that future supply will come from this group, rather                  the labour force
than from those not in the labour force.                       Those not in the labour force include people with
                                                               varying degrees of ‘proximity’ to the labour force. It
Empirical observation of people’s movements
                                                               may be the case that the ILO definitions of
between being employed, unemployed, and not in
                                                               employment and unemployment, while very useful
the labour force, however, do not fully substantiate
                                                               in terms of drawing international comparisons, may
this model, and suggest that there are other factors
                                                               in their own right prove limiting in giving a clear picture
that may determine people’s propensity to enter or
                                                               of the state of the labour force. A view held by labour
exit employment. An understanding of the
                                                               economists is that the propensity to move in and out
characteristics of the group not in the labour force is
                                                               of the labour force is not independent of labour
therefore important for getting a better understanding
                                                               market conditions. So, for instance, if there is high
of labour market dynamics.
                                                               unemployment in the labour market, this may
This article seeks to evaluate the composition of the          influence people’s decision to participate in the work
New Zealand working age population not in the labour           force by discouraging some workers from seeking
force, drawing inferences mainly from data for the             work. Likewise, if jobs are relatively easy to get, then
year ended March 2003.                                         this may have the effect of encouraging those not in
                                                               the labour force into employment (or temporary
2     Framework for evaluation                                 unemployment). One may therefore wish to have an
In New Zealand, official estimates of the numbers              understanding of the composition of those who are
employed, unemployed and those not in the labour               not in the labour force in terms of their proximity to
force are based on responses tabulated from the                the labour force to place employment and
Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS), which is a               unemployment figures in context (see 4.3. Proximity
quarterly survey of 15,000 households across New               to the labour force).
Zealand.
                                                               People choose to not participate in the labour force
Statistics New Zealand uses International Labour               for a variety of reasons, and depending on these,
Organization (ILO) standards to define labour force            the implications for the New Zealand economy are
variables. For someone in the working age population           varied too. For instance, a large proportion of those
to be considered ‘employed’, the person should,                who are not in the labour force include retired people
during the reference week, have worked in a paid               and students not engaged in or pursuing
job or an unpaid job such as a family business or              employment. While the students not engaged in or
farm, for at least one hour. This group also includes          pursuing employment are upskilling themselves to
those who usually have a job but did not work during           enter the labour force in the medium run, those who
the reference week for reasons such as sickness,               have retired are not likely to do so. This may have
leave, other personal reasons or poor weather                  policy implications. It may for instance be possible
conditions. The ‘unemployed’ are people who during             to encourage more young people out of the labour
the reference week were without a paid job, were               force into education in the short run, presumably for
available for work, and were ‘actively seeking’ work           positive benefits ensuing from a better skilled work
in the four-week period prior to the reference week.           force in the medium to long run. The fact that those
People who do not fall into either of these categories         who retire often do so as a consequence of the
(of employed or unemployed) are considered to be               natural ageing process restricts the influence of policy
not in the labour force.                                       on this segment on those not in the labour force in
                                                               the short run. However, public policy may be able to
                                                               influence labour force participation in this age group,

                                                          21
                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003



for those who do not participate in the labour force                         the labour force to observe the trends and
for economic reasons (for example, by altering the                           characteristics of this segment of the population as
age for superannuation provisions).                                          society evolves.

Furthermore, the percentage of the population that                           4       Snapshot as at year ended
participate in economic activity, potentially has                                    March 2003
implications for the nation’s gross domestic product
                                                                             The total working age population for the year ended
and standard of living. For instance, in an economy
                                                                             March 2003 was 2,986,600. Of these, an estimated
with a high dependency ratio, where only a small
                                                                             1,001,500 were not in the labour force. This consisted
proportion of the country’s population is responsible
                                                                             of 626,900 females (62.6 percent) and 374,700
for the country’s economic output, much higher levels
                                                                             males (37.4 percent). Around 41.0 percent of the
of productivity would be required of this productive
                                                                             female, and 25.7 percent of the male working age
population to sustain the same standard of living,
                                                                             populations were not in the labour force. Table 4.1
than if a larger percentage of the population were
                                                                             below shows demographic characteristics of persons
responsible for producing that output. It is important
                                                                             not in the labour force.
to monitor the population that does not participate in

Table 4.1

          Demographic Characteristics of Persons Not in the Labour Force for the Year Ended March 2003
                                                                                    At home
                                                                  At home
                                                                                       not
                                                                  looking                                                                Not
                                              Studying                              looking           Retired          Other
                                                                    after                                                              Specified
                                                                                      after
                                                                  children
                                                                                    children
  DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC                    (000)      %       (000)      %      (000)     %      (000)     %      (000)    %       (000)


  Sex
  Male                                            90.2     24.1       14.8    3.9       26.3    7.0     187.3   50.0     42.2   11.3       14.0
  Female                                          91.7     14.6      144.5   23.1       62.8   10.0     262.4   41.9     47.0    7.5       18.4



  Age
  15-24                                          142.9     70.7       19.7    9.8        9.8    4.8       1.3    0.6     15.7    7.8       12.6
  25-59                                           38.3     11.6      134.6   40.8       61.4   18.6      24.3    7.4     53.8   16.3       17.9
  60+                                             ..         ..        4.9    1.1       17.9    3.8     424.1   90.4     19.7    4.2        1.9



  Ethnic Status
  European/Päkehä                                 87.5     12.1       93.2   12.9       63.4    8.8     399.0   55.1     60.3    8.3       20.9
  Mäori                                           24.5     23.6       30.4   29.3       11.4   10.9      17.8   17.2     13.9   13.3        6.0
  Pacific peoples                                 17.7     30.9       15.9   27.7        5.5    9.5       9.6   16.7      6.9   12.0        1.8
  Other                                           51.8     45.1       19.7   17.2        8.7    7.6      22.9   19.9      7.9    6.9        3.8



  Region
  Northland                                        5.1     13.5        5.9   15.7        4.7   12.5      16.8   44.6      4.1   10.7         1.1
  Auckland                                        78.2     24.8       59.8   19.0       27.9    8.8     116.6   37.0     24.6    7.8         8.2
  Waikato                                         11.9     14.4       13.3   16.1        6.2    7.5      37.0   44.9     10.9   13.2         3.2
  Bay of Plenty                                    7.3     11.4        7.9   12.3        3.9    6.1      34.9   54.6      7.3   11.4         2.7
  Gisborne/Hawke's Bay                             6.0     12.1        8.6   17.3        5.5   11.2      24.3   49.0      3.6    7.3         1.5
  Taranaki                                         3.0     11.8        3.5   13.9        1.9    7.5      14.1   55.8      1.8    7.2         1.0
  Manawatu-Wanganui                                9.7     15.8       10.5   17.1        5.8    9.5      29.0   47.2      4.7    7.7         1.7
  Wellington                                      20.9     18.6       18.0   16.0        9.4    8.4      49.9   44.4     10.5    9.3         3.7
  Nelson/Tasman/Marlborough/West Coast             3.5      8.9        5.8   14.9        4.6   11.6      21.4   54.3      3.1    7.8         1.0
  Canterbury                                      20.4     15.0       17.3   12.8       11.8    8.7      67.6   49.8     13.8   10.1         4.8
  Otago                                           11.9     22.7        5.4   10.2        4.3    8.2      24.6   46.7      3.7    7.0         2.8
  Southland                                        3.9     15.3        3.3   12.8        3.0   11.7      13.4   52.6      1.2    4.6          ..



  Total(1)(2)                                    181.8               159.3              89.1            449.7            89.2              32.4

(1)   Totals include those not specified or ‘not applicable’.
(2)   Owing to rounding, individual figures may not always sum to the stated totals.




                                                                       22
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




4.1    Age compositions of those not in the                   percent of the female working age population in this
       labour force                                           age group. Here too, full-time study was the main
Generally speaking, those not in the labour force are         activity for majority of these females (64.3 percent),
concentrated among the younger and the older age              followed by being at home and looking after children
groups of the working age population. One expects             (17.2 percent). Only 1.6 percent of males indicated
that while the younger age groups remain out of the           staying at home to look after children as being their
labour force to pursue education, those in the older          main reason for not participating in the labour force.
age groups have retired from the labour force. These
two demographics are of interest to us in different           As figure 4.1 shows, the difference between male
capacities. While in the long run, the impact that New        and female rates of non-participation in the labour
Zealand’s ageing population has on those not in the           force increased from 1.4 percentage points for the
labour force is of interest, in the short or medium           15–19 age group to 10.2 percentage points for the
term, the dynamics of the labour force for the
                                                              20–24 age group. This could be because females in
working-age population that is below the age of 65
is of greater interest. For instance, the rate of non-        the 15–19 age group are less likely to be at home
participation in the labour force for persons above           due to childcare responsibilities, which is the second
the age of 65 has stayed above 90 percent for at              most common activity for females aged 15–24 not
least the last 16 years. This proportion however              participating in the labour force. This could also
appears to have fallen in recent years, which may             further reflect the fact that a large proportion of the
be a reflection of changes in the nature of                   15–19 age group are involved in secondary
superannuation provisions.                                    education, where the difference in male and female
                                                              enrolment levels is likely to be smaller on account of
It should be noted here that while persons not in the
                                                              it being compulsory for both sexes by statute.
labour force tend to be concentrated in the younger
and older age groups, the percentage of the male              4.1.2 Those aged 25–59
working age population that is not in the labour force        Of the total working age population in the March 2003
is more constant across all age groups 15 years and           quarter, 1,829,500 (61.3 percent) were aged between
over than that for females (figure 4.1).                      25 and 59 years. Of these, an estimated 330,400
                                                              (18.1 percent) were not in the labour force. Despite
For the working age population under the age of 65,
                                                              comprising a large proportion of the working age
the highest percentage of persons not in the labour
                                                              population, those in this age group made up only
force, for the year ended March 2003 was in the 15–
                                                              33.0 percent of those not in the labour force. This is
19 year age group (45.8 percent) followed by the
                                                              consistent with the fact that most of those not in the
60–64 year age group (44.6 percent).
                                                              labour force tend to be polarized in the younger and
4.1.1 Those aged 15–24 years                                  the older age groups. The 25–59-year age group is
For the year ended March 2003, there were an                  therefore responsible for the bulk of New Zealand’s
estimated 202,000 people aged 15–24 who were not              economic output.
in the labour force. Of these, 96,400 were male and
105,600 were female (the total may differ from that           Females in these age groups had a higher rate of
in the tables as it is derived from rounded data).            non-participation in the labour force than males. Of
                                                              the female working age population aged 25–59,
Among males aged 15–24, 33.6 percent were not in              247,000 (26.3 percent) were not in the labour force.
the labour force. Here, studying was the main activity        This compares with just 83,400 (9.3 percent) males
for majority of the males (77.8 percent). The females         in this age group who did not participate in the labour
who were not in the labour force made up 39.3                 force.

Figure 4.1
                                  Males and Females Not in the Labour Force
                   Percent
             100

              80

              60

              40
                                                                                               Male
              20
                                                                                               Female

               0
                   15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64      65
                                                                                  and over
                                                  Age

                                                         23
                                                 Labour Market Statistics 2003



The male labour force non-participation rate for the               who were not in the labour force. An estimated
year ended March 2003 follows a U-shaped pattern,                  13,000 (4.7 percent) females in this age group did
falling for each consecutive group and reaching its                not participate in the labour force on account of being
lowest for the 40–44-year age group, and then                      at home without any childcare responsibilities. These
gradually rising again for the older age groups. For               may have included females who were not in the
females on the other hand, the U-shape pattern only                labour force in earlier stages of their lives, and
exists for those in the 30–34-year age group and                   therefore did not consider themselves to be ‘retired’.
above. After the initial drop in the non-participation
rates for those above the 15–19 age group, the                     4.2      Ethnicity and country of birth
proportion remained constant for those in the 25–                  Those in the ‘European/Päkehä’ ethnic group had a
29-year age group and rose slightly for those in the               lower than average percentage of people not in the
30–34-year age group (Figure 4.1). This may be an                  labour force, while those in the ‘Mäori’, ‘Pacific
indication of the fact that after the age of 35 the                peoples’ or ‘Other’ ethnic groups had above average
likelihood of women having small children with full-               proportions of their working age populations not in
time childcare needs falls (table 4.2).                            the labour force (table 4.3).
                                                                   Table 4.3
Table 4.2
  Percentage of Females Not in the Labour Force                             Labour Force Non-participation Rates
        Due to Childcare Responsibilities                                        by Ethnic Group and Sex
                                                                                  Ethnic Group (% of working age population)
                          Years ended March (%)
  Age groups                                                         Sex       European/            Pacific
                   2000        2001      2002          2003                                Mäori               Other     Total
                                                                                Päkehä              peoples
     15-24         22.0         21.0      19.8         17.2        Male             24.5     24.5      30.5      35.2          25.7
     25-34         73.5         72.1      69.1         69.9        Female           39.2     41.7      44.9      53.0          41.0
     35-44         68.5         68.1      65.1         64.0        Total            32.0     33.7      37.7      44.6          33.5
     45-54         23.5         25.0      29.3         22.0
     55-64          6.0          5.8       7.5          7.6
                                                                   For each ethnic group, women were less likely to
                                                                   participate in the labour force than their male
Overall, the most common activity for those in the                 counterparts. The difference between the male and
25–59-year age group not in the labour force was                   female non-participation rates was highest for Mäori
being at home with childcare responsibilities (40.8                (females being 69.9 percent higher than males),
percent). This was the main activity for 49.5 percent              followed by the European/Päkehä ethnic group (59.7
of females and 14.8 percent of males, indicating that              percent higher than males) and the Pacific peoples
women were more likely to be the main caregivers                   and ‘Other’ ethnic groups (47.0 percent and 50.9
in households with children. There were 14,900                     percent higher than males, respectively).
males who were not participating in the labour force
due to study commitments, compared with 23,400                     The ‘Other’ ethnic group had the highest rate of non-
women. This indicates that women are more likely                   participation. This is consistent with the fact that those
to undertake full-time study in later stages of their              in the ‘Other’ ethnic group had a higher proportion of
lives, which may account for some of the difference                their working age population involved in study (20.1
in the proportions of the male and female working                  percent) than the European/Päkehä (3.9 percent),
age populations that were not in the labour force.                 Mäori (7.9 percent) or Pacific peoples (11.6 percent)
                                                                   ethnic groups.
4.1.3 Those aged 60 years and over
Of the 469,200 people in this age group not in the                 Of the total New Zealand working age population,
labour force, 274,300 (58.5 percent) were female.                  an estimated 654,200 (21.9 percent) were born
When one considers that 53.9 percent of the                        overseas. Of these, 268,200 (41.0 percent) were not
population aged 60 years and over are female, one                  in the labour force. So the proportion of the working
can see that, despite the reduction of the gap in the              age population that was born overseas that was not
non-participation rates among males and females                    in the labour force was higher than that of those who
in this age group, here too a smaller percentage of                were born in New Zealand (31.4 percent).
males are not in the labour force in comparison with
their female counterparts.                                         An estimated 105,200 (33.4 percent) of the 315,200
                                                                   males and 163,000 (48.1 percent) of the 338,900
The proportion of the working age population aged                  females in the working age population born overseas
60 and over that was not in the labour force in the                did not participate in the labour force, in the year
March 2003 quarter was 78.0 percent. Retirement                    ending March 2003. The highest rates of non-
was the main activity for most of the males (91.9                  participation among those born overseas were for
percent) and females (89.3 percent) in this age group              those who had been in New Zealand for a year or


                                                              24
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003




less (52.4 percent) and the lowest rates of non-                    considered to have no attachment to the labour force.
participation were for those who had been in New                    On the other hand, there are those who are not
Zealand for between five and nine years (35.7                       included in the labour force, but are not completely
percent). The non-participation rate increases for                  detached from it either. These may be people who,
those born overseas who have lived in New Zealand                   for instance, either want to work but are not available
for over 10 years. This, however, is likely to be                   to work, or those who are available, but cannot be
skewed by an over-representation of those in older                  considered to be ‘actively seeking’ work. These
age groups, who are more likely to be out of the                    people could be said to have a ‘marginal attachment’
labour force due to retirement. This suggests the                   to the labour force.
trend that for those born overseas the propensity to
participate in the labour force increases with the                  For the year ended March 2003, of the 1,001,500
length of their stay in New Zealand. There may be                   people who were not in the labour force, most had
various factors contributing to this trend, such as the             no attachment to the labour force (figure 4.2). Of the
likelihood of there being a higher proportion of full-              72,600 people who could be considered to be
time students among those who have lived in New                     marginally attached to the labour force (essentially
Zealand for only a short period.                                    those who would have liked to have worked), 54,900
                                                                    (75.6 percent) were considered to not be ‘actively
4.3    Proximity to the labour force                                seeking’ work by ILO definitions, while 17,700 (24.4
People are considered to be not in the labour force                 percent) were actively seeking work, but not available
for various reasons. There are those who have no                    to start within the next four weeks of reference week.
intention of working, and so these people could be

Figure 4.2
                   Breakdown of the Working Age Population and Those Not in the Labour Force
                                        for the Year Ended March 2003
                Working
             age population
               2,986,700




                                                       Not in the
  Labour force
                                                     labour force
    1,985,100                                         1,001,500
      66.5%                                             33.5%


                                                                                                               Do not
                      Wanted to work
                                                                                                            want to work
                          72,600                                                                              928,900
                           7.2%                                                                                92.8%



             Actively looking                       Available for
                for work,                           work, but not
             but unavailable                       actively looking
                 17,700                                 54,900
                 24.4%                                  75.6%


                                 Newspaper
                                                               Discouraged                   Other
                                searching only
                                   10,900                           6,600                    37,400
                                    19.9%                           12.0%                    68.1%


                                                                                                                   No
                                                                                                              attachment
                                 With marginal attachment to the labour force
                                                                                                                 to the
                                                                                                             labour force



                                                               25
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




Interestingly, despite the large difference between             rates. This was largely contributed to by the fact that
the number of males and females not the labour                  those in the younger age groups were likely to not
force, the distribution of those marginally attached            be in the labour force due to study, while those in the
to the labour force was relatively similar. For instance        older groups were likely to be retired from the labour
while 93.4 percent of the females not in the labour             force.
force did not want to work; this proportion for males
                                                                Most of those who were not in the labour force in the
was 91.6 percent.
                                                                year ended March 2003 had no marginal attachment
Of those who were not in the labour force, 24.2                 to the labour force either. It should be borne in mind,
percent of females and 24.6 percent of males who                however, that the labour market was generally
wanted to work were actively looking but unavailable            characterized by relatively high levels of employment
for work. Of those females who were available but               in this period. It is possible that the propensity to be
not actively looking for work, 19.2 percent were only           out of the labour force with no marginal attachment
searching in newspapers and 11.2 percent were                   may fall in times of higher unemployment (table 5.1).
discouraged. Among males, 20.8 percent restricted               This could happen as a result of a greater number
their job seeking efforts to just searching in                  of jobless people being excluded from the labour
newspapers while 13.1 percent were discouraged.                 force by virtue of their being discouraged, etc.

5      Conclusion                                               We also observe that the non-participation rates for
                                                                the Mäori, ‘Other’ and Pacific peoples ethnic groups
From this evaluation, we see that a key feature of
                                                                were above average, while the non-participation rate
the New Zealand working age population that is not
                                                                for the European/Päkehä ethnic group was below
in the labour force is that around two-thirds are
                                                                average. We further observe a roughly inverse
female. In fact, for the year ended March 2003,
                                                                relationship for those who are not born in New
females were over-represented among those not in
                                                                Zealand, between the length of their stay in New
the labour force in all age groups. The gap between
                                                                Zealand and the likelihood of their not being in the
the non-participation rates of males and females,
                                                                labour force. More detailed statistics on this group
however, was quite small for the younger and older
                                                                are included in part 4 of this edition of Labour Market
age groups of the working age population, which are
                                                                Statistics.
also the groups with the highest non-participation


Table 5.1
            Comparison of Proximity to Labour Force between High and Low Unemployment Periods

                                                                                                  NILF
                                                                     NILF
                                                                                                 with No
                            Labour Force                   with Marginal Attachment
                                                                                               Attachment
                                                                to Labour Force
                                                                                            to Labour Force

                                                                            Available
                                                          Actively’         for work,           Did not
                                        Official
                                                       seeking work,         but not            want to
               Year ended March      unemployment
                                                      but unavailable       ’actively’           work
                                         rate
                                                      (as % of NILF)         looking        (as % of NILF)
                                                                         (as % of NILF)

                     2003             5.1 percent       1.8 percent           5.5 percent    92.8 percent
                     1992             10.6 percent      1.6 percent           7.8 percent    90.7 percent




                                                           26
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003




Article 4

Reconciling labour volume measurement:
The issues and examples
This article was prepared by John Morris, Senior                       concepts rather than social ones. So what are these
Economic Statistician, Labour Market Statistics                        concepts?
Division, Statistics New Zealand.
                                                                       Labour supply: Persons who are willing and able to
Introduction                                                           supply labour for pay or profit at a point in time.
This paper will describe and discuss the range of                      Therefore, those who are not working but are unable
statistical series available for measuring the volume                  or unwilling to supply their labour are not part of the
of labour. It will cover the differences and                           available pool of labour supply. The source of labour
inconsistencies between these series and the options                   supply is households.
available to address these issues.
                                                                       Labour demand: Entities who are willing and able to
Section 1 presents a conceptual framework for the                      use people for pay or a share of the profits to produce
labour market and the different types of statistical                   output at a point in time. The sources of labour
measures this encapsulates. This covers the                            demand are establishments (including businesses,
conceptual frame for measuring employment and                          the government sector and non-profit institutions
where the current measures fit within this framework.                  serving households (NPISHs)).
Based on this framework we can turn our attention
                                                                       Labour market outcome: The current equilibrium
to the current measures available (and not available),
                                                                       position obtained between the current available
the methods of producing these outputs and the
                                                                       labour supply and the current labour demand.
limitations this framework puts on their ability to
measure employment volume.                                             Interaction between the labour supply from
                                                                       households and labour demand from establishments
Section 2 will examine the labour volume measures
                                                                       produces a range of labour market outcomes:
available based on a conceptual framework of the
labour market defined in section 1, identifying the                      q   Excess or unmet supply produces
conceptual differences between each.                                         unemployment (persons who want to work),
                                                                             underemployment (persons who want to work
Section 3 will examine how closely the published
                                                                             more hours) and underutilisation (a combination
measures conform to each other. Conceptual and
                                                                             of unemployment and underemployment).
methodological differences will be examined to see
if they can account for any differences between                          q   Excess or unmet demand produces vacancies
published measures, and adjustments will be made                             (unfilled jobs) and vacant hours (firms wanting
where this is the case. A comparison of measures                             to employ their staff for longer) and a measure
adjusted (where possible) for known differences will                         of the constraints the labour market is placing
reveal any ‘true’ level of inconsistency between each                        on production (a combination of vacancies and
measure.                                                                     vacant hours)
Section 4 will draw conclusions from the investigation                   q   The equilibrium position between supply and
and suggest some options to reduce and remove                                demand produces a volume of labour being
the inconsistencies.                                                         utilised. This can be measured in a variety of
                                                                             ways:
1         A framework for measuring
          labour volume                                                       i Number of persons employed (or percentage
There are many frameworks for defining the labour                               of the labour force employed)
market. This paper uses the framework defined in                             ii Number of jobs filled (or percentage of the
The System of National Accounts 1993 (SNA93)                                    available jobs filled)
(see figure 1).
                                                                             iii number of full-time equivalents
By using an SNA framework we immediately narrow                              iv number of hours worked
our focus. We are only interested in those people
who are working or seeking to work for profit or pay.                        v number of hours paid for, and
Therefore, unpaid work(1) is excluded from our                               vi size of the payroll.
measurement and definitions are based on economic


(1)   Unpaid members of family businesses are conceptually included and are defined as working for a share of the profit.


                                                                  27
                                                      Labour Market Statistics 2003



Figure 1
                                      Population and Labour Concepts (figure 17.1 SNA93)
                                      Note: Those concepts that are part of SNA are in heavy boxes

                                                Population: Annual average of counts of
                                                persons present at a number of points in
                                                                  time




      Employed in reference week
                                                     Unemployed in reference week                Not in the labour force in reference week
      preceding each point of time,
                                                     preceding each point of time,                     preceding each point of time,
             annual average
                                                            annual average                                    annual average




      With                   With
   single jobs            multiple jobs




   Add jobs of persons not included in the
         population count who are
      employed by resident enterprises
    Subtract jobs of persons included in
       the population count who are
    employed by non-resident enterprises




                   Jobs
    in reference week preceding each
      point of time, annual average



                                                                              Employee jobs                  Self-employed jobs
     Total Hours Worked: annual total
    excluding annual leave and holidays
         and if possible sick leave
                                                                             Compensation of
                                                                           employees. Domestic
                                                                                  basis
                 Divided by


      Full-time annual hours excluding              Separately for each
      annual leave, holidays and if possible          job group then
      sick leave                                         summed                   Deflated by indices
                                                                                   of compensation
                                                                                        per job

                 Equals

                                                                                    Employee labour input at constant
     Full-time equivalent employment which equals                                           compensation.
      number of full-time equivalent jobs, annual                                           Domestic basis
                        average




                                                                     28
                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003




Additional characteristics of the persons, households,            the number of persons employed, any additional
jobs and businesses can serve to further enlighten                information such as a part-time/full-time split for filled
our understanding of these labour market outcomes.                jobs adds to the usefulness of this measure.
With a focus on the measurement of the volume of
employment, the characteristics of different volume               Full-time equivalents (FTEs): These are a first
                                                                  attempt to harmonise the differing measures of the
measures are examined in more detail below.
                                                                  volume of labour input. They can be applied to both
These concepts are shown diagrammatically in                      persons employed and jobs, and make allowance
figure 2. This diagram is based on schemes 1.1 and                for the difference between full-time and part-time
                                                                  labour input. The usual method is to treat two part-
1.2 in Labour Accounts in Theory and Practice
                                                                  time counts (jobs or persons) as equivalent to one
(Statistics Netherlands, 1999).                                   full-time count (job or person).
By combining some of the variables mentioned above                Number of hours worked: This provides detailed
we can further calibrate our measurement of the                   information on the hours worked by an individual. It
labour market.                                                    can be either the actual hours worked (allowing for
Number of persons employed: At the crudest level,                 absences from the work place due to leave, holidays,
this is a simple count of the number of people working            sickness, industrial action or other reasons) or the
at a point in time. By adding in information on hours             usual number of hours worked. As a volume
we can partition this crude count into full-time and              measure, actual hours is the best indication of labour
part-time numbers. Without any information on hours,              input. Usual hours are a usable proxy for actual hours
an assumption must be made that the level of input                in its absence and can provide additional information
per person is remaining constant. (Even an indication             when collected with actual hours. When combined
that a person works more or less than a specific                  with personal characteristics, such as qualifications
number of hours to produce full-time/part-time                    or occupation some determination as to the ‘quality’
numbers improves the usefulness of this data). Also,              of the volume of hours worked can be derived.
an employed person may hold more than one job.                    Number of hours paid for: This provides information
Number of filled jobs: This provides a crude count of             on the number of hours paid for by a business. It
the number of jobs filled at a point in time. It measures         can be provided at the aggregate firm level or at the
the degree to which the labour demand has been                    individual employee level. This will include periods
filled (without reference to what the actual level of             where the employee has been paid but was not
labour demand is). As a measure of labour volume,                 actively contributing labour input (eg such as time
an assumption must be made that all jobs require a                on annual leave, statutory holidays, paid sick leave,
constant level of input (hours and/or skill). As with             study leave, etc). It also may exclude workers who


Figure 2
                                          Outputs of Utilization of Labour

                        Supply                                                                  Demand
                   (from Households)                                                      (from Establishments)




            Unmet Supply                                Equilibrium                                    Unmet demand
                                                        Labour Input



  Persons                                 Working persons                                       Vacancies
  Hours                                   Jobs                                                  Vacant hours
                                          Full-time equivalents
                                          Working hours
                                          Hours paid for
                                          Payroll
  Unemployment                                                                                  Vacancy rates
  Under employment                                                                              Capacity constraints
  Under utilization




                                                            29
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003



are not paid on an hourly basis or must make some             Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) which is a
assumption for the number of hours they worked (eg            survey of businesses. Surveys are limited by the
such as those working for commission, or paid for             issue of estimation of a result for the target population
piecework). It may exclude (or include) hours worked          from a smaller sample. Sample surveys may also
by salaried employees by assuming a standard                  have reduced coverage of the economy.
number of hours per pay period and not capturing
additional (or reduced) hours worked from this                The Census of Population and Dwellings (the
standard. It can exclude those who are not ‘paid as           census), which is a survey of all dwellings and
such’ but take a share of the profits. Number of hours        individuals in New Zealand every five years, includes
paid for can provide a measure of the volume of               questions on employment. It has (theoretically) full
labour purchased in a period. It is, however, a proxy         coverage (and therefore no sampling error), but is
for the true volume of labour inputted in that period.        limited by the length of time between censuses. The
                                                              last census was undertaken in March 2001.
Level of payroll: This can provide a measure of labour
input over a short period of time by assuming that            Administrative databases are collected for other
changes in the payroll level reflects changes in hours        purposes from which statistical measures can be
worked and the quality of the labour input. There is          derived. There are two main administrative
an assumption that adjustment to wage rates is                databases that can produce employment measures:
lagged and over a short period does not affect this           the Employer Monthly Schedule (EMS) system of
measure. This measure is only relevant for short run          the Inland Revenue Department (IRD) and the
analysis before adjustment for general wage                   Business Frame (BF), which is operated by Statistics
increases impacts on its ability to be a meaningful           New Zealand (SNZ). A snapshot of the Business
measure of labour input volume. Theoretically, the            Frame is produced every year in the business
payroll data includes some acknowledgement of the             demography dataset by SNZ.
heterogeneity of the labour volume of different
                                                              The different data sources produce a number of
persons. For example, those who work longer hours
                                                              conceptual, timing and coverage differences that
or produce a better quality result should receive
                                                              mean the results may not be directly comparable.
higher pay.
                                                              The results of survey questions (and the variations
Based on this framework, we can turn our attention            that may exist from survey to survey) may not provide
to the current measures available (and not available),        data that can be compared with the data stored in
the methods of producing these outputs and the                administrative systems. The key ones are listed in
limitations this framework puts on the ability to             table 1, below.
measure employment volume.
                                                              In addition to those differences listed in table 1,
2         Data sources and measures                           differences arise from the mode of data capture. For
                                                              example does a person provide a different answer
2.1       Data sources                                        in a self-administered questionnaire than an
The data sources available for the production of
                                                              interviewer-administered one (for example census
employment volume measures fall into the following
                                                              versus HLFS)? Does a person provide an industry
categories:
                                                              for their workplace that does not match the Business
    q   sample surveys                                        Frame designed industry for the same workplace (for
                                                              example HLFS versus QES or BF)? Research
    q   censuses, and                                         suggests the answers to these questions are yes in
                                                              some cases.
    q   administrative databases.

Sample surveys can further be split into household
surveys and establishment (or business) surveys.
The sources for employment measures in New
Zealand are the Household Labour Force Survey
(HLFS), which is a household survey and the




                                                         30
                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003



Table 1
                                      Data Sources Available for Employment Measures
                                                        Exclusions
    Data source          Type                 Timing                 Persons                 Industry                Data           Other differences
 Census           Self-administered      Last 7 days ending    Those under the age    None                    Actual hours          Non-response
                  survey                 on 4 March 2001       of 15                                          Hours paid for        Self-completed
                                         Every 5 years                                                        Payroll               questionnaire
 HLFS             Interviewer-           Continuous over a     Those under the age    None                    Hours paid for        Proxy responses
                  administered sample    quarter               of 15                                          Payroll               Interviewer-assisted
                  survey                                                                                                            questionnaire
 QES              Panel survey of        Pay period ending     Working proprietors    Agriculture
                                                                                                              Actual hours          Data at aggregate
                  establishments         immediately before    without employees      Services to
                                                                                                              Usual hours           firm level
                                         20th of middle                               agriculture
                                         month of each         Hours data for         Commercial fishing
                                                                                                                                    Individuals are not
                                         quarter               working proprietors    International sea
                                                                                                                                    identified
                                                               with employees         transport
                                                                                      Residential property
                                                                                      operators
                                                                                      Foreign government
                                                                                      representation
                                                                                      Private households
                                                                                      employing staff

                                                                                      Non-civilian staff in
                                                                                      ANZSIC
                                                                                      classification M82
                                                                                      Defence are also
                                                                                      excluded
 EMS              Administrative         End of month totals   Anyone not paying      None                    FTEs,                 Data collected for
                  database                                     PAYE                                           Actual hours          administration
                                                                                                              Usual hours           rather than
                                                               Those earning less                             Hours paid for        statistical purposes
                                                               than $20 a week or                             Sex of employee
                                                               less than $1,040 for                           (note sex can be
                                                               the year                                       derived from
                                                                                                              salutation (eg Mr,
                                                               Working proprietors                            Mrs, etc) and first
                                                               not paying PAYE                                name in a majority
                                                               themselves                                     of cases)
 Business Frame   Administrative         Updated monthly       Those not engaged      None                    Actual hours          Data for some units
                  database               and annually.         in economically                                Usual hours           are not updated
                                         Business              significant                                    Hours paid for        frequently
                                         Demography dataset    businesses (defined                            Payroll
                                         relates to February   as annual GST
                                         of each year          turnover less than
                                                               $30,000)




                                                                      31
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003




2.2        Coverage framework                                            Please note that SNZ is currently investigating the
A summary of the data that can be obtained from                          viability of a linked employer-employee database
each data source is detailed below:                                      (LEED). This will effectively be a linking of the EMS
                                                                         and Business Frame databases.
Table 2
                                              Summary of Variables Available
                                                                Measures
                               HLFS             Population census             QES                EMS        Business Frame/ Business
           Variables
                                                                                                                  demography
 Persons employed               Y                      Y                       X                  Y                    X
 Persons unemployed             Y                      Y                       X                  X                    X
 Persons underemployed          Y                      X                       X                  X                    X
 Labour supply (ILO             Y                      Y                       X                  X                    X
 definition)
 Jobs filled                    Y                      Y                       Y                  Y                    Y
 Jobs unfilled (vacancies)      X                      X                       X                  X                    X
 Labour demand                  X                      X                       X                  X                    X
 Employment FTEs                Y                      Y                       Y                  X                     Y
                                                                                                              (but not after March
                                                                                                                     2004)
 Hours worked -actual           Y                      X                       X                  X                    X
                   -usual       Y                      Y                       X                  X                    X
 Hours paid                     X                      X                       Y                  X                    X
 Payroll                        X                      X                       Y                  Y                    X
Y = Available or able to be derived from data source
X = Not available or not derivable from data source




                                                                    32
                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003




3         Labour volume statistics                                 3.1   Measurement of labour market
Having looked at the available data sources against                      status
the conceptual framework outlined in section 1 we                  3.1.1 Summary of statistics
turn our attention to looking at the results produced              The key results from the different data sources are
from these data sources.                                           detailed in table 3 below. These results are as
                                                                   published or at fullest coverage (without adjusting
                                                                   for any conceptual and coverage differences).
Table 3
                                   Summary of Results at a Similar Point in Time
                   Variable                2001 Census              March Quarter       February 2001          Business
                                                                        2001                 QES              Demography
                                                                   HLFS (surveyed)     (on or about 20th     February 2001
                                                                                        February 2001)
                                                    Employment
    Part-time                       Male            111,219                  106,600              125,100               156,900
                                  Female            287,933                  277,200              308,200               346,000
                              Total           399,152                  383,800              433,300               502,900
    Full-time                       Male            811,740                  883,400              529,600               730,100
                                  Female            516,378                  539,200              377,000               436,700
                              Total          1,328,118                1,422,600             906,600         1,166,800
    Employment                      Male            922,959                  990,000              722,700               887,000
                                  Female            804,312                  816,400              721,200               782,700
                              Total          1,727,271                1,806,300            1,443,900             1,669,700
    Employment                      Male            867,350                  937,700              592,200               808,500
    (FTE)                         Female            660,345                  677,800              531,100               609,700
                              Total          1,527,695                1,614,500            1,123,300             1,418,200
                                                   Hours/Payroll
    Hours: actual                  Male                                   38,325,000
                                 Female                                   23,299,000
                                   Total                              61,624,000
    Hours: usual                   Male         38,776,614                42,742,000
                                 Female         25,440,321                26,545,000
                                   Total    64,214,355                69,287,000
    Hours paid for                 Male
                                 Female
                                   Total                                                  42,775,800
    Payroll or gross               Total                                                  774,794,400
    earnings

From the table 3 (above) we can see some                           1,806,300 as measured in the HLFS. This is a
differences in the volume of employment at similar                 difference of 362,400 persons (or jobs); That is the
points in time. For example, total employment in                   number of persons employed in the HLFS is over 25
February or March 2001 ranges from a low of                        percent higher than the number of Jobs in the QES.
1,443,900 as measured in the QES to a high of




                                                              33
                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003




3.1.2 Long-term time series                                      difference between the HLFS and QES appears to
A key issue, given the differences in level highlighted          be widening over time, and the QES shows some
by table 3, is whether these different volume                    seasonal falls that are not apparent in the HLFS data.
measures show similar or divergent patterns of
change. To illustrate this, long-term data for the above         The census is consistently a little lower than the HLFS
measures is presented in figure 3 (below). The                   employment level, while the business demography
quarterly series (HLFS and QES) are presented as                 data is mid-way between the QES and HLFS data.
continuous time series. The census and business                  However, due to the frequency of the census (five-
demography data are presented as points in time.                 yearly) and business demography (annual) it is less
                                                                 clear whether they show the same long-term patterns
Over time, the HLFS and QES portray a similar trend,             you see with quarterly times series.
but there are some differences in the series. The

Figure 3
                               Long-term Employment Series from Various Sources
                            Number of persons/jobs
                2,000,000

                                                                                             ✖    x
                                                                                                  ✖   ✖
                                                                          x         ✖   ✖
                1,500,000 x                                                     ✖
                                                  x

                1,000,000


                  500,000


                       0
                            85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02
                                                   Time period

                                     HLFS employment (persons)        ✖        Business Demography (jobs)

                                     QES filled jobs                  x        Census (persons)




                                                            34
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




The length of the time series for the QES can be                 show a degree of discontinuity between these two
extended by the addition of pre-1989 QES data,                   series and a different relationship between the ‘QES’
collected and published by the Department of Labour.             (either old or current) and the HLFS. In particular,
This longer QES series allows additional census data             the rise in employment seen at the start of the HLFS
to be compared and provides a long time series                   series and in the 1986 census is flatter in both QES
covering several business cycles. The result of this             series.
extension is shown in figure 4 below. It should be
noted that no attempt has been made to link the ‘old’            Turning our attention to labour volume measurement
QES with the existing QES.                                       using hours we can compare the HLFS actual hours
                                                                 series with the QES paid hours series. Do they show
When comparing the ‘old’ QES with census data,                   a consistent relationship to each other and is this
we again see a consistent relationship between the               relationship similar to that shown with the
two series. However, the period at the end of the                employment measures above? This is shown in
‘old’ series and the beginning of the current QES                figure 5, below.

Figure 4
                                         Longer-term Employment Series
                          Number of persons/jobs
                2,000,000
                1,800,000
                                                                                           ✦
                1,600,000                                                            ✦
                                                                           ✦                ++
                1,400,000                                           ✦          ✦        +++
                                                            ✦                ++++++ +++
                1,200,000
                                                    ✦
                1,000,000                     ✦
                                       ✦
                  800,000      ✦
                          ✦
                  600,000
                  400,000
                  200,000
                       0
                          51 54 57 60 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 84 87 90 93 96 99 02
                                                 First quarter of each year

                                          Old’ QES (jobs)        ✦    Census (persons)

                                    +     QES (jobs)                  Business Demography (jobs)

                                          HLFS (persons)

Figure 5
                            Comparing Hours Worked (HLFS) with Hours Paid for (QES)
                            Number of hours
               70,000,000
                                                                 ✸
                                                             ✸ ✸ ✸
                                                          ✸ ✸ ✸ ✸
               60,000,000                      ✸
                                              ✸ ✸ ✸✸✸✸✸✸✸✸ ✸ ✸
                                                 ✸✸✸✸✸✸✸✸✸✸ ✸ ✸
                            ✸ ✸
                          ✸✸✸✸✸✸ ✸         ✸ ✸ ✸
                           ✸ ✸ ✸✸ ✸✸✸ ✸ ✸✸✸✸
                                 ✸ ✸✸✸ ✸✸✸✸ ✸
               50,000,000         ✸   ✸ ✸
               40,000,000

               30,000,000

               20,000,000

               10,000,000

                       0
                            85 86 87    88 89   90 91       92 93 94 95 96 97         98   99 00   01 02
                                                              Time period

                                         ✸      HLFS actual hours             QES paid hours




                                                            35
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003



The hours data show similar long-term trends. The              The differences between these two surveys are:
HLFS is higher than the QES which is consistent
with employment data. However, there is a notable                  q   Timing. The HLFS is an average over the quarter.
seasonal pattern in the HLFS of a fall in actual hours                 The QES collects data for a week centred on
at the start of each year. This is believed to be due                  20th of the middle month of the quarter. As with
to the effect of summer holidays on the actual hours                   comparing the census data with the HLFS, the
worked. This seasonal pattern is not shown in the                      average for the quarter may be higher than at a
QES. This may be due to the definition of ‘paid hours’                 point in the middle of the quarter if there is a
including paid leave, where an employee is paid but                    higher level of employment at the start of the
is not actively contributing labour to the firm.                       quarter.

The only data source available for payroll is the QES.             q   Count. The HLFS counts people whereas the
In the future, payroll data may be available from the                  QES counts jobs. There are some persons who
EMS system as part of the LEED project. The current                    hold multiple jobs, so they are counted once in
lack of a data source that is publicly comparable with                 the HLFS but more than once in the QES. An
the QES means we can not investigate payroll data                      estimate of the number of multiple jobs held by
at this time.                                                          persons employed from the HLFS can be used
                                                                       to account for this difference.
In section 2 we noted some of the conceptual and
measurement differences between the different                      q   Employment type coverage. The HLFS covers
series available for labour volume measurement. We                     the following forms of employment: employees,
have looked at the level and time series differences                   working proprietor with employees, working
between these. It now remains to see if, by adjusting                  proprietor without employees and unpaid workers
for the known differences in the series, we can                        in family businesses. The QES only covers paid
account for the differences between them and                           employees and working proprietors with paid
thereby produce a common view of labour volume.                        employees. Numbers for the employment types
                                                                       not covered by the QES can be supplied by the
3.2    Reasons for level differences                                   HLFS.
The differences in labour volume measures from
different sources outlined above may be due to the                 q   Industry coverage. The HLFS covers all
following issues:                                                      industries, while the QES has exclusions in its
                                                                       industry coverage. Estimates of the employees
q   HLFS and census                                                    and working proprietors with employees for those
The 2001 Census count of persons employed was                          industries not covered in the QES can be derived
1,727,271. The HLFS estimate of persons employed                       from the HLFS to account for this difference.
was 1,806,300, a difference of approximately 79,000.
                                                                   q   Age. The HLFS asks for employment status only
The majority of this difference is probably due to                     of those aged 15 years and over. The QES
timing, with the HLFS being an average over the three                  counts jobs that may be held by persons younger
months of the March quarter, compared with a week                      than 15.
in March for the census. If there is a high point in
                                                                   q   Hidden economy. The HLFS is more likely to
annual employment in the December to January
                                                                       capture those who are working outside of the
period of each year then it is likely that an average
                                                                       taxation system (ie the ‘hidden’ or ‘black’
including the high point will be higher than a point in
                                                                       economy).
time towards the end of the quarter.
                                                               An example of how we can account for some of these
Another issue that may cause a difference is the
                                                               differences is shown in section 3.3 below.
sampling error on the HLFS estimate of plus or minus
20,500, so there is 95 percent confidence that the             q   HLFS versus business demography
true value lies between 1,826,800 and 1,785,800.                   statistics
A final issue that can explain the difference is the           The HLFS estimate of persons employed is
variation in responses that can occur in a self-               1,806,300, compared with a business demography
completed questionnaires (such as the census) and              total of 1,669,700 jobs filled, a difference of 136,600.
an interviewer-assisted questionnaires (such as the
                                                               This difference may in some part be due to:
HLFS).
                                                                   q   Timing. The HLFS is an average over the quarter.
q   HLFS and QES                                                       The business demography collects data for a
The HLFS estimate of persons employed is                               week centred on 20th of the middle month of the
1,806,300. The QES estimate of jobs filled is                          quarter (the date of the Annual Frame Update
1,443,900, a difference of 362,400.                                    Survey or AFUS).


                                                          36
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003




  q   Count. The HLFS counts people whereas the                      3.3      Making the measures equivalent
      business demography statistics counts jobs.                    As some of this differences can be attributed to
      There are some people who hold multiple jobs,                  known coverage issues, these can be addressed by
      thus they are counted once in the HLFS but more                making allowances for the coverage of different
      than once in the business demography statistics.               measures. An example for the HLFS and QES is
      An estimate of the number of multiple jobs held                detailed below:
      by persons employed from the HLFS can be used
      to account for this difference.                                HLFS employment (persons)                              1,806,300
                                                                     Adjustment to account for industries not covered
  q   Employment type coverage. The HLFS covers                        in QES                                               - 161,700
      the following forms of employment: employees,                  Adjustment to account for self-employed without
      working proprietors with employees, working                      employees                                            - 164,900
                                                                     Adjustment to account for unpaid family workers        - 6,900
      proprietors without employees and unpaid                       Adjustment to account for multiple job holding         + 61,700
      workers in family businesses. The business                     Adjustment to account for workers under the age
      demography statistics covers all of these, except                of 15                                                +       ?
      for unpaid workers in family businesses.                       Adjustment to account for ‘hidden’ economy             -       ?
                                                                     Equivalent total (jobs)                               1,534,500
  q   Industry coverage. The HLFS covers all
                                                                     Compared with QES (filled jobs)        1,443,900
      industries, while the business demography data
      covers all industries but excludes those who are
      employed by private households in its industry                 The QES has a sample error of 1.6 percent for filled
      and sector coverage. Recently, the coverage of                 jobs, which means the true value lies between
      business demography data related to agriculture                1,467,000 and 1,420,800. There will also be a
      has improved.                                                  sample error on the HLFS total after adjusting for
                                                                     known differences.
  q   Size of establishment. The HLFS covers
      employment in establishments of all sizes.                     The difference between the revised HLFS and QES
      Business demography statistics exclude                         is 90,600. This is probably an understatement as no
      establishments with an annual turnover of less                 allowance for those working under the age of 15 has
      than $30,000 for goods and services tax (GST)                  been undertaken.
      purposes.                                                      Accounting for differences can give us a view of
  q   Age. The HLFS asks for employment status only                  employment if we use the QES as a base and try to
      of those aged 15 years and over, while the                     get the other measures to match it. Table 4 below
      business demography data counts jobs, which                    summarises the result obtained when accounting for
      may be held by persons younger than 15.                        these known differences.

Table 4
                                              Equivalent Results for Employment
                                                               Measure
                                                     QES                    HLFS           Business Demography           Census
original                                                                   1,806,300            1,669,700               1,727,721
differences          Remove industries not                                 -161,700              -29,800                -136,818
                     covered by QES
                     Remove working                                        -164,900              -77,200                -213,117
                     proprietor only
                     businesses
                     Remove unpaid workers                                  -6,900                                       -39,294
                     in family businesses
                     Add in multiple job                                   + 61,700                                     +124,668
                     holding
                     Add in those under the                                   +                                            +
                     age of 15 who are
                     working
Equivalent total                                   1,443,900               1,534,500            1,562,600               1,463,160




                                                                37
                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003



As can be seen even by making allowances for                        All of the current measures have some assumption
known differences, there still remains inconsistency                of homogeneity of labour about them. Payroll data,
between the level of employment measured. The                       which may be the only data source without this
greatest difference is now 90,600 between a                         limitation, has not been sufficiently developed as a
reconciled HLFS and the QES. This, however, is                      labour volume measure.
considerably lower than the 362,400 difference
between the published series. We have reduced our                   Despite their conceptual and measurement
difference from over 25 percent to around 6 percent                 differences, the measures tell very similar long-term
of the QES figure.                                                  stories of the labour market at the aggregate level.
                                                                    The differences appear to be generally in the nature
Taking the reconciliation further we can produce a                  of a ‘difference in level’ rather than a different ‘rate
long-term series for the HLFS adjustment to match                   or direction of change’.
the industry and jobs basis of the QES. The result of
this exercise is shown below in figure 6.                           Adjusting for the conceptual and some
                                                                    methodological differences does not totally remove
The reduction of the difference is also evident over                the differences between measures.
long-term time series for HLFS and QES. In terms
of an ideal measure of labour volume it is desirable                Taking these conclusions and looking ahead, what
for the coverage limitations of the QES to be                       can be done to reduce the difference between the
addressed, rather than reducing the coverage of the                 measures? The following are some suggested
HLFS. This leads us to look at some conclusions                     options for the future:
and areas where the differences between the
                                                                    Improve the coverage of the Business Frame so that
measures can be addressed.
                                                                    more businesses are included in the BF allowing the
                                                                    business survey target populations to be expanded.
4      Conclusion and future options                                SNZ has been addressing this issue with the
From the brief look at the different measures, we
                                                                    Business Surveys Tax Expanded Population Strategy
have learnt the following about labour volume in New
                                                                    (or STEPS) project. This will improve the coverage
Zealand:
                                                                    of the Business Frame and improve its relevance
None of the current data sources available                          and timeliness. This may address some of the
completely covers the entire scope of labour volume                 differences between the QES and BF and other
from an economic point of view. Even the census                     sources.
and HLFS which have industry-wide and
employment-status-wide coverage do not collect
information for those under the age of 15.

Figure 6
                 Comparing HLFS and QES Employment with HLFS Adjusted to Match QES
                           Numbers
               2,000,000


                                                                                                        ✶     ✶
               1,500,000                                                      ✶    ✶   ✶    ✶      ✶    ✱     ✱
                                                                         ✶             ✱    ✱      ✱
                           ✶    ✶    ✶                               ✶   ✱    ✱    ✱
                                          ✶
                                          ✱    ✶
                                               ✱    ✶
                                                    ✱     ✶    ✶
                                                               ✱     ✱
                                                          ✱
               1,000,000


                 500,000


                      0
                           86   87   88   89   90   91     92 93 94 95 96 97           98   99     00   01    02
                                                         First quarter of each year


                                     HLFS (persons)        ✶    Adjusted HLFS (jobs)    ✱        QES (jobs)




                                                               38
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003




Remove some of the industry coverage gaps in the             Include working proprietors without employees in
QES by expanding the coverage of the QES to                  establishment surveys.
include:
                                                             Ensure that the coding of industry from household
    i agriculture,                                           surveys is consistent with that for establishment
                                                             surveys.
   ii services to agriculture, and
   iii commercial fishing.                                   One solution may be developing one measure of
                                                             labour volume from the currently available and future
Other industry gaps may prove more problematic               data sources. Some European countries have
such as:                                                     followed this approach and developed the concept
    i international sea transport (are these workers         of labour accounts in the National Accounts
      employed in NZ?)                                       framework, which provide a single measure of the
                                                             labour market.
   ii residential property operators (should this be
      the target of our business surveys?)
   iii foreign government representation (are these
       representatives employed in NZ?)
   iv private households employing staff (should
      this be the target of our business surveys?)
   v non-civilian defence staff (these positions are
     officially secret and have the potential to
     significantly impact on data on hours paid for).




                                                        39
Labour Market Statistics 2003




             40
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 1

The labour force
This chapter looks at trends in the participation of the working-age population in the New Zealand labour
force. The tables look at distribution of the labour force by sex, age, regional council, educational attainment
and country of birth. Tables on labour force projections and transition probabilities between labour force
statuses are also included.




                                                        41
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.01

                         People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                                    By sex
                                     Labour Force
   Average for                                                           Not in the        Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
   Year ended        Employed       Unemployed            Total         Labour Force       Population(1)   Participation Rate           Rate
     March
                                                            (000)                                                               %

                                                                                Males
      1988             894.3               39.2            933.6              268.9         1,202.4                  77.6                   4.2
      1989             856.0               57.1            913.2              296.2         1,209.3                  75.5                   6.3
      1990             838.4               65.6            904.0              311.8         1,215.8                  74.4                   7.3
      1991             831.9               80.3            912.2              319.5         1,231.7                  74.1                   8.8
      1992             818.0              103.5            921.5              329.1         1,250.7                  73.7                  11.2
      1993             827.4               99.5            926.8              342.7         1,269.5                  73.0                  10.7
      1994             855.0               92.1            947.1              343.0         1,290.1                  73.4                   9.7
      1995             894.9               75.8            970.6              343.3         1,314.0                  73.9                   7.8
      1996             936.9               60.9            997.8              343.1         1,340.9                  74.4                   6.1
      1997             956.1               62.4          1,018.5              347.3         1,365.8                  74.6                   6.1
      1998             957.7               70.4          1,028.1              354.4         1,382.6                  74.4                   6.8
      1999             946.3               78.4          1,024.7              368.6         1,393.3                  73.5                   7.7
      2000             960.7               69.5          1,030.1              370.9         1,401.0                  73.5                   6.7
      2001             977.8               61.1          1,038.8              371.6         1,410.4                  73.7                   5.9
      2002           1,003.2               56.0          1,059.2              366.5         1,425.7                  74.3                   5.3
      2003           1,028.2               53.4          1,081.6              374.7         1,456.3                  74.3                   4.9
                                                                               Females
      1988             656.2                30.2           686.5              571.5         1,258.0                  54.6                   4.4
      1989             636.7                40.8           677.6              590.9         1,268.4                  53.4                   6.0
      1990             631.9                46.8           678.7              600.1         1,278.8                  53.1                   6.9
      1991             647.3                55.4           702.8              593.4         1,296.1                  54.2                   7.9
      1992             643.2                69.4           712.6              604.4         1,317.0                  54.1                   9.7
      1993             653.5                67.3           720.8              617.2         1,337.9                  53.9                   9.3
      1994             674.4                65.1           739.5              621.8         1,361.3                  54.3                   8.8
      1995             711.2                54.3           765.5              622.2         1,387.7                  55.2                   7.1
      1996             748.7                49.8           798.5              618.0         1,416.4                  56.4                   6.2
      1997             777.8                52.0           829.8              611.7         1,441.6                  57.6                   6.3
      1998             778.2                56.5           834.7              623.8         1,458.5                  57.2                   6.8
      1999             781.1                60.9           842.0              628.6         1,470.6                  57.3                   7.2
      2000             795.8                54.5           850.3              629.6         1,479.9                  57.5                   6.4
      2001             811.4                48.0           859.4              630.4         1,489.8                  57.7                   5.6
      2002             836.1                46.6           882.7              621.2         1,503.9                  58.7                   5.3
      2003             855.6                47.9           903.5              626.9         1,503.3                  59.0                   5.3
                                                                      Total Males and Females
      1988           1,550.5               69.5          1,620.0              840.4         2,460.4                  65.8                   4.3
      1989           1,492.8               98.0          1,590.7              887.1         2,477.8                  64.2                   6.2
      1990           1,470.3              112.4          1,582.8              911.9         2,494.7                  63.4                   7.1
      1991           1,479.3              135.7          1,615.0              912.8         2,527.8                  63.9                   8.4
      1992           1,461.2              172.9          1,634.1              933.5         2,567.6                  63.6                  10.6
      1993           1,480.9              166.7          1,647.6              959.8         2,607.4                  63.2                  10.1
      1994           1,529.4              157.1          1,686.6              964.8         2,651.4                  63.6                   9.3
      1995           1,606.1              130.1          1,736.2              965.5         2,701.7                  64.3                   7.5
      1996           1,685.6              110.7          1,796.3              961.1         2,757.3                  65.1                   6.2
      1997           1,734.0              114.4          1,848.3              959.0         2,807.4                  65.8                   6.2
      1998           1,735.9              126.9          1,862.8              978.2         2,841.0                  65.6                   6.8
      1999           1,727.4              139.3          1,866.7              997.2         2,863.9                  65.2                   7.5
      2000           1,756.5              124.0          1,880.4            1,000.4         2,880.9                  65.3                   6.6
      2001           1,789.2              109.1          1,898.2            1,002.0         2,900.3                  65.4                   5.7
      2002           1,839.3              102.6          1,941.9              987.7         2,929.6                  66.3                   5.3
      2003           1,883.8              101.3          1,985.1            1,001.5         2,986.6                  66.5                   5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.




                                                                        42
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.02

                  People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                 By age group
                          Labour Force
 Average for                                          Not in the          Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
 Year ended    Employed   Unemployed     Total       Labour Force         Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
  March(1)
                                           (000)                                                               %

                                                        15-19 Year Olds
    1987         166.9         21.3      188.2            109.8                 297.9              63.2                   11.3
    1991         133.6         30.2      163.8            121.3                 285.1              57.5                   18.4
    1996         124.9         24.1      149.0            116.2                 265.2              56.2                   16.2
    1998         126.1         24.8      150.8            118.6                 269.4              56.0                   16.4
    1999         117.9         25.1      143.0            127.7                 270.7              52.8                   17.5
    2000         119.8         24.2      144.0            127.2                 271.2              53.1                   16.8
    2001         121.5         24.2      145.7            127.9                 273.6              53.2                   16.6
    2002         128.4         23.3      151.6            126.7                 278.3              54.5                   15.3
    2003         131.4         23.8      155.3            131.2                 286.5              54.2                   15.3
                                                        20-24 Year Olds
    1987         215.2         10.9      226.2             46.3                 272.5              83.0                    4.8
    1991         182.5         26.7      209.1             55.0                 264.1              79.2                   12.8
    1996         198.8         19.7      218.5             59.4                 277.9              78.6                    9.0
    1998         182.6         24.5      207.1             58.8                 265.9              77.9                   11.8
    1999         174.0         24.5      198.5             60.9                 259.4              76.5                   12.3
    2000         168.6         21.3      189.8             65.6                 255.4              74.3                   11.2
    2001         167.3         18.1      185.4             68.7                 254.1              73.0                    9.8
    2002         176.6         16.0      192.6             65.7                 258.3              74.6                    8.3
    2003         181.2         16.9      198.1             70.7                 268.8              73.7                    8.5
                                                        25-29 Year Olds
    1987         196.2          9.2      205.5             59.2                 264.7              77.6                    4.5
    1991         188.9         18.8      207.7             61.1                 268.8              77.3                    9.0
    1996         205.4         12.7      218.0             54.4                 272.4              80.0                    5.8
    1998         207.2         14.3      221.6             56.8                 278.4              79.6                    6.5
    1999         200.4         16.9      217.2             55.8                 273.0              79.6                    7.8
    2000         198.4         13.9      212.3             52.8                 265.1              80.1                    6.5
    2001         194.1         10.9      205.0             52.0                 257.1              79.8                    5.3
    2002         187.2         11.0      198.2             50.5                 248.7              79.7                    5.6
    2003         184.4         11.3      195.7             51.0                 246.7              79.3                    5.8
                                                        30-34 Year Olds
    1987         187.6          6.7      194.3             51.1                 245.4              79.2                    3.4
    1991         189.2         16.6      205.8             59.6                 265.4              77.5                    8.1
    1996         217.9         11.7      229.6             65.2                 294.7              77.9                    5.1
    1998         213.1         15.4      228.5             63.2                 291.7              78.3                    6.7
    1999         206.0         15.4      221.4             65.3                 286.7              77.2                    6.9
    2000         207.7         12.1      219.8             62.8                 282.6              77.8                    5.5
    2001         207.5         11.1      218.6             61.4                 280.0              78.1                    5.1
    2002         209.2         10.3      219.5             60.0                 279.5              78.5                    4.7
    2003         210.3         10.0      220.3             61.4                 281.7              78.2                    4.5
                                                        35-39 Year Olds
    1987         195.8          4.8      200.7             36.8                 237.5              84.5                    2.4
    1991         189.7         12.4      202.1             40.4                 242.4              83.3                    6.1
    1996         219.1         12.3      231.4             50.8                 282.2              82.0                    5.3
    1998         234.2         13.2      247.3             53.5                 300.9              82.2                    5.3
    1999         232.7         15.9      248.6             57.3                 305.9              81.3                    6.4
    2000         235.4         14.0      249.4             56.4                 305.9              81.6                    5.6
    2001         234.9         10.9      245.8             56.0                 301.7              81.4                    4.4
    2002         232.4         10.0      242.4             53.5                 295.9              81.9                    4.1
    2003         232.7          9.6      242.3             50.6                 292.9              82.7                    4.0




                                                       43
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.02
continued
                  People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                 By age group
                          Labour Force
 Average for                                          Not in the          Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
 Year ended    Employed   Unemployed     Total       Labour Force         Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
  March(1)
                                           (000)                                                               %

                                                        40-44 Year Olds
    1987         168.2          3.6      171.8             22.8                 194.6              88.3                    2.1
    1991         190.5         10.4      200.9             31.5                 232.4              86.4                    5.2
    1996         202.6         10.7      213.4             39.9                 253.3              84.2                    5.0
    1998         215.1         11.5      226.7             42.0                 268.6              84.4                    5.1
    1999         218.6         12.9      231.6             43.6                 275.2              84.2                    5.6
    2000         227.3         11.8      239.1             41.7                 280.9              85.1                    4.9
    2001         235.1         10.2      245.3             41.2                 286.4              85.6                    4.1
    2002         242.6         10.0      252.6             39.7                 292.3              86.4                    4.0
    2003         250.0          9.0      259.0             41.8                 300.8              86.1                    3.5
                                                        45-49 Year Olds
    1987         141.1          2.5      143.6             24.8                 168.4              85.3                    1.8
    1991         150.0          7.4      157.4             26.5                 183.9              85.6                    4.7
    1996         196.8          8.8      205.7             32.5                 238.2              86.3                    4.3
    1998         203.7          9.6      213.4             33.5                 246.8              86.4                    4.5
    1999         203.4         10.6      214.0             34.4                 248.3              86.2                    5.0
    2000         210.3          8.3      218.6             32.7                 251.3              87.0                    3.8
    2001         214.2          7.3      221.6             33.1                 254.6              87.0                    3.3
    2002         218.1          7.1      225.3             34.6                 259.8              86.7                    3.2
    2003         227.7          5.8      233.5             33.2                 266.7              87.5                    2.5
                                                        50-54 Year Olds
    1987         109.2           2.5     111.7             31.8                 143.5              77.8                    2.2
    1991         116.9           6.8     123.7             31.8                 155.5              79.6                    5.5
    1996         147.0           5.3     152.3             33.5                 185.8              82.0                    3.5
    1998         162.2           6.5     168.7             35.4                 204.0              82.7                    3.8
    1999         172.0           8.8     180.8             36.7                 217.5              83.1                    4.8
    2000         177.9           8.7     186.6             41.2                 227.7              81.9                    4.6
    2001         187.9           7.2     195.1             40.8                 235.9              82.7                    3.7
    2002         195.0           6.6     201.6             39.0                 240.6              83.8                    3.3
    2003         194.2           6.4     200.6             41.3                 241.9              82.9                    3.2
                                                        55-59 Year Olds
    1987          94.6           1.8      96.4             50.4                 146.8              65.6                    1.9
    1991          80.7           4.8      85.5             52.7                 138.2              61.9                    5.7
    1996         100.9           3.7     104.6             51.0                 155.6              67.2                    3.5
    1998         111.7           5.2     116.9             53.1                 170.0              68.8                    4.5
    1999         116.3           6.5     122.9             50.7                 173.5              70.8                    5.3
    2000         120.3           5.8     126.1             52.0                 178.0              70.8                    4.6
    2001         124.3           5.6     129.9             52.0                 181.9              71.4                    4.3
    2002         129.7           5.1     134.9             52.6                 187.4              71.9                    3.8
    2003         143.5           4.2     147.7             51.1                 198.8              74.3                    2.8
                                                        60-64 Year Olds
    1987          44.6           ..       45.1             92.7                 137.8              32.7                    ..
    1991          34.7           1.1      35.8            103.6                 139.4              25.7                    3.1
    1996          48.6           1.4      49.9             85.9                 135.9              36.8                    2.7
    1998          55.4           1.7      57.1             79.3                 136.5              41.9                    2.9
    1999          60.0           2.5      62.5             76.7                 139.3              44.9                    4.0
    2000          60.9           3.4      64.3             79.1                 143.4              44.8                    5.3
    2001          69.7           3.2      72.9             77.5                 150.4              48.5                    4.4
    2002          81.8           2.8      84.5             73.4                 157.9              53.5                    3.3
    2003          87.2           3.7      90.9             73.3                 164.3              55.4                    4.1




                                                       44
                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.02
continued
                       People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                               By age group
                                 Labour Force
  Average for                                                       Not in the         Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
  Year ended      Employed       Unemployed           Total        Labour Force        Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
   March(1)
                                                         (000)                                                              %

                                                                      65 Years and Over
     1987             28.1                ..            28.4             296.7               325.1                8.7                   ..
     1991             22.7                ..            23.2             329.3               352.5                6.6                   ..
     1996             23.5                ..            23.9             372.3               396.2                6.0                   ..
     1998             24.6                ..            24.8             384.0               408.8                6.1                   ..
     1999             26.0                ..            26.3             388.1               414.4                6.3                   ..
     2000             29.8                ..            30.4             388.9               419.3                7.2                   ..
     2001             32.6                ..            33.1             391.5               424.6                7.8                   ..
     2002             38.4                ..            38.8             392.0               430.9                9.0                   ..
     2003             41.1                ..            41.7             395.8               437.5                9.5                   ..
                                                                        Total All Ages
     1987          1,547.9              64.0        1,611.9              822.3             2,434.2               66.2                   4.0
     1991          1,479.3             135.7        1,615.0              912.8             2,527.8               63.9                   8.4
     1996          1,685.6             110.7        1,796.3              961.1             2,757.3               65.1                   6.2
     1998          1,735.9             126.9        1,862.8              978.2             2,841.0               65.6                   6.8
     1999          1,727.4             139.3        1,866.7              997.2             2,863.9               65.2                   7.5
     2000          1,756.5             124.0        1,880.4            1,000.4             2,880.9               65.3                   6.6
     2001          1,789.2             109.1        1,898.2            1,002.0             2,900.3               65.4                   5.7
     2002          1,839.3             102.6        1,941.9              987.7             2,929.6               66.3                   5.3
     2003          1,883.8             101.3        1,985.1            1,001.5             2,986.6               66.5                   5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, 1992 to 1995, and 1997 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.




                                                                     45
                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.03

                                          Labour Force Participation Rates
                                                   By age group and sex

   Average for                                                                                                    65 and
                   15-19     20-24      25-29   30-34    35-39        40-44       45-49   50-54   55-59   60-64            Total
   Year ended                                                                                                      Over
     March
                                                                              %

                                                                         Males
      1988           65.3     91.3       94.7    94.9     96.1       96.6      94.6        92.8    84.8    42.4    13.5    77.6
      1989           60.8     89.3       94.0    94.5     95.3       95.3      94.5        92.7    79.5    36.4    11.0    75.5
      1990           57.4     88.0       93.6    94.3     93.8       94.6      93.7        92.1    79.0    33.8    10.6    74.4
      1991           57.8     86.6       92.9    93.5     94.2       94.4      93.7        90.5    78.6    34.6    10.4    74.1
      1992           56.4     85.2       91.9    93.3     94.4       95.0      93.2        91.3    80.2    33.4     9.5    73.7
      1993           52.1     84.6       93.1    92.3     93.9       94.2      94.6        89.0    79.8    34.2     8.6    73.0
      1994           51.6     85.0       92.0    92.4     93.6       94.1      93.8        89.6    80.4    40.8     9.0    73.4
      1995           54.1     85.3       91.6    93.3     92.0       92.8      93.2        90.3    81.4    44.5     9.5    73.9
      1996           57.5     84.8       91.8    92.2     92.7       92.1      92.4        90.4    81.5    49.2    10.2    74.4
      1997           56.7     84.4       91.0    91.7     92.9       92.8      92.6        89.9    81.8    53.2    10.8    74.6
      1998           56.2     84.1       91.6    91.4     93.4       92.2      93.2        89.6    82.9    52.9     9.4    74.4
      1999           53.5     81.6       90.7    90.5     92.5       91.3      92.7        89.7    82.8    56.7     9.2    73.5
      2000           53.7     81.6       90.1    90.3     91.4       91.8      92.4        89.9    81.6    58.2    11.1    73.5
      2001           53.6     78.9       90.4    91.5     91.8       91.5      91.8        91.1    82.6    61.5    11.9    73.7
      2002           55.0     80.3       90.3    91.7     92.4       91.7      91.9        90.2    83.5    64.9    14.0    74.3
      2003           54.9     78.6       89.8    91.6     91.9       92.8      92.0        89.9    84.6    67.2    14.4    74.3
                                                                       Females
      1988           61.3     73.2       62.2    62.8     71.7       79.1      75.7        65.6    46.0    18.1     3.8    54.6
      1989           57.6     68.3       61.8    61.8     70.5       78.4      74.9        67.7    48.5    15.9     4.0    53.4
      1990           54.7     70.1       61.4    60.8     71.3       78.0      76.5        67.8    46.2    15.0     3.7    53.1
      1991           57.1     62.5       62.6    62.3     72.8       78.5      77.5        68.7    45.0    16.8     3.7    54.2
      1992           52.3     73.1       62.4    64.1     72.7       78.4      78.1        67.4    47.9    15.7     3.4    54.1
      1993           48.6     72.8       63.2    64.5     72.2       77.9      79.7        65.3    50.3    16.0     2.7    53.9
      1994           49.5     72.2       66.3    63.2     70.4       76.7      78.6        69.6    48.5    21.5     2.9    54.3
      1995           51.6     71.7       67.5    64.0     69.2       77.7      79.0        71.2    50.8    22.7     3.5    55.2
      1996           54.9     72.6       68.9    64.4     71.8       76.6      80.2        73.5    53.1    24.3     2.8    56.4
      1997           55.8     71.8       69.8    65.9     73.1       76.9      80.9        75.1    57.1    28.4     3.5    57.6
      1998           55.8     71.7       68.4    66.1     71.6       76.9      79.7        75.7    54.8    31.0     3.4    57.2
      1999           52.1     71.4       69.2    64.9     70.7       77.2      79.7        76.6    58.9    33.3     4.1    57.3
      2000           52.5     66.9       70.8    66.2     72.3       78.7      81.7        73.9    60.1    31.9     4.2    57.5
      2001           52.9     66.8       69.8    65.9     71.7       80.0      82.3        74.3    60.4    35.9     4.5    57.7
      2002           53.9     68.5       69.7    66.6     72.1       81.4      81.6        77.4    60.5    42.4     5.0    58.7
      2003           53.5     68.4       69.2    66.1     74.3       79.8      83.2        76.0    64.1    43.8     5.6    59.0
                                                               Total Males and Females
      1988           63.3     82.3       78.2    78.6     83.8       87.8      85.1        79.3    65.6    30.1     8.0    65.8
      1989           59.2     78.8       77.5    77.8     82.8       86.8      84.7        80.2    64.2    26.1     7.0    64.2
      1990           56.1     79.0       77.0    77.2     82.4       86.2      85.2        79.9    62.7    24.4     6.7    63.4
      1991           57.5     79.2       77.3    77.5     83.3       86.4      85.6        79.6    61.9    25.7     6.6    63.9
      1992           54.4     79.1       76.7    78.3     83.3       86.6      85.6        79.3    64.1    24.6     6.0    63.6
      1993           50.4     78.7       77.7    78.0     82.8       86.0      87.2        77.1    65.0    25.1     5.3    63.2
      1994           50.6     78.6       78.8    77.4     81.7       85.3      86.1        79.6    64.4    31.1     5.6    63.6
      1995           52.9     78.4       79.2    78.2     80.3       85.2      86.1        80.8    66.1    33.6     6.1    64.3
      1996           56.2     78.6       80.0    77.9     82.0       84.2      86.3        82.0    67.2    36.8     6.0    65.1
      1997           56.3     78.0       80.1    78.4     82.8       84.7      86.7        82.5    69.4    40.7     6.7    65.8
      1998           56.0     77.9       79.6    78.3     82.2       84.4      86.4        82.7    68.8    41.9     6.1    65.6
      1999           52.8     76.5       79.6    77.2     81.3       84.2      86.2        83.1    70.8    44.9     6.3    65.2
      2000           53.1     74.3       80.1    77.8     81.6       85.1      87.0        81.9    70.8    44.8     7.2    65.3
      2001           53.2     73.0       79.8    78.1     81.4       85.6      87.0        82.7    71.4    48.5     7.8    65.4
      2002           54.5     74.6       79.7    78.5     81.9       86.4      86.7        83.8    71.9    53.5     9.0    66.3
      2003           54.2     73.7       79.3    78.2     82.7       86.1      87.5        82.9    74.3    55.4     9.5    66.5

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                 46
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.04

                    People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                          By regional council area
                          Labour Force
 Average for                                           Not in the          Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
 Year ended    Employed   Unemployed     Total        Labour Force         Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
  March(1)
                                            (000)                                                               %

                                                               Northland
    1991          42.9          5.1       48.0                 31.2               79.2               60.6                  10.6
    1996          48.2          5.5       53.6                 33.7               87.4               61.4                  10.2
    1998          54.4          6.0       60.4                 41.0              101.4               59.6                  10.0
    1999          51.8          6.8       58.6                 41.3               99.9               58.7                  11.6
    2000          54.1          5.9       60.0                 38.9               98.9               60.7                   9.8
    2001          53.9          5.0       58.9                 38.1               97.1               60.7                   8.5
    2002          53.2          5.0       58.2                 38.8               96.9               60.0                   8.6
    2003          56.2          5.4       61.6                 37.8               99.4               62.0                   8.7
                                                               Auckland
    1991         430.9         38.8      469.7                238.8              708.5               66.3                   8.3
    1996         504.2         28.1      532.3                260.4              792.7               67.2                   5.3
    1998         536.7         41.2      577.8                265.0              842.9               68.6                   7.1
    1999         532.6         39.7      572.3                280.9              853.2               67.1                   6.9
    2000         539.1         34.3      573.4                289.3              862.7               66.5                   6.0
    2001         543.4         30.9      574.3                303.2              877.5               65.4                   5.4
    2002         570.8         29.1      599.8                311.9              911.7               65.8                   4.8
    2003         572.1         28.2      600.3                315.4              915.7               65.6                   4.7
                                                               Waikato
    1991         150.7         14.5      165.2                85.5           250.7                   65.9                   8.8
    1996         161.0         11.5      172.5                91.6           264.1                   65.3                   6.7
    1998         156.2         11.8      168.0                97.1           265.1                   63.4                   7.0
    1999         151.3         14.0      165.3                97.8           263.1                   62.8                   8.5
    2000         162.1         12.8      174.9                86.6           261.5                   66.9                   7.3
    2001         167.0         10.5      177.5                88.0           265.5                   66.8                   5.9
    2002         167.8         10.4      178.1                87.4           265.6                   67.1                   5.8
    2003         174.6          9.7      184.3                82.5           266.8                   69.1                   5.3
                                                             Bay of Plenty
    1991          83.6          9.0       92.6                57.4           150.0                   61.7                   9.7
    1996          89.0          7.9       96.9                61.9           158.8                   61.0                   8.2
    1998          92.2          8.7      100.9                59.5           160.4                   62.9                   8.7
    1999          90.6         11.6      102.2                57.5           159.6                   64.0                  11.4
    2000         100.4          9.4      109.8                62.5           172.3                   63.7                   8.6
    2001          98.9          8.4      107.3                63.0           170.3                   63.0                   7.9
    2002          99.9          8.3      108.2                62.9           171.1                   63.2                   7.7
    2003         103.9          8.3      112.1                64.0           176.1                   63.7                   7.4
                                                        Gisborne/Hawke's Bay
    1991          69.7          8.0       77.7                56.3           134.0                   58.0                  10.2
    1996          80.8          5.8       86.5                52.4           138.9                   62.3                   6.7
    1998          79.7          7.4       87.1                56.9           144.0                   60.5                   8.5
    1999          81.2          7.2       88.4                58.4           146.9                   60.2                   8.1
    2000          81.9          6.6       88.5                54.3           142.7                   62.0                   7.5
    2001          83.2          6.1       89.2                51.7           140.9                   63.3                   6.8
    2002          84.5          5.3       89.8                49.3           139.0                   64.6                   5.9
    2003          86.1          4.8       90.9                49.6           140.6                   64.7                   5.3
                                                    Taranaki/Manawatu-Wanganui(3)
    1991         126.2         13.0      139.2                87.3           226.5                   61.5                   9.3
    1996         143.0         11.0      154.0                92.8           246.8                   62.4                   7.1
    1998         133.9          8.9      142.8                88.9           231.7                   61.6                   6.2
    1999         133.3          9.8      143.1                90.4           233.6                   61.3                   6.8
    2000         137.1         10.5      147.6                94.5           242.1                   61.0                   7.1
    2001         142.5          9.5      152.0                93.8           245.9                   61.8                   6.3
    2002         147.0          7.9      155.0                89.3           244.2                   63.5                   5.1
    2003         156.7          8.0      164.7                86.7           251.4                   65.5                   4.9




                                                         47
                                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.04
continued
                       People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                    By regional council area
                               Labour Force
  Average for                                                   Not in the           Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
  Year ended     Employed      Unemployed          Total       Labour Force          Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
   March(1)
                                                      (000)                                                               %

                                                                      Wellington
     1991          193.6             15.0          208.6            101.5               310.0                  67.3                   7.2
     1996          212.2             15.3          227.5            109.0               336.5                  67.6                   6.7
     1998          234.7             13.3          248.0            110.4               358.4                  69.2                   5.4
     1999          232.1             15.0          247.1            114.9               361.9                  68.3                   6.1
     2000          221.5             12.8          234.3            115.4               349.8                  67.0                   5.5
     2001          231.2             11.9          243.1            108.0               351.1                  69.2                   4.9
     2002          231.1             11.1          242.2            106.1               348.3                  69.5                   4.6
     2003          236.8             12.9          249.7            112.4               362.0                  69.0                   5.2
                                                       Tasman/Nelson-Marlborough/West Coast(4)
     1991            58.4               5.5         64.0               37.3             101.3                  63.1                   8.6
     1996            74.8               3.6         78.4               39.0             117.4                  66.8                   4.5
     1998            80.1               4.4         84.5               38.1             122.6                  68.9                   5.2
     1999            82.9               5.4         88.3               40.1             128.4                  68.8                   6.1
     2000            76.3               4.8         81.1               41.5             122.7                  66.1                   5.9
     2001            79.1               3.6         82.8               41.0             123.8                  66.9                   4.4
     2002            78.3               3.0         81.2               39.4             120.6                  67.4                   3.7
     2003            80.5               2.9         83.4               39.4             122.8                  67.9                   3.5
                                                                      Canterbury
     1991          198.3             17.0          215.3            128.1               343.4                  62.7                   7.9
     1996          229.3             14.5          243.8            137.2               381.0                  64.0                   5.9
     1998          234.3             16.9          251.2            141.3               392.4                  64.0                   6.7
     1999          234.4             19.5          253.9            141.3               395.2                  64.2                   7.7
     2000          250.9             17.9          268.8            139.0               407.8                  65.9                   6.7
     2001          257.9             15.8          273.7            137.8               411.5                  66.5                   5.8
     2002          270.4             15.3          285.7            129.1               414.7                  68.9                   5.3
     2003          278.3             13.8          292.1            135.7               427.7                  68.3                   4.7
                                                                 Otago/Southland(3)
     1991          124.8              9.8          134.7              89.5              224.2                  60.1                   7.3
     1996          143.2              7.5          150.7              83.0              233.7                  64.5                   5.0
     1998          133.7              8.2          141.9              80.0              222.0                  63.9                   5.8
     1999          137.2             10.4          147.6               74.6             222.2                  66.4                   7.0
     2000          133.1              9.1          142.2              78.3              220.5                  64.5                   6.4
     2001          131.9              7.4          139.3              77.5              216.8                  64.2                   5.3
     2002          136.3              7.3          143.6              73.7              217.4                  66.1                   5.1
     2003          138.8              7.3          146.1              78.1              224.2                  65.2                   5.0
                                                             Total All Regional Councils
     1991         1,479.3           135.7        1,615.0            912.8            2,527.8                   63.9                   8.4
     1996         1,685.6           110.7        1,796.3            961.1            2,757.3                   65.1                   6.2
     1998         1,735.9           126.9        1,862.8            978.2            2,841.0                   65.6                   6.8
     1999         1,727.4           139.3        1,866.7            997.2            2,863.9                   65.2                   7.5
     2000         1,756.5           124.0        1,880.4          1,000.4            2,880.9                   65.3                   6.6
     2001         1,789.2           109.1        1,898.2          1,002.0            2,900.3                   65.4                   5.7
     2002         1,839.3           102.6        1,941.9            987.7            2,929.6                   66.3                   5.3
     2003         1,883.8           101.3        1,985.1          1,001.5            2,986.6                   66.5                   5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1992 to 1995 and for 1997 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.
(3) Separate estimates for Taranaki and Manawatu-Wanganui, as well as Otago and Southland are available from
    the September 1994 quarter onwards.
(4) This combined regional council area has been renamed. The name used previously was Nelson/Marlborough/West Coast.
    The new name reflects the current regional council area. Associated boundary changes are negligible and
    do not result in loss of continuity in the series.




                                                                  48
                                                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.05

                      People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                          By educational attainment and sex
                           Labour Force
  Average for                                                Not in the           Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
  Year ended    Employed   Unemployed        Total          Labour Force          Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
   March(1)
                                                 (000)                                                                 %

                                                                       Males
                                                                 No Qualifications
     1987        302.9          19.4          322.3               122.7                445.0                72.4                  6.0
     1991        214.0          35.3          249.3               133.5                382.7                65.1                 14.2
     1996        205.1          25.8          230.9               146.4                377.3                61.2                 11.2
     1998        204.8          27.6          232.5               151.1                383.6                60.6                 11.9
     1999        196.1          29.9          226.0               149.6                375.6                60.2                 13.2
     2000        197.5          25.7          223.3               144.8                368.1                60.7                 11.5
     2001        193.2          22.8          216.0               146.6                362.5                59.6                 10.5
     2002        199.1          20.3          219.4               143.5                362.9                60.5                  9.2
     2003        198.9          17.8          216.7               149.6                366.3                59.2                  8.2
                                                               School Qualifications
     1987        177.6           6.3          183.8                57.7                241.6                76.1                  3.4
     1991        187.6          19.8          207.5                88.0                295.5                70.2                  9.6
     1996        219.1          13.9          233.0                92.7                325.7                71.5                  6.0
     1998        217.4          16.6          234.1                92.6                326.6                71.7                  7.1
     1999        218.1          17.8          235.9                99.0                334.8                70.4                  7.5
     2000        217.8          15.8          233.6               101.5                335.1                69.7                  6.8
     2001        222.1          14.2          236.3               101.3                337.6                70.0                  6.0
     2002        223.2          14.5          237.6               100.4                338.0                70.3                  6.1
     2003        232.1          13.8          245.9               102.2                348.1                70.6                  5.6
                                                      Post School but No School Qualifications
     1987        148.2           3.0          151.2                27.9                179.1                84.4                  2.0
     1991        117.5           9.1          126.6                32.1                158.7                79.8                  7.2
     1996        116.1           7.1          123.2                35.5                158.7                77.6                  5.8
     1998        109.9           8.1          118.0                35.6                153.6                76.8                  6.9
     1999        108.9           9.1          118.0                39.2                157.2                75.0                  7.7
     2000        111.9           8.6          120.5                40.0                160.6                75.1                  7.2
     2001        109.1           6.9          116.0                37.9                153.9                75.3                  5.9
     2002        114.6           5.7          120.3                39.5                159.7                75.3                  4.7
     2003        122.4           6.5          128.9                39.3                168.2                76.6                  5.0
                                                       Post School and School Qualifications
     1987        257.3           3.6          260.9                36.8                297.7                87.7                  1.4
     1991        302.4          15.4          317.8                60.5                378.2                84.0                  4.8
     1996        393.0          13.7          406.7                66.9                473.6                85.9                  3.4
     1998        423.5          17.9          441.5                74.6                516.1                85.5                  4.1
     1999        420.7          21.4          442.1                79.9                522.0                84.7                  4.8
     2000        428.6          19.0          447.6                83.3                530.9                84.3                  4.2
     2001        450.3          17.0          467.3                84.8                552.1                84.6                  3.6
     2002        461.8          15.3          477.1                82.4                559.5                85.3                  3.2
     2003        469.9          15.0          484.9                82.8                567.7                85.4                  3.1
                                                                       Total(3)
     1987         903.2         33.3          936.5                 254.5              1,191.0              78.6                  3.6
     1991         831.9         80.3          912.2                 319.5              1,231.7              74.1                  8.8
     1996         936.9         60.9          997.8                 343.1              1,340.9              74.4                  6.1
     1998         957.7         70.4        1,028.2                 354.4              1,382.6              74.4                  6.8
     1999         946.3         78.4        1,024.7                 368.6              1,393.3              73.5                  7.7
     2000         960.7         69.5        1,030.1                 370.9              1,401.0              73.5                  6.7
     2001         977.8         61.1        1,038.8                 371.6              1,410.4              73.7                  5.9
     2002       1,003.2         56.0        1,059.2                 366.5              1,425.7              74.3                  5.3
     2003       1,028.2         53.4        1,081.6                 374.7              1,456.3              74.3                  4.9




                                                               49
                                                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.05
continued
                     People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                          By educational attainment and sex
                           Labour Force
  Average for                                                Not in the           Working-age       Labour Force           Unemployment
  Year ended    Employed   Unemployed        Total          Labour Force          Population(2)   Participation Rate           Rate
   March(1)
                                                 (000)                                                                 %

                                                                     Females
                                                                 No Qualifications
     1987        229.4          15.4          244.8               299.8                544.6                45.0                  6.3
     1991        177.0          21.4          198.3               276.9                475.3                41.7                 10.8
     1996        163.1          18.2          181.3               276.5                457.8                39.6                 10.0
     1998        153.6          19.8          173.5               280.5                453.9                38.2                 11.4
     1999        153.2          20.4          173.5               271.9                445.5                39.0                 11.7
     2000        150.0          16.8          166.8               264.5                431.3                38.7                 10.1
     2001        150.6          14.0          164.6               265.2                429.7                38.3                  8.5
     2002        152.8          13.2          166.0               256.9                422.9                39.2                  7.9
     2003        154.1          13.2          167.4               248.9                416.3                40.2                  7.9
                                                               School Qualifications
     1987        174.0           7.8          181.8               133.1                315.0                57.8                  4.3
     1991        196.2          16.0          212.1               183.0                395.1                53.7                  7.5
     1996        223.7          12.9          236.5               190.0                426.6                55.5                  5.4
     1998        235.1          15.3          250.4               183.6                434.0                57.7                  6.1
     1999        230.4          16.5          246.9               188.8                435.6                56.7                  6.7
     2000        236.4          16.0          252.4               193.1                445.4                56.7                  6.3
     2001        236.3          13.7          250.1               186.2                436.3                57.3                  5.5
     2002        235.3          13.6          248.9               185.0                433.9                57.4                  5.5
     2003        240.4          12.6          253.0               192.3                445.3                56.8                  5.0
                                                      Post School but No School Qualifications
     1987         50.8           2.0           52.7                 32.5                85.2                61.8                  3.7
     1991         43.6           4.5           48.2                 28.9                77.1                62.5                  9.4
     1996         49.9           4.4           54.2                 30.0                84.3                64.4                  8.1
     1998         51.9           5.2           57.1                 33.7                90.8                62.9                  9.2
     1999         51.7           6.1           57.8                 35.6                93.3                61.9                 10.5
     2000         52.1           5.5           57.6                 34.8                92.5                62.3                  9.5
     2001         52.8           5.0           57.8                 32.9                90.7                63.7                  8.6
     2002         61.2           5.4           66.5                 34.8               101.4                65.7                  8.1
     2003         62.7           6.2           68.9                 37.5               106.3                64.8                  8.9
                                                       Post School and School Qualifications
     1987        180.0           5.2          185.2                 84.8               270.1                68.6                  2.8
     1991        223.4          13.0          236.5                 98.4               334.8                70.6                  5.5
     1996        308.7          14.0          322.7               119.2                441.9                73.0                  4.3
     1998        336.0          16.0          352.0               124.9                476.9                73.8                  4.5
     1999        344.3          17.8          362.1               131.2                493.3                73.4                  4.9
     2000        353.8          15.7          369.5               135.3                504.8                73.2                  4.3
     2001        369.4          15.0          384.3               144.9                529.2                72.6                  3.9
     2002        383.2          14.2          397.4               142.9                540.3                73.6                  3.6
     2003        395.1          15.6          410.8               146.8                557.6                73.7                  3.8
                                                                       Total(3)
     1987        644.7          30.7          675.4                 567.9              1,243.2              54.3                  4.5
     1991        647.3          55.4          702.8                 593.4              1,296.1              54.2                  7.9
     1996        748.7          49.8          798.5                 618.0              1,416.4              56.4                  6.2
     1998        778.2          56.5          834.7                 623.8              1,458.5              57.2                  6.8
     1999        781.1          60.9          842.0                 628.6              1,470.6              57.3                  7.2
     2000        795.8          54.5          850.3                 629.6              1,479.9              57.5                  6.4
     2001        811.4          48.0          859.4                 630.4              1,489.8              57.7                  5.6
     2002        836.1          46.6          882.7                 621.2              1,503.9              58.7                  5.3
     2003        855.6          47.9          903.5                 626.9              1,530.3              59.0                  5.3




                                                               50
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.05
continued
                         People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                 By educational attainment and sex
                                    Labour Force
  Average for                                                           Not in the         Working-age        Labour Force       Unemployment
  Year ended         Employed       Unemployed           Total         Labour Force        Population(2)    Participation Rate       Rate
   March(1)
                                                            (000)                                                            %

                                                                    Total Males and Females
                                                                        No Qualifications
      1987              532.3             34.8            567.1             422.5               989.6                 57.3             6.1
      1991              390.9             56.7            447.6             410.4               858.0                 52.2            12.7
      1996              368.2             44.0            412.2             422.9               835.1                 49.4            10.7
      1998              358.5             47.5            405.9             431.6               837.5                 48.5            11.7
      1999              349.3             50.3            399.6             421.5               821.1                 48.7            12.6
      2000              347.5             42.6            390.1             409.3               799.4                 48.8            10.9
      2001              343.8             36.8            380.6             411.7               792.3                 48.0             9.7
      2002              351.9             33.4            385.3             400.4               785.8                 49.0             8.7
      2003              353.1             31.0            384.1             398.5               782.6                 49.1             8.1
                                                                       School Qualifications
      1987              351.6             14.0            365.7             190.8               556.5                 65.7             3.8
      1991              383.8             35.8            419.6             271.0               690.6                 60.8             8.5
      1996              442.7             26.8            469.5             282.8               752.3                 62.4             5.7
      1998              452.5             32.0            484.5             276.2               760.7                 63.7             6.6
      1999              448.4             34.3            482.7             287.7               770.4                 62.7             7.1
      2000              454.3             31.8            486.0             294.6               780.6                 62.3             6.5
      2001              458.4             27.9            486.4             287.5               773.9                 62.8             5.7
      2002              458.4             28.1            486.5             285.3               771.9                 63.0             5.8
      2003              472.5             26.4            498.9             294.5               793.4                 62.9             5.3
                                                             Post School but No School Qualifications
      1987              198.9              5.0            203.9              60.4               264.3                 77.2             2.4
      1991              161.1             13.6            174.7              61.0               235.7                 74.1             7.8
      1996              166.0             11.5            177.5              65.5               243.0                 73.0             6.5
      1998              161.8             13.4            175.1              69.3               244.4                 71.6             7.6
      1999              160.6             15.1            175.7              74.8               250.5                 70.1             8.6
      2000              164.0             14.1            178.2              74.9               253.0                 70.4             7.9
      2001              161.9             11.9            173.8              70.8               244.6                 71.0             6.8
      2002              175.7             11.1            186.8              74.3               261.1                 71.5             5.9
      2003              185.1             12.7            197.7              76.8               274.5                 72.0             6.4
                                                               Post School and School Qualifications
      1987              437.4              8.8            446.2             121.6               567.8                 78.6             2.0
      1991              525.8             28.4            554.2             158.8               713.1                 77.7             5.1
      1996              701.7             27.7            729.4             186.1               915.5                 79.7             3.8
      1998              759.5             33.9            793.5             199.5               993.0                 79.9             4.3
      1999              765.0             39.2            804.2             211.0             1,015.3                 79.2             4.9
      2000              782.4             34.7            817.1             218.6             1,035.7                 78.9             4.2
      2001              819.6             32.0            851.7             229.7             1,081.3                 78.8             3.8
      2002              844.9             29.6            874.5             225.3             1,099.8                 79.5             3.4
      2003              865.0             30.7            895.7             229.6             1,125.3                 79.6             3.4
                                                                               Total(3)
      1987            1,547.9             64.0          1,611.9               822.3             2,434.2               66.2             4.0
      1991            1,479.3            135.7          1,615.0               912.8             2,527.8               63.9             8.4
      1996            1,685.6            110.7          1,796.3               961.1             2,757.3               65.1             6.2
      1998            1,735.9            126.9          1,862.8               978.2             2,841.0               65.6             6.8
      1999            1,727.4            139.3          1,866.7               997.2             2,863.9               65.2             7.5
      2000            1,756.5            124.0          1,880.4             1,000.4             2,880.9               65.3             6.6
      2001            1,789.2            109.1          1,898.2             1,002.0             2,900.3               65.4             5.7
      2002            1,839.3            102.6          1,941.9               987.7             2,929.6               66.3             5.3
      2003            1,883.8            101.3          1,985.1             1,001.5             2,986.6               66.5             5.1
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990 and 1992 to 1995 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.
(3) People who did not specify a qualification are included in the totals only.




                                                                       51
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.06

                          People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                         By country of birth and sex
                                                   Average for year ended March 2003
                                           Labour Force                                                          Labour Force
                                                                                Not in the       Working-age                         Unemployment
                                                                                                                 Participation
      Birthplace          Employed         Unemployed            Total         Labour Force      Population(1)                           Rate
                                                                                                                     Rate
                                                                 (000)                                                           %

                                                                                 Males
New Zealand                   830.4               41.2            871.6            269.4             1,141.1           76.4                 4.7
United Kingdom                 69.2                2.1             71.3              35.4              106.7           66.9                 3.0
Pacific Group                  39.4                2.7             42.2              16.7               58.9           71.6                 6.4
Asia                           29.5                3.3             32.9              24.6               57.4           57.2                10.1
Australia                      12.0                ..              12.5               4.8               17.3           72.1                 3.9
Other Countries                46.2                3.4             49.5              23.2               72.7           68.1                 6.8
Total(2)                    1,028.2               53.4          1,081.6            374.7             1,456.3           74.3                 4.9
                                                                                Females
New Zealand                   689.8               37.6            727.5            463.9             1,191.4           61.1                 5.2
United Kingdom                 56.0                1.8             57.8              48.7              106.5           54.2                 3.1
Pacific Group                  30.5                2.4             32.9              29.6               62.5           52.6                 7.4
Asia                           27.4                2.2             29.7              39.8               69.5           42.7                 7.6
Australia                      14.0                ..              14.7               7.1               21.8           67.4                 4.9
Other Countries                37.1                3.0             40.1              36.6               76.8           52.3                 7.5
Total(2)                      855.6               47.9            903.5            626.9             1,530.3           59.0                 5.3
                                                                        Total Males and Females
New Zealand                 1,520.3              78.9           1,599.1            733.3             2,332.5           68.6                 4.9
United Kingdom                125.2               3.9             129.1              84.1              213.2           60.6                 3.0
Pacific Group                  69.9               5.2              75.1              46.3              121.4           61.8                 6.9
Asia                           57.0               5.6              62.5              64.3              126.9           49.3                 8.9
Australia                      26.0               1.2              27.2              11.9               39.1           69.5                 4.4
Other Countries                83.3               6.4              89.7              59.8              149.5           60.0                 7.1
Total(2)                    1,883.8             101.3           1,985.1          1,001.5             2,986.6           66.5                 5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.
(2) Those people who did not specify country of birth are included in totals only.




                                                                          52
                                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.07


                                                          Transition Probabilities(1)
                                                    Between types of labour force status

                               Employed                       Not in the    Not in the     Not in the
                    Employed                                                                                                    Unemployed
              (2)            to Not in the Employed to         Labour    Labour Force to Labour Force         Unemployed                       Unemployed
Year/Quarter           to                                                                                                      to Not in the
                                Labour     Unemployed          Force to    Not in the         to              to Employed                    to Unemployed
                    Employed                                                                                                   Labour Force
                                Force                         Employed Labour Force Unemployed


  1991 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.05             0.23             0.26         0.52
       Jun            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.06              0.90           0.04             0.28             0.24         0.49
       Sep            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.06              0.89           0.04             0.23             0.24         0.54
       Dec            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.05             0.25             0.24         0.51
  1992 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.89           0.05             0.21             0.24         0.54
       Jun            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.06              0.90           0.04             0.28             0.24         0.48
       Sep            0.93         0.04           0.02           0.06              0.90           0.04             0.24             0.23         0.53
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.04             0.26             0.22         0.52
  1993 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.05             0.24             0.26         0.49
       Jun            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.06              0.90           0.04             0.27             0.26         0.47
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.26             0.27         0.47
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.05             0.27             0.24         0.50
  1994 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.88           0.05             0.26             0.30         0.44
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.02           0.06              0.90           0.04             0.30             0.26         0.43
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.26             0.29         0.45
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.28             0.28         0.44
  1995 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.31             0.29         0.39
       Jun            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.34             0.28         0.39
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.31             0.32         0.37
       Dec            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.33             0.30         0.37
  1996 Mar            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.03             0.30             0.30         0.39
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.33             0.31         0.37
       Sep            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.30             0.29         0.41
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.31             0.33         0.36
  1997 Mar            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.29             0.30         0.41
       Jun            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.08              0.89           0.04             0.34             0.29         0.37
       Sep            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.30             0.34         0.36
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.31             0.28         0.40
  1998 Mar            0.93         0.05           0.02           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.25             0.34         0.42
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.30             0.31         0.39
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.07              0.89           0.04             0.27             0.32         0.42
       Dec            0.94         0.05           0.02           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.30             0.29         0.41
  1999 Mar            0.94         0.04           0.02           0.08              0.89           0.04             0.30             0.32         0.39
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.02           0.07              0.89           0.03             0.30             0.31         0.39
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.90           0.04             0.28             0.35         0.38
       Dec            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.87           0.04             0.29             0.32         0.39
  2000 Mar            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.28             0.36         0.36
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.07              0.89           0.03             0.32             0.34         0.34
       Sep            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.29             0.37         0.34
       Dec            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.04             0.37             0.32         0.31
  2001 Mar            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.33             0.33         0.34
       Jun            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.39             0.32         0.29
       Sep            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.37             0.30         0.32
       Dec            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.09              0.87           0.03             0.35             0.32         0.33
  2002 Mar            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.33             0.33         0.35
       Jun            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.40             0.29         0.31
       Sep            0.94         0.04           0.01           0.07              0.90           0.03             0.37             0.30         0.34
       Dec            0.95         0.04           0.01           0.08              0.89           0.03             0.36             0.33         0.30
  2003 Mar            0.94         0.05           0.01           0.08              0.88           0.04             0.28             0.39         0.33
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Transition probabilities are the average probability that a person in the origin state is in the destination state one quarter later. For
    example, they show what probability there was of a person who was unemployed last quarter being unemployed this quarter.
(2) Statistics from March 1986 to December 1990 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.




                                                                              53
                                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 1.08

                                                      Labour Force Projections
                                                                1996 (base)-2051
              Projection                                                        Alternative Projection Series(1)
              Assumptions(2)           1M            3M              4L              4M             4H              5M       6M           8M
Year as at    Fertility:               Low          Medium         Medium          Medium         Medium           Medium   Medium       High
30 June       Mortality:             Medium         Medium         Medium          Medium         Medium           Medium   Medium      Medium
              Migration:              5,000           0             5,000           5,000          5,000           10,000   20,000       5,000
              Labour Force
                                     Medium         Medium           Low           Medium          High            Medium   Medium      Medium
              Projection Rate:

                                                                                Labour Force (000)(3)
1996 (Base)                            1,883         1,883          1,883       1,883        1,883       1,883               1,883      1,883
2001                                   2,014         2,014          1,994       2,014        2,034       2,018               2,042      2,014
2006                                   2,122         2,107          2,091       2,122        2,154       2,142               2,199      2,122
2011                                   2,199         2,167          2,155       2,199        2,243       2,236               2,327      2,199
2016                                   2,230         2,188          2,193       2,238        2,282       2,292               2,419      2,245
2021                                   2,219         2,176          2,198       2,243        2,288       2,316               2,483      2,267
2026                                   2,172         2,132          2,175       2,219        2,264       2,312               2,519      2,267
2031                                   2,114         2,080          2,144       2,188        2,231       2,301               2,548      2,262
2036                                   2,061         2,035          2,120       2,163        2,206       2,296               2,582      2,265
2041                                   2,016         2,001          2,105       2,148        2,191       2,301               2,624      2,282
2046                                   1,967         1,969          2,091       2,134        2,177       2,305               2,664      2,306
2051                                   1,902         1,925          2,066       2,108        2,150       2,296               2,691      2,323
                                                                           Labour Force Change 1996-2051
Number (000)                            19            42             183         225          267         413                 808        440
Percent                                 1.0           2.2            9.7        11.9          14.2        21.9                42.9       23.4
                                                                    Average Annual Labour Force Change 1996-2051
Number (000)                             0             1              3            4            5           8                  15         8
Percent                                 0.0           0.0            0.2         0.2           0.2         0.4                 0.7       0.4

Source: Demographic Projections
(1) These labour force projections have been derived from the complementary 1996-base New Zealand Resident Population
    Projections (released on 8 October 1997). A total of eight alternative series have been produced incorporating different
    assumptions on future fertility, mortality, migration, and labour force participation patterns of the population
    as outlined in (2) below.
(2) Projection assumptions comprise:
     (a)     Fertility: Three alternative variants – designated low, medium, and high – which assume that birth rates will vary
             until the year 2011, when the total fertility rate will reach 1.60, 1.85, and 2.10 children per woman, respectively,
             and then the birth rates will remain unchanged. (The base rate in 1996 was 1.95 children per woman.)
     (b)     Mortality: Only a medium variant is adopted. It assumes that mortality rates will continue to drop so that the average
             life expectancy at birth will increase to 81.0 years for males and 85.5 years for females by 2051. (The base
             levels in 1996 were 74.3 years for males and 79.5 years for females.)
     (c)     Migration: For 1997, a migration level of 17,000 (figure for year ending 30 June 1997) is assumed for all series.
             For the period 1998-2051 some series assume short-term migration levels before reaching the long-term levels
             of 0, 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000.
     (d)     Labour Force Participation Rates: Three alternative variants – designated low, medium, and high – which assume
             that labour force participation rates will vary until the year 2011, when the average working life will reach 43.3, 44.2
             and 45.1 years, respectively for males, and 35.5, 36.2 and 37.0 years, respectively for females. For the later
             projection years the rates remain unchanged. (The base levels in 1996 were 43.4 years for males and 34.2 years
             for females.)
(3) The labour force projections comprise those persons aged 15 years and over who work regularly for one hour or more
    per week for financial gain or without pay in a family business, plus persons who are unemployed and actively seeking
   work.




                                                                           54
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 2

Employment
This chapter looks at the trends of people who are employed. The Household Labour Force Survey portion
has tables on sex, full and part-time employment, status in employment, industry, occupation, regional council
and multiple-job holders of people who are employed. Information from the Quarterly Employment Survey
provides tables on filled jobs by sex, sector and status in employment.




                                                       55
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.01

                                          People Employed
                                By status in employment and sex

                                             Self-employed
 Average for      Paid                                            Unpaid
                              Employer        and Without                      Not Specified    Total
 Year ended     Employee                                       Family Worker
                                              Employees
   March
                                                             (000)

                                                             Males
    1988           689.8        86.6               111.1                 3.0           3.8       894.3
    1989           651.0        86.6               112.4                 3.4           2.7       856.0
    1990           628.7        88.5               113.4                 4.4           3.4       838.4
    1991           624.2        85.5               113.6                 6.6           2.0       831.9
    1992           604.7        85.3               117.4                 6.9           3.7       818.0
    1993           606.0        87.6               125.0                 5.4           3.4       827.4
    1994           627.6        91.7               127.8                 5.3           2.6       855.0
    1995           664.1        93.7               128.1                 5.9           3.2       894.9
    1996           693.2        97.7               136.5                 6.8           2.6       936.9
    1997           710.4        91.2               146.9                 6.3           1.3       956.1
    1998           719.0        94.0               139.4                 5.3             ..      957.7
    1999           702.1        94.3               145.1                 4.8             ..      946.3
    2000           709.8        90.8               154.4                 5.5             ..      960.7
    2001           725.7        89.4               155.2                 4.7           2.8       977.8
    2002           755.9        93.9               147.3                 6.1             ..    1,003.2
    2003           777.2        95.7               149.8                 5.2             ..    1,028.2
                                                          Females
    1988           570.8        30.2                45.4              7.0              2.8      656.2
    1989           551.8        30.7                46.0              6.4              1.7      636.7
    1990           546.6        31.3                44.3              7.6              2.1      631.9
    1991           556.3        31.4                45.1             13.0              1.4      647.3
    1992           546.5        32.0                49.6             13.3              1.7      643.2
    1993           554.6        33.7                51.7             11.4              2.1      653.5
    1994           569.8        36.5                54.7             11.0              2.4      674.4
    1995           602.5        38.8                56.8             10.8              2.3      711.2
    1996           631.1        40.8                61.0             13.1              2.6      748.7
    1997           660.7        35.3                67.0             13.7              1.0      777.8
    1998           670.2        35.3                62.3             10.4                ..     778.2
    1999           667.3        38.1                64.9             10.7                ..     781.1
    2000           677.4        37.9                70.0             10.5                ..     795.8
    2001           692.0        37.6                70.6              9.2              2.0      811.4
    2002           720.3        39.3                66.3             10.3                ..     836.1
    2003           741.9        37.7                67.6              8.3                ..     855.6
                                                  Total Males and Females
    1988         1,260.6       116.8               156.5             10.0              6.7     1,550.5
    1989         1,202.7       117.3               158.5              9.8              4.4     1,492.8
    1990         1,175.3       119.8               157.7             12.1              5.6     1,470.3
    1991         1,180.5       116.9               158.7             19.7              3.4     1,479.3
    1992         1,151.2       117.4               167.0             20.2              5.4     1,461.2
    1993         1,160.6       121.3               176.7             16.8              5.5     1,480.9
    1994         1,197.4       128.2               182.5             16.3              5.0     1,529.4
    1995         1,266.6       132.5               184.9             16.7              5.4     1,606.1
    1996         1,324.3       138.6               197.5             20.0              5.2     1,685.6
    1997         1,371.1       126.5               213.9             20.0              2.4     1,734.0
    1998         1,389.2       129.3               201.7             15.7                ..    1,735.9
    1999         1,369.4       132.4               210.0             15.5                ..    1,727.4
    2000         1,387.2       128.7               224.3             16.0                ..    1,756.5
    2001         1,417.7       127.0               225.8             13.8              4.8     1,789.2
    2002         1,476.2       133.1               213.6             16.4                ..    1,839.3
    2003         1,519.0       133.5               217.4             13.5                ..    1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey



                                                      56
                                                      Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.02

                                                       People Employed
                                         By full-time and part-time status and sex
   Average for                  Males                                    Females                     Total Males and Females
   Year ended
     March         Full-time   Part-time      Total         Full-time    Part-time    Total     Full-time   Part-time     Total


                                                                           (000)
      1988          834.5        59.8         894.3          442.2        214.0       656.2     1,276.7      273.8      1,550.5
      1989          794.1        61.9         856.0          418.1        218.6       636.7     1,212.2      280.5      1,492.8
      1990          774.2        64.2         838.4          419.2        212.8       631.9     1,193.4      276.9      1,470.3
      1991          758.6        73.3         831.9          419.4        228.0       647.3     1,178.0      301.3      1,479.3
      1992          735.7        82.3         818.0          411.3        231.9       643.2     1,147.0      314.2      1,461.2
      1993          744.1        83.3         827.4          420.6        232.9       653.5     1,164.7      316.2      1,480.9
      1994          772.6        82.4         855.0          431.9        242.5       674.4     1,204.5      324.9      1,529.4
      1995          808.6        86.3         894.9          450.8        260.5       711.2     1,259.4      346.7      1,606.1
      1996          843.8        93.1         936.9          478.9        269.8       748.7     1,322.7      362.9      1,685.6
      1997          857.7        98.4         956.1          488.0        289.8       777.8     1,345.8      388.2      1,734.0
      1998          853.3       104.4         957.7          488.5        289.7       778.2     1,341.8      394.1      1,735.9
      1999          839.1       107.2         946.3          483.3        297.8       781.1     1,322.4      405.0      1,727.4
      2000          851.1       109.5         960.7          501.0        294.8       795.8     1,352.1      404.3      1,756.5
      2001          865.9       111.8         977.8          521.0        290.4       811.4     1,386.9      402.2      1,789.2
      2002          887.6       115.6       1,003.2          529.5        306.6       836.1     1,417.1      422.2      1,839.3
      2003          911.4       116.8       1,028.2          544.9        310.7       855.6     1,456.4      427.5      1,883.8
                                                            Percentage of Employed People (%)
      1988           93.3          6.7       100.0            67.4          32.6      100.0       82.3        17.7        100.0
      1989           92.8          7.2       100.0            65.7          34.3      100.0       81.2        18.8        100.0
      1990           92.3          7.7       100.0            66.3          33.7      100.0       81.2        18.8        100.0
      1991           91.2          8.8       100.0            64.8          35.2      100.0       79.6        20.4        100.0
      1992           89.9         10.1       100.0            63.9          36.1      100.0       78.5        21.5        100.0
      1993           89.9         10.1       100.0            64.4          35.6      100.0       78.6        21.4        100.0
      1994           90.4          9.6       100.0            64.0          36.0      100.0       78.8        21.2        100.0
      1995           90.4          9.6       100.0            63.4          36.6      100.0       78.4        21.6        100.0
      1996           90.1          9.9       100.0            64.0          36.0      100.0       78.5        21.5        100.0
      1997           89.7         10.3       100.0            62.7          37.3      100.0       77.6        22.4        100.0
      1998           89.1         10.9       100.0            62.8          37.2      100.0       77.3        22.7        100.0
      1999           88.7         11.3       100.0            61.9          38.1      100.0       76.6        23.4        100.0
      2000           88.6         11.4       100.0            63.0          37.0      100.0       77.0        23.0        100.0
      2001           88.6         11.4       100.0            64.2          35.8      100.0       77.5        22.5        100.0
      2002           88.5         11.5       100.0            63.3          36.7      100.0       77.0        23.0        100.0
      2003           88.6         11.4       100.0            63.7          36.3      100.0       77.3        22.7        100.0
                                                              Annual Percentage Change (%)
      1989            -4.8         3.5         -4.3            -5.5           2.1       -3.0       -5.1         2.4            -3.7
      1990            -2.5         3.7         -2.1             0.3          -2.7       -0.8       -1.6        -1.3            -1.5
      1991            -2.0        14.2         -0.8             0.0           7.1        2.4       -1.3         8.8             0.6
      1992            -3.0        12.3         -1.7            -1.9           1.7       -0.6       -2.6         4.3            -1.2
      1993             1.1         1.2          1.1             2.3           0.4        1.6        1.5         0.6             1.3
      1994             3.8        -1.1          3.3             2.7           4.1        3.2        3.4         2.8             3.3
      1995             4.7         4.7          4.7             4.4           7.4        5.5        4.6         6.7             5.0
      1996             4.4         7.9          4.7             6.2           3.6        5.3        5.0         4.7             4.9
      1997             1.6         5.7          2.0             1.9           7.4        3.9        1.7         7.0             2.9
      1998            -0.5         6.1          0.2             0.1           0.0        0.1       -0.3         1.5             0.1
      1999            -1.7         2.7         -1.2            -1.1           2.8        0.4       -1.4         2.8            -0.5
      2000             1.4         2.1          1.5             3.7          -1.0        1.9        2.2        -0.2             1.7
      2001             1.7         2.1          1.8             4.0          -1.5        2.0        2.6        -0.5             1.9
      2002             2.5         3.4          2.6             1.6           5.6        3.0        2.2         5.0             2.8
      2003             2.7         1.0          2.5             2.9           1.3        2.3        2.8         1.3             2.4

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                   57
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.03

                                                   People Employed
                              By full-time and part-time status, age group and sex
                                        Average for year ended March 2003
                            Males                                     Females                    Total Males and Females
 Age Group     Full-time   Part-time    Total        Full-time        Part-time   Total    Full-time    Part-time      Total
                                                                         (000)

15-19              33.0        35.5       68.5           20.5             42.5      63.0        53.5        77.9           131.4
20-24              84.1        15.3       99.4           56.1             25.7      81.8      140.2         41.0           181.2
25-29              94.8         7.9      102.7           63.1             18.6      81.7      157.9         26.5           184.4
30-34             112.0         5.1      117.0           60.8             32.5      93.3      172.8         37.5           210.3
35-39             119.6         5.3      124.9           66.1             41.7     107.8      185.7         47.0           232.7
40-44             124.5         6.8      131.3           78.5             40.2     118.7      202.9         47.1           250.0
45-49             111.3         6.3      117.6           76.6             33.4     110.1      187.9         39.8           227.7
50-54              97.7         7.4      105.1           61.9             27.2      89.1      159.6         34.6           194.2
55-59              74.1         7.7       81.8           38.5             23.3      61.7      112.6         30.9           143.5
60-64              43.7         8.4       52.1           18.8             16.3      35.1        62.5        24.7            87.2
65 and over        16.7        11.1       27.8            4.0              9.2      13.2        20.7        20.3            41.1
Total             911.4       116.8     1,028.2         544.9            310.7     855.6    1,456.4        427.5       1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                 58
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.04

                                                     People Employed
                                                  By industry (1)(2) and sex
                                                                             Average for Year ended March
                 Industry Division                     1998           1999          2000          2001          2002          2003
                                                                                          (000)

                                                                                     Males
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                        100.0          98.1          101.2         100.7         108.6       107.8
Mining                                                     4.2           3.4             3.2          3.2           2.7         3.4
Manufacturing                                            196.1         199.7          194.1         200.5         207.0       206.4
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                          8.5           7.8             6.8          6.5           7.2         7.1
Construction                                             101.2          96.0          101.8         104.7         100.5       109.3
Wholesale and Retail Trade                               169.6         163.4          173.5         172.8         179.0       178.4
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                      28.8          30.6            27.8         29.7          30.5        38.5
Transport and Storage                                     53.2          52.2            52.7         55.6          55.9        56.7
Communication Services                                    19.3          20.5            23.4         23.2          21.1        17.6
Finance and Insurance                                     23.8          23.3            23.0         22.9          20.0        22.7
Property and Business Services                            94.4          98.2          100.7          99.6         104.9       111.1
Education                                                 40.4          36.2            34.2         34.5          41.2        43.8
Health and Community Services                             21.4          25.7            23.7         25.3          28.4        28.9
Other Services(3)                                         93.5          89.1           92.2          94.3          94.7        94.9
Not Specified                                              3.1           2.0             2.3          4.3           1.5         1.7
Total All Industries                                     957.7         946.3          960.7         977.8       1,003.2     1,028.2
                                                                                    Females
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                         45.1          52.3           55.9          51.5          53.2        51.8
Mining                                                     ..            ..              ..           ..            ..          ..
Manufacturing                                             87.5          86.4           83.6          84.2          81.7        79.8
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                          1.9           2.0            1.7           2.7           2.9         2.0
Construction                                              12.9          13.0           11.2          11.0          12.0        15.3
Wholesale and Retail Trade                               143.0         140.7          137.6         147.5         152.5       148.9
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                      48.0          48.1           47.4          49.3          47.4        60.1
Transport and Storage                                     17.4          17.7           18.9          18.2          19.2        19.9
Communication Services                                    13.8          13.7           15.4          14.2          14.5        13.8
Finance and Insurance                                     33.6          31.1           30.6          31.9          32.6        30.5
Property and Business Services                            82.8          83.4           90.9          88.7          89.0        94.7
Education                                                 90.9          88.8           91.7          95.7         100.7       102.4
Health and Community Services                            101.5         103.4          111.4         110.7         129.0       137.3
Other Services(3)                                         97.4          98.2          96.9          101.4          99.4        97.4
Not Specified                                              1.9           1.9           2.1            3.8           1.6         ..
Total All Industries                                     778.2         781.1        795.8           811.4         836.1       855.6
                                                                         Total Males and Females
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                        145.1         150.5        157.1           152.2         161.8       159.6
Mining                                                     4.7           3.7           3.6            3.6           3.3         4.1
Manufacturing                                            283.6         286.1        277.8           284.7         288.7       286.3
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                         10.5           9.8           8.5            9.2          10.1         9.1
Construction                                             114.1         109.0        113.0           115.8         112.4       124.6
Wholesale and Retail Trade                               312.6         304.1        311.1           320.3         331.5       327.2
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                      76.8          78.7          75.2           79.0          78.0        98.6
Transport and Storage                                     70.6          69.9          71.6           73.8          75.1        76.6
Communication Services                                    33.1          34.3          38.8           37.4          35.6        31.4
Finance and Insurance                                     57.4          54.5          53.6           54.8          52.6        53.2
Property and Business Services                           177.2         181.6        191.7           188.3         193.9       205.9
Education                                                131.3         125.0        125.9           130.2         141.9       146.1
Health and Community Services                            122.9         129.0        135.1           136.0         157.4       166.2
Other Services(3)                                        190.9          187.3          189.1        195.7         194.1       192.4
Not Specified                                              5.0            3.8            4.5          8.1           3.0         2.5
Total All Industries                                   1,735.9        1,727.4        1,756.5      1,789.2       1,839.3     1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) A change to the industry coding system was made in the March 2003 quarter. A discontinuity may occur in some industry series.
    For more information refer to the explanatory notes.
(3) This is the combined Government Administration and Defence; Cultural And Recreational Services, and Personal and
    Other Services industries.

                                                                 59
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.05

                                                            People Employed
                                                         By occupation (1) and sex
                                                                  1992–2003

                                                                                                      Plant and
 Average     Legislators,                 Technicians              Service     Agriculture            Machine
                                                                                           Trades               Elementary    Not
 for Year   Administrators Professionals and Associate   Clerks   and Sales    and Fishery            Operators                          Total
                                                                                           Workers              Occupations Specified
  ended     and Managers                 Professionals             Workers      Workers                  and
  March                                                                                              Assemblers
                                                                              (000)

                                                                            Males
  1992           117.7           90.3          90.8        47.6       63.3       112.6    134.7         102.4          57.2      1.5      818.0
  1993           135.6           83.3          88.1        45.3       65.4       109.1    131.1         107.9          60.9      ..       827.4
  1994           140.8           82.6          96.5        45.6       68.9       109.6    137.0         109.8          63.1      1.2      855.0
  1995           130.1           88.3         106.8        45.8       72.8       111.7    157.4         117.3          60.9      3.7      894.9
  1996           134.9           94.6         114.0        50.8       78.4       112.2    162.5         125.4          61.7      2.5      936.9
  1997           130.9           98.3         117.5        51.1       82.3       109.6    164.3         123.7          75.8      2.7      956.1
  1998           129.9          106.4         112.2        49.2       89.4       105.9    160.3         119.2          83.3      2.0      957.7
  1999           130.5          104.3         106.7        48.8       91.4       105.4    157.4         118.6          79.5      3.8      946.3
  2000           138.4           97.3         111.6        47.9       94.5       108.5    156.4         119.2          80.8      5.9      960.7
  2001           145.0          102.8         108.1        48.4       97.1       108.8    155.6         128.6          77.4      6.1      977.8
  2002           149.3          115.5         108.7        45.6      102.1       115.2    160.6         128.5          74.5      3.3    1,003.2
  2003           148.2          132.1          99.9        55.9       98.1       113.8    168.4         136.1          74.4      1.4    1,028.2
                                                                           Females
  1992             52.6         102.4          72.2       163.3      125.4         46.2    10.9          31.8          37.6      ..      643.2
  1993             60.3          99.3          74.8       163.2      127.2         45.6     9.4          35.3          37.9      ..      653.5
  1994             64.1         101.0          78.6       164.2      133.5         47.4     8.9          36.4          39.3      ..      674.4
  1995             66.6         107.9          82.2       172.7      145.8         45.9    11.1          38.3          39.7      1.1     711.2
  1996             71.1         116.4          88.8       180.2      152.4         46.1    12.4          38.2          41.9      1.1     748.7
  1997             68.4         115.9          95.2       191.5      166.8         44.5    14.3          35.0          45.3      1.0     777.8
  1998             69.3         122.8         105.4       185.5      159.4         40.8    11.2          33.6          49.3      ..      778.2
  1999             75.7         121.7         103.2       182.6      161.4         43.2    11.8          29.1          51.5      1.0     781.1
  2000             83.7         125.7         105.6       167.8      170.1         49.6    12.8          31.4          46.3      2.7     795.8
  2001             88.1         133.0         111.2       164.6      176.4         45.9    13.0          32.8          43.7      2.8     811.4
  2002             95.3         137.6         121.5       166.8      178.8         47.1    11.9          34.0          42.3      ..      836.1
  2003             87.5         143.8         106.4       186.3      194.1         45.5    11.4          32.3          47.1      1.2     855.6
                                                                   Total Males and Females
  1992           170.3          192.7         162.9       210.9      188.6       158.8    145.6         134.1          94.8      2.3    1,461.2
  1993           195.9          182.7         162.9       208.5      192.6       154.8    140.5         143.2          98.8      1.1    1,480.9
  1994           204.9          183.7         175.1       209.8      202.4       157.0    145.9         146.2         102.5      2.1    1,529.4
  1995           196.7          196.3         189.0       218.5      218.5       157.7    168.5         155.6         100.6      4.8    1,606.1
  1996           206.0          211.0         202.8       231.0      230.7       158.4    174.9         163.6         103.6      3.6    1,685.6
  1997           199.3          214.2         212.7       242.6      249.0       154.1    178.6         158.7         121.1      3.7    1,734.0
  1998           199.2          229.2         217.6       234.6      248.8       146.8    171.5         152.7         132.6      2.9    1,735.9
  1999           206.1          226.0         209.9       231.4      252.8       148.6    169.2         147.7         130.9      4.8    1,727.4
  2000           222.1          223.0         217.2       215.7      264.6       158.1    169.2         150.7         127.1      8.7    1,756.5
  2001           233.1          235.7         219.3       213.0      273.5       154.7    168.6         161.3         121.1      8.9    1,789.2
  2002           244.6          253.1         230.2       212.4      280.9       162.3    172.4         162.4         116.8      4.1    1,839.3
  2003           235.6          275.9         206.2       242.2      292.2       159.4    179.8         168.4         121.5      2.6    1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990. The classification was updated during the 1990/91 year
    and therefore an annual average for that year is not available.




                                                                        60
                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.06

                                                           People Employed
                                              By regional council area and industry (1)
                                                   Average for year ended March 2003

                                                                                                Tasman/
                                                                  Gisborne/ Taranaki/
                                                         Bay of                                  Nelson-                Otago/
                         Northland Auckland Waikato               Hawke's Manawatu- Wellington              Canterbury                   Total
    Industry Division                                    Plenty                                Marlborough/            Southland
                                                                     Bay    Wanganui
                                                                                               West Coast

                                                                             (000)

Agriculture, Forestry
 and Fishing                  9.3       7.3      30.4     12.1      14.6        26.2        5.7          12.8        19.6       21.7     159.6
Mining                        ..        ..        ..       ..        ..          1.3        ..            ..          ..         ..        4.1
Manufacturing                 7.7      94.8      26.3     15.3      15.2        21.7       21.2          15.2        46.5       22.4     286.3
Electricity, Gas and
   Water Supply               ..        2.0       1.7      ..        ..          1.2        1.2           ..          1.4        ..        9.1
Construction                  3.0      36.7      11.4      8.1       5.0         9.5       17.8           6.9        17.4        8.7     124.6
Wholesale and
   Retail Trade               8.8     116.7      26.1     17.9      12.3        26.9       35.4          11.4        48.8       22.9     327.2
Accommodation, Cafes
   and Restaurants            4.4      27.9       9.6      5.2       3.4         5.9       11.5           5.3        17.8        7.7       98.6
Transport and Storage         2.1      29.0       4.6      4.6       2.7         3.5        8.8           2.6        13.5        5.2       76.6
Communication Services        1.1      11.2       2.2      1.0       ..          1.6        7.5           1.0         4.0        1.4       31.4
Finance and Insurance         ..       22.9       2.9      2.1       1.5         2.6       11.6           ..          5.5        2.5       53.2
Property and Business
   Services                   4.3      81.4      14.7      9.6        6.5       11.9       35.0           6.3        27.2        9.0     205.9
Education                     5.2      40.4      14.1      8.5        6.9       13.1       18.4           4.7        22.4       12.3     146.1
Health and Community
   Services                   5.1      46.2      14.0      9.5        8.8       16.2       20.8           7.2        25.5       12.8     166.2
Other Services(2)             4.1      54.1      15.7      9.3       8.4        15.0       41.5           5.2        27.9       11.1      192.4
Not Specified                 ..        1.2       ..       ..        ..          ..         ..            ..          ..         ..         2.5
Total All Industries         56.2     572.1     174.6    103.9      86.1       156.7      236.8          80.5       278.3      138.8    1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) This is the combined Government Administration and Defence; Cultural And Recreational Services; and Personal and Other Services industry.
(3) A change to the industry coding system was made in the March 2003 quarter. A discontinuity may occur in some industry series.
    For more information refer to the explanatory notes.




                                                                       61
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.07


                                                                   Filled Jobs(1)
                                     By status in employment, institutional sector and sex
             Full-time Paid Employees           Part-time Paid Employees                Working Proprietors(2)(3)                      Total
As at
March      Male       Female       Total       Male        Female      Total           Male       Female      Total       Male        Female       Total
                                                                               (000)

                                                                         Private Sector
 1990     362.5       203.2        565.6        52.8       140.6       193.4       76.3            33.8       110.1       491.6       377.6          869.1
 1991     376.8       213.1        589.9        54.2       144.6       198.8       75.2            34.1       109.3       506.2       391.8          898.0
 1992     357.7       204.4        562.1        57.3       147.2       204.4       75.7            35.2       110.9       490.7       386.7          877.5
 1993     363.2       207.8        571.0        58.9       155.2       214.1       76.8            36.5       113.3       498.9       399.5          898.4
 1994     384.0       218.1        602.1        65.9       169.3       235.2       85.6            42.6       128.3       535.5       430.0          965.6
 1995     409.8       232.4        642.2        71.4       181.1       252.6       84.8            42.4       127.2       566.0       456.0        1,022.0
 1996     424.8       240.1        664.8        75.6       193.5       269.2       86.2            43.3       129.5       586.6       476.9        1,063.5
 1997     431.5       244.7        676.2        76.2       195.1       271.3       84.6            42.4       127.0       592.3       482.1        1,074.4
 1998     438.2       250.6        688.9        81.5       211.2       292.7       84.2            42.8       127.0       603.9       504.6        1,108.6
 1999     438.4       255.5        693.9        95.0       225.9       320.9       87.6            44.4       132.1       621.0       525.8        1,146.8
 2000     441.6   R   266.3    R   707.9   R   101.9   R   236.1   R   338.0 R     69.2       R    37.7   R   106.9   R   612.7   R   540.2    R   1,152.8   R
 2001     446.9   R   272.6    R   719.5   R   107.4   R   251.4   R   358.8 R     68.0       R    35.9   R   103.9   R   622.3   R   559.9    R   1,182.3   R
 2002     468.7   R   279.4    R   748.1   R   106.6   R   251.8   R   358.4 R     72.0       R    39.0   R   111.0   R   647.3   R   570.2    R   1,217.5   R
 2003     482.5   R   293.7    R   776.3   R    98.9   R   263.2   R   362.1 R     72.9       R    38.5   R   111.4   R   654.3   R   595.5    R   1,249.8   R
                                                                         Public Sector
 1990     140.4       115.3        255.7        12.2        49.6        61.8       0.0              0.0         0.0       152.6       164.9         317.5
 1991     124.3       111.1        235.4        13.8        52.5        66.3       0.0              0.0         0.0       138.1       163.6         301.7
 1992     116.8       107.6        224.4        13.4        51.1        64.5       0.0              0.0         0.0       130.2       158.7         288.9
 1993     110.4       103.0        213.5        14.0        52.2        66.2       0.0              0.0         0.0       124.4       155.3         279.7
 1994     103.3       101.8        205.1        14.9        53.5        68.5       0.0              0.0         0.0       118.2       155.3         273.5
 1995      98.8       101.5        200.2        14.1        51.0        65.1       0.0              0.0         0.0       112.9       152.5         265.4
 1996      97.1       105.2        202.3        13.9        51.8        65.7       0.0              0.0         0.0       111.0       157.0         268.0
 1997      91.6       100.4        191.9        17.4        49.4        66.8       0.0              0.0         0.0       109.0       149.7         258.7
 1998      88.1       101.1        189.2        16.2        53.0        69.2       0.0              0.0         0.0       104.3       154.1         258.4
 1999      82.4       103.8        186.3        22.0        55.2        77.2       0.0              0.0         0.0       104.4       159.0         263.4
 2000      82.1   R    99.8    R   181.8   R    17.8   R    54.4   R    72.2 R     0.0        R     0.0   R     0.0   R    99.9   R   154.1    R    254.0    R
 2001      82.7   R   104.5    R   187.1   R    17.7   R    56.8   R    74.5 R     0.0        R     0.0   R     0.0   R   100.4   R   161.3    R    261.6    R
 2002      89.7   R   110.0    R   199.7   R    16.8   R    53.1   R    70.0 R     0.0        R     0.0   R     0.0   R   106.5   R   163.2    R    269.7    R
 2003      91.3   R   113.6    R   204.8   R    17.1   R    56.7   R    73.8 R     0.0        R     0.0   R     0.0   R   108.4   R   170.2    R    278.6    R
                                                                       Total Both Sectors
 1990     502.9       318.4        821.3        65.0       190.2       255.2       76.3            33.8       110.1       644.2       542.4        1,186.6
 1991     501.2       324.2        825.3        68.0       197.1       265.1       75.2            34.1       109.3       644.3       555.4        1,199.7
 1992     474.5       312.0        786.5        70.7       198.3       268.9       75.7            35.2       110.9       620.9       545.4        1,166.3
 1993     473.6       310.8        784.4        72.9       207.4       280.3       76.8            36.5       113.3       623.3       554.7        1,178.1
 1994     487.3       319.9        807.2        80.8       222.8       303.7       85.6            42.6       128.3       653.7       585.4        1,239.1
 1995     508.5       333.9        842.5        85.6       232.1       317.7       84.8            42.4       127.2       678.9       608.5        1,287.3
 1996     521.9       345.3        867.2        89.5       245.3       334.8       86.2            43.3       129.5       697.6       633.9        1,331.5
 1997     523.1       345.0        868.1        93.6       244.4       338.0       84.6            42.4       127.0       701.3       631.9        1,333.2
 1998     526.4       351.7        878.1        97.7       264.2       361.8       84.2            42.8       127.0       708.3       658.7        1,367.0
 1999     520.8       359.3        880.1       116.9       281.1       398.1       87.6            44.4       132.1       725.4       684.9        1,410.2
 2000     523.7   R   366.1    R   889.7   R   119.8   R   290.5   R   410.2 R     69.2 R          37.7   R   106.9   R   712.6   R   694.3    R   1,406.9   R
 2001     529.6   R   377.0    R   906.6   R   125.1   R   308.2   R   433.3 R     68.0 R          35.9   R   103.9   R   722.7   R   721.2    R   1,443.9   R
 2002     558.4   R   389.4    R   947.8   R   123.4   R   305.0   R   428.4 R     72.0 R          39.0   R   111.0   R   753.8   R   733.4    R   1,487.2   R
 2003     573.8   R   407.3    R   981.1   R   116.0   R   319.9   R   435.9 R     72.9 R          38.5   R   111.4   R   762.7   R   765.7    R   1,528.4   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or immediately before the 20th of the middle month of the quarter.
(2) Excludes working proprietors who do not have any employees.
(3) From February 1989 to May 1999, working proprietor data was sourced from Statistics New Zealand's Business Frame. Refer to the Explanatory
    Notes for further details about limitations of the Business Frame. From August 1999 inclusive, working proprietor data is sourced from the
    Quarterly Employment Survey.




                                                                          62
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.08

                                                               Filled Jobs(1)
                                        By status in employment, industry (2) and sex
                                                                                        As at March
              Industry Division          1994     1995       1996     1997     1998     1999        2000            2001        2002        2003
                                                                                           (000)

                                                                                            Males
                                                                                  Full-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                        10.2     10.5       11.0     10.6     10.8         8.1       7.8     R     8.1   R     9.9   R    11.1   R
Manufacturing                             148.5    154.1      155.9    153.6    148.8       147.0     145.2     R   145.1   R   153.3   R   154.9   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply           9.8      9.3        8.5      8.6      7.0         6.7       4.8     R     4.6   R     4.8   R     4.6   R
Construction                               40.5     45.9       51.0     51.2     55.2        51.9      56.4     R    54.2   R    57.1   R    60.2   R
Wholesale Trade                            46.3     50.0       51.6     52.8     53.8        51.6      52.3     R    54.6   R    55.5   R    55.6   R
Retail Trade                               42.1     43.3       44.5     44.5     45.1        50.2      48.5     R    49.2   R    53.4   R    53.9   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       11.0     11.7       12.5     12.6     13.3        12.7      12.1     R    13.1   R    14.3   R    15.7   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                37.6     38.8       39.2     40.5     40.1        39.6      40.3     R    40.2   R    42.8   R    42.4   R
Finance and Insurance                      16.5     17.1       17.4     16.6     16.4        15.1      14.8     R    14.8   R    14.6   R    15.2   R
Property and Business Services             33.9     37.2       38.5     40.6     44.4        47.9      48.4     R    51.4   R    54.5   R    58.8   R
Government Administration and Defence      26.4     25.5       24.5     22.8     21.7        20.2      19.0     R    20.0   R    19.9   R    20.6   R
Education                                  28.2     27.9       29.1     28.9     29.1        28.2      30.2     R    29.0   R    30.5   R    31.7   R
Health and Community Services              14.1     13.6       13.7     14.6     15.1        14.7      13.9     R    15.3   R    15.8   R    16.2   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          6.5      7.3        8.5      8.9      8.6         9.8      10.9     R    11.3   R    12.6   R    12.8   R
Personal and Other Services                15.6     16.2       16.0     16.3     16.8        16.9      19.0     R    18.7   R    19.3   R    20.1   R
Total All Industries                      487.3    508.5      521.9    523.1    526.4       520.8     523.7     R   529.6   R   558.4   R   573.8   R
                                                                                  Part-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                         0.7      0.7        0.5      0.5      0.4         0.3       0.3     R     0.3   R     0.2   R     0.2   R
Manufacturing                               7.1      7.4        7.2      7.2      7.2         8.9       8.3     R     9.2   R     9.9   R     9.0   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply           0.3      0.2        0.2      0.2      0.2         0.2       0.1     R     0.2   R     0.2   R     0.1   R
Construction                                1.9      1.9        2.0      2.1      2.1         2.4       3.3     R     2.0   R     3.3   R     3.5   R
Wholesale Trade                             3.6      3.8        3.8      3.9      4.0         4.3       4.8     R     5.2   R     4.5   R     4.5   R
Retail Trade                               20.5     21.8       22.4     22.9     24.5        27.1      25.4     R    26.2   R    25.4   R    26.3   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       10.3     11.2       12.2     12.8     13.5        15.5      18.2     R    17.5   R    16.5   R    15.5   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                 6.9      7.3        7.8      8.1      9.3       11.9        15.0    R    15.5   R    18.5   R    14.7   R
Finance and Insurance                       0.7      0.7        0.8      0.9      1.1        0.8          1.1   R     0.8   R     0.8   R     0.8   R
Property and Business Services              9.6     11.3       12.0     12.6     13.6       15.8        17.2    R    21.6   R    19.3   R    16.2   R
Government Administration and Defence       1.3      1.4        1.4      1.2      1.2        1.2          1.1   R     2.0   R     1.1   R     1.1   R
Education                                   7.6      7.3        7.5      9.1      8.0      13.8           9.1   R     7.3   R     7.3   R     8.0   R
Health and Community Services               4.9      4.3        4.4      5.1      5.7        6.1          7.0   R     6.8   R     7.0   R     6.6   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          3.6      4.1        5.2      4.9      5.2        6.5          5.7   R     7.0   R     6.2   R     6.4   R
Personal and Other Services                 1.8      2.0        2.0      1.9      1.7        2.1          3.2   R     3.4   R     3.1   R     3.1   R
Total All Industries                       80.8     85.6       89.5     93.6     97.7     116.9        119.8    R   125.1   R   123.4   R   116.0   R
                                                                                   Working Proprietors(3)(4)
Forestry and Mining                         1.2      1.3        1.2      1.1      0.9        0.8          0.7   R     0.7   R     0.6   R     0.9   R
Manufacturing                              12.3     12.3       12.2     11.8     11.5      11.8           9.8   R     9.4   R    10.7   R    10.0   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply           0.0      0.0        0.0      0.0      0.1        0.1          0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R
Construction                               11.7     12.0       12.5     13.1     13.1      13.0           9.7   R     8.8   R    10.9   R    10.6   R
Wholesale Trade                             7.0      7.1        7.0      7.0      7.0        7.3          6.0   R     6.0   R     5.5   R     6.5   R
Retail Trade                               20.0     19.3       18.9     18.4     18.1      18.7         13.9    R    14.3   R    14.9   R    14.2   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants        4.7      4.7        4.8      4.8      4.8        5.1          4.1   R     4.3   R     5.2   R     4.7   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
  Services                                  4.9      4.8        4.8      4.7      4.7        5.0         3.8    R     4.0   R     3.3   R     3.4   R
Finance and Insurance                       1.3      1.4        1.4      1.3      1.3        1.5         1.2    R     1.3   R     1.4   R     1.6   R
Property and Business Services             13.4     13.3       14.6     14.3     14.6       15.2        12.9    R    11.8   R    12.4   R    13.2   R
Government Administration and Defence       0.0      0.0        0.0      0.0      0.0        0.0         0.0    R     0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R
Education                                   0.5      0.5        0.5      0.4      0.4        0.5         0.3    R     0.4   R     0.6   R     0.4   R
Health and Community Services               5.0      4.5        4.8      4.3      4.3        5.1         3.5    R     3.4   R     3.4   R     4.6   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          1.6      1.4        1.4      1.3      1.3        1.4         1.2    R     1.3   R     0.9   R     1.0   R
Personal and Other Services                 2.0      2.1        2.1      2.1      2.0        2.1         2.0    R     2.3   R     2.1   R     2.0   R
Total All Industries                       85.6     84.8       86.2     84.6     84.2       87.6        69.2    R    68.0   R    72.0   R    72.9   R




                                                                        63
                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.08
continued
                                                             Filled Jobs(1)
                                        By status in employment, industry (2) and sex
                                                                                       As at March
              Industry Division          1994     1995      1996     1997     1998      1999       2000           2001        2002        2003
                                                                                          (000)

                                                                                         Males
                                                                                         Total
Forestry and Mining                        12.1     12.5      12.7     12.2     12.1       9.3         8.8    R     9.1   R    10.7   R    12.2   R
Manufacturing                             167.9    173.8     175.3    172.6    167.5     167.7       163.3    R   163.7   R   173.9   R   173.9   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply          10.1      9.5       8.7      8.8      7.3       7.0         4.9    R     4.8   R     5.0   R     4.7   R
Construction                               54.2     59.9      65.5     66.4     70.5      67.4        69.4    R    65.0   R    71.3   R    74.3   R
Wholesale Trade                            56.9     60.9      62.4     63.7     64.8      63.2        63.1    R    65.8   R    65.5   R    66.6   R
Retail Trade                               82.6     84.4      85.8     85.8     87.8      96.0        87.8    R    89.7   R    93.7   R    94.4   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       26.0     27.7      29.5     30.1     31.6      33.3        34.4    R    34.9   R    36.0   R    35.9   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                49.5     50.9      51.7     53.3     54.1        56.4       59.1   R    59.7   R    64.6   R    60.5   R
Finance and Insurance                      18.5     19.2      19.6     18.8     18.8        17.4       17.1   R    16.9   R    16.8   R    17.6   R
Property and Business Services             57.0     61.8      65.2     67.5     72.6        79.0       78.5   R    84.8   R    86.2   R    88.2   R
Government Administration and Defence      27.7     27.0      25.9     24.0     23.0        21.5       20.1   R    22.0   R    21.0   R    21.7   R
Education                                  36.3     35.7      37.0     38.4     37.4        42.5       39.6   R    36.7   R    38.4   R    40.1   R
Health and Community Services              24.0     22.4      23.0     24.1     25.2        25.9       24.4   R    25.5   R    26.2   R    27.4   R
Cultural and Recreational Services         11.6     12.8      15.1     15.2     15.2        17.8       17.8   R    19.6   R    19.7   R    20.2   R
Personal and Other Services                19.5     20.2      20.1     20.3     20.5        21.2       24.2   R    24.4   R    24.5   R    25.2   R
Total All Industries                      653.7    678.9     697.6    701.3    708.3       725.4      712.7   R   722.7   R   753.8   R   762.7   R
                                                                                          Females
                                                                                 Full-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                         0.8      1.0       0.9      0.9      1.1         0.6        0.8   R     0.8   R     0.9   R     1.0   R
Manufacturing                              54.5     57.2      56.5     54.1     51.8        49.1       50.6   R    50.6   R    51.3   R    51.9   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply           1.9      2.0       2.0      2.2      1.9         1.9        1.7   R     1.8   R     1.9   R     1.8   R
Construction                                2.8      3.2       3.6      3.7      4.1         3.7        3.9   R     5.6   R     5.4   R     6.2   R
Wholesale Trade                            20.3     21.8      22.3     23.1     23.8        23.3       24.7   R    25.2   R    24.9   R    24.9   R
Retail Trade                               30.7     31.9      33.0     33.6     33.9        38.2       37.1   R    38.8   R    41.0   R    45.9   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       11.5     12.4      13.5     13.4     13.8        13.9       15.1   R    13.2   R    14.0   R    17.1   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                16.5     16.8      17.8     18.7     18.6       17.4      16.8     R    16.3   R    17.6   R    17.7   R
Finance and Insurance                      21.7     22.2      22.6     22.1     22.3       20.5      21.6     R    21.0   R    21.1   R    21.6   R
Property and Business Services             32.4     35.6      36.9     38.7     42.3       44.3       47.7    R    49.2   R    52.3   R    53.2   R
Government Administration and Defence      23.7     23.5      24.0     22.0     22.3       22.0       20.9    R    22.9   R    23.5   R    24.3   R
Education                                  39.6     40.8      45.2     43.1     46.4       51.0      48.9     R    50.4   R    51.5   R    55.4   R
Health and Community Services              46.0     46.6      46.8     48.7     48.1       51.8      53.2     R    58.3   R    61.2   R    62.1   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          5.4      6.3       7.3      7.6      7.6        7.7        8.1    R     9.0   R     9.3   R     8.8   R
Personal and Other Services                12.0     12.6      12.9     13.1     13.7       14.1      15.0     R    14.1   R    13.6   R    15.3   R
Total All Industries                      319.9    333.9     345.3    345.0    351.7      359.3     366.1     R   377.0   R   389.4   R   407.3   R
                                                                                Part-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                         0.5      0.6       0.6      0.5      0.4        0.4        0.2    R     0.3   R     0.3   R     0.3   R
Manufacturing                              12.9     13.2      13.1     12.5     12.6       13.2      13.7     R    13.3   R    13.9   R    15.1   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply           0.3      0.3       0.3      0.4      0.3        0.3        0.2    R     0.3   R     0.3   R     0.3   R
Construction                                2.4      2.6       2.6      2.6      2.7        2.7        2.7    R     2.3   R     2.5   R     2.6   R
Wholesale Trade                             6.5      6.9       7.0      6.9      7.2        7.2        8.6    R    10.1   R     9.9   R     8.6   R
Retail Trade                               44.7     47.3      48.1     49.5     51.9       56.6      55.4     R    55.3   R    57.2   R    60.6   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       25.7     27.0      28.4     28.8     29.9       33.7       34.4    R    37.7   R    38.9   R    40.3   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                 6.4      7.3       7.7      8.3      9.4       11.1       13.2    R    12.0   R    14.1   R    14.7   R
Finance and Insurance                       5.9      6.2       6.9      6.9      7.4        5.8        5.6    R     5.3   R     5.9   R     6.3   R
Property and Business Services             21.7     23.0      24.5     24.2     27.7       28.0       32.2    R    39.0   R    34.9   R    36.9   R
Government Administration and Defence       4.0      4.1       4.4      3.8      3.8        3.6        3.3    R     8.3   R     3.5   R     3.5   R
Education                                  27.2     28.2      31.5     28.9     32.4       36.3       34.7    R    30.9   R    30.2   R    32.3   R
Health and Community Services              49.1     48.0      49.8     51.1     56.1       60.2       65.1    R    70.1   R    71.5   R    77.3   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          8.6      9.3      11.9     11.3     12.3       12.2       10.5    R    11.3   R     9.7   R    10.3   R
Personal and Other Services                 7.0      8.2       8.4      8.6     10.1        9.9       10.6    R    12.3   R    12.2   R    10.7   R
Total All Industries                      222.8    232.1     245.3    244.4    264.2      281.1      290.5    R   308.2   R   305.0   R   319.9   R




                                                                      64
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.08
continued
                                                               Filled Jobs(1)
                                        By status in employment, industry (2) and sex
                                                                                        As at March
              Industry Division          1994     1995       1996     1997     1998     1999        2000            2001        2002        2003
                                                                                           (000)

                                                                                         Females
                                                                                   Working Proprietors(3)(4)
Forestry and Mining                        0.3      0.4         0.4      0.3      0.3        0.3          0.2   R     0.2   R     0.3   R     0.5   R
Manufacturing                              5.0      5.1         5.0      4.9      4.7        4.9          4.4   R     4.4   R     4.9   R     5.1   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply          0.0      0.0         0.0      0.0      0.0        0.0          0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R
Construction                               3.7      3.9         4.0      4.2      4.4        4.2          3.7   R     3.3   R     4.4   R     4.7   R
Wholesale Trade                            2.7      2.7         2.7      2.7      2.8        2.9          2.3   R     2.8   R     2.8   R     3.7   R
Retail Trade                              13.5     13.2        13.0     12.6     12.5      12.7         10.8    R     9.9   R    10.2   R     8.1   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants       4.5      4.5         4.4      4.5      4.6        4.8          4.0   R     4.0   R     4.4   R     3.7   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
  Services                                  2.0      2.0        2.0      2.0      2.2        2.2         1.9    R     1.7   R     1.5   R     1.5   R
Finance and Insurance                       0.4      0.4        0.4      0.4      0.4        0.4         0.2    R     0.3   R     0.4   R     0.4   R
Property and Business Services              3.9      4.1        4.7      4.6      4.7        5.0         3.9    R     3.3   R     3.6   R     4.5   R
Government Administration and Defence       0.0      0.0        0.0      0.0      0.0        0.0         0.0    R     0.0   R     0.0   R     0.0   R
Education                                   0.9      0.7        0.7      0.6      0.6        0.8         0.5    R     0.8   R     0.5   R     0.5   R
Health and Community Services               2.2      1.9        2.4      2.2      2.2        2.8         2.4    R     2.3   R     2.3   R     2.8   R
Cultural and Recreational Services          0.9      0.8        0.8      0.8      0.8        0.8         0.4    R     0.6   R     0.6   R     0.6   R
Personal and Other Services                 2.7      2.7        2.6      2.6      2.5        2.7         3.1    R     2.2   R     3.2   R     2.4   R
Total All Industries                       42.6     42.4       43.3     42.4     42.8       44.4        37.7    R    35.9   R    39.0   R    38.5   R
                                                                                           Total
Forestry and Mining                        1.7      2.0         1.9      1.8      1.8        1.3         1.2    R     1.3   R     1.5   R     1.8   R
Manufacturing                             72.4     75.6        74.7     71.5     69.1       67.1        68.7    R    68.3   R    70.1   R    72.1   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply          2.2      2.3         2.3      2.6      2.3        2.1         1.9    R     2.1   R     2.2   R     2.1   R
Construction                               8.8      9.6        10.3     10.6     11.2       10.5        10.3    R    11.2   R    12.3   R    13.5   R
Wholesale Trade                           29.5     31.4        32.1     32.7     33.8       33.4        35.6    R    38.1   R    37.6   R    37.2   R
Retail Trade                              88.9     92.4        94.0     95.7     98.3      107.5       103.3    R   104.0   R   108.4   R   114.6   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants      41.8     43.9        46.3     46.7     48.3       52.3        53.5    R    54.9   R    57.3   R    61.1   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                24.9     26.1       27.6     29.1     30.2        30.7      31.9     R    30.0   R    33.2   R    33.9   R
Finance and Insurance                      28.0     28.9       29.9     29.3     30.1        26.7      27.4     R    26.6   R    27.4   R    28.3   R
Property and Business Services             58.0     62.6       66.1     67.5     74.7        77.3      83.8     R    91.5   R    90.8   R    94.6   R
Government Administration and Defence      27.7     27.6       28.3     25.8     26.1        25.6      24.2     R    31.2   R    27.0   R    27.8   R
Education                                  67.7     69.7       77.5     72.6     79.5        88.1      84.1     R    82.1   R    82.2   R    88.2   R
Health and Community Services              97.3     96.5       99.0    102.0    106.4       114.7     120.7     R   130.7   R   135.0   R   142.2   R
Cultural and Recreational Services         14.9     16.4       20.1     19.7     20.7        20.7      19.0     R    20.9   R    19.6   R    19.7   R
Personal and Other Services                21.6     23.5       23.9     24.3     26.3        26.7      28.7     R    28.6   R    29.0   R    28.4   R
Total All Industries                      585.4    608.5      633.9    631.9    658.7       684.9     694.3     R   721.1   R   733.4   R   765.7   R
                                                                                  Total Males and Females
                                                                                  Full-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                       11.0     11.6        11.9     11.5     11.8         8.8       8.6     R     8.9   R    10.8   R    12.1   R
Manufacturing                            203.0    211.4       212.4    207.7    200.6       196.1     195.8     R   195.7   R   204.6   R   206.8   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply         11.7     11.2        10.4     10.8      9.0         8.6       6.5     R     6.4   R     6.7   R     6.4   R
Construction                              43.3     49.1        54.6     54.9     59.4        55.6      60.3     R    59.8   R    62.5   R    66.4   R
Wholesale Trade                           66.7     71.7        73.9     75.9     77.6        74.8      77.0     R    79.8   R    80.4   R    80.5   R
Retail Trade                              72.8     75.2        77.5     78.0     79.0        88.4      85.6     R    88.0   R    94.4   R    99.8   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants      22.5     24.2        26.0     26.0     27.1        26.6      27.2     R    26.3   R    28.3   R    32.8   R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                54.1     55.6       57.0     59.2     58.7       57.0        57.1    R    56.5   R    60.4   R    60.1   R
Finance and Insurance                      38.3     39.4       40.1     38.7     38.7       35.6        36.4    R    35.8   R    35.7   R    36.8   R
Property and Business Services             66.3     72.8       75.4     79.4     86.7       92.2        96.1    R   100.6   R   106.8   R   112.0   R
Government Administration and Defence      50.1     49.0       48.5     44.8     44.1       42.2        39.9    R    42.9   R    43.4   R    44.9   R
Education                                  67.9     68.7       74.4     72.0     75.5       79.2        79.1    R    79.4   R    82.0   R    87.1   R
Health and Community Services              60.1     60.2       60.6     63.3     63.2       66.5        67.1    R    73.6   R    77.0   R    78.3   R
Cultural and Recreational Services         11.9     13.6       15.8     16.5     16.2       17.5        19.0    R    20.3   R    21.9   R    21.6   R
Personal and Other Services                27.7     28.8       28.8     29.4     30.5       31.0        34.0    R    32.8   R    32.9   R    35.4   R
Total All Industries                      807.2    842.5      867.2    868.1    878.1      880.1       889.8    R   906.6   R   947.8   R   981.1   R




                                                                        65
                                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.08
continued
                                                                               Filled Jobs(1)
                                                     By status in employment, industry (2) and sex
                                                                                                              As at March
               Industry Division                   1994        1995        1996        1997       1998        1999        2000              2001          2002          2003
                                                                                                                 (000)
                                                                                                      Total Males and Females
                                                                                                      Part-time Paid Employees
Forestry and Mining                                    1.3         1.3         1.1         1.1         0.8        0.7       0.5       R        0.6   R      0.5    R      0.5    R
Manufacturing                                         20.0        20.6        20.3        19.7        19.8       22.1      22.0       R       22.5   R     23.8    R     24.1    R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                      0.6         0.5         0.5         0.6         0.5        0.5       0.3       R        0.5   R      0.5    R      0.4    R
Construction                                           4.3         4.5         4.7         4.8         4.8        5.1       6.0       R        4.3   R      5.8    R      6.1    R
Wholesale Trade                                       10.0        10.7        10.8        10.8        11.1       11.5      13.4       R       15.3   R     14.4    R     13.1    R
Retail Trade                                          65.2        69.1        70.5        72.5        76.4       83.8      80.8       R       81.5   R     82.6    R     86.9    R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                  36.0        38.2        40.6        41.6        43.4       49.1      52.6       R       55.2   R     55.4    R     55.8    R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                           13.3        14.6        15.5        16.5        18.7       23.0         28.2    R      27.5    R     32.6    R     29.4    R
Finance and Insurance                                  6.5         7.0         7.7         7.7         8.4        6.6           6.7   R       6.1    R      6.7    R      7.1    R
Property and Business Services                        31.4        34.3        36.5        36.8        41.3       43.9         49.4    R      60.6    R     54.2    R     53.1    R
Government Administration and Defence                  5.2         5.6         5.8         5.1         5.0        4.8           4.4   R      10.3    R      4.6    R      4.6    R
Education                                             34.8        35.6        39.0        38.1        40.4       50.0         43.8    R      38.2    R     37.5    R     40.3    R
Health and Community Services                         54.1        52.3        54.2        56.2        61.8       66.3         72.1    R      76.9    R     78.5    R     83.9    R
Cultural and Recreational Services                    12.2        13.4        17.1        16.2        17.6       18.7         16.2    R      18.3    R     15.9    R     16.7    R
Personal and Other Services                            8.7        10.2        10.4        10.5        11.7       12.1         13.8    R      15.7    R     15.3    R     13.8    R
Total All Industries                                 303.7       317.7       334.8       338.0       361.8      398.1       410.3     R     433.3    R    428.4    R    435.9    R
                                                                                                        Working Proprietors(3)(4)
Forestry and Mining                                    1.5         1.7         1.6         1.4         1.3        1.1           0.9   R        0.9   R      1.0    R      1.4    R
Manufacturing                                         17.3        17.4        17.3        16.7        16.2       16.7         14.2    R       13.8   R     15.5    R     15.1    R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                      0.0         0.0         0.0         0.1         0.1        0.1           0.0   R        0.1   R      0.0    R      0.0    R
Construction                                          15.4        15.9        16.5        17.3        17.5       17.2         13.4    R       12.1   R     15.3    R     15.3    R
Wholesale Trade                                        9.7         9.8         9.7         9.7         9.8       10.3           8.3   R        8.9   R      8.4    R     10.2    R
Retail Trade                                          33.5        32.6        31.8        31.0        30.6       31.3         24.7    R       24.2   R     25.1    R     22.3    R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                   9.2         9.2         9.2         9.2         9.4        9.9           8.1   R        8.3   R      9.6    R      8.4    R
Transport, Storage and Communication
  Services                                             6.8         6.8         6.8         6.7         6.9        7.2          5.7    R       5.7    R      4.7    R      4.9    R
Finance and Insurance                                  1.7         1.8         1.8         1.7         1.7        1.9          1.4    R       1.6    R      1.9    R      2.0    R
Property and Business Services                        17.3        17.4        19.4        18.9        19.3       20.2         16.9    R      15.1    R     15.9    R     17.7    R
Government Administration and Defence                  0.0         0.0         0.0         0.0         0.0        0.0          0.0    R       0.0    R      0.0    R      0.0    R
Education                                              1.4         1.2         1.2         1.0         1.0        1.3          0.8    R       1.2    R      1.1    R      0.9    R
Health and Community Services                          7.2         6.4         7.2         6.5         6.6        7.9          5.9    R       5.8    R      5.7    R      7.3    R
Cultural and Recreational Services                     2.5         2.3         2.2         2.1         2.1        2.2          1.7    R       1.9    R      1.5    R      1.6    R
Personal and Other Services                            4.7         4.7         4.8         4.7         4.6        4.8          5.1    R       4.5    R      5.3    R      4.4    R
Total All Industries                                 128.3       127.2       129.5       127.0       127.0      132.1        106.9    R     103.9    R    111.0    R    111.4    R
                                                                                                                Total
Forestry and Mining                                   13.8        14.5        14.6        14.0       13.9        10.7         10.0    R      10.4    R     12.3    R     14.0    R
Manufacturing                                        240.4       249.4       249.9       244.1      236.6       234.8        232.0    R     232.0    R    243.9    R    246.0    R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                     12.3        11.8        11.0        11.4        9.5         9.1          6.8    R       7.0    R      7.2    R      6.8    R
Construction                                          63.0        69.5        75.8        77.0       81.7        77.9         79.7    R      76.2    R     83.6    R     87.8    R
Wholesale Trade                                       86.4        92.3        94.5        96.4       98.6        96.5         98.7    R     104.0    R    103.2    R    103.8    R
Retail Trade                                         171.5       176.9       179.8       181.4      186.1       203.5        191.1    R     193.7    R    202.1    R    209.0    R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                  67.8        71.6        75.7        76.8       79.9        85.6         87.9    R      89.8    R     93.3    R     97.0    R
Transport, Storage and Communication
   Services                                           74.3        77.0        79.4        82.4        84.3        87.1        91.0    R      89.7    R      97.7   R      94.4   R
Finance and Insurance                                 46.5        48.1        49.6        48.1        48.8        44.1        44.5    R      43.5    R      44.3   R      45.9   R
Property and Business Services                       115.0       124.5       131.3       135.1       147.3       156.3       162.4    R     176.3    R     176.9   R     182.8   R
Government Administration and Defence                 55.3        54.5        54.3        49.8        49.1        47.0        44.3    R      53.2    R      48.0   R      49.5   R
Education                                            104.0       105.4       114.5       111.1       116.9       130.5       123.7    R     118.8    R     120.6   R     128.3   R
Health and Community Services                        121.3       118.9       122.0       126.1       131.6       140.6       145.1    R     156.3    R     161.2   R     169.5   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                    26.5        29.2        35.2        34.9        35.9        38.4        36.9    R      40.5    R      39.3   R      39.9   R
Personal and Other Services                           41.1        43.7        43.9        44.6        46.8        47.9        52.9    R      53.0    R      53.5   R      53.6   R
Total All Industries                               1,239.1     1,287.3     1,331.5     1,333.2     1,367.0     1,410.2     1,407.0    R   1,443.8    R   1,487.2   R   1,528.4   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or immediately before the 20th of the middle month of the quarter.
(2) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(3) Excludes working proprietors who do not have any employees.
(4) From February 1989 to May 1999, working proprietor data was sourced from Statistics New Zealand's Business Frame. Refer to the
    Explanatory Notes for further details about limitations of the Business Frame. From August 1999 inclusive, working proprietor data is sourced
    from the Quarterly Employment Survey.




                                                                                          66
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.09

                                                  Multiple-job Holders(1)
                                      By full-time and part-time status (2) and sex
                                   Males                                Females                         Total Males and Females
   Average for
   Year ended       Full-time    Part-time      Total       Full-time    Part-time     Total      Full-time    Part-time         Total
     March
                                                                          (000)

      1988            25.4           6.1         31.5         14.0         16.0        29.9           39.4        22.1           61.5
      1989            24.5           5.0         29.5         11.0         15.9        26.9           35.5        20.9           56.4
      1990            21.3           5.5         26.8         13.5         14.9        28.4           34.7        20.4           55.1
      1991            25.3           6.2         31.5         14.6         18.7        33.3           39.9        25.0           64.9
      1992            22.9           5.3         28.2         12.6         17.4        30.0           35.5        22.7           58.3
      1993            23.5           7.3         30.8         11.5         16.9        28.4           35.0        24.2           59.2
      1994            24.4           8.7         33.0         12.9         20.9        33.9           37.3        29.6           66.9
      1995            24.9           7.3         32.2         14.4         24.2        38.6           39.3        31.5           70.8
      1996            27.2          10.0         37.2         15.3         26.0        41.3           42.5        36.0           78.5
      1997            28.9          10.0         38.9         17.2         25.3        42.5           46.1        35.3           81.4
      1998            28.3          10.3         38.6         16.6         28.2        44.7           44.9        38.5           83.4
      1999            25.1          10.6         35.7         16.9         28.2        45.1           42.1        38.8           80.9
      2000            24.4           9.1         33.5         14.9         26.1        41.0           39.4        35.1           74.5
      2001            23.2           9.1         32.3         16.4         24.7        41.1           39.6        33.8           73.4
      2002            24.1           9.3         33.5         17.9         29.6        47.5           42.0        38.9           81.0
      2003            23.3           9.4         32.7         17.4         28.1        45.5           40.7        37.5           78.2

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Multiple-job holders are defined as people for whom usual hours in other jobs are greater than zero.
(2) 'Part-time' means that the hours worked in the main job was fewer than 30 hours per week. 'Full-time' means that the hours
     worked in the main job was 30 or more hours per week.



                                Table 2.10

                                                     Multiple-job Holders(1)
                                             By occupation (2) in main job and sex
                                               Average for year ended March 2003

                                                                                                 Total Males
                                                                          Males      Females         and
                                             Occupation
                                                                                                  Females
                                                                                       (000)

                                Legislators, Administrators and
                                  Managers                                  3.8         3.4            7.1
                                Professionals                               6.4         8.8           15.1
                                Technicians and Associate
                                  Professionals                             3.6         6.4           10.0
                                Clerks                                      1.4         8.4            9.8
                                Service and Sales Workers                   3.6        10.8           14.4
                                Agriculture and Fishery Workers             4.5         2.4            6.8
                                Trades Workers                              3.2           ..           3.5
                                Plant and Machine Operators
                                  and Assemblers                            3.6         1.1            4.7
                                Elementary Occupations                      2.8         3.9            6.7
                                Total                                      32.7        45.5           78.2

                                Source: Household Labour Force Survey
                                (1) Multiple-job holders are defined as people for whom usual hours
                                    in other jobs are greater than zero.
                                (2) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990.




                                                                  67
                                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 2.11

                       People Employed Who Are Looking For Another Job
                           By full-time and part-time status of job seeker and sex
                             Males                                     Females                        Total Males and Females
Average for
Year ended    Full-time    Part-time      Total       Full-time        Part-time        Total    Full-time   Part-time     Total
  March
                                                                        (000)

   1991         47.6          13.4         61.0           28.6           25.5           54.0       76.1        38.8       115.0
   1992         40.9          17.9         58.7           26.0           28.1           54.1       66.9        46.0       112.9
   1993         44.4          19.3         63.7           28.4           30.1           58.4       72.8        49.3       122.1
   1994         51.1          18.4         69.5           32.0           29.1           61.1       83.1        47.5       130.6
   1995         55.7          17.1         72.8           35.9           30.7           66.7       91.7        47.8       139.5
   1996         60.2          18.7         78.9           41.0           30.2           71.2      101.2        48.9       150.0
   1997         67.8          19.7         87.5           42.8           36.1           78.8      110.6        55.8       166.4
   1998         71.0          20.2         91.2           44.5           38.4           82.9      115.5        58.6       174.1
   1999         65.0          23.7         88.7           39.5           38.8           78.2      104.5        62.5       167.0
   2000         65.8          22.3         88.1           41.7           41.6           83.3      107.5        63.9       171.4
   2001         68.3          20.3         88.6           42.9           37.4           80.3      111.2        57.7       168.9
   2002         67.2          19.3         86.5           46.5           35.8           82.3      113.7        55.2       168.8
   2003         64.2          18.9         83.1           42.2           36.2           78.4      106.4        55.1       161.5

Source: Household Labour Force Survey

                          Table 2.12

                                             People Employed Part-time
                                         Who want additional hours of work by sex (1)
                                                  Males                      Females            Total Males and Females

                          Average for Prefer to Looking for Prefer to Looking for Prefer to Looking for
                          Year ended   Work      Full-time    Work     Full-time    Work     Full-time
                            March    More Hours   Work      More Hours  Work      More Hours  Work

                                                                                (000)

                             1988           9.0            3.0           24.5            4.0       33.4         7.0
                             1989          11.8            4.2           26.6            4.8       38.4         9.0
                             1990          12.6            5.1           26.5            4.7       39.0         9.8
                             1991          23.6            7.3           50.2            9.6       73.8        16.9
                             1992          31.1           11.1           61.9           12.0       93.0        23.1
                             1993          35.2           12.7           65.2           12.8      100.4        25.5
                             1994          33.4           12.3           64.6           12.1       97.9        24.4
                             1995          30.9           10.7           65.2           12.8       96.1        23.5
                             1996          31.7            9.7           64.4           11.2       96.1        20.9
                             1997          33.4            9.2           73.4           12.5      106.8        21.7
                             1998          37.2           10.2           79.4           14.9      116.6        25.1
                             1999          41.0           13.2           79.9           14.5      120.9        27.7
                             2000          37.6           12.4           79.1           14.8      116.8        27.2
                             2001          35.2           10.1           70.8           12.7      106.0        22.8
                             2002          36.3            9.7           71.3           13.0      107.6        22.6
                             2003          35.8            8.2           70.4           12.1      106.3        20.3

                          Source: Household Labour Force Survey
                          (1) These categories are not mutually exclusive, as people who would prefer to work more
                              hours can also be looking for full-time work.




                                                                  68
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 3

Unemployment
This chapter contains information on people who are not in paid employment but who are actively seeking
and available for paid employment. The tables contain statistics on the socio-demographic characteristics of
the unemployed, duration of unemployment, occupation sought, job search methods, work experience, and
the reason for leaving the last job. Other tables contain information on alternative (unofficial) measures of
unemployment and the jobless (defined as the officially unemployed plus those persons who during their
reference week were without employment and were either: (a) available, but not actively seeking work, or (b)
actively seeking, but not available for work).




                                                      69
                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.01

                                        People Unemployed
                          Looking for full-time or part-time work by sex
                            Males                          Females                Total Males and Females
  Average for
  Year ended    Full-time Part-time     Total   Full-time Part-time     Total   Full-time Part-time   Total
    March
                                                            (000)

     1988          35.3       3.9        39.2      17.9       12.4       30.2     53.2       16.3      69.5
     1989          52.2       5.0        57.1      26.1       14.7       40.8     78.3       19.7      98.0
     1990          58.6       7.0        65.6      28.9       17.9       46.8     87.5       25.0     112.4
     1991          72.4       7.9        80.3      36.0       19.4       55.4    108.4       27.3     135.7
     1992          95.2       8.3       103.5      45.6       23.8       69.4    140.8       32.1     172.9
     1993          90.8       8.6        99.5      44.3       23.0       67.3    135.1       31.7     166.7
     1994          84.1       8.0        92.1      43.8       21.3       65.1    127.9       29.3     157.1
     1995          67.5       8.3        75.8      35.7       18.6       54.3    103.2       26.9     130.1
     1996          51.7       9.2        60.9      30.3       19.4       49.8     82.0       28.6     110.7
     1997          51.9      10.4        62.4      29.2       22.8       52.0     81.1       33.3     114.4
     1998          58.7      11.7        70.4      31.9       24.6       56.5     90.6       36.3     126.9
     1999          64.8      13.6        78.4      34.0       26.9       60.9     98.8       40.6     139.3
     2000          56.4      13.1        69.5      30.6       23.9       54.5     87.0       37.0     124.0
     2001          49.5      11.5        61.1      26.9       21.1       48.0     76.4       32.6     109.1
     2002          42.4      13.6        56.0      24.6       22.0       46.6     67.0       35.6     102.6
     2003          40.7      12.7        53.4      25.5       22.4       47.9     66.1       35.1     101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                     70
                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.02

                                                    People Unemployed
                                                        By age group and sex

  Average for                                                                                                               65 and
                 15-19     20-24        25-29   30-34       35-39       40-44           45-49    50-54    55-59    60-64             Total
  Year ended                                                                                                                 Over
    March
                                                                                (000)

                                                                              Males
     1988          11.4       9.0         5.5     3.8          2.8         1.7            1.8      1.4      1.5        ..       ..    39.2
     1989          13.2      13.0         7.5     6.3          4.9         3.9            2.6      2.6      2.2        ..       ..    57.1
     1990          13.4      14.4        10.1     7.4          5.2         4.1            3.6      3.5      2.8        ..       ..    65.6
     1991          16.2      15.9        11.8     9.8          7.1         6.2            4.7      4.2      3.3        ..       ..    80.3
     1992          18.8      22.8        15.4    12.9          8.9         7.5            6.7      5.3      4.5        ..       ..   103.5
     1993          16.6      21.1        13.7    12.8         10.2         7.1            6.3      5.6      5.1        ..       ..    99.5
     1994          15.1      18.4        12.5    11.2          9.4         7.5            6.3      6.2      4.5        ..       ..    92.1
     1995          13.0      14.0         9.9     8.5          8.4         6.5            5.4      5.1      3.4      1.0        ..    75.8
     1996          12.5      11.1         7.2     5.8          6.6         5.5            4.8      3.4      2.7        ..       ..    60.9
     1997          13.0      10.1         8.7     6.5          5.7         5.3            4.4      3.9      3.2      1.3        ..    62.4
     1998          13.0      13.7         7.9     8.7          7.1         6.0            5.5      3.6      3.5      1.3        ..    70.4
     1999          13.5      15.0         8.8     8.1          8.9         7.2            6.1      4.9      3.9      1.9        ..    78.4
     2000          13.9      11.9         7.3     6.0          7.5         6.8            4.8      4.8      3.5      2.5        ..    69.5
     2001          13.1      10.9         6.2     5.2          5.5         5.5            4.1      3.9      4.0      2.4        ..    61.1
     2002          12.3       8.9         6.4     5.2          5.3         5.5            3.6      3.6      3.2      1.7        ..    56.0
     2003          12.5       9.7         6.0     5.4          4.5         4.3            2.9      3.3      2.0      2.4        ..    53.4
                                                                            Females
     1988           9.0       5.6         4.2     3.5          2.7         1.9              ..       ..       ..       ..       ..    30.2
     1989          11.6       7.2         5.5     4.6          4.4         2.7            1.8        ..       ..       ..       ..    40.8
     1990          12.6       8.8         6.2     5.3          4.1         3.3            2.6      2.4      1.2        ..       ..    46.8
     1991          14.0      10.8         7.0     6.8          5.3         4.2            2.7      2.6      1.6        ..       ..    55.4
     1992          14.7      14.8         9.4     8.3          6.9         5.8            4.0      3.4      1.6        ..       ..    69.4
     1993          13.9      12.8         9.1     9.0          6.7         5.7            3.9      3.7      2.1        ..       ..    67.3
     1994          13.9      12.5         8.8     7.6          6.5         5.9            3.8      4.0      1.7        ..       ..    65.1
     1995          11.5      10.9         7.1     6.5          6.0         4.1            3.8      2.6      1.3        ..       ..    54.3
     1996          11.6       8.6         5.4     5.9          5.7         5.2            4.0      1.9      1.0        ..       ..    49.8
     1997          10.7       9.1         5.8     6.7          5.8         4.8            4.2      2.6      1.6        ..       ..    52.0
     1998          11.7      10.8         6.4     6.6          6.1         5.5            4.2      2.9      1.8        ..       ..    56.5
     1999          11.6       9.5         8.1     7.3          7.0         5.8            4.5      3.9      2.6        ..       ..    60.9
     2000          10.4       9.4         6.6     6.1          6.5         5.0            3.5      3.8      2.3        ..       ..    54.5
     2001          11.1       7.2         4.8     5.8          5.4         4.6            3.2      3.3      1.6        ..       ..    48.0
     2002          10.9       7.1         4.6     5.1          4.7         4.6            3.6      3.0      2.0      1.0        ..    46.6
     2003          11.3       7.2         5.3     4.6          5.1         4.7            2.9      3.1      2.2      1.3        ..    47.9
                                                                     Total Males and Females
     1988          20.4      14.6         9.7     7.3          5.5          3.6       3.0          2.6      2.0        ..       ..    69.5
     1989          24.8      20.2        13.0    10.9          9.3          6.6       4.4          4.2      3.2        ..       ..    98.0
     1990          26.0      23.2        16.4    12.6          9.4          7.4       6.2          5.9      4.0        ..       ..   112.4
     1991          30.2      26.7        18.8    16.6         12.4         10.4       7.4          6.8      4.8      1.1        ..   135.7
     1992          33.6      37.6        24.8    21.2         15.8         13.4      10.6          8.7      6.0        ..       ..   172.9
     1993          30.5      33.9        22.8    21.8         16.9         12.9      10.2          9.3      7.2      1.0        ..   166.7
     1994          29.0      30.9        21.2    18.8         15.9         13.3      10.2         10.2      6.3      1.1        ..   157.1
     1995          24.5      24.9        17.1    15.0         14.4         10.6       9.2          7.8      4.7      1.4        ..   130.1
     1996          24.1      19.7        12.7    11.7         12.3         10.7       8.8          5.3      3.7      1.4        ..   110.7
     1997          23.8      19.2        14.5    13.2         11.5         10.2       8.6          6.5      4.8      1.7        ..   114.4
     1998          24.8      24.5        14.3    15.4         13.2         11.5       9.6          6.5      5.2      1.7        ..   126.9
     1999          25.1      24.5        16.9    15.4         15.9         12.9      10.6          8.8      6.5      2.5        ..   139.3
     2000          24.2      21.3        13.9    12.1         14.0         11.8       8.3          8.7      5.8      3.4        ..   124.0
     2001          24.2      18.1        10.9    11.1         10.9         10.1       7.3          7.2      5.6      3.2        ..   109.1
     2002          23.3      16.0        11.0    10.3         10.0         10.0       7.1          6.6      5.1      2.8        ..   102.6
     2003          23.8      16.9        11.3    10.0          9.6          9.0       5.8          6.4      4.2      3.7        ..   101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                      71
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.03

                                                   People Unemployed
                                         Unemployment rates by age group and sex

  Average for                                                                                                       65 and
                 15-19     20-24        25-29   30-34    35-39     40-44       45-49     50-54    55-59    60-64             Total
  Year ended                                                                                                         Over
    March
                                                                           %

                                                                         Males
     1988          11.4      7.4          4.4     3.3      2.4        1.7       2.2        2.0      2.4        ..       ..    4.2
     1989          14.4     11.1          6.0     5.4      4.4        3.8       3.1        3.8      3.8        ..       ..    6.3
     1990          15.8     12.6          8.2     6.2      4.8        3.9       4.4        5.1      5.0        ..       ..    7.3
     1991          19.4     14.0          9.7     8.1      6.3        5.7       5.4        6.0      6.0        ..       ..    8.8
     1992          23.6     19.8         12.9    10.4      7.7        6.7       7.5        7.1      8.1        ..       ..   11.2
     1993          23.2     18.0         11.5    10.1      8.7        6.4       6.6        7.3      9.2        ..       ..   10.7
     1994          21.8     15.4         10.6     8.7      7.8        6.7       6.3        8.0      7.9        ..       ..    9.7
     1995          18.1     11.7          8.4     6.5      6.9        5.8       5.1        6.3      5.7      3.3        ..    7.8
     1996          16.2      9.5          6.0     4.4      5.2        4.8       4.4        4.0      4.3        ..       ..    6.1
     1997          16.8      8.9          7.1     4.9      4.3        4.5       3.9        4.5      4.8      3.6        ..    6.1
     1998          16.8     12.3          6.4     6.8      5.2        5.0       4.8        3.9      5.0      3.6        ..    6.8
     1999          18.1     14.2          7.3     6.5      6.5        5.8       5.3        5.0      5.5      4.9        ..    7.7
     2000          18.5     11.4          6.4     4.9      5.6        5.4       4.2        4.7      4.8      6.1        ..    6.7
     2001          17.3     10.7          5.5     4.3      4.1        4.3       3.6        3.6      5.3      5.3        ..    5.9
     2002          15.7      8.4          5.9     4.2      4.0        4.2       3.0        3.3      4.0      3.4        ..    5.3
     2003          15.5      8.9          5.5     4.4      3.5        3.2       2.4        3.0      2.3      4.5        ..    4.9
                                                                       Females
     1988           9.8      5.8          5.0     4.4      3.2        2.3         ..         ..       ..       ..       ..     4.4
     1989          13.6      8.0          6.4     5.7      5.2        3.2       2.8          ..       ..       ..       ..     6.0
     1990          16.0      9.6          7.3     6.6      4.7        3.7       3.7        4.7      3.7        ..       ..     6.9
     1991          17.5     11.3          8.1     8.0      5.9        4.5       3.8        4.9      5.0        ..       ..     7.9
     1992          20.5     14.9         11.0     9.2      7.5        6.2       5.3        6.2      4.7        ..       ..     9.7
     1993          21.2     12.7         10.7     9.7      7.2        6.1       4.8        6.7      5.9        ..       ..     9.3
     1994          21.3     12.3          9.8     8.2      7.0        6.3       4.5        6.5      5.0        ..       ..     8.8
     1995          17.1     10.7          7.7     6.7      6.3        4.2       4.3        4.1      3.4        ..       ..     7.1
     1996          16.2      8.4          5.6     6.0      5.5        5.3       4.1        2.8      2.4        ..       ..     6.2
     1997          14.6      9.2          5.8     6.7      5.3        4.7       4.3        3.6      3.4        ..       ..     6.3
     1998          16.0     11.3          6.5     6.7      5.5        5.2       4.2        3.8      3.7        ..       ..     6.8
     1999          16.9     10.2          8.3     7.6      6.3        5.3       4.5        4.7      5.1        ..       ..     7.2
     2000          15.0     11.0          6.7     6.3      5.7        4.4       3.4        4.5      4.3        ..       ..     6.4
     2001          15.8      8.6          5.1     6.0      4.8        4.0       3.0        3.8      3.0        ..       ..     5.6
     2002          15.0      8.2          5.2     5.2      4.2        3.7       3.3        3.2      3.4      3.1        ..     5.3
     2003          15.2      8.1          6.1     4.7      4.6        3.8       2.5        3.4      3.4      3.5        ..     5.3
                                                               Total Males and Females
     1988          10.7      6.6          4.6     3.8      2.8        2.0       2.0        2.3      2.1        ..       ..    4.3
     1989          14.1      9.8          6.2     5.6      4.8        3.5       3.0        3.6      3.5        ..       ..    6.2
     1990          15.9     11.3          7.9     6.4      4.8        3.8       4.0        5.0      4.5        ..       ..    7.1
     1991          18.4     12.8          9.0     8.1      6.1        5.2       4.7        5.5      5.7      3.1        ..    8.4
     1992          22.1     17.5         12.1     9.9      7.6        6.5       6.5        6.7      6.8        ..       ..   10.6
     1993          22.2     15.5         11.1     9.9      8.1        6.3       5.8        7.1      7.9      2.9        ..   10.1
     1994          21.5     14.0         10.2     8.5      7.4        6.5       5.5        7.3      6.8      2.5        ..    9.3
     1995          17.6     11.3          8.1     6.6      6.6        5.1       4.7        5.3      4.8      3.0        ..    7.5
     1996          16.2      9.0          5.8     5.1      5.3        5.0       4.3        3.5      3.5      2.7        ..    6.2
     1997          15.8      9.0          6.5     5.7      4.7        4.6       4.1        4.1      4.2      3.1        ..    6.2
     1998          16.4     11.8          6.5     6.7      5.3        5.1       4.5        3.8      4.5      2.9        ..    6.8
     1999          17.5     12.3          7.8     6.9      6.4        5.6       5.0        4.8      5.3      4.0        ..    7.5
     2000          16.8     11.2          6.5     5.5      5.6        4.9       3.8        4.6      4.6      5.3        ..    6.6
     2001          16.6      9.8          5.3     5.1      4.4        4.1       3.3        3.7      4.3      4.4        ..    5.7
     2002          15.3      8.3          5.6     4.7      4.1        4.0       3.2        3.3      3.8      3.3        ..    5.3
     2003          15.3      8.5          5.8     4.5      4.0        3.5       2.5        3.2      2.8      4.1        ..    5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                 72
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.04

                                                         People Unemployed
                                                  Duration of unemployment by sex

                                                                               Over 1 Year    Over 2 Years
  Average for      1-4         5-8        9-13      14-26         27-52                                       Over         Not
                                                                               but Not Over   but Not Over                               Total
  Year ended      Weeks       Weeks      Weeks      Weeks         Weeks                                      3 Years   Specified(1)(2)
                                                                                 2 Years        3 Years
    March

                                                                                   (000)

                                                                               Males
     1991          11.6        8.3         7.6       13.7         13.9          11.1                 3.9       3.1             7.2         80.3
     1992          12.1        9.1         8.4       16.9         22.1          17.0                 5.7       5.7             6.7        103.5
     1993           9.8        7.4         7.0       14.4         18.7          20.2                 7.9       7.1             6.9         99.5
     1994          11.1        6.7         6.5       12.4         17.0          16.2                 6.9       8.7             6.5         92.1
     1995           9.9        6.4         5.8        9.5         12.6          11.8                 5.0       7.7             6.9         75.8
     1996          10.9        5.6         5.6        8.3          9.3           7.4                 2.7       5.3             5.7         60.9
     1997          11.2        7.3         5.4       10.0         10.3           6.2                 2.4       4.6             5.0         62.4
     1998          14.3        7.9         6.2       10.8         11.6           7.9                 2.2       4.2             5.4         70.4
     1999          11.9        9.1         7.3       13.3         13.9           9.4                 3.4       3.8             6.3         78.4
     2000          10.8        8.6         5.6       11.8         11.8           7.6                 3.3       3.5             6.5         69.5
     2001          11.9        7.3         5.1        8.7          9.1           5.9                 2.6       3.8             6.6         61.1
     2002          12.3        7.4         5.2        8.7          6.7           4.6                 2.0       2.6             6.4         56.0
     2003          11.9        6.9         5.2        7.6          7.6           3.8                 1.4       2.3             6.6         53.4
                                                                              Females
     1991          11.3        7.1         5.9        8.2          8.4           5.0                 2.1       1.1             6.5         55.4
     1992          11.5        7.9         7.2       11.5         12.8           7.6                 2.7       2.4             5.8         69.4
     1993           9.8        6.5         5.5       10.0         12.8           9.8                 3.8       3.1             6.2         67.3
     1994          10.5        6.1         6.0        9.6         11.6           9.0                 3.4       3.3             5.5         65.1
     1995           9.7        6.0         5.1        7.7          8.0           6.2                 2.3       3.1             6.1         54.3
     1996          11.7        5.4         4.6        6.9          7.3           4.4                 1.4       2.3             5.8         49.8
     1997          11.8        6.9         5.5        7.7          6.9           4.4                 1.4       2.0             5.5         52.0
     1998          12.8        7.3         6.0        8.5          8.5           4.4                 1.4       1.9             5.6         56.5
     1999          13.2        8.7         5.4        9.1          9.2           5.6                 1.4       2.1             6.1         60.9
     2000          12.6        6.7         5.3        7.5          8.3           4.4                 1.8       2.1             5.8         54.5
     2001          11.2        5.9         4.7        7.4          7.0           3.5                 1.3       1.0             6.0         48.0
     2002          13.0        6.7         4.1        5.8          5.9           2.9                 1.1       1.3             5.7         46.6
     2003          12.7        7.7         4.5        6.8          5.2           2.4                 1.0       1.2             6.5         47.9
                                                                      Total Males and Females
     1991          22.8       15.3        13.4       21.9         22.2          16.1                6.1        4.1           13.7         135.7
     1992          23.5       17.0        15.6       28.4         34.9          24.6                8.4        8.1           12.6         172.9
     1993          19.7       13.9        12.4       24.4         31.5          30.0               11.7       10.2           13.0         166.7
     1994          21.6       12.8        12.5       22.0         28.6          25.2               10.3       12.1           12.0         157.1
     1995          19.7       12.4        10.9       17.2         20.6          18.0                7.4       10.9           13.1         130.1
     1996          22.6       11.0        10.2       15.2         16.6          11.8                4.1        7.7           11.5         110.7
     1997          23.0       14.2        10.9       17.7         17.2          10.6                3.8        6.5           10.4         114.4
     1998          27.1       15.2        12.3       19.2         20.1          12.3                3.6        6.1           11.0         126.9
     1999          25.1       17.8        12.7       22.4         23.1          15.0                4.8        5.9           12.4         139.3
     2000          23.4       15.2        10.9       19.3         20.1          11.9                5.1        5.6           12.3         124.0
     2001          23.2       13.2         9.7       16.1         16.1           9.4                3.9        4.8           12.6         109.1
     2002          25.3       14.1         9.2       14.5         12.7           7.5                3.1        4.0           12.2         102.6
     2003          24.6       14.5         9.7       14.4         12.8           6.2                2.4        3.5           13.1         101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Includes those unemployed who are waiting to start a new job.
(2) Over the years, between approximately 7 and 23 percent of the unemployed in the survey did not provide information on
     their duration of unemployment. This means that the true numbers of people who were unemployed long term are likely to be
     higher than the figures in this table indicate.




                                                                          73
                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.05


                                         Long-term Unemployed(1)(2)
                                                     By age group
  Average for
  Year ended          15-19           20-24          25-34           35-44           45-54       55 and Over        Total
   March(3)

                                                     Long-term Unemployed (000)
      1987               3.7             1.6         2.9           1.8             1.5            ..                  12.2
      1991               7.9             8.6        13.2           9.4             6.4          3.0                   48.5
      1993              11.4            15.9        22.5          16.3           11.7           5.6                   83.3
      1994               9.9            13.9        19.6          15.4           12.4           5.0                   76.2
      1995               6.9             9.7        13.9          12.2           10.0           4.2                   56.9
      1996               5.7             5.4         8.7          10.0             7.1          3.3                   40.2
      1997               4.8             5.8         8.7           8.1             7.3          3.3                   38.1
      1998               5.0             6.8         9.5          10.0             7.5          3.4                   42.1
      1999               5.8             7.2        10.0          12.2             8.9          4.8                   48.9
      2000               4.5             6.4         7.5          10.9             7.8          5.5                   42.7
      2001               4.0             4.4         5.9           7.9             6.7          5.2                   34.2
      2002               3.2             3.3         5.3           6.5             5.0          3.9                   27.3
      2003               3.0             3.2         4.9           5.5             4.6          3.8                   24.9
                                                        Total Unemployed (000)
      1987              21.3           10.9         15.9           8.4             5.0          2.5                  64.0
      1991              30.2           26.7         35.4          22.8           14.3           6.5                 135.7
      1993              30.5           33.9         44.6          29.8           19.5           8.5                 166.7
      1994              29.0           30.9         40.0          29.3           20.4           7.6                 157.1
      1995              24.5           24.9         32.1          25.0           17.0           6.5                 130.1
      1996              24.1           19.7         24.4          23.0           14.1           5.3                 110.7
      1997              23.8           19.2         27.7          21.7           15.1           6.9                 114.4
      1998              24.8           24.5         29.7          24.7           16.1           7.1                 126.9
      1999              25.1           24.5         32.3          28.9           19.4           9.3                 139.3
      2000              24.2           21.3         26.0          25.8           17.0           9.7                 124.0
      2001              24.2           18.1         22.0          21.0           14.5           9.3                 109.1
      2002              23.3           16.0         21.3          20.0           13.7           8.3                 102.6
      2003              23.8           16.9         21.3          18.6           12.2           8.5                 101.3
                                       Long-term Unemployed as Percentage of Total Unemployed (%)
      1987              17.4           14.7         18.2          21.4           30.0             ..                  19.1
      1991              26.2           32.2         37.3          41.2           44.8          46.2                   35.7
      1993              37.4           46.9         50.4          54.7           60.0          65.9                   50.0
      1994              34.1           45.0         49.0          52.6           60.8          65.8                   48.5
      1995              28.2           39.0         43.3          48.8           58.8          64.6                   43.7
      1996              23.7           27.4         35.7          43.5           50.4          62.3                   36.3
      1997              20.2           30.2         31.4          37.3           48.3          47.8                   33.3
      1998              20.2           27.8         32.0          40.5           46.6          47.9                   33.2
      1999              23.1           29.4         31.0          42.2           45.9          51.6                   35.1
      2000              18.6           30.0         28.8          42.2           45.9          56.7                   34.4
      2001              16.5           24.3         26.8          37.6           46.2          55.9                   31.3
      2002              13.7           20.6         24.9          32.5           36.5          47.0                   26.6
      2003              12.6           18.9         23.0          29.6           37.7          44.7                   24.6

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Long-term unemployed are those people who have been unemployed for 27 weeks or longer.
(2) Over the years, between approximately 7 and 23 percent of the unemployed in the survey did not provide
    information on their duration of unemployment. This means that the true numbers and percentages of people
    who were unemployed long term are likely to be higher than the figures in this table indicate. Table 3.04 gives data
    on the numbers of unemployed people whose duration of unemployment was not specified.
(3) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, and for 1992 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.




                                                             74
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.06


                                        Long-term Unemployed(1)(2)
                                           By educational attainment
  Average for                                                    Post School          Post School
                          No                School
  Year ended                                                     Qualifications        and School               Total(4)
                     Qualifications       Qualifications
   March(3)                                                         Only              Qualifications

                                                     Long-term Unemployed (000)
     1987                    7.9                   1.9             1.1                   1.2                       12.2
     1991                   25.6                   9.6             5.7                   7.3                       48.4
     1993                   39.9                  17.0             9.8                  16.0                       83.3
     1994                   36.7                  15.4            10.1                  13.8                       76.2
     1995                   27.6                  11.1             7.7                  10.2                       56.9
     1996                   19.6                   7.6             4.9                   8.0                       40.2
     1997                   18.5                   6.8             4.5                   8.2                       38.1
     1998                   20.6                   7.6             4.8                   9.1                       42.1
     1999                   21.5                  10.1             6.2                  11.1                       48.9
     2000                   17.2                   9.3             5.8                  10.4                       42.7
     2001                   13.7                   7.1             4.4                   9.1                       34.2
     2002                   11.4                   5.5             3.6                   6.8                       27.3
     2003                    9.3                   4.2             3.9                   7.5                       24.9
                                                       Total Unemployed (000)
     1987                   34.8                14.0               5.0                   8.8                       64.0
     1991                   56.7                35.8              13.6                  28.4                      135.7
     1993                   68.3                40.6              16.8                  39.1                      166.7
     1994                   64.7                39.4              17.4                  34.6                      157.1
     1995                   52.2                32.7              14.6                  28.9                      130.1
     1996                   44.0                26.8              11.5                  27.7                      110.7
     1997                   44.2                29.6              12.3                  28.0                      114.4
     1998                   47.5                32.0              13.4                  33.9                      126.9
     1999                   50.3                34.3              15.1                  39.2                      139.3
     2000                   42.6                31.7              14.1                  34.7                      124.0
     2001                   36.8                27.9              11.9                  32.0                      109.1
     2002                   33.4                28.1              11.1                  29.6                      102.6
     2003                   31.0                26.4              12.7                  30.7                      101.3
                                      Long-term Unemployed as Percentage of Total Unemployed (%)
     1987                   22.7                13.6              22.0                  13.6                       19.1
     1991                   45.1                26.8              41.9                  25.7                       35.7
     1993                   58.4                41.9              58.3                  40.9                       50.0
     1994                   56.7                39.1              58.0                  39.9                       48.5
     1995                   52.9                33.9              52.7                  35.3                       43.7
     1996                   44.5                28.4              42.6                  28.9                       36.3
     1997                   41.9                23.0              36.6                  29.3                       33.3
     1998                   43.4                23.8              35.8                  26.8                       33.2
     1999                   42.7                29.4              41.1                  28.3                       35.1
     2000                   40.4                29.3              41.1                  30.0                       34.4
     2001                   37.2                25.4              37.0                  28.4                       31.3
     2002                   34.1                19.6              32.4                  23.0                       26.6
     2003                   30.0                15.9              30.7                  24.4                       24.6

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Long-term unemployed are those people who have been unemployed for 27 weeks or longer.
(2) Over the years, between approximately 7 and 23 percent of the unemployed in the survey did not
    provide information on their duration of unemployment. This means that the true numbers and percentages
    of people who were unemployed long term are likely to be higher than the figures in this table indicate.
    Table 3.04 gives data on the numbers of unemployed people whose duration of unemployment was
    not specified.
(3) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, and for 1992 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(4) Those people who did not specify their qualifications are included in the totals only.




                                                            75
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.07

                                                           People Unemployed
                                                       By occupation (1) sought and sex
                                                                                          Plant and
                                                          Agriculture
              Managers,                       Services                                    Machine
Average for                                                  and           Trades                     Elementary           Not
             Professionals        Clerks     and Sales                                    Operators                                    Total
Year ended                                                 Fishery         Workers                    Occupations       Specified(2)
            and Technicians                   Workers                                        and
  March                                                    Workers
                                                                                         Assemblers
                                                                                 (000)

                                                                                   Males
   1992               10.5          4.0          5.9           6.3            16.3           7.8            14.0             38.6        103.5
   1993               10.7          4.1          7.3           6.8            13.8           7.4            19.4             30.1         99.5
   1994                9.3          4.0          6.9           7.1            11.8           8.5            22.6             21.8         92.1
   1995                7.7          3.2          4.4           4.9             7.0           5.8            17.2             25.5         75.8
   1996                7.7          3.1          4.8           3.8             5.1           4.8             7.4             24.3         60.9
   1997                7.4          2.1          4.8           3.2             5.1           5.0             8.4             26.2         62.4
   1998                9.6          2.3          5.5           3.9             6.2           5.3            11.0             26.5         70.4
   1999               10.1          2.7          7.2           4.0             6.9           6.2             9.5             31.9         78.4
   2000               10.1          3.1          5.6           3.8             5.4           4.3             8.7             28.6         69.5
   2001                7.9          2.0          4.9           3.3             5.3           3.4             7.8             26.5         61.1
   2002                8.3          1.7          6.5           2.6             4.7           3.5             7.2             21.5         56.0
   2003                8.1          2.7          5.7           3.3             3.4           2.8             6.5             20.8         53.4
                                                                                  Females
   1992                7.0         12.8        14.8            1.8             ..            2.5             6.0             24.0         69.4
   1993                7.1         12.3        15.2            2.8             ..            2.2             8.9             18.1         67.3
   1994                6.8         12.0        14.7            3.2             ..            2.4            11.1             14.4         65.1
   1995                5.2          8.7        10.7            2.0             ..            1.4             9.0             16.4         54.3
   1996                5.1          7.1        10.4            1.2             ..            1.6             4.7             19.2         49.8
   1997                6.1          8.6        10.5            1.4             ..            1.3             4.6             19.0         52.0
   1998                7.2          8.9        11.6            1.5             ..            1.2             5.4             20.4         56.5
   1999                7.8          9.5        13.3            1.5             ..            1.0             4.0             23.6         60.9
   2000                7.9          7.6        12.2            1.2             ..           ..               2.9             21.5         54.5
   2001                6.8          7.6        10.4            1.0             ..           ..               2.9             18.3         48.0
   2002                6.4          6.0        12.2            ..              ..           ..               2.7             17.1         46.6
   2003                6.9          7.5        12.1            1.2             ..           ..               2.7             16.5         47.9
                                                                        Total Males and Females
   1992               17.5         16.9        20.7           8.1             16.9         10.3             20.0             62.6        172.9
   1993               17.7         16.4        22.5           9.6             14.5           9.6            28.2             48.2        166.7
   1994               16.1         16.0        21.5          10.3             12.4         10.9             33.7             36.2        157.1
   1995               12.9         11.9        15.2           6.9              7.8           7.3            26.1             41.9        130.1
   1996               12.9         10.2        15.2           5.0              5.5           6.4            12.1             43.5        110.7
   1997               13.5         10.7        15.3           4.6              5.6           6.3            13.1             45.3        114.4
   1998               16.8         11.2        17.1           5.4              6.6           6.5            16.4             46.9        126.9
   1999               17.9         12.1        20.5           5.5              7.2           7.2            13.4             55.6        139.3
   2000               18.0         10.7        17.8           5.1              5.8           5.0            11.6             50.1        124.0
   2001               14.8          9.6        15.3           4.3              5.6           4.1            10.6             44.7        109.1
   2002               14.7          7.7        18.7           3.5              5.1           4.3             9.9             38.7        102.6
   2003               15.0         10.2        17.8           4.5              3.7           3.5             9.2             37.4        101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990. Data for the years prior to 1992 use an earlier classification and
    are available on request.
(2) Includes unemployed people who have arranged to start a new job.




                                                                            76
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


 Table 3.08

                                                           People Unemployed
                                                By reason for leaving last job and sex

             Laid off,                                  Temporary,                                    Moved House,
                            Unsatisfactory    Own Ill                                 Family
Average for Dismissed,                                 Seasonal Job, Returned                            Spouse                   Not
                              Working         Health                              Responsibilities,                   Other                    Total
Year ended     Made                                       End of     to Studies                        Transferred,            Specified(2)
                             Conditions      or Injury                              Pregnancy
 March(1)   Redundant                                    Contract                                         Travel

                                                                                (000)

                                                                                Males
   1987           7.0                3.4      1.9            9.8           ..                  ..               1.3    4.4          3.7        33.3
   1991          25.0                7.0      4.2           17.5         2.4                 2.4                5.6    6.6          9.6        80.3
   1993          33.3                4.8      3.8           23.2         2.0                 2.6                5.1    7.8         16.9        99.5
   1994          29.3                4.1      2.8           22.9         1.8                 2.5                4.7    6.5         17.4        92.1
   1995          20.3                4.8      3.4           18.7         1.8                 1.9                4.1    5.0         15.8        75.8
   1996          12.3                4.1      3.1           15.7         2.6                 1.8                4.2    4.4         12.8        60.9
   1997          11.8                4.0      3.3           17.4         2.3                 2.2                3.5    4.7         13.1        62.4
   1998          13.8                5.5      4.0           18.0         3.4                 2.0                3.2    6.5         14.0        70.4
   1999          19.1                5.0      4.1           19.5         3.3                 2.5                4.2    7.2         13.5        78.4
   2000          13.5                4.6      2.8           21.0         3.6                 2.0                3.5    5.7         13.0        69.5
   2001          11.4                5.0      3.3           16.1         2.5                 2.9                3.0    5.3         11.6        61.1
   2002           8.9                4.8      2.7           14.9         3.4                 2.7                2.9    5.9          9.8        56.0
   2003           7.4                5.1      2.9           14.9         3.3                 2.1                3.2    4.5          9.9        53.4
                                                                              Females
   1987           3.2                2.9      1.4            8.6           ..             4.2                   2.5      3.3        3.4        30.7
   1991           8.7                4.0      2.6           12.0         2.0              6.3                   4.9    3.9         11.1        55.4
   1993          12.7                3.3      2.2           14.9         1.9              7.9                   5.1    4.1         15.2        67.3
   1994          10.6                3.3      2.6           14.0         1.8              6.5                   4.6    4.6         17.0        65.1
   1995           7.5                3.1      2.0           12.6         1.9              5.1                   4.2    2.9         15.1        54.3
   1996           5.0                3.6      1.5           10.1         2.4              5.6                   4.2    3.3         14.0        49.8
   1997           5.9                3.4      1.7           11.1         2.0              5.8                   4.5    3.5         14.2        52.0
   1998           5.9                3.7      2.5           12.4         2.6              6.4                   4.1    4.2         14.8        56.5
   1999           7.7                4.1      2.7           12.4         3.3              5.3                   4.9    5.4         15.2        60.9
   2000           5.8                4.3      2.1           10.3         2.9              5.8                   3.8    4.5         15.0        54.5
   2001           4.5                3.6      1.7           10.6         2.5              5.3                   4.3    3.4         11.9        48.0
   2002           3.6                4.0      2.2            9.4         2.9              5.0                   4.2    4.6         10.7        46.6
   2003           4.5                3.7      1.8           10.0         3.5              5.3                   3.9    3.6         11.6        47.9
                                                                     Total Males and Females
   1987          10.2               6.4       3.2           18.4         2.5              4.8               3.8          7.7        7.0        64.0
   1991          33.7              11.0       6.8           29.4         4.5              8.7              10.4       10.5         20.7       135.7
   1993          45.9               8.1       5.9           38.1         3.8             10.5              10.2       12.0         32.1       166.7
   1994          40.0               7.5       5.4           36.9         3.7              9.0               9.3       11.1         34.3       157.1
   1995          27.8               7.9       5.4           31.2         3.7              7.0               8.3        7.9         30.8       130.1
   1996          17.3               7.6       4.5           25.8         5.0              7.4               8.4        7.7         26.9       110.7
   1997          17.7               7.4       5.0           28.5         4.3              8.0               8.0        8.2         27.4       114.4
   1998          19.7               9.2       6.5           30.4         5.9              8.4               7.3       10.7         28.8       126.9
   1999          26.7               9.1       6.8           31.9         6.6              7.7               9.2       12.6         28.7       139.3
   2000          19.2               8.9       4.9           31.3         6.5              7.8               7.3       10.2         27.9       124.0
   2001          15.9               8.6       5.0           26.7         5.1              8.2               7.3        8.8         23.5       109.1
   2002          12.4               8.8       5.0           24.3         6.3              7.7               7.1       10.5         20.5       102.6
   2003          11.9               8.8       4.8           24.9         6.9              7.3               7.1        8.1         21.5       101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, and for 1992 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Includes unemployed people who have never worked.




                                                                          77
                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.09

                                    People Unemployed
                            By job search methods (1) and sex
                  Looked           Wrote,
                                                Contacted        Contacted    Contacted
 Average for      at Job          Phoned,
 Year ended
                                                Work and         Friends or    Career       Other(5)
                 Adverts in      or Applied
                                                Income(3)        Relatives    Advisers(4)
  March(2)      Newspapers       in Person
                                                         (000)

                                                         Males
    1987             23.7            17.5           18.1          14.9              2.8       6.8
    1991             66.0            44.4           56.2          42.4              4.0      17.5
    1993             83.6            50.2           76.1          50.5              3.9      19.8
    1994             76.2            45.0           69.1          46.1              3.0      16.5
    1995             60.6            35.5           54.5          36.1              3.0      14.3
    1996             45.5            28.8           38.5          28.2              2.8      12.7
    1997             48.2            30.3           39.8          30.2              3.0      12.9
    1998             55.4            36.9           45.6          34.6              3.5      17.5
    1999             63.1            43.2           48.4          42.0              3.8      17.9
    2000             53.8            37.3           37.1          35.8              3.1      17.1
    2001             47.4            32.4           32.1          30.5              2.3      14.8
    2002             42.1            29.1           25.9          27.7              2.9      14.3
    2003             38.5            28.8           23.2          24.5              2.8      16.1
                                                       Females
    1987             21.6            16.8           10.2          12.5              2.5       5.6
    1991             45.2            32.0           27.6          28.2              3.2      11.2
    1993             55.5            35.9           38.5          34.7              2.5      12.5
    1994             53.8            33.7           37.3          34.1              3.1      11.6
    1995             42.8            28.0           28.4          25.3              2.5      10.1
    1996             37.8            26.7           23.8          22.3              2.7       8.8
    1997             40.5            27.2           22.9          23.7              2.9       9.8
    1998             44.0            30.1           27.3          27.5              2.7      12.5
    1999             49.0            34.3           28.1          31.9              3.0      13.7
    2000             43.3            30.5           24.5          27.5              2.9      12.2
    2001             37.2            26.5           19.3          23.4              2.4      10.4
    2002             35.5            26.5           16.8          21.1              2.3      10.9
    2003             35.9            27.3           16.2          22.6              2.2      12.7
                                               Total Males and Females
    1987             45.4            34.3           28.3          27.4              5.2      12.5
    1991            111.2            76.4           83.7          70.5              7.2      28.8
    1993            139.2            86.0         114.6           85.1              6.3      32.3
    1994            130.1            78.7         106.4           80.2              6.2      28.1
    1995            103.4            63.5           82.9          61.4              5.5      24.4
    1996             83.3            55.5           62.3          50.5              5.5      21.5
    1997             88.7            57.5           62.7          53.9              5.9      22.7
    1998             99.4            66.9           72.8          62.1              6.2      29.9
    1999            112.1            77.5           76.6          73.9              6.8      31.7
    2000             97.1            67.8           61.6          63.3              5.9      29.4
    2001             84.6            58.9           51.4          53.9              4.7      25.2
    2002             77.6            55.6           42.7          48.8              5.1      25.2
    2003             74.4            56.1           39.4          47.1              5.0      28.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Respondents can specify more than one job search method.
(2) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, and for 1992 are available on request from
    Statistics New Zealand.
(3) Prior to the formation of the Ministry of Social Development - Work and Income it was
    the New Zealand Employment Service and the Department of Labour Employment
     Centre.
(4) Contacted career advisers or vocational guidance officers.
(5) Contacted a private employment agency, placed advertisements, took steps to set
    up own business, or used other search methods.



                                                  78
                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.10

                                                   People Unemployed
                                            By work experience and sex
                            Males                                    Females                     Total Males and Females
Average for
              Never                                    Never                                  Never
Year ended                 Worked       Total(1)                     Worked        Total(1)             Worked       Total(1)
              Worked                                   Worked                                 Worked
  March
                                                                      (000)

   1991          6.4         72.7          80.3           6.4         48.2            55.4     12.8      121.0         135.7
   1992          9.6         92.5         103.5           8.2         60.3            69.4     17.8      152.8         172.9
   1993         11.5         86.5          99.5           8.4         58.2            67.3     19.9      144.6         166.7
   1994         10.3         79.9          92.1           8.9         55.2            65.1     19.2      135.1         157.1
   1995          8.4         65.6          75.8           7.8         45.8            54.3     16.2      111.4         130.1
   1996          7.2         52.6          60.9           6.9         42.3            49.8     14.2       94.9         110.7
   1997          7.8         53.9          62.4           6.8         44.9            52.0     14.5       98.9         114.4
   1998          8.1         61.7          70.4           7.5         48.6            56.5     15.6      110.2         126.9
   1999          8.0         69.9          78.4           7.5         53.1            60.9     15.5      123.0         139.3
   2000          7.2         61.3          69.5           7.3         46.7            54.5     14.5      108.0         124.0
   2001          6.4         54.2          61.1           5.9         41.6            48.0     12.3       95.8         109.1
   2002          6.2         49.4          56.0           5.6         40.6            46.6     11.7       90.0         102.6
   2003          6.5         46.6          53.4           5.8         41.8            47.9     12.3       88.4         101.3

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Includes those unemployed for whom work experience information was not obtained.




                                                                79
                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.11

                                                              The Jobless
                                       Those without a job and who want a job by sex
                                               Available For but Not Actively Seeking Work(2)             Actively Seeking
   Average for       Officially
                                        Seeking Through                                                   but Not Available   Total Jobless
   Year ended       Unemployed                                    Discouraged(4)           Other
                                        Newspaper Only(3)                                                     For Work
    March(1)
                                                                                 (000)

                                                                              Males
      1987               33.3                     2.0                     2.0                    9.2              5.2               51.7
      1991               80.3                     5.1                     5.6                   12.8              7.4              111.2
      1993               99.5                     6.1                     5.9                   13.8              6.5              131.7
      1994               92.1                     5.4                     6.7                   14.4              6.9              125.5
      1995               75.8                     5.2                     4.7                   13.9              7.2              106.9
      1996               60.9                     4.0                     5.0                   13.2              5.9               89.0
      1997               62.4                     4.4                     4.3                   15.3              7.8               94.1
      1998               70.4                     4.4                     3.7                   14.8              7.9              101.2
      1999               78.4                     4.6                     4.8                   16.1              8.7              112.6
      2000               69.5                     6.1                     4.7                   16.9              9.1              106.2
      2001               61.1                     5.9                     3.5                   15.1              7.4               93.1
      2002               56.0                     4.4                     3.5                   16.6              7.9               88.3
      2003               53.4                     4.9                     3.1                   15.6              7.7               84.7
                                                                            Females
      1987               30.7                     3.4                     5.6                   17.8              6.3               63.8
      1991               55.4                     7.0                     8.8                   21.2              8.9              101.3
      1993               67.3                     8.2                    10.6                   25.9              7.7              119.6
      1994               65.1                     6.9                    10.3                   25.4              8.3              116.0
      1995               54.3                     6.4                     8.0                   23.5              8.3              100.5
      1996               49.8                     5.7                     6.5                   23.0              8.6               93.5
      1997               52.0                     6.2                     5.2                   23.7              9.6               96.6
      1998               56.5                     7.0                     6.3                   25.7             10.1              105.6
      1999               60.9                     7.4                     6.5                   24.4             10.3              109.6
      2000               54.5                     6.1                     4.9                   22.5             10.0               98.1
      2001               48.0                     6.6                     5.1                   19.2              9.3               88.2
      2002               46.6                     5.7                     4.1                   24.0             10.7               91.1
      2003               47.9                     6.0                     3.5                   21.8             10.0               89.2
                                                                    Total Males and Females
      1987               64.0                     5.4                     7.6                   26.9             11.5              115.4
      1991              135.7                    12.1                    14.4                   34.0             16.3              212.5
      1993              166.7                    14.3                    16.4                   39.7             14.2              251.3
      1994              157.1                    12.3                    17.0                   39.8             15.2              241.5
      1995              130.1                    11.6                    12.7                   37.4             15.5              207.4
      1996              110.7                     9.7                    11.5                   36.2             14.5              182.6
      1997              114.4                    10.5                     9.4                   39.0             17.5              190.8
      1998              126.9                    11.4                    10.0                   40.5             17.9              206.8
      1999              139.3                    12.0                    11.3                   40.5             19.1              222.2
      2000              124.0                    12.2                     9.6                   39.4             19.1              204.3
      2001              109.1                    12.5                     8.6                   34.3             16.7              181.2
      2002              102.6                    10.0                     7.6                   40.6             18.6              179.4
      2003              101.3                    10.9                      6.6                  37.4             17.7              173.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990, and for 1992 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) 'Available for work' refers to people who have answered 'yes' to the question 'If you had been offered a job would
     you have started last week?'
(3) 'Seeking through newspaper only' refers to people whose only method of job search was to look at job advertisements
     in newspapers.
(4) 'Discouraged' refers to people who were not actively seeking work because they believed they lacked skills, or were
    the wrong age, or the right work was unavailable in their area.




                                                                      80
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 3.12

                          Alternative Measures of Unemployment

   Average for         Registered           Officially            Surplus
                                                                                     Jobseeker(5)      Jobless(6)
   Year ended        Jobseekers(1)(2)     Unemployed(3)           Worker(4)
     March
                                                                  (000)

      1988                  91.0                 69.5                 108.9               88.3           121.1
      1989                 130.7                 98.0                 143.8              120.3           157.5
      1990                 149.4                112.4                 164.2              134.8           175.9
      1991                 166.9                135.7                 196.2              164.1           212.5
      1992                 202.4                172.9                 245.3              202.2           259.9
      1993                 217.4                166.7                 237.1              195.2           251.3
      1994                 206.1                157.1                 226.2              184.6           241.5
      1995                 176.9                130.1                 191.8              157.2           207.4
      1996                 153.3                110.7                 168.1              134.9           182.6
      1997                 154.6                114.4                 173.3              142.4           190.8
      1998                 177.1                126.9                 188.8              156.2           206.8
      1999                 196.2                139.3                 203.1              170.4           222.2
      2000                 230.0                124.0                 185.2              155.3           204.3
      2001                 218.6                109.1                 164.5              138.3           181.2
      2002                 185.7                102.6                 160.8              131.2           179.4
      2003                 125.0                101.3                 156.2              129.9           173.8
Sources: Department of Labour
          Ministry of Social Development - Work and Income
          Household Labour Force Survey
(1) As from April 1998, those people who were registered as unemployed with the Ministry of Social
    Development - Work and Income. Prior to this, it was those people who were registered as
    unemployed with the New Zealand Employment Service, excluding vacation workers.
(2) From October 1999, the term Registered Unemployed has been replaced with Registered
    Jobseekers.
(3) Those people who were without a paid job, available for work and actively seeking work.
(4) Those people who were without a paid job and available for work.
(5) Those people who were without a paid job and seeking work by active or passive means.
(6) Those people who were without a paid job and either available for but not actively seeking work,
    or actively seeking but not available for work.




                                                          81
Labour Market Statistics 2003




             82
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 4

People not in the labour force
This chapter looks at people who are part of the working-age population but are neither employed nor
unemployed. The tables contain information on peoples’ socio-demographic characteristics, main activity
stated as to why they are not in the labour market and intention to look for work within the next two years.




                                                      83
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 4.01

             People in the Labour Force and People Not in the Labour Force
                                                          By sex

                                                                                                             Percentage of
  Average for                         Not in the Labour      Working-age           Labour Force              Working-age
                    Labour Force
  Year ended                                Force            Population(2)       Participation Rate       Population Not in the
   March(1)                                                                                                  Labour Force

                                             (000)                                                    %

                                                                   Males
      1987                 936.5              254.5              1,191.0                   78.6                      21.4
      1991                 912.2              319.5              1,231.7                   74.1                      25.9
      1992                 921.5              329.1              1,250.7                   73.7                      26.3
      1993                 926.8              342.7              1,269.5                   73.0                      27.0
      1994                 947.1              343.0              1,290.1                   73.4                      26.6
      1995                 970.6              343.3              1,314.0                   73.9                      26.1
      1996                 997.8              343.1              1,340.9                   74.4                      25.6
      1997               1,018.5              347.3              1,365.8                   74.6                      25.4
      1998               1,028.1              354.4              1,382.6                   74.4                      25.6
      1999               1,024.7              368.6              1,393.3                   73.5                      26.5
      2000               1,030.1              370.9              1,401.0                   73.5                      26.5
      2001               1,038.8              371.6              1,410.4                   73.7                      26.3
      2002               1,059.2              366.5              1,425.7                   74.3                      25.7
      2003               1,081.6              374.7              1,456.3                   74.3                      25.7
                                                                  Females
      1987                 675.4              567.9              1,243.2                   54.3                      45.7
      1991                 702.8              593.4              1,296.1                   54.2                      45.8
      1992                 712.6              604.4              1,317.0                   54.1                      45.9
      1993                 720.8              617.2              1,337.9                   53.9                      46.1
      1994                 739.5              621.8              1,361.3                   54.3                      45.7
      1995                 765.5              622.2              1,387.7                   55.2                      44.8
      1996                 798.5              618.0              1,416.4                   56.4                      43.6
      1997                 829.8              611.7              1,441.6                   57.6                      42.4
      1998                 834.7              623.8              1,458.5                   57.2                      42.8
      1999                 842.0              628.6              1,470.6                   57.3                      42.7
      2000                 850.3              629.6              1,479.9                   57.5                      42.5
      2001                 859.4              630.4              1,489.8                   57.7                      42.3
      2002                 882.7              621.2              1,503.9                   58.7                      41.3
      2003                 903.5              626.9              1,530.3                   59.0                      41.0
                                                          Total Males and Females
      1987               1,611.9              822.3              2,434.2                   66.2                      33.8
      1991               1,615.0              912.8              2,527.8                   63.9                      36.1
      1992               1,634.1              933.5              2,567.6                   63.6                      36.4
      1993               1,647.6              959.8              2,607.4                   63.2                      36.8
      1994               1,686.6              964.8              2,651.4                   63.6                      36.4
      1995               1,736.2              965.5              2,701.7                   64.3                      35.7
      1996               1,796.3              961.1              2,757.3                   65.1                      34.9
      1997               1,848.3              959.0              2,807.4                   65.8                      34.2
      1998               1,862.8              978.2              2,841.0                   65.6                      34.4
      1999               1,866.7              997.2              2,863.9                   65.2                      34.8
      2000               1,880.4            1,000.4              2,880.9                   65.3                      34.7
      2001               1,898.2            1,002.0              2,900.3                   65.4                      34.6
      2002               1,941.9              987.7              2,929.6                   66.3                      33.7
      2003               1,985.1            1,001.5              2,986.6                   66.5                      33.5

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.




                                                            84
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 4.02

                                                People Not in the Labour Force
                                                          By age group and sex

  Average for                                                                                                           65 and
                 15-19     20-24        25-29     30-34       35-39      40-44       45-49      50-54   55-59   60-64             Total
  Year ended                                                                                                             Over
    March
                                                                                 (000)

                                                                                Males
     1988         52.8      11.6          6.9       6.2         4.6          3.5       4.7        5.2    11.2    39.5   122.8     268.9
     1989         59.0      14.0          7.9       6.8         5.5          5.0       4.9        5.4    14.7    44.0   128.9     296.2
     1990         62.7      15.7          8.4       7.2         7.2          6.0       5.6        5.9    14.8    46.0   132.4     311.8
     1991         60.9      17.6          9.3       8.4         6.9          6.4       5.8        7.4    14.9    45.6   136.2     319.5
     1992         61.6      19.9         10.4       8.9         6.9          5.9       6.5        7.1    13.7    46.5   141.7     329.1
     1993         66.0      21.3          8.8      10.5         7.6          6.8       5.4        9.3    14.1    45.9   146.9     342.7
     1994         65.1      21.0         10.3      10.5         8.2          7.1       6.7        9.1    14.0    40.9   150.2     343.0
     1995         61.2      20.6         10.9       9.5        10.6          8.7       7.7        8.8    13.7    38.0   153.7     343.3
     1996         57.2      20.9         10.8      11.1        10.1          9.8       9.0        8.9    14.3    34.4   156.5     343.1
     1997         59.3      21.1         12.1      11.8        10.1          9.3       9.1        9.7    14.8    31.5   158.7     347.3
     1998         60.6      21.1         11.4      12.1         9.6         10.3       8.4       10.6    14.5    31.8   164.1     354.4
     1999         64.8      23.9         12.3      13.1        11.2         11.7       9.0       11.2    14.8    29.8   167.0     368.6
     2000         64.7      23.6         12.6      13.1        12.7         11.2       9.5       11.5    16.3    29.6   166.0     370.9
     2001         65.4      27.2         11.9      11.3        11.9         11.9      10.2       10.5    15.8    28.6   167.1     371.6
     2002         64.5      26.0         11.7      11.0        10.8         11.8      10.3       11.8    15.4    27.3   165.9     366.5
     2003         66.7      29.7         12.3      11.3        11.4         10.4      10.5       12.2    15.3    26.6   168.3     374.7
                                                                              Females
     1988         57.4      35.7         51.9      47.3        33.8         21.4      21.1       24.6    38.7    57.3   182.4     571.5
     1989         62.3      41.6         53.1      49.3        35.4         23.3      22.1       23.5    36.4    58.6   185.3     590.9
     1990         65.3      39.0         53.6      51.7        34.6         24.9      21.1       24.0    37.5    59.2   189.3     600.1
     1991         60.4      37.4         51.8      51.2        33.4         25.1      20.7       24.4    37.8    58.0   193.1     593.4
     1992         65.5      36.6         51.6      50.4        34.5         25.7      20.9       26.7    35.8    58.7   197.9     604.4
     1993         69.0      37.8         49.9      51.2        36.0         26.5      20.6       29.7    34.7    58.4   203.4     617.2
     1994         66.6      39.2         45.5      54.4        39.6         28.4      23.2       26.7    36.9    54.2   207.2     621.8
     1995         63.2      40.1         44.5      54.1        42.7         27.8      24.0       26.0    36.5    53.1   210.1     622.2
     1996         58.9      38.5         43.6      54.0        40.7         30.1      23.6       24.6    36.7    51.5   215.8     618.0
     1997         58.0      38.7         43.4      51.9        40.3         30.8      23.4       23.9    35.3    48.7   217.3     611.7
     1998         58.0      37.7         45.4      51.2        43.9         31.6      25.1       24.8    38.6    47.6   219.9     623.8
     1999         62.9      37.0         43.5      52.2        46.1         31.9      25.4       25.5    35.8    47.0   221.2     628.6
     2000         62.5      42.0         40.2      49.7        43.7         30.5      23.2       29.7    35.7    49.5   222.9     629.6
     2001         62.5      41.5         40.2      50.1        44.1         29.3      22.8       30.3    36.2    48.9   224.4     630.4
     2002         62.2      39.7         38.7      49.0        42.7         27.9      24.3       27.3    37.2    46.1   226.1     621.2
     2003         64.6      41.0         38.7      50.1        39.2         31.3      22.7       29.1    35.9    46.7   227.5     626.9
                                                                      Total Males and Females
     1988        110.1      47.3         58.8      53.6        38.4         25.0      25.8       29.8    49.8    96.8   305.2      840.4
     1989        121.2      55.6         61.0      56.2        40.9         28.4      27.0       28.8    51.1   102.6   314.2      887.1
     1990        128.0      54.7         61.9      58.8        41.8         30.8      26.7       30.0    52.3   105.1   321.6      911.9
     1991        121.3      55.0         61.1      59.6        40.4         31.5      26.5       31.8    52.7   103.6   329.3      912.8
     1992        127.2      56.5         62.0      59.3        41.4         31.6      27.4       33.8    49.4   105.2   339.6      933.5
     1993        135.0      59.1         58.7      61.7        43.6         33.4      26.0       39.0    48.7   104.2   350.3      959.8
     1994        131.7      60.2         55.8      64.9        47.8         35.4      29.9       35.8    50.8    95.1   357.4      964.8
     1995        124.4      60.6         55.4      63.6        53.4         36.5      31.8       34.7    50.2    91.1   363.8      965.5
     1996        116.2      59.4         54.4      65.2        50.8         39.9      32.5       33.5    51.0    85.9   372.3      961.1
     1997        117.3      59.8         55.5      63.7        50.4         40.0      32.5       33.6    50.0    80.2   376.0      959.0
     1998        118.6      58.8         56.8      63.2        53.5         42.0      33.5       35.4    53.1    79.3   384.0      978.2
     1999        127.7      60.9         55.8      65.3        57.3         43.6      34.4       36.7    50.7    76.7   388.1      997.2
     2000        127.2      65.6         52.8      62.8        56.4         41.7      32.7       41.2    52.0    79.1   388.9    1,000.4
     2001        127.9      68.7         52.0      61.4        56.0         41.2      33.1       40.8    52.0    77.5   391.5    1,002.0
     2002        126.7      65.7         50.5      60.0        53.5         39.7      34.6       39.0    52.6    73.4   392.0      987.7
     2003        131.2      70.7         51.0      61.4        50.6         41.8      33.2       41.3    51.1    73.3   395.8    1,001.5
Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                        85
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 4.03

                               People Not in the Labour Force
                                        By main activity and sex

                                            At Home        At Home
  Average for                                                                       Not
                 Studying    Retired        Looking      Not Looking      Other               Total
  Year ended                                                                      Specified
                                         After Children After Children
    March
                                                              (000)

                                                              Males
     1988          50.2       167.2            7.3             13.3        19.0      11.8      268.9
     1989          56.2       177.9            7.4             16.6        25.4      12.7      296.2
     1990          61.8       184.0            7.9             18.9        26.2      12.9      311.8
     1991          63.4       187.4            8.9             20.3        25.3      14.2      319.5
     1992          65.9       191.5            9.0             20.1        28.4      14.2      329.1
     1993          73.5       195.3           10.0             21.5        27.1      15.2      342.7
     1994          70.8       191.6           10.9             23.1        31.8      14.8      343.0
     1995          68.1       191.7           10.8             23.5        34.8      14.3      343.3
     1996          69.7       190.5           11.2             23.0        36.8      11.9      343.1
     1997          72.6       188.5           12.1             23.3        37.4      13.5      347.3
     1998          74.6       191.5           12.1             24.7        38.3      13.3      354.4
     1999          82.5       192.4           12.0             25.9        41.4      14.4      368.6
     2000          78.6       191.1           14.5             26.1        43.9      16.6      370.9
     2001          85.6       190.9           14.1             24.5        41.9      14.6      371.6
     2002          86.3       184.9           15.5             25.4        40.7      13.7      366.5
     2003          90.2       187.3           14.8             26.3        42.2      14.0      374.7
                                                             Females
     1988          51.8       239.3          160.5             81.1        22.4      16.5      571.5
     1989          59.3       246.9          168.4             74.9        23.4      18.0      590.9
     1990          61.2       255.6          168.2             73.7        23.3      18.0      600.1
     1991          56.5       251.3          161.2             81.8        24.3      18.3      593.4
     1992          62.7       255.9          164.8             75.7        25.7      19.6      604.4
     1993          70.3       260.1          164.6             77.7        24.7      19.8      617.2
     1994          70.0       255.9          170.2             78.7        27.3      19.7      621.8
     1995          67.9       259.1          169.7             78.0        29.4      18.2      622.2
     1996          65.0       262.7          169.2             72.2        31.6      17.3      618.0
     1997          67.7       260.8          161.8             68.3        34.5      18.5      611.7
     1998          71.2       264.9          162.1             68.8        38.1      18.7      623.8
     1999          75.2       262.9          164.5             65.7        41.0      19.3      628.6
     2000          79.3       267.8          158.2             65.9        40.9      17.5      629.6
     2001          81.4       269.3          155.8             63.3        42.5      18.0      630.4
     2002          83.1       263.9          149.7             61.7        44.8      18.0      621.2
     2003          91.7       262.4          144.5             62.8        47.0      18.4      626.9
                                                     Total Males and Females
     1988         102.0       406.6          167.8             94.4        41.4      28.3       840.4
     1989         115.5       424.8          175.8             91.5        48.8      30.7       887.1
     1990         123.1       439.6          176.1             92.6        49.5      30.9       911.9
     1991         119.8       438.7          170.1            102.1        49.5      32.5       912.8
     1992         128.6       447.4          173.8             95.7        54.2      33.8       933.5
     1993         143.8       455.4          174.6             99.2        51.8      35.0       959.8
     1994         140.8       447.5          181.1            101.8        59.1      34.5       964.8
     1995         136.0       450.8          180.6            101.5        64.2      32.5       965.5
     1996         134.7       453.1          180.4             95.2        68.4      29.2       961.1
     1997         140.3       449.3          173.9             91.6        71.9      32.0       959.0
     1998         145.8       456.3          174.1             93.5        76.4      32.0       978.2
     1999         157.8       455.3          176.5             91.6        82.4      33.7       997.2
     2000         157.9       458.9          172.7             91.9        84.8      34.1     1,000.4
     2001         167.0       460.2          170.0             87.8        84.4      32.6     1,002.0
     2002         169.4       448.7          165.2             87.1        85.5      31.8       987.7
     2003         181.8       449.7          159.3             89.1        89.2      32.4     1,001.5

Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                       86
                                                 Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 4.04

                                         People Not in the Labour Force
                    Those intending to look for work within the next two years by sex
  Average for
                       Within 3 Months         Between 3 and 12 Months             After 12 Months             Total (1)
  Year ended
    March                                                               (000)

                                                                       Males
       1988                     11.5                           13.3                         10.4                  35.2
       1989                     14.3                           13.3                         12.9                  40.4
       1990                     15.3                           14.3                         12.7                  42.3
       1991   (2)               17.8                           15.3                         15.6                  49.1
       1992                     16.3                           17.6                         16.6                  50.5
       1993                     16.4                           17.0                         17.0                  50.4
       1994                     17.9                           17.9                         16.3                  52.0
       1995                     15.3                           18.7                         16.6                  50.6
       1996                     17.8                           18.9                         16.2                  52.9
       1997                     19.6                           21.7                         17.7                  59.1
       1998                     19.9                           19.8                         21.3                  61.0
       1999                     19.8                           22.6                         21.2                  63.7
       2000                     20.5                           23.4                         19.4                  63.3
       2001                     20.5                           23.8                         19.1                  63.4
       2002                     19.5                           26.3                         22.4                  68.2
       2003                     18.5                           24.0                         21.8                  64.3
                                                                      Females
       1988                     16.7                           26.2                         29.3                 72.2
       1989                     17.1                           28.9                         31.5                 77.4
       1990                     18.4                           30.3                         35.9                 84.7
       1991   (2)               21.5                           31.3                         39.0                 93.0
       1992                     20.4                           30.4                         39.9                 90.8
       1993                     20.9                           27.9                         40.4                 89.2
       1994                     19.7                           32.6                         40.3                 92.5
       1995                     19.2                           33.6                         41.2                 94.0
       1996                     19.4                           32.6                         43.4                 95.5
       1997                     23.0                           34.4                         42.0                 99.4
       1998                     22.6                           37.4                         50.6                110.6
       1999                     23.7                           40.7                         46.4                110.9
       2000                     23.1                           38.5                         43.5                105.2
       2001                     22.5                           37.6                         45.2                105.3
       2002                     22.9                           40.0                         49.8                112.7
       2003                     21.9                           39.9                         46.2                108.0
                                                             Total Males and Females
       1988                     28.2                          39.5                          39.7                107.3
       1989                     31.4                          42.2                          44.4                117.9
       1990                     33.7                          44.7                          48.6                127.0
       1991   (2)               39.3                          46.6                          54.6                142.1
       1992                     36.7                          48.0                          56.5                141.3
       1993                     37.3                          44.9                          57.4                139.7
       1994                     37.5                          50.5                          56.6                144.6
       1995                     34.4                          52.3                          57.9                144.7
       1996                     37.2                          51.5                          59.6                148.4
       1997                     42.7                          56.1                          59.7                158.5
       1998                     42.5                          57.2                          71.9                171.6
       1999                     43.5                          63.4                          67.6                174.5
       2000                     43.7                          61.9                          62.9                168.6
       2001                     43.0                          61.4                          64.3                168.7
       2002                     42.3                          66.3                          72.3                180.9
       2003                     40.4                          63.9                          68.0                172.3
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) People who did not specify when they intended to look for work within the next two years are included in
    totals only.
(2) The June 1990 quarter figures have been excluded from the 1991 estimates.




                                                               87
Labour Market Statistics 2003




             88
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 5

Education and training
This chapter looks at qualifications obtained and training people have undertaken. The tables contain statistics
on highest educational qualifications by sex, industry, occupation, age and labour force statuses. Tables on
the number of people enrolled in formal post school study and apprenticeships are also provided.




                                                        89
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 5.01

                                                 Highest Educational Qualification
                                                     By labour force status and sex
                                                     Average for year ended March 2003
                                                                 Labour Force
                                                                                             Not in the                   Labour Force      Unemplo-
                                                                                                          Working-age
                                                                                              Labour                      Participation      yment
               Highest Qualification                 Employed    Unemployed        Total                  Population(1)
                                                                                              Force                           Rate            Rate

                                                                                   (000)                                                %

                                                                                                Males
No Qualification                                        198.9            17.8      216.7        149.6           366.3            59.2           8.2
School Certificate                                       98.5             5.6      104.1         31.2           135.3            76.9           5.3
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)      101.0             5.6      106.7         37.1           143.8            74.2           5.3
Other School Qualification                               32.5             2.6       35.1         33.9            69.0            50.8           7.4
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                   9.8             ..         9.9          5.1            15.0            66.2           ..
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)        366.0            11.2       377.2        61.4           438.6            86.0           3.0
Bachelors Degree                                        107.0             4.9       111.9        13.8           125.6            89.0           4.4
Post Graduate Qualification                              43.1             1.5        44.7         6.7            51.4            86.9           3.4
Post School Qualification Not Specified                  66.1             3.8        69.9        16.8            86.7            80.6           5.4
Not Specified                                             5.3             ..          5.5        19.1            24.7            22.5           ..
Total                                                 1,028.2            53.4     1,081.6       374.7         1,456.3            74.3           4.9
                                                                                               Females
No Qualification                                        154.1            13.2      167.4        248.9           416.3            40.2           7.9
School Certificate                                      103.4             4.9      108.3         64.7           173.0            62.6           4.5
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)      102.0             5.7      107.7         53.4           161.2            66.8           5.3
Other School Qualification                               34.9             1.9       36.9         74.2           111.0            33.2           5.3
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                  72.1             1.4       73.5         31.7           105.2            69.9           1.9
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)        209.5            11.6      221.1        76.2        297.2                74.4           5.3
Bachelors Degree                                         90.3             3.8       94.1        27.0        121.1                77.7           4.0
Post Graduate Qualification                              32.2             1.0       33.2         6.0          39.2               84.7           3.0
Post School Qualification Not Specified                  53.7             4.0       57.7        30.8          88.5               65.2           6.9
Not Specified                                             3.3             ..         3.6        14.1          17.6               20.1           ..
Total                                                   855.6            47.9      903.5       626.9      1,530.3                59.0           5.3
                                                                                      Total Males and Females
No Qualification                                        353.1            31.0      384.1       398.5        782.6                49.1           8.1
School Certificate                                      201.9            10.5      212.4        95.9        308.3                68.9           4.9
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)      203.0            11.4      214.4         90.5           304.9            70.3           5.3
Other School Qualification                               67.4             4.5       72.0        108.1           180.0            40.0           6.3
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                  81.9             1.5       83.4         36.8           120.2            69.4           1.8
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)        575.4           22.8        598.3       137.6           735.8            81.3           3.8
Bachelors Degree                                        197.3            8.7        206.0        40.7           246.7            83.5           4.2
Post Graduate Qualification                              75.3            2.5         77.8        12.7            90.5            86.0           3.2
Post School Qualification Not Specified                 119.8            7.8        127.6        47.6           175.2            72.8           6.1
Not Specified                                             8.6            ..           9.1        33.2            42.3            21.5           ..
Total                                                 1,883.8          101.3      1,985.1     1,001.5         2,986.6            66.5           5.1

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.
(2) Includes Higher School Certificate and Scholarship.
(3) Includes Technician Certificate.




                                                                        90
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 5.02

                                                Highest Educational Qualification
                                                           By age group and sex
                                                     Average for year ended March 2003

                                                          15-24       25-34       35-44        45-54       55-64     65 and Over   Total
               Highest Qualification
                                                                                                (000)

                                                                                                Males
No Qualification                                            79.7        45.8         53.0        52.2        53.7         82.0       366.3
School Certificate                                          50.1        23.5         21.7        19.9        12.1          8.1       135.3
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(1)          71.8        24.0         19.0        15.2          7.5         6.1       143.8
Other School Qualification                                  14.4         9.4          9.5         9.3          7.0        19.4        69.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                      ..          1.8          2.3         4.4          2.6         3.5        15.0
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(2)            45.5        91.1        112.5       91.0         59.9         38.6       438.6
Bachelors Degree                                            12.1        32.7         33.9       27.0         14.2          5.7       125.6
Post Graduate Qualification                                  1.2        10.4         13.9       14.2          7.4          4.3        51.4
Post School Qualification Not Specified                     10.6        15.0         19.4       16.8         14.7         10.2        86.7
Not Specified                                                ..          ..           1.7        1.6          1.1         18.7        24.7
Total                                                      286.4       254.7        286.9      251.6        180.1        196.6     1,456.3
                                                                                              Females
No Qualification                                            67.2        41.6         57.8       61.3         71.4        117.0       416.3
School Certificate                                          41.2        29.4         39.4       31.1         16.8         15.1       173.0
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(1)          70.1        32.5         29.6        14.6         7.4          6.9       161.2
Other School Qualification                                  15.4        13.4         14.3        13.6        11.0         43.3       111.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                      1.3        13.3         22.5        28.9        22.3         16.9       105.2
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(2)            43.0        75.9         76.4         57.1       29.8         15.1       297.2
Bachelors Degree                                            16.8        38.8         33.3         21.9         6.8         3.4       121.1
Post Graduate Qualification                                  1.7        10.3         11.2          9.9         3.9         2.2        39.2
Post School Qualification Not Specified                     11.3        17.3         21.4         17.9       12.5          8.1        88.5
Not Specified                                                ..          1.2          ..           ..          ..         13.0        17.6
Total                                                      268.9       273.7        306.8        257.0      182.9        240.9     1,530.3
                                                                                       Total Males and Females
No Qualification                                           146.9        87.4        110.7        113.5      125.1        199.0       782.6
School Certificate                                          91.2        52.9         61.1         51.0       28.9         23.1       308.3
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(1)         141.9        56.6         48.7        29.7        15.0         13.1       304.9
Other School Qualification                                  29.8        22.8         23.8        22.9        18.0         62.8       180.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                      1.7        15.1         24.8        33.3        24.9         20.4       120.2
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(2)            88.5       166.9        188.9       148.2        89.7         53.6       735.8
Bachelors Degree                                            29.0        71.5         67.2        48.9        21.0          9.1       246.7
Post Graduate Qualification                                  2.9        20.7         25.1        24.1        11.3          6.4        90.5
Post School Qualification Not Specified                     22.0        32.3         40.8        34.7        27.2         18.3       175.2
Not Specified                                                1.5         2.1          2.6         2.4         2.1         31.7        42.3
Total                                                      555.3       528.4        593.7       508.6       363.1        437.5     2,986.6

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Includes Higher School Certificate and Scholarship.
(2) Includes Technician Certificate.




                                                                         91
                                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 5.03

                                     Highest Educational Qualification of People Employed
                                                                    By industry (1) and sex
                                                              Average for year ended March 2003

                                                                                     Wholesale    Transport,
                                               Agriculture,                                                     Business                  Health
                                                                                       and         Storage
                                                Forestry      Manufac-     Constr-                                 and                     and      Other
                                                                                      Retail         and                      Education                         Total(5)
             Highest Qualification                 and         turing      uction                               Financial               Community Services(4)
                                                                                      Trade        Commu-
                                                Fishing                                                         Services(3)              Services
                                                                                       etc(2)      nication
                                                                                                           (000)

                                                                                                          Males
No Qualification                                     39.2        50.1        21.0          40.9        19.0          10.1         2.0         2.3      12.4        198.9
School Certificate                                   13.9        21.5         9.8          28.5         7.8           6.4         1.5         1.2       7.3         98.5
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
  Qualification(6)                                     9.8       15.0         5.7          32.8         5.4          15.6         3.1         1.7      11.0       101.0
Other School Qualification                             1.9        7.6         2.6          10.6         3.2           2.9         ..          ..        2.4        32.5
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                ..         ..          ..            ..          ..            ..          4.4         1.5       1.0         9.8
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(7)                             29.7        84.0        61.7          75.7        21.7        40.1           9.0         6.9      32.1       366.0
Bachelors Degree                                      3.2        11.0         2.6          13.7         5.5        37.2          11.3         6.3      14.7       107.0
Post Graduate Qualification                           ..          3.1         ..            2.3         1.2        12.2           9.6         6.8       5.9        43.1
Post School Qualification Not Specified               8.2        12.6         4.8          10.5         9.5         8.3           1.9         1.7       7.5        66.1
Not Specified                                         ..          1.0         ..            1.1         ..          ..            ..          ..        ..          5.3
Total                                               107.8       206.4       109.3         216.9        74.3       133.8          43.8        28.9      94.9     1,028.2
                                                                                                          Females
No Qualification                                     16.1        23.4         2.9          51.5         5.0        13.9           8.4        19.9      12.1        154.1
School Certificate                                    7.6        11.4         2.6          34.2         4.7        13.9           6.1        11.0      11.7        103.4
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
   Qualification(6)                                    5.4        8.3         1.7          35.1         4.6          18.0         6.5         8.1      13.9        102.0
Other School Qualification                             1.5        5.7         ..           12.3         1.0           5.3         1.3         3.1       3.8         34.9
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                4.2        1.5         ..            4.2         1.0           3.2        22.3        31.2       3.8         72.1
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(7)                             11.6        18.0         4.7          46.0          9.7         38.0        19.4        33.2      27.9       209.5
Bachelors Degree                                      2.0         5.0         ..           11.5          3.9         18.4        22.4        14.3      11.9        90.3
Post Graduate Qualification                           ..          1.4         ..            1.6          ..           5.5        10.3         7.1       5.1        32.2
Post School Qualification Not Specified               2.9         5.0         1.4          11.9          2.7          8.7         5.4         8.6       6.8        53.7
Not Specified                                         ..          ..          ..            ..           ..           ..          ..          ..        ..          3.3
Total                                                51.8        79.8        15.3         209.0         33.7        125.2       102.4       137.3      97.4       855.6
                                                                                                  Total Males and Females
No Qualification                                     55.3        73.5        23.9          92.4         24.0         24.0        10.4        22.3      24.5        353.1
School Certificate                                   21.5        32.8        12.3          62.6         12.5         20.3         7.7        12.2      19.0        201.9
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
  Qualification(6)                                   15.3        23.3         7.4          67.9        10.0          33.6         9.5         9.8      24.9       203.0
Other School Qualification                            3.4        13.3         3.2          22.9         4.3           8.2         2.1         3.5       6.2        67.4
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma               4.5         2.0         1.1           5.0         1.5           3.7        26.7        32.7       4.7        81.9
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(7)                             41.3       102.1        66.4         121.7        31.4          78.1        28.4        40.1      60.0       575.4
Bachelors Degree                                      5.2        16.0         3.1          25.2         9.5          55.6        33.8        20.5      26.6       197.3
Post Graduate Qualification                           1.1         4.5         ..            3.9         2.0          17.7        19.9        13.9      11.0        75.3
Post School Qualification Not Specified              11.1        17.6         6.2          22.5        12.2          16.9         7.3        10.3      14.4       119.8
Not Specified                                         ..          1.0         ..            1.8         ..            ..          ..          1.0       1.1         8.6
Total                                               159.6       286.3       124.6         425.9       108.0         259.1       146.1       166.2     192.4     1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) This is the combined Wholesale and Retail Trade; and Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants industries.
(3) This is the combined Finance and Insurance; and Property and Business Services industries.
(4) This is the combined Government Administration and Defence; Cultural and Recreational Services; and Personal and Other Services
     industries.
(5) Totals include categories: Mining; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply; and Not Specified.
(6) Includes Higher School Certificate and Scholarship.
(7) Includes Technician Certificate.




                                                                                     92
                                                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 5.04

                                     Highest Educational Qualification of People Employed
                                                                             By occupation and sex
                                                                  Average for year ended March 2003

                                                  Legislat                     Technic                                                            Plant
                                                    -ors,                       -ians                 Service     Agriculture                     and        Elemen-
                                                                                                                                                                          Not
                                                 Administ          Profes        and                    and          and           Trades       Machine        tary
                                                                                            Clerks                                                                       Speci-    Total
             Highest Qualification                 -rators        -sionals    Associate                Sales       Fishery         Workers      Operators     Occu-
                                                                                                                                                                          fied
                                                     and                       Profess                Workers      Workers                        and        pations
                                                 Managers                      -ionals                                                         Assemblers

                                                                                                                     (000)

                                                                                                                    Males
No Qualification                                          17.0         3.0           7.0        8.7       17.6          40.5           24.9          51.0        29.1         ..     198.9
School Certificate                                        12.0         2.1           5.5        8.1       14.0          15.1           14.3          15.5        11.9         ..      98.5
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
  Qualification(1)                                        16.9         6.2          11.7      11.5        20.5           10.6           8.7           7.3         7.4         ..     101.0
Other School Qualification                                 6.6         1.7           2.1       2.1         4.4            2.1           4.0           5.4         4.1         ..      32.5
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                    1.7         4.6           1.1         ..          ..             ..            ..            ..          ..        ..       9.8
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(2)                               53.3          33.2           42.2      14.0        27.9         31.6           107.7          40.4        15.2         ..     366.0
Bachelors Degree                                       22.8          48.6           15.7       6.2         4.5           3.5            2.0           1.8         1.7         ..     107.0
Post Graduate Qualification                             8.8          24.8            5.2       1.0         1.2             ..             ..            ..          ..        ..      43.1
Post School Qualification Not Specified                 8.6           7.1            8.9       3.7         7.1           8.5            5.3          12.7         4.1         ..      66.1
Not Specified                                             ..            ..             ..        ..          ..            ..             ..            ..          ..        ..       5.3
Total                                                 148.2         132.1           99.9      55.9        98.1        113.8           168.4         136.1        74.4       1.4    1,028.2
                                                                                                                   Females
No Qualification                                          12.8         2.4           9.0       28.1       48.8          14.4            2.6          13.6        22.4         ..     154.1
School Certificate                                        12.0         2.9           9.2       31.2       28.5           7.0            1.5           4.0         6.9         ..     103.4
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
  Qualification(1)                                         9.0        4.7           11.8      34.3        30.6               4.5        1.5           2.3         3.2         ..     102.0
Other School Qualification                                 5.2        1.2            3.1       8.4         9.5               1.1          ..          2.8         3.1         ..      34.9
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                    4.7       44.2            6.6       5.2         6.3               3.5          ..            ..          ..        ..      72.1
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(2)                                  21.7       20.8          37.6       52.8        48.9          10.5       4.2                5.8         7.1         ..     209.5
Bachelors Degree                                          11.2       43.8          13.9       10.5         7.3           1.8         ..                 ..          ..        ..      90.3
Post Graduate Qualification                                4.8       18.9           4.4        2.8           ..            ..        ..                 ..          ..        ..      32.2
Post School Qualification Not Specified                    5.6        4.4          10.4       12.5        12.8           2.3         ..               2.1         2.9         ..      53.7
Not Specified                                                ..         ..            ..         ..          ..            ..        ..                 ..          ..        ..       3.3
Total                                                     87.5      143.8         106.4      186.3       194.1          45.5      11.4               32.3        47.1       1.2      855.6
                                                                                                          Total Males and Females
No Qualification                                          29.8         5.4          16.0       36.8       66.4          54.9      27.5               64.5        51.4         ..     353.1
School Certificate                                        24.0         5.0          14.7       39.3       42.5          22.2      15.8               19.5        18.9         ..     201.9
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary
  Qualification(1)                                        25.9       10.9           23.5      45.9        51.1           15.1          10.1           9.6        10.6         ..     203.0
Other School Qualification                                11.7        3.0            5.2      10.5        13.8            3.2           4.5           8.2         7.2         ..      67.4
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                    6.3       48.8            7.7       5.4         6.8            3.9             ..          1.1         1.0         ..      81.9
Trade/Polytech/University
  Certificate/Diploma(2)                               75.1          54.0          79.7       66.8        76.7           42.1         111.9          46.2        22.3         ..     575.4
Bachelors Degree                                       34.0          92.4          29.6       16.6        11.9            5.3           2.2           2.6         2.4         ..     197.3
Post Graduate Qualification                            13.5          43.7           9.7        3.8         1.7            1.0             ..          1.1           ..        ..      75.3
Post School Qualification Not Specified                14.1          11.5          19.3       16.2        19.9           10.8           5.9          14.9         7.0         ..     119.8
Not Specified                                           1.1           1.3             ..         ..        1.3              ..            ..            ..          ..        ..       8.6
Total                                                 235.6         275.9         206.2      242.2       292.2          159.4         179.8         168.4       121.5       2.6    1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Includes Higher School Certificate and Scholarship.
(2) Includes Technician Certificate.




                                                                                             93
                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 5.05

                  Number of Formal Tertiary Students
                By highest qualification award level and sex
                                      As at 31 July 2002
             Level of Qualification                Males          Females            Total

Certificate                                          52,232          68,168          120,400
Diploma                                              21,290          32,251           53,541
Degree                                               49,723          70,828          120,551
Post-graduate University                             10,734          14,660           25,394
Total                                               133,979         185,907          319,886

Source: Ministry of Education
Note: Figures exclude students with enrolments finishing before or starting after 31 July.


Table 5.06

         Students Enrolled in Formal Qualifications at Tertiary Education Providers
                                         By field of study, year of enrolment and sex
                                                               As at 31 July
                                                                    2001                                      2002
                 Field of Study
                                                    Males         Females            Total      Males       Females    Total

Natural and Physical Sciences                       9,522           8,386            17,908      9,217        8,375    17,592
Information Technology                              9,745           7,166            16,911     10,474        8,873    19,347
Engineering and Related Technologies               18,067           2,830            20,897     18,338        2,991    21,329
Architecture and Building                           5,030           2,436             7,466      4,948        2,583     7,531
Agriculture and Environmental Studies               4,677           2,570             7,247      5,539        3,038     8,577
Health                                              3,622          15,024            18,646      4,067       16,226    20,293
Education                                           4,262          17,946            22,208      4,403       18,723    23,126
Management and Commerce                            24,639          36,658            61,297     28,472       40,480    68,952
Society and Culture                                20,155          38,048            58,203     24,479       45,183    69,662
Creative Arts                                       4,942           7,364            12,306      5,637        8,751    14,388
Food, Hospitality and Personal Services             1,797           4,709             6,506      2,028        5,134     7,162
Mixed Field Programmes                             17,397          20,469            37,866     16,377       25,550    41,927
Total Number of Students                          123,855         163,606           287,461    133,979      185,907   319,886
Source: Ministry of Education
Note: Figures exclude students with enrolments finishing before or starting after 31 July.
      Field of Study of non-Ministry funded Private Tertiary Establishments (PTEs) has been derived from Provider
      Type Definition.


Table 5.07

               Industry Trainee Stocks in Selected Industry Training Organisations
                                                              As at 30 June
       Industry Training Organisations              1998            1999             2000       2001          2002     2003

Building                                            2,906           4,075             3,816      2,787        3,151     3,931
Electro-technology                                  1,838           1,988             2,824      3,709        4,771     5,333
Engineering, Food and Manufacturing                 4,480           4,236             5,883      6,930        7,884     9,334
Hairdressing                                        1,590           1,739             1,566      1,517        1,493     1,439
Motor                                               3,903           2,408             2,440      2,587        2,985     3,443
Plumbing and Gasfitting                             2,007           1,496             1,386        947        1,095     1,080
Printing and Allied Industries                        450             410               359        390          434       463
Total - All Industry Trainees(1)                   45,392          49,577            63,102     66,390       78,240    86,337

Source: Skill New Zealand
(1) Total includes Industry Training Organisations not listed in the above table.




                                                                     94
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 6

Labour cost and labour income
This chapter looks at the price and cost of labour, as well income received from providing labour. Tables from
the Quarterly Employment Survey look at average hourly and weekly earnings by sex, sector and industry.
Tables from the New Zealand Income Survey contain information on income people have received weekly by
source, sex, and age. Tables are also provided on average and median hourly earnings for those earning
income from wage/salary jobs by occupation, sex and full-time/part-time.




                                                       95
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.01


                                       Average Earnings(1)(2)
                                                   By sex
                       Average Hourly Earnings                               Average Weekly Earnings
As at March Ordinary Time    Overtime          Total              Ordinary Time     Overtime         Total
                                                              $

                                                           Males
   1989            13.91            16.46            14.09         522.02              45.21         567.23
   1990            14.82            17.53            15.01         553.83              50.06         603.89
   1991            15.43            18.43            15.62         577.40              45.00         622.40
   1992            15.87            18.45            16.02         599.16              40.93         640.09
   1993            15.93            18.14            16.05         607.15              40.20         647.35
   1994            16.07            18.27            16.19         615.24              39.05         654.29
   1995            16.39            18.54            16.51         631.12              41.65         672.77
   1996            16.92            18.93            17.03         652.55              40.00         692.55
   1997            17.62            19.56            17.71         676.18              38.01         714.18
   1998            17.99            19.98            18.08         689.12              35.82         724.94
   1999            18.53            20.08            18.59         711.94              31.85         743.79
   2000            18.81   R        20.01   R        18.85 R       725.19 R            31.74   R     756.93   R
   2001            19.46   R        20.66   R        19.51 R       751.71 R            31.65   R     783.36   R
   2002            20.14   R        21.17   R        20.18 R       776.57 R            32.85   R     809.42   R
   2003            20.58   R        21.68   R        20.62 R       802.93 R            35.91   R     838.84   R
                                                          Females
   1989            11.48            14.29            11.56         407.45              15.69         423.14
   1990            12.16            15.47            12.27         428.82              17.43         446.26
   1991            12.77            16.17            12.86         450.63              15.76         466.40
   1992            13.13            16.35            13.20         466.27              13.10         479.37
   1993            13.13            16.27            13.20         468.66              11.68         480.33
   1994            13.27            16.62            13.34         474.58              11.72         486.30
   1995            13.50            16.80            13.56         485.48              12.26         497.75
   1996            13.90            17.22            13.96         500.35              11.15         511.49
   1997            14.54            18.12            14.60         521.88              11.13         533.02
   1998            15.04            18.19            15.10         536.06              11.09         547.15
   1999            15.55            18.03            15.58         554.04               9.69         563.73
   2000            15.88   R        18.02   R        15.91 R       563.05 R            11.03   R     574.07   R
   2001            16.34   R        18.39   R        16.37 R       574.57 R            10.82   R     585.40   R
   2002            16.98   R        19.29   R        17.02 R       614.09 R            10.78   R     624.87   R
   2003            17.45   R        19.33   R        17.47 R       633.20 R            11.16   R     644.36   R
                                                Males and Females Combined
   1989            12.91            15.96            13.07         472.98              32.58         505.56
   1990            13.70            17.05            13.88         499.35              35.84         535.19
   1991            14.30            17.89            14.47         521.45              32.10         553.55
   1992            14.69            17.97            14.83         539.84              28.50         568.34
   1993            14.72            17.75            14.84         545.06              27.41         572.47
   1994            14.86            17.92            14.98         551.98              26.76         578.73
   1995            15.14            18.18            15.26         565.67              28.44         594.11
   1996            15.61            18.59            15.72         583.70              26.95         610.65
   1997            16.28            19.26            16.39         606.66              25.90         632.56
   1998            16.70            19.58            16.79         619.19              24.52         643.71
   1999            17.20            19.62            17.27         638.79              21.59         660.38
   2000            17.50   R        19.51   R        17.56 R       649.46 R            22.07   R     671.53   R
   2001            18.06   R        20.08   R        18.11 R       667.95 R            21.80   R     689.75   R
   2002            18.72   R        20.72   R        18.77 R       700.80 R            22.56   R     723.36   R
   2003            19.15   R        21.12   R        19.21 R       722.64 R            24.20   R     746.84   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or immediately before the 20th of the middle month
    of the quarter.
(2) For information on how averages are calculated see the section titled Calculations in the
    Quarterly Employment Survey portion in the Explanatory Notes.




                                                       96
                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.02


    Average Total Hourly Earnings(1)(2)
           By institutional sector and sex
   As at      Public Sector   Private Sector        Total
   March                             $

                                 Males
   1989            16.47          13.15          14.09
   1990            17.09          14.23          15.01
   1991            18.11          14.82          15.62
   1992            18.68          15.18          16.02
   1993            18.69          15.28          16.05
   1994            19.08          15.44          16.19
   1995            19.74          15.77          16.51
   1996            20.33          16.30          17.03
   1997            21.65          16.91          17.71
   1998            22.41          17.25          18.08
   1999            23.11          17.76          18.59
   2000            23.78 R        17.99 R        18.85      R
   2001            24.83 R        18.58 R        19.51      R
   2002            26.41 R        19.09 R        20.18      R
   2003            26.69 R        19.57 R        20.62      R
                                Females
   1989            13.27          10.61          11.56
   1990            14.09          11.32          12.27
   1991            15.04          11.81          12.86
   1992            15.50          12.10          13.20
   1993            15.53          12.14          13.20
   1994            15.61          12.35          13.34
   1995            15.94          12.61          13.56
   1996            16.25          13.05          13.96
   1997            17.30          13.59          14.60
   1998            17.85          14.07          15.10
   1999            18.86          14.37          15.58
   2000            19.10 R        14.83 R        15.91      R
   2001            19.73 R        15.23 R        16.37      R
   2002            21.35 R        15.53 R        17.02      R
   2003            21.92 R        15.95 R        17.47      R
                      Males and Females Combined
   1989            14.98          12.19          13.07
   1990            15.69          13.10          13.88
   1991            16.60          13.64          14.47
   1992            17.09          13.97          14.83
   1993            17.09          14.04          14.84
   1994            17.28          14.23          14.98
   1995            17.73          14.53          15.26
   1996            18.12          15.03          15.72
   1997            19.27          15.61          16.39
   1998            19.84          15.99          16.79
   1999            20.66          16.40          17.27
   2000            21.10 R        16.70 R        17.56      R
   2001            21.89 R        17.20 R        18.11      R
   2002            23.48 R        17.62 R        18.77      R
   2003            23.90 R        18.07 R        19.21      R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or
     immediately before the 20th of the middle month
     of the quarter.
(2) For information on how averages are calculated
    see the section titled Calculations in the Quarterly
    Employment Survey portion in the Explanatory Notes.




                              97
                                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.03


                                                     Average Total Hourly Earnings(1)(2)
                                                                   By industry (3) and sex
                                                                                                             As at March
                    Industry Division                       1994      1995      1996      1997      1998      1999       2000    2001        2002        2003
                                                                                                                  $

                                                                                                               Males
Forestry and Mining                                          15.54     16.14     16.45     17.16     18.57    18.76    17.22 R   17.88   R   19.53   R   19.94   R
Manufacturing                                                15.13     15.52     16.06     16.52     16.92    17.41    17.87 R   18.37   R   19.05   R   19.53   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                            16.97     17.74     18.70     19.75     20.95    21.65    24.54 R   25.92   R   28.12   R   29.28   R
Construction                                                 13.20     13.58     14.09     14.58     14.91    15.39    16.03 R   16.88   R   16.80   R   17.28   R
Wholesale Trade                                              17.00     17.30     17.87     18.70     19.00    19.81    19.94 R   20.11   R   21.37   R   20.94   R
Retail Trade                                                 11.93     12.12     12.51     12.80     13.20    13.12    13.24 R   13.65   R   14.19   R   14.61   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                         11.98     12.13     12.42     12.91     13.23     12.89   12.62 R   13.21   R   13.73   R   13.66   R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services                16.86     16.87     17.22     17.98     18.06    18.07    18.19 R   18.58   R   19.49   R   19.31   R
Finance and Insurance                                        23.32     24.19     26.16     27.13     27.07    29.64    29.77 R   32.58   R   33.11   R   34.94   R
Property and Business Services                               19.79     19.88     20.56     21.62     21.80    23.12    22.81 R   23.71   R   24.72   R   25.30   R
Government Administration and Defence                        19.36     19.91     20.69     21.60     21.76    23.83    24.07 R   25.60   R   26.16   R   27.27   R
Education                                                    18.47     19.08     19.24     20.63     21.82    21.60    22.94 R   23.65   R   25.12   R   26.17   R
Health and Community Services                                19.74     20.54     21.74     22.81     23.59    24.63    25.47 R   25.08   R   26.83   R   27.53   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                           17.19     17.70     17.61     18.14     18.25     19.96   21.22 R   21.11   R   20.65   R   24.14   R
Personal and Other Services                                  18.78     18.98     19.15     20.05     20.09    20.15    19.45 R   20.45   R   20.09   R   20.03   R
Total                                                        16.19     16.51     17.03     17.71     18.08    18.59    18.85 R   19.51   R   20.18   R   20.62   R
                                                                                                              Females
Forestry and Mining                                          13.49     14.28     15.00     15.71     16.52    17.75    16.33 R   17.46   R   19.40   R   19.91   R
Manufacturing                                                11.71     11.98     12.46     12.89     13.38    13.89    14.44 R   14.91   R   15.28   R   15.51   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                            14.46     14.91     16.04     16.34     17.81    18.85    20.66 R   19.41   R   21.13   R   21.80   R
Construction                                                 12.03     12.33     12.93     13.44     14.07    14.34    14.08 R   14.70   R   15.22   R   15.91   R
Wholesale Trade                                              13.30     13.47     14.12     14.89     15.36    16.04    16.59 R   16.58   R   17.38   R   18.13   R
Retail Trade                                                  9.91     10.01     10.27     10.53     10.96    11.07    11.44 R   11.70   R   11.90   R   12.47   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                         10.31     10.47     10.67     10.98     11.30     11.36   11.23 R   11.87   R   11.68   R   11.99   R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services                14.54     14.96     15.07     15.81     16.09    16.38    16.67 R   17.20   R   17.63   R   16.90   R
Finance and Insurance                                        14.65     15.06     16.14     16.84     18.14    18.29    19.47 R   19.64   R   20.42   R   21.56   R
Property and Business Services                               14.46     14.76     15.28     16.10     16.60    16.95    17.44 R   18.05   R   18.75   R   19.44   R
Government Administration and Defence                        15.59     15.91     16.29     17.08     17.47    18.51    18.93 R   19.60   R   20.50   R   21.35   R
Education                                                    15.31     15.50     15.48     16.71     17.21    18.86    19.23 R   19.73   R   21.99   R   22.75   R
Health and Community Services                                14.58     14.79     15.17     15.69     16.05    16.36    16.57 R   16.89   R   17.36   R   17.89   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                           14.30     14.55     14.83     15.55     15.65     16.59   15.77 R   16.83   R   17.26   R   17.16   R
Personal and Other Services                                  12.50     12.77     13.11     13.66     13.74    13.55    14.02 R   14.98   R   15.26   R   15.31   R
Total                                                        13.34     13.56     13.96     14.60     15.10    15.58    15.91 R   16.37   R   17.02   R   17.47   R
                                                                                                    Males and Females Combined
Forestry and Mining                                          15.38     15.97     16.33     17.04     18.38    18.68    17.14 R   17.84   R   19.52   R   19.94   R
Manufacturing                                                14.21     14.56     15.09     15.57     15.99    16.51    16.97 R   17.47   R   18.08   R   18.49   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                            16.56     17.23     18.18     19.01     20.24    21.01    23.60 R   24.19   R   26.30   R   27.24   R
Construction                                                 13.11     13.49     14.01     14.50     14.85    15.31    15.90 R   16.67   R   16.66   R   17.15   R
Wholesale Trade                                              15.83     16.10     16.70     17.51     17.86    18.60    18.84 R   18.94   R   20.07   R   20.04   R
Retail Trade                                                 10.95     11.09     11.42     11.68     12.10    12.11    12.36 R   12.68   R   13.05   R   13.52   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                         11.01     11.17     11.41     11.80     12.13     12.00   11.78 R   12.46   R   12.52   R   12.66   R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services                16.16     16.29     16.56     17.30     17.43    17.55    17.73 R   18.18   R   18.94   R   18.58   R
Finance and Insurance                                        18.17     18.77     20.20     20.97     21.73    22.79    23.40 R   24.70   R   25.31   R   26.82   R
Property and Business Services                               17.08     17.29     17.90     18.85     19.21    20.06    20.09 R   20.87   R   21.73   R   22.38   R
Government Administration and Defence                        17.56     17.97     18.50     19.35     19.54    21.00    21.34 R   22.33   R   23.05   R   24.01   R
Education                                                    16.54     16.85     16.84     18.17     18.82    19.79    20.55 R   21.08   R   23.07   R   23.90   R
Health and Community Services                                15.60     15.89     16.42     17.06     17.51    17.87    18.08 R   18.34   R   18.97   R   19.50   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                           15.71     16.10     16.18     16.82     16.88     18.29   18.60 R   19.05   R   19.10   R   21.01   R
Personal and Other Services                                  15.90     16.10     16.25     17.00     16.96    16.91    16.92 R   17.90   R   17.81   R   17.79   R
Total                                                        14.98     15.26     15.72     16.39     16.79    17.27    17.56 R   18.11   R   18.77   R   19.21   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or immediately before the 20th of the middle month of the quarter.
(2) For information on how averages are calculated see the section titled Calculations in the Quarterly Employment Survey
    portion in the Explanatory Notes.
(3) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.




                                                                                    98
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.04

                                 Average Weekly Income for All People
                                           Aged 15 years and over by sex
                                                            Average Weekly Income from
                     Wages and                              Government                                              All Sources
  June Quarter                       Self-employment                          Investments(1)   Other Transfers
                      Salaries                               Transfers                                              Collected(2)
                                                                          $

                                                                        Males
  1997                    339                121                   54              …                     6                520
  1998                    342                131                   59              …                     8                541
  1999                    345                144                   57              …                     7                556
  2000                    352                138                   60              …                     8                559
  2001                    383                141                   58              …                     7                591
  2002(3)                 394                151                   54 R            29                    8                635 R
  2003                    414                164                   53              35                    9                674
                                                                       Females
  1997                    187                  33                  79              …                     2                301
  1998                    193                  29                  89              …                     2                314
  1999                    204                  38                  87              …                     3                333
  2000                    212                  36                  88              …                     2                340
  2001                    231                  42                  86              …                     3                363
  2002(3)                 240                  51                  82 R            22                    2                397 R
  2003                    254                  50                  81              23                    3                410
                                                               Total Males and Females
  1997                    261                 76                   67              …                     4                408
  1998                    265                 79                   74              …                     5                425
  1999                    272                 89                   73              …                     5                441
  2000                    280                 86                   74              …                     5                447
  2001                    305                 90                   73              …                     5                474
  2002(3)                 315                 99                   68 R            25                    5                513 R
  2003                    332                105                   67              29                    6                539
Source: New Zealand Income Survey

(1) Investment income was not collected prior to the June 2002 quarter.
(2) All Sources Collected includes investment income in the June 2002 quarter.
(3) From 2002, there is a discontinuity in the time series for the 'government transfers' and 'all sources' categories.




                                                                 99
                                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.05

                                               Average Weekly Income for All People
                                                 Aged 15 years and over by age group
                                                                                                                                  65 and   Total All
   June         15-19      20-24       25-29       30-34       35-39       40-44       45-49      50-54       55-59       60-64
                                                                                                                                   Over     Ages
  Quarter
                                                                                   $

                                                                         Wages and Salaries
  1997            78         266        359         368         369       362       396            347         258        140        8       261
  1998            73         277        373         367         366       374       403            350         269        140        8       265
  1999            73         262        381         389         376       378       407            366         291        154       13       272
  2000            75         264        394         410         394       397       438            362         265        159       12       280
  2001            92         299        432         439         428       427       471            396         290        182       16       305
  2002            95         297        408         464         451       445       463            425         331        206       22       315
  2003           101         307        442         446         477       478       505            450         368        225       21       332
                                                                           Self-employment
  1997             2          13          42         83         114         133       143          142         126         99       16        76
  1998             0           7          37         79         126         142       160          158         125         88       13        79
  1999             3          14          41         92         125         171       179          182         149         91       13        89
  2000             1          10          33         77         134         149       161          178         143        101       20        86
  2001             1          10          29         82         139         168       163          211         145         88       15        90
  2002             1          22          40         79         162         173       185          196         170        122       19        99
  2003             4          13          53        101         146         194       201          201         166        130       26       105
                                                                        Government Transfers
  1997            19          48          49          47         43         38        34             35          52       110      204        67
  1998            21          55          58          55         49         47        38             38          51       108      221        74
  1999            21          61          58          51         49         42        31             35          49       101      221        73
  2000            24          56          51          51         47         43        32             37          56        99      235        74
  2001            22          54          51          47         43         38        29             33          49        85      245        73
  2002(1)         22 R        45 R        48 R        46 R       44 R       38 R      29 R           30 R        41 R      70 R    231 R      68 R
  2003            15          49          49          45         41         34        30             33          40        74      229        67
                                                                            Investments(2)
  2002             1           2           3           9         13          16        22            38          66         62      57        25
  2003             1           2           3           9         21          28        31            47          53         87      55        29
                                                                           Other Transfers
  1997             0           0           0           0           0         1           0            1           6         11      18          4
  1998             0           0           0           0           0         0           0            1           8         17      25          5
  1999             0           0           0           0           0         0           0            2          10         19      22          5
  2000             0           0           0           0           0         0           0            6           6         14      22          5
  2001             0           0           0           0           0         0           1            2           5         16      21          5
  2002             0           0           0           0           0         0           0            1           6         20      24          5
  2003             0           0           0           0           0         0           0            1          12         16      26          6
                                                                        All Sources Collected
  1997            98         327        450         498         526         534       573          525         443        359      246       408
  1998            95         340        469         503         544         566       604          549         454        353      267       425
  1999            97         338        483         534         554         595       621          587         500        364      268       441
  2000           100         331        480         542         577         593       635          586         473        375      289       447
  2001           115         365        513         571         612         636       666          645         491        372      295       474
  2002(1)(3)     118 R       367 R      501 R       600 R       673 R       672 R     697 R        692 R       614 R      481 R    349 R     513 R
  2003           120         372        549         605         688         735         766        733         640        529      353       539

Source: New Zealand Income Survey
(1) From 2002, there is a discontinuity in the time series for the 'government transfers' and 'all sources' categories.
(2) Investment income was not collected prior to the June 2002 quarter.
(3) All Sources Collected includes investment income in the June 2002 quarter.




                                                                           100
                                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.06

                       Average and Median Hourly Earnings for Those Earning Income
                                         from Wage/Salary Jobs
                                              By main job occupation (1) and sex

                                                                                                       Plant and
          Legislators,
                                      Technicians                Service     Agriculture               Machine
 June     Administrat-   Professi-                                                          Trades                 Elementary
                                     and Associate   Clerks     and Sales    and Fishery               Operators                 Total(2)
Quarter     ors and       onals                                                             Workers                Occupations
                                     Professionals               Workers      Workers                     and
           Managers
                                                                                                      Assemblers


                                                                          Males
                                                              Average Hourly Earnings ($)
 1997          21.43        21.01          18.64     14.40         12.82        12.63        14.16        13.36         11.00     16.01
 1998          22.09        22.09          19.76     14.97         12.60        12.16        15.19        14.54         11.50     16.41
 1999          23.99        22.85          19.40     15.87         12.87        11.72        15.10        14.45         11.36     16.74
 2000          23.78        21.56          19.77     15.38         13.35        12.07        15.48        14.48         11.64     16.71
 2001          23.92        22.67          21.67     17.51         13.75        13.12        15.92        15.01         12.61     17.69
 2002          24.84        24.23          21.17     16.68         13.14        13.41        16.27        15.04         12.72     17.94
 2003          28.13        25.88          22.37     17.88         13.23        14.63        16.89        15.64         13.20     19.03
                                                              Median Hourly Earnings ($)
 1997          19.00        19.51          16.62     12.67         10.75        10.64        13.75        12.50         10.00     13.95
 1998          19.56        19.68          17.50     13.13         10.58        11.00        14.30        13.50         10.56     14.44
 1999          20.00        20.70          17.50     14.50         11.00        10.63        14.60        13.00         10.80     14.50
 2000          19.95        19.39          18.18     13.66         11.25        11.00        15.00        13.10         10.93     14.60
 2001          20.92        20.83          17.98     15.00         11.13        12.09        15.00        13.50         11.99     15.00
 2002          21.00        21.58          18.46     15.00         11.00        12.12        15.37        14.00         11.94     15.34
 2003          22.78        22.25          18.33     15.50         11.00        12.90        16.00        14.58         12.00     15.70
                                                                Number of People (000)
 1997           94.2         82.5           86.0      44.4         80.9          42.6        106.4         98.7          73.4     712.1
 1998           86.3         83.2           79.7      46.3         77.3          43.7        109.4        100.9          68.5     699.2
 1999           88.5         82.5           83.6      44.2         82.1          48.8         98.0         94.1          70.5     699.1
 2000           96.6         80.2           73.1      43.8         82.4          50.2        102.5        109.4          67.4     710.6
 2001          104.2         85.8           86.6      41.4         89.8          52.3        104.1        101.6          66.1     741.5
 2002           99.5        104.6           73.6      53.7         86.7          54.4        118.5        113.2          62.7     770.2
 2003          104.9         99.8           76.4      49.3         89.2          57.8        122.1        113.1          70.2     785.7
                                                                       Females
                                                              Average Hourly Earnings ($)
 1997          16.57        16.91          14.33     13.32          9.95        10.35        10.98         9.79         10.13     13.14
 1998          17.20        18.63          15.13     13.48         10.01        10.01        11.20        10.69          9.91     13.67
 1999          17.65        18.58          15.44     13.93         10.58        10.92        12.17        10.84         10.10     13.97
 2000          18.29        19.30          15.84     14.10         10.72        11.76        13.21        11.47         10.30     14.47
 2001          19.89        19.55          15.90     14.68         11.08        11.14        13.67        11.70         10.39     14.94
 2002          20.09        20.03          16.54     15.51         11.20        11.83        13.30        12.55         11.18     15.34
 2003          24.03        22.08          17.93     16.78         11.65        12.13        14.75        12.83         11.52     16.57
                                                              Median Hourly Earnings ($)
 1997          15.00        15.00          13.43     12.48          9.41         9.38         9.90         9.50          9.50     11.58
 1998          15.77        16.62          14.00     12.82          9.70         9.64        10.50         9.80          9.57     12.09
 1999          15.62        17.00          14.25     13.10         10.00         9.60        11.20        10.00         10.00     12.30
 2000          16.17        17.78          14.42     13.33         10.00        10.00        12.00        10.40         10.00     12.53
 2001          16.78        18.00          14.52     14.00         10.00        10.00        12.50        10.80         10.00     13.14
 2002          17.50        18.50          15.20     14.48         10.00        10.40        11.50        11.48         10.00     13.46
 2003          18.60        19.43          15.48     15.00         10.55        10.70        12.50        11.60         10.50     13.80
                                                                Number of People (000)
 1997           44.9        109.9           82.2     182.3         141.2         15.3          9.5         27.2          47.0     661.1
 1998           53.7        112.1           86.4     168.2         139.6         14.9          6.1         27.2          45.9     655.9
 1999           54.5        118.8           79.4     163.0         149.6         21.7          7.3         24.4          48.5     670.6
 2000           59.3        122.1           93.5     147.1         157.8         17.0          9.4         28.7          37.2     677.0
 2001           69.5        128.2           95.7     158.4         161.3         18.1          9.8         31.3          40.7     714.2
 2002           64.6        131.8           89.1     176.3         170.0         20.6          7.9         29.7          42.1     735.2
 2003           57.9        138.5           94.5     173.7         190.1         18.9          8.3         28.0          42.2     753.6




                                                                    101
                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.06
continued

                        Average and Median Hourly Earnings for Those Earning Income
                                          from Wage/Salary Jobs
                                                 By main job occupation (1) and sex

                                                                                                        Plant and
           Legislators,
                                       Technicians             Service and Agriculture                  Machine
  June     Administrat-   Professi-                                                          Trades                 Elementary
                                      and Associate   Clerks     Sales     and Fishery                  Operators                 Total(2)
 Quarter     ors and       onals                                                             Workers                Occupations
                                      Professionals             Workers     Workers                        and
            Managers
                                                                                                       Assemblers


                                                                Total Males and Females
                                                               Average Hourly Earnings ($)
  1997          19.91       18.71           16.55     13.53        10.99        12.09          13.90       12.53         10.65      14.62
  1998          20.22       20.11           17.35     13.80        10.93        11.61          14.97       13.73         10.86      15.08
  1999          21.57       20.32           17.46     14.35        11.39        11.47          14.89       13.71         10.84      15.38
  2000          21.68       20.19           17.56     14.39        11.62        11.99          15.29       13.86         11.16      15.62
  2001          22.31       20.80           18.63     15.26        12.03        12.61          15.72       14.22         11.76      16.34
  2002          22.96       21.89           18.63     15.78        11.85        12.98          16.09       14.52         12.10      16.67
  2003          26.67       23.67           19.91     17.03        12.16        14.01          16.75       15.09         12.57      17.82
                                                               Median Hourly Earnings ($)
  1997          17.37       17.05           14.81     12.50        9.75         10.00          13.50       11.44          9.85      12.53
  1998          17.95       17.78           15.50     12.93       10.00         10.36          14.00       12.54         10.00      13.28
  1999          18.26       18.20           15.73     13.38       10.00         10.23          14.42       12.30         10.00      13.43
  2000          18.22       18.22           16.00     13.43       10.00         10.60          15.00       12.50         10.00      13.54
  2001          18.94       18.80           16.00     14.00       10.33         11.80          15.00       13.00         10.70      14.00
  2002          19.39       19.66           16.62     14.50       10.30         11.70          15.07       13.50         10.99      14.50
  2003          20.88       20.49           16.75     15.00       10.79         12.15          16.00       14.00         11.25      14.98
                                                                 Number of People (000)
  1997          139.0       192.4           168.1     226.7       222.1          57.9          115.8       126.0         120.4    1,373.3
  1998          139.9       195.3           166.1     214.5       217.0          58.6          115.5       128.1         114.4    1,355.1
  1999          143.1       201.4           163.1     207.1       231.7          70.5          105.3       118.5         119.0    1,369.7
  2000          155.9       202.3           166.6     190.9       240.2          67.2          111.9       138.1         104.6    1,387.6
  2001          173.6       214.0           182.3     199.7       251.1          70.3          113.9       132.9         106.8    1,455.7
  2002          164.1       236.4           162.6     230.1       256.7          75.1          126.4       142.9         104.8    1,505.5
  2003          162.7       238.4           170.9     223.0       279.4          76.7          130.4       141.1         112.3    1,539.3

Source: New Zealand Income Survey
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1999.
(2) Totals include not specified category.




                                                                     102
                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 6.07

            Average Hourly and
             Weekly Income for
         Those Earning Income from
             Wage/Salary Jobs
                    By full-time and
               part-time status and sex

                                                    Total Males
    June Quarter         Males         Females
                                                   and Females


                                   Full-time ($/week)
        1997               727             556          659
        1998               755             581          685
        1999               768             606          702
        2000               779             623          715
        2001               810             641          740
        2002               817             659          753
        2003               857             685          787
                                   Full-time ($/hour)
        1997               16.21           13.43        15.09
        1998               16.81           14.23        15.78
        1999               17.26           14.83        16.28
        2000               17.37           15.26        16.51
        2001               18.18           15.66        17.14
        2002               18.35           16.03        17.40
        2003               19.20           16.69        18.18
                             Number of People(1) (000)
        1997               538.6       358.7          897.3
        1998               593.2       393.7          986.9
        1999               596.6       405.2        1,001.8
        2000               608.5       418.0        1,026.5
        2001               636.1       448.4        1,084.5
        2002               659.0       454.0        1,113.0
        2003               677.5       464.3        1,141.8
                                   Part-time ($/week)
        1997               238             196          207
        1998               221             194          202
        1999               183             198          194
        2000               182             209          201
        2001               238             214          221
        2002               233             229          230
        2003               265             258          260
                                   Part-time ($/hour)
        1997               15.07           12.69        13.30
        1998               13.88           12.71        13.04
        1999               13.49           12.66        12.88
        2000               12.66           13.19        13.04
        2001               14.88           13.74        14.06
        2002               15.42           14.27        14.59
        2003               17.89           16.38        16.78
                             Number of People(1) (000)
        1997                84.2       225.3          309.5
        1998                97.6       251.2          348.8
        1999                94.6       259.7          354.3
        2000                98.6       256.8          355.4
        2001               101.8       263.2          365.0
        2002               105.7       276.6          382.3
        2003               104.2       285.1          389.3
Source: New Zealand Income Survey
(1) Totals may not add due to rounding.



                             103
Labour Market Statistics 2003




            104
                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 7

Hours of work
This chapter looks at the hours people have worked from both the business and household stance. From the
Quarterly Employment Survey, there are tables on sex and industry by average weekly paid hours. The other
tables are from the Household Labour Force Survey, in which a range of socio-demographic variables on
numbers of people in actual and usual hour bands are available. Tables on average actual and average usual
hours worked by people are also provided.




                                                    105
                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.01


       Average Weekly Paid Hours(1)(2)
                          By sex
              Ordinary Time         Overtime        Total
As at March
                                    Hours

                                 Males
   1989              37.52          2.75             40.27
   1990              37.37          2.85             40.23
   1991              37.41          2.44             39.86
   1992              37.74          2.22             39.96
   1993              38.11          2.22             40.33
   1994              38.28          2.14             40.41
   1995              38.50          2.25             40.74
   1996              38.56          2.11             40.68
   1997              38.38          1.94             40.32
   1998              38.31          1.79             40.10
   1999              38.43          1.59             40.02
   2000              38.56 R        1.59 R           40.15   R
   2001              38.63 R        1.53 R           40.16   R
   2002              38.56 R        1.55 R           40.11   R
   2003              39.02 R        1.66 R           40.67   R
                                Females
   1989              35.49          1.10             36.59
   1990              35.25          1.13             36.38
   1991              35.28          0.97             36.25
   1992              35.50          0.80             36.30
   1993              35.68          0.72             36.40
   1994              35.76          0.71             36.46
   1995              35.97          0.73             36.70
   1996              35.98          0.65             36.63
   1997              35.89          0.61             36.50
   1998              35.64          0.61             36.25
   1999              35.63          0.54             36.17
   2000              35.46 R        0.61 R           36.07   R
   2001              35.17 R        0.59 R           35.76   R
   2002              36.16 R        0.56 R           36.72   R
   2003              36.30 R        0.58 R           36.87   R
                      Males and Females Combined
   1989              36.65          2.04             38.69
   1990              36.45          2.10             38.55
   1991              36.47          1.79             38.27
   1992              36.74          1.59             38.33
   1993              37.02          1.54             38.57
   1994              37.14          1.49             38.64
   1995              37.36          1.56             38.93
   1996              37.40          1.45             38.85
   1997              37.26          1.34             38.60
   1998              37.09          1.25             38.34
   1999              37.14          1.10             38.24
   2000              37.11 R        1.13 R           38.25   R
   2001              36.99 R        1.09 R           38.08   R
   2002              37.44 R        1.09 R           38.53   R
   2003              37.73 R        1.15 R           38.88   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or
    immediately before the 20th of the middle month of
    the quarter.
(2) For information on how averages are calculated see
    the section titled Calculations in the Quarterly
    Employment Survey portion in the Explanatory Notes.




                              106
                                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.02


                                                           Average Weekly Paid Hours(1)(2)
                                                                               By industry (3)
                                                                                                                 As at March
                    Industry Division                        1994       1995       1996         1997    1998      1999       2000        2001        2002        2003
                                                                                                                    Hours

                                                                                                                Ordinary Time
Forestry and Mining                                         39.02      39.39     39.49         39.35   37.73     38.79      40.49   R   39.88   R   39.39   R   40.23   R
Manufacturing                                               38.12      38.32     38.28         38.06   38.10     38.43      38.61   R   38.65   R   38.62   R   39.33   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                           39.43      39.48     39.53         39.99   40.15     40.04      38.47   R   37.88   R   38.06   R   38.17   R
Construction                                                39.94      40.23     40.22         40.46   40.48     41.37      40.97   R   39.88   R   40.46   R   40.56   R
Wholesale Trade                                             38.24      38.64     38.77         38.46   38.24     38.86      38.31   R   38.68   R   38.72   R   38.97   R
Retail Trade                                                35.09      35.26     35.56         35.27   35.14     35.70      35.94   R   36.30   R   37.05   R   37.21   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                        34.40      34.62     34.92         34.98   35.08     34.51      36.97   R   37.24   R   38.26   R   38.54   R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services               38.92      39.11     39.10         39.00   38.74     39.01      37.64   R   38.68   R   37.19   R   38.54   R
Finance and Insurance                                       37.59      37.74     37.48         37.25   36.14     36.86      37.88   R   37.10   R   37.49   R   37.15   R
Property and Business Services                              36.01      36.56     37.03         36.90   36.82     36.68      36.26   R   35.54   R   36.51   R   36.04   R
Government Administration and Defence                       37.94      38.17     38.11         38.38   38.67     38.77      38.36   R   36.34   R   38.94   R   38.93   R
Education                                                   36.83      36.47     36.90         36.67   36.57     35.59      35.88   R   36.18   R   36.56   R   36.53   R
Health and Community Services                               35.75      36.28     35.61         35.52   35.08     34.36      34.29   R   33.81   R   35.37   R   35.66   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                          34.60      35.00     34.76         35.01   34.19     34.09      33.66   R   34.07   R   35.09   R   36.32   R
Personal and Other Services                                 36.63      36.36     36.22         35.94   36.16     37.36      35.98   R   36.96   R   34.75   R   35.30   R
Total                                                       37.14      37.36     37.40         37.26   37.09     37.14      37.11   R   36.99   R   37.44   R   37.73   R
                                                                                                                  Overtime
Forestry and Mining                                         3.20       2.74       2.47         2.34     1.79      2.34       2.21   R   1.97    R   2.46    R   2.75    R
Manufacturing                                               3.23       3.42       3.15         2.95     2.87      2.48       2.44   R   2.53    R   2.43    R   2.66    R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                           2.23       2.07       2.22         1.79     1.74      1.36       1.42   R   1.36    R   1.24    R   1.04    R
Construction                                                2.74       2.61       2.59         2.41     2.15      2.32       2.42   R   1.93    R   2.29    R   2.34    R
Wholesale Trade                                             1.08       1.24       1.30         1.17     1.16      0.87       0.80   R   0.81    R   0.75    R   0.78    R
Retail Trade                                                1.09       1.01       0.82         0.65     0.57      0.53       0.75   R   0.78    R   0.74    R   0.96    R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                        0.53       0.52       0.49         0.48     0.50      0.37       0.56   R   0.42    R   0.45    R   0.49    R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services               2.77       3.16       2.82         2.97     2.75      2.51       2.28   R   2.33    R   2.31    R   2.24    R
Finance and Insurance                                       0.70       0.77       0.76         0.68     0.69      0.71       0.55   R   0.47    R   0.48    R   0.47    R
Property and Business Services                              0.52       0.50       0.51         0.40     0.39      0.31       0.36   R   0.43    R   0.32    R   0.36    R
Government Administration and Defence                       0.42       0.56       0.56         0.51     0.46      0.36       0.31   R   0.27    R   0.34    R   0.37    R
Education                                                   0.05       0.08       0.09         0.08     0.08      0.12       0.12   R   0.05    R   0.06    R   0.08    R
Health and Community Services                               0.48       0.45       0.59         0.56     0.57      0.64       0.75   R   0.71    R   0.65    R   0.57    R
Cultural and Recreational Services                          0.66       0.51       0.52         0.48     0.36      0.30       0.38   R   0.31    R   0.30    R   0.32    R
Personal and Other Services                                 0.71       0.78       0.43         0.39     0.29      0.36       0.47   R   0.26    R   0.45    R   0.30    R
Total                                                       1.49       1.56       1.45         1.34     1.25      1.10       1.13   R   1.09    R   1.09    R   1.15    R
                                                                                                                    Total
Forestry and Mining                                         42.22      42.13     41.95         41.69   39.52     41.13      42.70   R   41.85   R   41.85   R   42.98   R
Manufacturing                                               41.34      41.74     41.42         41.01   40.97     40.91      41.06   R   41.19   R   41.05   R   42.00   R
Electricity, Gas and Water Supply                           41.65      41.55     41.75         41.78   41.89     41.40      39.89   R   39.24   R   39.30   R   39.21   R
Construction                                                42.68      42.85     42.81         42.87   42.64     43.69      43.39   R   41.81   R   42.75   R   42.90   R
Wholesale Trade                                             39.32      39.88     40.07         39.63   39.40     39.72      39.11   R   39.48   R   39.47   R   39.75   R
Retail Trade                                                36.18      36.27     36.38         35.92   35.72     36.23      36.69   R   37.08   R   37.79   R   38.17   R
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                        34.93      35.14     35.42         35.46   35.59     34.89      37.53   R   37.66   R   38.71   R   39.03   R
Transport, Storage and Communication Services               41.69      42.27     41.92         41.97   41.49     41.52      39.92   R   41.01   R   39.50   R   40.78   R
Finance and Insurance                                       38.29      38.52     38.24         37.94   36.83     37.57      38.43   R   37.57   R   37.97   R   37.62   R
Property and Business Services                              36.52      37.06     37.54         37.30   37.21     36.99      36.62   R   35.97   R   36.82   R   36.40   R
Government Administration and Defence                       38.36      38.72     38.66         38.89   39.12     39.14      38.67   R   36.61   R   39.28   R   39.30   R
Education                                                   36.88      36.55     36.98         36.75   36.65     35.71      36.01   R   36.23   R   36.63   R   36.61   R
Health and Community Services                               36.23      36.72     36.20         36.07   35.65     34.99      35.04   R   34.51   R   36.02   R   36.23   R
Cultural and Recreational Services                          35.26      35.51     35.29         35.48   34.55     34.39      34.04   R   34.38   R   35.39   R   36.64   R
Personal and Other Services                                 37.34      37.14     36.64         36.33   36.45     37.72      36.45   R   37.22   R   35.19   R   35.60   R
Total                                                       38.64      38.93     38.85         38.60   38.34     38.24      38.25   R   38.08   R   38.53   R   38.88   R
Source: Quarterly Employment Survey
(1) The data relates to the payweek ending on, or immediately before the 20th of the middle month of the quarter.
(2) For information on how averages are calculated see the section titled Calculations in the Quarterly Employment Survey portion
    in the Explanatory Notes.
(3) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.




                                                                                         107
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.03


        People Employed: Actual and Usual Weekly Hours Worked(1)
                                                   By sex
                                  Average for year ended March 2003
                                                               Job
                              Main                            Other                              All
 Weekly Hours
                     Actual          Usual           Actual           Usual          Actual            Usual
                                                              (000)

                                                              Males
0                      62.3              7.2           991.6           992.6            62.0               7.1
1-9                    35.6             32.8            12.7            13.5            34.4              32.0
10-19                  46.9             44.0            10.9            10.8            45.7              42.6
20-29                  56.1             41.4             5.6             5.7            53.4              38.8
30-34                  57.1             33.2             1.8             1.7            55.7              31.6
35-39                  48.2             42.0              ..              ..            48.0              41.5
40                    282.8            343.8              ..              ..           276.5             337.2
41-44                  45.7             49.4              ..              ..            46.6              50.8
45-49                 118.6            138.5              ..              ..           119.8             139.4
50-59                 147.8            167.2              ..              ..           151.9             171.9
60-69                  73.9             79.3              ..              ..            77.6              82.5
70-79                  29.8             28.8              ..              ..            31.6              30.6
80-89                  11.6             11.2              ..              ..            12.2              11.9
90 and more             7.5              6.5              ..              ..             8.4               7.3
Not Specified           4.3              2.9             4.3             2.9             4.3               2.9
Total               1,028.2          1,028.2         1,028.2         1,028.2         1,028.2           1,028.2
                                                             Females
0                      65.1             7.1            807.7           808.0           64.4               6.9
1-9                    76.6            75.7             24.2            24.7           73.5              72.6
10-19                 107.8           111.4             14.7            15.0          103.4             107.3
20-29                 126.7           129.4              4.3             4.2          123.5             125.5
30-34                  75.6            68.1               ..              ..           76.0              68.2
35-39                  66.8            75.2               ..              ..           68.3              76.7
40                    197.1           241.7               ..              ..          194.8             238.6
41-44                  22.5            22.4               ..              ..           24.5              24.7
45-49                  41.9            44.9               ..              ..           45.2              48.9
50-59                  42.9            47.0               ..              ..           46.8              51.0
60-69                  19.5            21.2               ..              ..           21.1              22.7
70-79                   5.3             4.7               ..              ..            5.9               5.3
80-89                   2.8             2.8               ..              ..            2.9               3.0
90 and more             2.0             1.9               ..              ..            2.2               2.1
Not Specified           3.0             2.2              3.0             2.2            3.0               2.2
Total                 855.5           855.6            855.5           855.6          855.5             855.6
                                                    Total Males and Females
0                     127.4             14.2         1,799.4         1,800.5           126.5              14.0
1-9                   112.1            108.5            36.9            38.3           107.9             104.6
10-19                 154.7            155.4            25.7            25.8           149.1             149.9
20-29                 182.8            170.8             9.9             9.9           176.9             164.3
30-34                 132.7            101.3             2.6             2.6           131.7              99.7
35-39                 115.0            117.2              ..              ..           116.3             118.2
40                    479.9            585.6              ..              ..           471.4             575.8
41-44                  68.1             71.8              ..              ..            71.2              75.6
45-49                 160.5            183.4              ..              ..           165.0             188.3
50-59                 190.7            214.1              ..              ..           198.7             222.9
60-69                  93.4            100.4              ..              ..            98.7             105.2
70-79                  35.1             33.6              ..              ..            37.5              35.9
80-89                  14.4             14.1              ..              ..            15.1              14.9
90 and more             9.5              8.4              ..              ..            10.6               9.4
Not Specified           7.3              5.1             7.3             5.1             7.3               5.1
Total               1,883.7          1,883.8         1,883.7         1,883.8         1,883.7           1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Actual hours are calculated using the three-month calendar quarter rather than the 13 week
    HLFS quarter. Estimates of numbers of employed may differ slightly from those given in
    other tables.


                                                      108
                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.04


                              Average Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs(1)
                                           By full-time and part-time status and sex
                                  Males                                          Females                  Males and Females Combined
  Average for
  Year ended      Full-time     Part-time        Total           Full-time       Part-time   Total     Full-time   Part-time    Total
    March
                                                                                   Hours

        1988        45.84         13.59          43.77            41.13           15.28      32.80      44.21       14.92      39.14
        1989        46.11         13.80          43.88            41.17           15.03      32.29      44.41       14.76      38.94
        1990        46.27         13.62          43.86            41.46           14.99      32.60      44.58       14.68      39.02
        1991        46.28         12.89          43.34            41.59           14.40      32.02      44.61       14.04      38.39
        1992        46.32         13.02          42.97            41.72           14.30      31.84      44.67       13.97      38.08
        1993        46.55         12.75          43.15            41.58           14.16      31.81      44.76       13.79      38.15
        1994        46.70         13.13          43.47            41.79           14.49      31.97      44.94       14.14      38.40
        1995        47.24         13.22          43.97            41.90           14.60      31.90      45.33       14.26      38.62
        1996        47.23         13.21          43.85            41.88           14.62      32.06      45.29       14.26      38.62
        1997        47.36         13.52          43.92            41.92           14.90      31.89      45.39       14.55      38.52
        1998        47.02         13.39          43.37            41.70           14.77      31.68      45.08       14.41      38.13
        1999        46.99         13.65          43.21            41.91           14.73      31.54      45.13       14.44      37.93
        2000        47.08         13.11          43.21            41.91           14.90      31.89      45.16       14.41      38.08
        2001        46.90         13.23          43.05            41.62           14.92      32.05      44.92       14.45      38.07
        2002        46.75         13.60          42.92            41.61           15.20      31.92      44.83       14.76      37.92
        2003        46.58         13.99          42.88            41.59           15.33      32.05      44.72       14.97      37.96
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Calculated as total usual hours worked in all jobs divided by people employed who have stated their hours.




Table 7.05

                          People Employed:
                 Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs
                               By status in employment
                            Average for year ended March 2003

                                                 Self-
                                               employed          Unpaid
                    Paid                                                           Not
     Weekly                     Employer         and             Family                      Total
                  Employee                                                       Specified
     Hours                                      Without          Worker
                                               Employees

                                                         (000)

0-19                 222.2               8.6       30.3                  7.2        ..        268.5
20-29                135.9               5.9       20.1                  2.4        ..        164.3
30-39                182.1               9.1       25.7                  1.1        ..        218.0
40                   512.4           22.2          40.2             ..              ..        575.8
41-49                220.4           15.5          27.4             ..              ..        263.8
50-59                154.1           32.5          35.8             ..              ..        222.9
60 and more            87.7          39.3          37.3                  1.1        ..        165.4
Not Specified           4.1         ..            ..                ..              ..           5.1
Total              1,519.0          133.5         217.4              13.5           ..       1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey




                                                                           109
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.06

                     People Employed: Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs
                                                          By age group
                                               Average for year ended March 2003

                  15-19     20-24    25-29       30-34     35-39         40-44      45-49    50-54    55-59      60 and More    Total
Weekly Hours
                                                                            (000)

0-19              66.4       29.0     16.5        23.3      26.1          24.0       18.6     17.9     17.2            29.6      268.5
20-29             12.3       12.6     10.4        14.6      21.6          23.6       22.0     17.0     14.4            15.7      164.3
30-39             10.4       19.3     20.5        21.0      27.6          30.0       29.8     23.0     19.0            17.4      218.0
40                26.0       67.8     70.8        72.3      72.0          73.2       66.9     59.0     39.6            28.2      575.8
41-49              9.3       27.7     31.0        32.7      34.7          37.5       31.0     27.4     20.3            12.4      263.8
50-59              4.3       15.1     22.2        28.3      28.2          34.2       30.7     27.8     18.5            13.5      222.9
60 and more        2.8        9.2     12.6        17.5      22.0          26.7       28.5     21.4     14.0            10.8      165.4
Not Specified      ..         ..       ..          ..        ..            ..         ..       ..       ..            ..           5.1
Total            131.4      181.2    184.4       210.3     232.7         250.0      227.7    194.2    143.5           128.3    1,883.8

Source: Household Labour Force Survey



Table 7.07

                People Employed: Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs
                                                   By industry (1)
                                      Average for year ended March 2003

                                                                      Busi-
                 Agricul-                       Whole-     Trans-                            Health
                                                                      ness
                  ture,                          sale       port,                             and
                            Manu-                                      and                             Other
                 Fores-              Constr-     and      Storage                   Educa-   Com-
   Weekly                    fac-
                                                Retail
                                                                     Finan-                             Ser-       Total(5)
                    try              uction                 and                      tion    munity
   Hours                    turing
                                                Trade
                                                                       cial                           vices(4)
                   and                                    Commu-                              Ser-
                                                                       Ser-
                 Fishing                         etc(2)   nication                           vices
                                                                     vices(3)

                                                                            (000)

0-19              22.8       15.3      8.7        90.3       9.3          32.3       29.9     30.2     29.0           268.5
20-29             12.7       11.4      4.7        43.5       6.4          22.9       19.4     25.5     17.0           164.3
30-39             14.2       17.3      6.9        45.5      10.5          40.0       23.3     33.6     25.9           218.0
40                28.1      123.5     39.8       115.6      34.3          80.9       28.5     50.2     68.0           575.8
41-49             17.0       59.9     30.3        60.1      15.7          30.0       12.7     11.8     23.7           263.8
50-59             24.4       39.1     22.4        40.2      16.2          32.8       19.9      8.6     16.9           222.9
60 and more       40.0       19.3     11.5        29.5      15.3          19.7       12.3      5.6     11.1           165.4
Not Specified      ..         ..       ..          1.3       ..            ..         ..       ..       ..              5.1
Total            159.6      286.3    124.6       425.9     108.0         259.1      146.1    166.2    192.4         1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) This is the combined Wholesale and Retail Trade; and Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants industries.
(3) This is the combined Finance and Insurance; and Property and Business Services industries.
(4) This is the combined Government Administration and Defence; Cultural and Recreational Services; and
    Personal and Other Services industries.
(5) Totals include categories: Mining; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply; and Not Specified.




                                                                   110
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.08

                             People Employed: Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs
                                                               By occupation (1)
                                                   Average for year ended March 2003

                Legisla-
                  tors,                                                                            Plant and
                                     Technicians
                Admin-                                                      Agriculture            Machine
                                         and                    Services                  Trades                               Not
                 istra-    Profes-                                             and                 Operators   Elementary
   Weekly                             Associate     Clerks     and Sales                  Work-                               Speci-    Total
                  tors     sionals                                           Fishery                  and      Occupations
   Hours                               Profes-                  Workers                     ers                                fied
                   and                                                       Workers                Assem-
                                       sionals
                 Mana-                                                                               blers
                  gers

                                                                                (000)

0-19              10.8       23.9           27.4     42.3          93.0          21.4        6.2         8.8         34.2       ..       268.5
20-29             11.4       24.4           19.8     30.8          45.2          11.1        4.4         5.7         11.2       ..       164.3
30-39             19.2       34.1           31.5     46.6          41.8          15.2        9.0         9.1         11.2       ..       218.0
40                63.2       86.8           71.6     88.1          63.2          30.3      72.1        63.7          35.9       ..       575.8
41-49             39.9       38.3           25.3     21.1          26.8          18.3      46.3        32.7          15.1       ..       263.8
50-59             51.3       41.8           19.4      9.1          13.5          23.7      28.7        26.3             8.9     ..       222.9
60 and more       39.1       25.7           10.7      3.6           8.2          39.0      12.8        21.5             4.8     ..       165.4
Not Specified      ..         ..            ..        ..           ..            ..         ..         ..            ..         ..         5.1
Total            235.6      275.9          206.2    242.2         292.2         159.4     179.8       168.4         121.5       2.6    1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990.



Table 7.09

      Total Actual Hours Worked in
            All Jobs During an
       Average Week in a Year(1)(2)
   Average for Year        Actual       Annual Change
    ended March             (000)        (000)          %

         1987              55,191              -       -
         1988              54,880           -311    -0.6
         1989              52,202         -2,678    -4.9
         1990              51,802           -400    -0.8
         1991              51,172           -630    -1.2
         1992              50,637           -535    -1.0
         1993              51,670          1,033     2.0
         1994              54,009          2,339     4.5
         1995              57,152          3,143     5.8
         1996              59,632          2,480     4.3
         1997              60,626            994     1.7
         1998              60,612            -14     0.0
         1999              60,508           -104    -0.2
         2000              61,916          1,408     2.3
         2001              62,736            820     1.3
         2002              63,890          1,154     1.8
         2003              65,868          1,978     3.1
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Actual hours are calculated using the three-month
    calendar quarter rather than the 13 week HLFS
    quarter.
(2) Only those people employed who stated their
    hours are included in these figures.



                                                                          111
                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.10


                       Average Actual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs(1)(2)(3)
                                      By full-time and part-time status and sex
                                 Males                                 Females                    Males and Females Combined
 Average for
    Year          Full-time     Part-time       Total     Full-time   Part-time      Total       Full-time    Part-time   Total
ended March
                                                                       Hours

     1987           41.75         13.42        40.02       37.35        14.37        29.89        40.26           14.17   35.79
     1988           41.75         12.96        39.82       37.25        14.07        29.68        40.19           13.82   35.53
     1989           41.67         13.09        39.60       36.86        13.81        28.95        40.01           13.65   35.06
     1990           42.23         12.94        39.99       37.24        13.77        29.33        40.48           13.58   35.40
     1991           41.82         13.28        39.31       36.95        13.46        28.68        40.09           13.42   34.66
     1992           42.28         13.57        39.39       37.34        13.61        28.78        40.51           13.60   34.72
     1993           42.68         13.34        39.72       37.53        13.64        29.02        40.82           13.56   35.00
     1994           43.02         13.90        40.21       37.87        13.86        29.23        41.17           13.87   35.37
     1995           43.64         14.00        40.78       37.92        14.06        29.18        41.59           14.05   35.64
     1996           43.37         13.58        40.41       37.73        13.94        29.16        41.33           13.85   35.41
     1997           43.21         13.11        40.11       37.70        13.82        28.81        41.21           13.64   35.04
     1998           43.30         13.33        40.04       37.66        13.91        28.81        41.25           13.76   35.01
     1999           43.50         13.72        40.13       38.36        13.96        29.05        41.62           13.89   35.11
     2000           43.87         13.35        40.39       38.35        14.20        29.39        41.83           13.97   35.40
     2001           43.38         13.35        39.93       37.88        14.21        29.41        41.32           13.97   35.16
     2002           43.03         13.73        39.65       37.83        14.23        29.16        41.09           14.09   34.88
     2003           43.18          13.9        39.85       37.94        14.44        29.40        41.22           14.29   35.10

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) People who were employed but absent from work for part or all of the survey reference week are included
    in these averages.
(2) Actual hours are calculated using the three-month calendar quarter rather than the 13-week HLFS quarter.
(3) Calculated as total actual hours worked in all jobs divided by people employed who have stated their hours.




                                                                112
                                 Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 7.11


      Average Actual Weekly Hours Worked in Main Job(1)(2)(3)
                                 By industry (4) and sex
                           Average for year ended March 2003

                                                                                         Males and
                                                                 Males    Females        Females
                       Industry Division
                                                                                         Combined
                                                                             Hours

Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing                                45.84      27.73          39.96
Manufacturing                                                    40.34      32.83          38.24
Construction                                                     40.79      24.37          38.78
Wholesale and Retail Trade                                       37.93      28.35          33.57
Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants                             35.07      27.28          30.32
Transport and Storage                                            42.57      31.81          39.79
Communication Services                                           37.33      31.86          34.92
Finance and Insurance                                            39.60      31.74          35.09
Property and Business Services                                   39.13      29.40          34.66
Education                                                        32.44      27.26          28.81
Health and Community Services                                    37.27      27.94          29.57
Other Services                                                   36.66      29.71          33.14
Total(5)                                                         39.42      28.85          34.62

Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) People who were employed but absent from work for part or all of the survey
    reference week are included in these averages.
(2) Actual hours are calculated using the three-month calendar quarter rather than the
    13-week HLFS quarter.
(3) Calculated as total actual hours worked in main job divided by people employed who
    have stated their hours.
(4) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(5) Total include categories: Mining; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply; and Not
    Specified.




                                              113
Labour Market Statistics 2003




            114
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 8

Ethnic groups
This chapter contains a range of socio-demographic trends on ethnic groups. The tables contain information
on the working age-population, people employed and unemployed, highest educational attainment and income.
Ethnic groups (grouped total responses) from the 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings are also provided.




                                                     115
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.01

                 People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                           By ethnic group and sex
                            Labour Force                                                             Labour Force
   Average for                                                     Not in the        Working-age                         Unemployment
                                                                                                     Participation
   Year ended    Employed   Unemployed           Total            Labour Force       Population(2)                           Rate
                                                                                                         Rate
    March(1)
                                                 (000)                                                               %

                                                                 Males
                                                            European/Päkehä
      1987          758.7         21.8            780.6            218.4                  998.9            78.1                 2.8
      1991          718.7         52.4            771.1            268.7                1,039.7            74.2                 6.8
      1996          799.8         38.6            838.4            276.5                1,114.9            75.2                 4.6
      1997          810.3         38.4            848.7            271.4                1,120.1            75.8                 4.5
      1998          803.1         40.8            843.9            275.8                1,119.7            75.4                 4.8
      1999          792.0         47.2            839.1            281.4                1,120.5            74.9                 5.6
      2000          789.2         42.0            831.2            283.4                1,114.6            74.6                 5.1
      2001          797.2         36.3            833.5            281.9                1,115.4            74.7                 4.3
      2002          801.8         32.6            834.4            270.3                1,104.7            75.5                 3.9
      2003          810.1         30.6            840.7            273.2                1,113.9            75.5                 3.6
                                                                 Mäori
      1987           74.5          8.8             83.3             18.2                  101.6            82.0                10.5
      1991           59.3         16.6             75.9             27.6                  103.5            73.3                21.8
      1996           74.6         12.7             87.3             32.9                  120.2            72.6                14.5
      1997           74.8         13.3             88.1             35.8                  123.8            71.1                15.1
      1998           77.0         15.1             92.1             35.1                  127.2            72.4                16.4
      1999           72.3         17.3             89.6             35.0                  124.5            71.9                19.3
      2000           78.6         14.6             93.2             34.2                  127.3            73.2                15.6
      2001           84.7         12.6             97.3             34.4                  131.7            73.9                13.0
      2002           88.9         11.8            100.7             34.6                  135.3            74.4                11.7
      2003           97.2         11.4            108.6             35.3                  143.9            75.5                10.5
                                                                Pacific Peoples(3)
      1987           25.1          1.5             26.6                   5.8              32.4            82.1                 5.5
      1991           21.6          7.4             29.0                  11.0              40.0            72.5                25.6
      1996           28.4          5.1             33.4                  14.0              47.4            70.5                15.2
      1997           32.0          5.7             37.8                  15.6              53.4            70.7                15.1
      1998           34.0          7.0             41.0                  16.5              57.5            71.3                17.1
      1999           35.3          6.6             41.9                  17.9              59.8            70.1                15.8
      2000           38.3          6.1             44.4                  20.2              64.6            68.7                13.8
      2001           39.8          5.8             45.6                  19.2              64.8            70.4                12.7
      2002           45.3          4.8             50.0                  20.3              70.4            71.1                 9.5
      2003           47.9          4.5             52.4                  23.0              75.4            69.5                 8.6
                                                                     Other(3)
      1987           38.8           ..             40.0                  10.3              50.4            79.4                  ..
      1991           32.1          3.8             35.9                  12.0              48.0            74.9                10.7
      1996           33.3          4.3             37.6                  19.5              57.1            65.9                11.5
      1997           37.2          4.8             42.0                  23.8              65.8            63.8                11.3
      1998           42.7          7.3             50.0                  26.6              76.6            65.3                14.6
      1999           46.2          7.3             53.5                  34.2              87.8            61.0                13.6
      2000           53.6          6.7             60.3                  32.5              92.8            65.0                11.1
      2001           54.1          6.2             60.3                  35.1              95.4            63.2                10.2
      2002           66.5          6.7             73.2                  41.0             114.2            64.1                 9.2
      2003           72.0          6.8             78.8                  42.7             121.4            64.9                 8.6
                                                                     Total(4)
      1987          903.2         33.3            936.5                 254.4           1,191.0            78.6                 3.6
      1991          831.9         80.3            912.2                 319.5           1,231.7            74.1                 8.8
      1996          936.9         60.9            997.8                 343.1           1,340.9            74.4                 6.1
      1997          956.1         62.4          1,018.5                 347.3           1,365.8            74.6                 6.1
      1998          957.7         70.4          1,028.1                 354.4           1,382.6            74.4                 6.8
      1999          946.3         78.4          1,024.7                 368.6           1,393.3            73.5                 7.7
      2000          960.7         69.5          1,030.1                 370.9           1,401.0            73.5                 6.7
      2001          977.8         61.1          1,038.8                 371.6           1,410.4            73.7                 5.9
      2002        1,003.2         56.0          1,059.2                 366.5           1,425.7            74.3                 5.3
      2003        1,208.3         53.4          1,081.6                 374.7           1,456.3            74.3                 4.9

                                                          116
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.01
continued
                 People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                           By ethnic group and sex
                            Labour Force                                                             Labour Force
   Average for                                                     Not in the        Working-age                         Unemployment
                                                                                                     Participation
   Year ended    Employed   Unemployed           Total            Labour Force       Population(2)                           Rate
                                                                                                         Rate
    March(1)
                                                 (000)                                                               %

                                                                Females
                                                            European/Päkehä
      1987          540.9         21.4            562.3            476.5                1,038.8            54.1                 3.8
      1991          556.8         36.5            593.3            487.4                1,080.6            54.9                 6.2
      1996          635.3         30.2            665.5            489.9                1,155.5            57.6                 4.5
      1997          655.6         31.7            687.3            477.4                1,164.7            59.0                 4.6
      1998          646.4         32.6            679.0            485.1                1,164.1            58.3                 4.8
      1999          645.1         36.2            681.3            480.3                1,161.6            58.7                 5.3
      2000          650.4         32.8            683.2            475.9                1,159.1            58.9                 4.8
      2001          655.5         28.7            684.1            469.6                1,153.7            59.3                 4.2
      2002          667.7         27.5            695.2            452.1                1,147.3            60.6                 4.0
      2003          673.4         27.2            700.7            451.1                1,151.7            60.8                 3.9
                                                                 Mäori
      1987           52.8          6.6             59.5             52.5                  112.0            53.1                11.1
      1991           46.6         11.8             58.4             63.1                  121.4            48.1                20.2
      1996           60.2         11.9             72.1             68.8                  140.9            51.2                16.5
      1997           62.7         11.7             74.3             67.5                  141.9            52.4                15.7
      1998           63.8         14.2             78.0             66.9                  144.9            53.8                18.3
      1999           64.3         13.9             78.2             68.8                  147.0            53.2                17.7
      2000           69.8         12.6             82.4             68.4                  150.7            54.6                15.2
      2001           74.7         11.3             86.0             70.8                  156.8            54.9                13.1
      2002           78.5         10.9             89.5             69.5                  159.0            56.3                12.2
      2003           84.2         11.8             95.9             68.6                  164.5            58.3                12.2
                                                                Pacific Peoples(3)
      1987           19.2          1.4             20.6                  14.4              35.0            58.9                 6.8
      1991           18.1          4.2             22.3                  20.2              42.6            52.5                19.0
      1996           23.7          4.2             27.9                  28.8              56.7            49.2                15.1
      1997           27.3          4.7             32.0                  30.4              62.4            51.3                14.7
      1998           32.3          4.8             37.1                  29.3              66.4            55.9                13.0
      1999           31.3          4.9             36.2                  30.9              67.1            54.0                13.6
      2000           32.6          4.5             37.1                  33.4              70.5            52.6                12.2
      2001           34.0          3.5             37.5                  34.0              71.5            52.4                 9.4
      2002           34.9          3.4             38.3                  34.6              72.9            52.5                 8.9
      2003           38.3          3.9             42.2                  34.3              76.4            55.2                 9.2
                                                                     Other(3)
      1987           27.7           ..             28.8                 22.2               51.0            56.5                  ..
      1991           25.5          2.9             28.4                 22.5               50.9            55.8                10.2
      1996           28.9          3.4             32.3                 30.0               62.3            51.9                10.6
      1997           30.4          3.9             34.3                 35.3               69.6            49.3                11.4
      1998           35.6          4.7             40.3                 42.0               82.3            49.0                11.8
      1999           40.1          5.9             46.0                 48.1               94.1            48.9                12.9
      2000           42.4          4.6             47.0                 51.6               98.6            47.7                 9.8
      2001           45.8          4.4             50.2                 54.8              105.0            47.8                 8.7
      2002           54.2          4.8             58.9                 64.0              122.9            47.9                 8.1
      2003           59.1          4.8             64.0                 72.1              136.1            47.0                 7.5
                                                                     Total(4)
      1987          644.6         30.7            675.4                567.9            1,243.2            54.3                 4.5
      1991          647.3         55.4            702.8                593.4            1,296.1            54.2                 7.9
      1996          748.7         49.8            798.5                618.0            1,416.4            56.4                 6.2
      1997          777.8         52.0            829.8                611.7            1,441.6            57.6                 6.3
      1998          778.2         56.5            834.7                623.8            1,458.5            57.2                 6.8
      1999          781.1         60.9            842.0                628.6            1,470.6            57.3                 7.2
      2000          795.8         54.5            850.3                629.6            1,479.9            57.5                 6.4
      2001          811.4         48.0            859.4                630.4            1,489.8            57.7                 5.6
      2002          836.1         46.6            882.7                621.2            1,503.9            58.7                 5.3
      2003          855.6         47.9            903.5                626.9            1,530.3            59.0                 5.3

                                                          117
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.01
continued
                         People Employed, Unemployed and Not in the Labour Force
                                                         By ethnic group and sex
                                         Labour Force                                                                Labour Force
    Average for                                                                    Not in the        Working-age                         Unemployment
                                                                                                                     Participation
    Year ended           Employed         Unemployed            Total             Labour Force       Population(2)                           Rate
                                                                                                                         Rate
     March(1)
                                                                (000)                                                                %

                                                                      Total Males and Females
                                                                          European/Päkehä
       1987                1,299.6              43.2           1,342.8           694.9                  2,037.7            65.9                 3.2
       1991                1,275.4              88.9           1,364.3           756.0                  2,120.3            64.3                 6.5
       1996                1,435.0              68.8           1,503.9           766.5                  2,270.4            66.2                 4.6
       1997                1,465.9              70.0           1,535.9           748.9                  2,284.8            67.2                 4.6
       1998                1,449.5              73.4           1,522.9           760.9                  2,283.8            66.7                 4.8
       1999                1,437.1              83.4           1,520.5           761.6                  2,282.1            66.6                 5.5
       2000                1,439.6              74.8           1,514.4           759.3                  2,273.7            66.6                 4.9
       2001                1,452.7              64.9           1,517.6           751.5                  2,269.1            66.9                 4.3
       2002                1,469.5              60.2           1,529.7           722.4                  2,252.1            67.9                 3.9
       2003                1,483.5              57.8           1,541.3           724.3                  2,265.6            68.0                 3.8
                                                                                Mäori
       1987                  127.3              15.4             142.8             70.8                   213.5            66.9                10.8
       1991                  105.9              28.3             134.3             90.7                   224.9            59.7                21.1
       1996                  134.8              24.6             159.3           101.7                    261.1            61.0                15.4
       1997                  137.4              25.0             162.4           103.3                    265.7            61.1                15.4
       1998                  140.8              29.4             170.1           102.0                    272.1            62.5                17.3
       1999                  136.6              31.1             167.8           103.8                    271.6            61.8                18.6
       2000                  148.4              27.1             175.5           102.5                    278.1            63.1                15.5
       2001                  159.5              23.9             183.3           105.2                    288.5            63.6                13.0
       2002                  167.4              22.7             190.2           104.1                    294.3            64.6                12.0
       2003                  181.4              23.1             204.6           103.9                    308.4            66.3                11.3
                                                                                Pacific Peoples(3)
       1987                   44.4               2.8               47.2                  20.1              67.4            70.0                 6.1
       1991                   39.7              11.7               51.3                  31.2              82.5            62.2                22.7
       1996                   52.0               9.3               61.3                  42.8             104.1            58.9                15.2
       1997                   59.4              10.4               69.8                  46.0             115.8            60.2                14.9
       1998                   66.3              11.8               78.1                  45.8             124.0            63.0                15.1
       1999                   66.6              11.5               78.2                  48.7             126.9            61.6                14.8
       2000                   70.8              10.6               81.5                  53.6             135.1            60.3                13.1
       2001                   73.8               9.3               83.1                  53.2             136.3            61.0                11.2
       2002                   80.1               8.2               88.3                  54.9             143.2            61.7                 9.3
       2003                   86.2               8.4               94.5                  57.3             151.8            62.3                 8.9
                                                                                     Other(3)
       1987                   66.6               2.3              68.8                  32.5              101.4            67.9                 3.1
       1991                   57.6               6.7              64.3                  34.6               98.9            65.0                10.5
       1996                   62.2               7.8              69.9                  49.5              119.4            58.6                11.1
       1997                   67.6               8.7              76.2                  59.1              135.4            56.3                11.4
       1998                   78.3              12.0              90.4                  68.6              159.0            56.8                13.3
       1999                   86.3              13.2              99.5                  82.4              181.9            54.7                13.3
       2000                   96.0              11.3             107.3                  84.1              191.4            56.0                10.5
       2001                  100.0              10.5             110.5                  89.9              200.4            55.1                 9.5
       2002                  120.6              11.5             132.1                 105.0              237.1            55.7                 8.7
       2003                  131.1              11.6             142.7                 114.8              257.5            55.4                 8.1
                                                                                     Total(4)
       1987                1,547.8              64.0           1,611.9                 822.3            2,434.2            66.2                 4.0
       1991                1,479.3             135.7           1,615.0                 912.8            2,527.8            63.9                 8.4
       1996                1,685.6             110.7           1,796.3                 961.1            2,757.3            65.1                 6.2
       1997                1,734.0             114.4           1,848.3                 959.0            2,807.4            65.8                 6.2
       1998                1,735.9             126.9           1,862.8                 978.2            2,841.0            65.6                 6.8
       1999                1,727.4             139.3           1,866.7                 997.2            2,863.9            65.2                 7.5
       2000                1,756.5             124.0           1,880.4               1,000.4            2,880.9            65.3                 6.6
       2001                1,789.2             109.1           1,898.2               1,002.0            2,900.3            65.4                 5.7
       2002                1,839.3             102.6           1,941.9                 987.7            2,929.6            66.3                 5.3
       2003                1,883.8             101.3           1,985.1               1,001.5            2,986.6            66.5                 5.1
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990 and 1992 to 1995 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(2) Civilian non-institutionalised usually resident New Zealand population aged 15 years and over.
(3) The introduction of a new standard classification of ethnic groups in the December 1991 quarter led to a discontinuity in the
    'Pacific peoples' and 'Other' series. A new category, 'Other Pacific peoples', was added to the Pacific peoples group, increasing
    the number of people classified to this group and reducing the number classified to the 'Other' ethnic group.
(4) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.


                                                                          118
                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.02

                                                        People Employed
                                                   By ethnic group and industry (1)
                                                                 Transport,
            Agriculture,                                                      Business
                                                  Wholesale       Storage                               Health and
Average for Forestry       Manufact-                                             and                                 Other
                                     Construction and Retail        and                     Education   Community                 Total(5)
Year ended      and          uring                                            Financial                            Services(4)
                                                  Trade etc(2)    Commu-                                 Services
  March      Fishing                                                          Services(3)
                                                                  nication
                                                                         (000)

                                                                   European/Päkehä
   1998          129.7        218.7         96.3        323.7        83.6      207.7           112.8       103.7       156.4      1,449.5
   1999          134.7        222.2         94.4        310.7        84.7      204.4           107.4       109.4       154.7      1,437.1
   2000          138.0        211.5         95.0        311.4        86.7      210.3           104.6       112.9       155.4      1,439.6
   2001          131.6        215.6         97.2        320.2        88.3      202.9           107.9       113.5       159.1      1,452.7
   2002          139.9        214.7         93.9        316.7        87.7      204.4           115.4       127.6       156.4      1,469.5
   2003          135.3        208.4        105.4        324.4        82.3      214.6           118.6       131.5       150.4      1,483.5
                                                                         Mäori
   1998           10.1         29.5         11.9         27.1        11.3           9.8         11.6          9.5        18.6         140.8
   1999           10.2         28.0          9.5         28.5        11.1         10.7          10.1          9.3        17.7         136.6
   2000           13.3         27.2         10.6         29.5        13.3         10.6          13.0          9.9        19.2         148.4
   2001           16.2         29.5         10.7         30.5        11.4         14.2          13.2         10.0        21.8         159.5
   2002           16.8         32.4         11.3         34.1        10.5         14.9          14.9         12.0        19.2         167.4
   2003           17.3         35.1         11.9         36.4        10.5         15.5          16.0         13.8        23.1         181.4
                                                                    Pacific Peoples
   1998            1.4         21.8          3.3         13.4         5.0           6.5          2.5          5.5         6.4          66.3
   1999            1.6         20.1          2.6         14.5         4.9           7.6          2.3          5.4         7.2          66.6
   2000            1.7         21.8          3.5         14.2         5.7           8.9          2.9          5.2         6.7          70.8
   2001            1.1         22.3          3.7         14.5         6.7           9.1          3.2          5.5         6.9          73.8
   2002            1.8         23.6          3.5         16.4         6.7           7.7          4.2          7.4         7.7          80.1
   2003            2.6         24.3          3.2         18.6         6.7         10.0           3.9          8.3         8.0          86.2
                                                                         Other
   1998            3.8         13.3          2.5         25.2         3.7         10.3           4.5          4.2         9.3          78.3
   1999            3.9         15.7          2.5         29.1         3.3         13.4           5.2          4.9         7.7          86.3
   2000            4.1         17.1          3.6         30.8         4.6         15.2           5.2          7.1         7.6          96.0
   2001            3.1         16.6          4.0         33.2         4.8         16.3           5.7          6.9         7.8         100.0
   2002            3.0         17.9          3.5         42.1         5.8         19.0           7.1         10.3        10.8         120.6
   2003            4.3         18.3          4.0         46.1         8.3         18.7           7.6         12.4        10.7         131.1
                                                                        Total(6)
   1998          145.1        283.6        114.1        389.4       103.7          234.6       131.3       122.9       190.9      1,735.9
   1999          150.5        286.1        109.0        382.9       104.1          236.1       125.0       129.1       187.3      1,727.4
   2000          157.1        277.8        113.0        386.3       110.5          245.2       125.9       135.1       189.1      1,756.5
   2001          152.2        284.7        115.8        399.3       111.2          243.1       130.2       136.0       195.7      1,789.2
   2002          161.8        288.7        112.4        409.5       110.7          246.5       141.9       157.4       194.1      1,839.3
   2003          159.6        286.3        124.6        425.9       108.0          259.1       146.1       166.2       192.4      1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) This is the combined Wholesale and Retail Trade; and Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants industries.
(3) This is the combined Finance and Insurance; and Property and Business Services industries.
(4) This is the combined Government Administration and Defence; Cultural and Recreational Services; and Personal and Other Services
    industries.
(5) Totals include categories: Mining; Electricity, Gas and Water Supply; and Not Specified.
(6) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.




                                                                   119
                                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.03

                                                              People Employed
                                                    By ethnic group and occupation (1)

                                                                                                       Plant and
                                 Technicians
Average Legislators,                                          Service     Agriculture                  Machine
                        Profes-      and                                                    Trades               Elementary      Not
for Year Administrators                            Clerks    and Sales    and Fishery                  Operators                            Total
                        sionals   Associate                                                 Workers              Occupations   Specified
 ended and Managers                                           Workers      Workers                        and
                                Professionals
 March                                                                                                Assemblers
                                                                                 (000)

                                                                         European/Päkehä
  1994          186.8     162.2         157.8      183.4        169.8         143.3           129.3      106.1        78.7          1.6    1,319.0
  1995          180.8     171.6         170.8      190.2        183.1         143.5           145.9      112.6        75.0          3.4    1,377.0
  1996          187.8     182.4         182.6      199.9        191.9         141.6           151.2      119.4        75.2          3.1    1,435.0
  1997          181.4     186.9         188.6      208.5        204.4         137.9           154.2      112.6        88.9          2.6    1,465.9
  1998          179.7     201.1         190.7      198.4        199.8         131.5           146.5      106.7        93.0          2.0    1,449.5
  1999          182.8     198.1         184.3      191.5        201.3         133.4           144.9      107.1        89.5          4.2    1,437.1
  2000          194.5     189.7         188.7      176.2        208.0         140.0           140.8      109.1        86.0          6.5    1,439.6
  2001          203.6     199.5         185.3      170.3        212.4         134.5           141.3      115.5        83.2          7.0    1,452.7
  2002          210.7     209.7         191.4      169.8        213.7         140.5           144.9      109.7        76.1          3.1    1,469.5
  2003          198.2     224.9         169.4      195.0        217.8         136.8           150.6      110.7        78.4          1.8    1,483.5
                                                                                 Mäori
  1994             6.9       9.9           9.0      14.2          16.7           11.6           8.8       22.3        14.3          ..      113.7
  1995             6.4      10.7          10.6      13.8          17.9           10.2          12.0       24.9        14.8          ..      122.2
  1996             7.2      12.4          10.9      15.5          20.6           13.1          12.4       25.5        16.8          ..      134.8
  1997             6.4      10.9          11.9      16.4          23.4           12.4          13.2       24.5        17.9          ..      137.4
  1998             7.9      11.4          12.8      17.4          22.1           10.1          13.1       24.7        20.9          ..      140.8
  1999             8.3      11.3          11.9      18.1          23.9           10.1          11.0       22.0        19.6          ..      136.6
  2000            11.5      11.9          12.7      17.8          26.7           12.9          12.0       23.3        18.6          ..      148.4
  2001            12.6      13.8          14.9      17.6          27.3           15.8          12.0       25.5        19.1          ..      159.5
  2002            12.2      15.8          16.8      16.5          27.7           16.0          12.0       28.0        22.0          ..      167.4
  2003            13.2      19.1          16.0      20.9          30.9           16.3          13.6       30.3        20.7          ..      181.4
                                                                          Pacific Peoples
  1994             1.7       3.4           3.6       7.9           8.6           ..             5.1       12.0         7.4          ..       50.7
  1995             1.2       3.5           2.4       8.0           8.3           1.0            6.5       12.5         7.9          ..       51.4
  1996             1.4       3.6           2.6       7.6           9.0           1.0            6.1       12.9         7.8          ..       52.0
  1997             1.4       2.9           4.0       9.1          10.0           1.2            6.3       14.4         9.9          ..       59.4
  1998             2.1       3.9           4.7       8.5          11.7           1.3            6.4       14.6        12.8          ..       66.3
  1999             2.6       3.8           4.0       9.8          12.5           1.5            6.2       12.4        13.9          ..       66.6
  2000             2.9       5.1           4.4      11.2          12.4           1.5            7.1       10.4        15.2          ..       70.8
  2001             3.3       5.8           5.7      11.7          12.8           1.1            8.1       12.0        12.6          ..       73.8
  2002             4.0       7.3           6.7      10.3          14.8           1.8            6.8       16.2        12.0          ..       80.1
  2003             3.8       7.7           7.1      11.9          16.2           2.4            6.3       17.0        13.6          ..       86.2
                                                                                 Other
  1994             9.5       8.2           4.7       4.4           7.2            1.5           2.6        5.8         2.0          ..       45.8
  1995             8.2      10.3           5.1       6.3           9.1            3.0           4.1        5.6         2.9          ..       54.9
  1996             9.4      12.5           6.6       7.8           9.0            2.6           5.1        5.7         3.6          ..       62.2
  1997             9.8      12.5           7.7       8.1          10.9            2.7           4.8        6.7         4.1          ..       67.6
  1998             9.4      12.8           9.1      10.4          15.2            3.8           5.3        6.4         5.8          ..       78.3
  1999            12.4      12.7           9.8      11.9          15.0            3.5           7.0        6.1         7.9          ..       86.3
  2000            13.0      16.1          11.2      10.3          17.4            3.5           9.0        7.8         7.2          ..       96.0
  2001            13.3      16.2          13.1      12.8          20.5            3.0           6.9        8.0         5.9          ..      100.0
  2002            17.7      20.2          15.0      15.4          24.6            3.7           8.4        8.6         6.7          ..      120.6
  2003            20.3      24.0          13.5      14.2          27.2            3.7           9.3       10.3         8.7          ..      131.1
                                                                              Total(2)
  1994          204.9     183.7         175.1      209.8        202.4         157.0           145.9      146.2       102.5          2.1    1,529.4
  1995          196.7     196.3         189.0      218.5        218.5         157.7           168.5      155.6       100.5          4.8    1,606.1
  1996          206.0     211.0         202.8      231.0        230.7         158.4           174.9      163.6       103.6          3.6    1,685.6
  1997          199.3     214.2         212.7      242.6        249.0         154.1           178.6      158.7       121.1          3.7    1,734.0
  1998          199.2     229.2         217.6      234.6        248.8         146.8           171.5      152.7       132.6          2.9    1,735.9
  1999          206.1     226.0         209.9      231.4        252.8         148.6           169.2      147.7       130.9          4.8    1,727.4
  2000          222.1     223.0         217.2      215.7        264.6         158.1           169.2      150.7       127.1          8.7    1,756.5
  2001          233.1     235.7         219.3      213.0        273.5         154.7           168.6      161.3       121.1          8.9    1,789.2
  2002          244.6     253.1         230.2      212.4        280.9         162.3           172.4      162.4       116.8          4.1    1,839.3
  2003          235.6     275.9         206.2      242.2        292.2         159.4           179.8      168.4       121.5          2.6    1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990.
(2) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.



                                                                           120
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.04

                                                             People Employed
                                   By ethnic group, full-time and part-time status and sex
                                     Males                                    Females                         Total Males and Females
   Average for
   Year ended        Full-time     Part-time       Total        Full-time     Part-time        Total    Full-time   Part-time      Total
     March
                                                                                 (000)

                                                                            European/Päkehä
      1994               669.9          71.0        740.9          361.0          217.0         578.1    1,030.9       288.0        1,319.0
      1995               696.0          72.8        768.8          377.9          230.3         608.2    1,074.0       303.1        1,377.0
      1996               720.9          78.9        799.8          397.8          237.5         635.3    1,118.6       316.4        1,435.0
      1997               727.3          83.0        810.3          403.8          251.8         655.6    1,131.1       334.8        1,465.9
      1998               718.1          85.0        803.1          398.7          247.7         646.4    1,116.8       332.7        1,449.5
      1999               707.7          84.2        792.0          392.0          253.1         645.1    1,099.7       337.4        1,437.1
      2000               703.4          85.8        789.2          399.4          251.0         650.4    1,102.8       336.8        1,439.6
      2001               710.8          86.4        797.2          411.9          243.6         655.5    1,122.7       330.0        1,452.7
      2002               714.2          87.6        801.8          412.4          255.3         667.7    1,126.6       342.9        1,469.5
      2003               722.7          87.3        810.1          415.9          257.6         673.4    1,138.6       344.9        1,483.5
                                                                                  Mäori
      1994                54.1           6.8          60.9          37.0           15.9          52.9       91.1        22.7            113.7
      1995                60.3           7.5          67.8          36.5           17.9          54.4       96.7        25.4            122.2
      1996                66.5           8.1          74.6          41.3           18.8          60.2      107.8        26.9            134.8
      1997                67.5           7.3          74.8          42.3           20.4          62.7      109.8        27.7            137.4
      1998                68.7           8.3          77.0          41.3           22.5          63.8      110.0        30.8            140.8
      1999                62.8           9.6          72.3          41.7           22.6          64.3      104.4        32.2            136.6
      2000                69.0           9.6          78.6          45.9           23.9          69.8      114.9        33.5            148.4
      2001                74.3          10.4          84.7          49.6           25.2          74.7      123.9        35.6            159.5
      2002                78.4          10.5          88.9          52.5           26.0          78.5      130.9        36.5            167.4
      2003                84.6          12.7          97.2          58.3           25.9          84.2      142.8        38.6            181.4
                                                                             Pacific Peoples
      1994                24.9           2.1          27.0          18.6             5.1         23.7       43.5         7.3             50.7
      1995                24.7           2.5          27.2          17.7             6.5         24.2       42.4         9.0             51.4
      1996                26.1           2.2          28.4          17.7             5.9         23.7       43.9         8.1             52.0
      1997                29.0           3.0          32.0          19.7             7.6         27.3       48.8        10.6             59.4
      1998                30.3           3.7          34.0          24.1             8.2         32.3       54.4        11.9             66.3
      1999                30.8           4.5          35.3          22.5             8.8         31.3       53.3        13.3             66.6
      2000                34.1           4.1          38.3          25.6             6.9         32.6       59.8        11.0             70.8
      2001                35.3           4.5          39.8          27.5             6.5         34.0       62.8        11.0             73.8
      2002                40.2           5.1          45.3          26.9             8.0         34.9       67.1        13.1             80.1
      2003                42.4           5.5          47.9          29.6             8.7         38.3       72.0        14.2             86.2
                                                                                 Other
      1994                23.6           2.5          26.1          15.2           4.4           19.7       38.8         7.0             45.8
      1995                27.4           3.3          30.7          18.4           5.8           24.2       45.8         9.1             54.9
      1996                29.4           3.9          33.3          21.5           7.4           28.9       50.9        11.3             62.2
      1997                32.4           4.8          37.2          20.8           9.5           30.4       53.2        14.3             67.6
      1998                35.5           7.3          42.7          24.2          11.3           35.6       59.7        18.6             78.3
      1999                37.5           8.7          46.2          26.9          13.1           40.1       64.4        21.9             86.3
      2000                43.7           9.9          53.6          29.6          12.8           42.4       73.3        22.7             96.0
      2001                44.0          10.1          54.1          31.0          14.9           45.8       74.9        25.0            100.0
      2002                54.1          12.4          66.5          37.0          17.2           54.2       91.0        29.6            120.6
      2003                61.0          11.0          72.0          40.8          18.4           59.1      101.8        29.4            131.1
                                                                                Total(1)
      1994               772.6          82.4         855.0         431.9        242.5           674.4    1,204.5       324.9        1,529.4
      1995               808.6          86.3         894.9         450.8        260.5           711.2    1,259.4       346.7        1,606.1
      1996               843.8          93.1         936.9         478.9        269.8           748.7    1,322.7       362.9        1,685.6
      1997               857.7          98.4         956.1         488.0        289.8           777.8    1,345.8       388.2        1,734.0
      1998               853.3         104.4         957.7         488.5        289.7           778.2    1,341.8       394.1        1,735.9
      1999               839.1         107.2         946.3         483.3        297.8           781.1    1,322.4       405.0        1,727.4
      2000               851.1         109.5         960.7         501.0        294.8           795.8    1,352.1       404.3        1,756.5
      2001               865.9         111.8         977.8         521.0        290.4           811.4    1,386.9       402.2        1,789.2
      2002               887.6         115.6       1,003.2         529.5        306.6           836.1    1,417.1       422.2        1,839.3
      2003               911.4         116.8       1,028.2         544.9        310.7           855.6    1,456.4       427.5        1,883.8
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.



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                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.05

                             People Unemployed by Ethnic Group
                             Looking for full-time or part-time work by sex
  Average for                 Males                            Females                      Total Males and Females
  Year ended       Full-time Part-time      Total    Full-time Part-time          Total   Full-time Part-time  Total
    March                                                           (000)

                                                           European/Päkehä
      1994            53.4         5.3       58.6       27.3     14.8              42.1      80.6     20.1     100.7
      1995            40.4         6.2       46.5       21.5     12.8              34.2      61.9     18.9      80.8
      1996            31.5         7.2       38.6       17.4     12.8              30.2      48.9     20.0      68.8
      1997            31.1         7.3       38.4       16.6     15.0              31.7      47.7     22.3      70.0
      1998            33.3         7.6       40.8       17.5     15.1              32.6      50.7     22.7      73.4
      1999            38.4         8.8       47.2       18.9     17.3              36.2      57.3     26.1      83.4
      2000            33.1         8.9       42.0       16.9     15.9              32.8      50.0     24.8      74.8
      2001            29.3         7.0       36.3       15.0     13.7              28.7      44.3     20.7      64.9
      2002            24.4         8.3       32.6       13.4     14.1              27.5      37.8     22.4      60.2
      2003            22.6         8.0       30.6       13.3     14.0              27.2      35.9     22.0      57.8
                                                                Mäori
      1994            17.7         1.7       19.4       10.0      4.1              14.1      27.7      5.8      33.5
      1995            15.5         1.0       16.5        9.1      3.8              12.9      24.6      4.8      29.4
      1996            11.5         1.2       12.7        7.9      4.0              11.9      19.4      5.2      24.6
      1997            11.7         1.7       13.3        7.1      4.6              11.7      18.7      6.3      25.0
      1998            13.4         1.8       15.1        8.5      5.8              14.2      21.9      7.5      29.4
      1999            14.6         2.7       17.3        8.3      5.5              13.9      22.9      8.2      31.1
      2000            12.4         2.2       14.6        8.1      4.5              12.6      20.5      6.7      27.1
      2001            10.4         2.2       12.6        6.7      4.5              11.3      17.1      6.8      23.9
      2002             9.4         2.4       11.8        6.6      4.3              10.9      16.0      6.7      22.7
      2003             9.3         2.1       11.4        7.0      4.8              11.8      16.3      6.8      23.1
                                                                Pacific Peoples
      1994             9.2         ..         9.9         4.7           1.6         6.3      13.9      2.3      16.2
      1995             8.2         ..         9.0         3.3           1.1         4.4      11.5      1.9      13.4
      1996             4.7         ..         5.1         2.9           1.3         4.2       7.6      1.7       9.3
      1997             5.1         ..         5.7         2.7           2.0         4.7       7.8      2.6      10.4
      1998             6.0         1.0        7.0         3.0           1.8         4.8       9.0      2.8      11.8
      1999             5.7         ..         6.6         3.2           1.8         4.9       8.9      2.6      11.5
      2000             5.3         ..         6.1         3.1           1.4         4.5       8.4      2.2      10.6
      2001             5.0         ..         5.8         2.3           1.2         3.5       7.3      2.0       9.3
      2002             3.7         1.1        4.8         2.1           1.3         3.4       5.9      2.3       8.2
      2003             3.7         ..         4.5         2.5           1.4         3.9       6.2      2.2       8.4
                                                                    Other
      1994             3.8         ..         4.1         1.9         0.7           2.6       5.6      1.1       6.7
      1995             3.4         ..         3.8         1.8         0.9           2.8       5.3      1.3       6.5
      1996             3.9         ..         4.3         2.1         1.3           3.4       6.1      1.7       7.8
      1997             3.9         ..         4.8         2.7         1.2           3.9       6.7      2.0       8.7
      1998             5.9         1.4        7.3         2.9         1.8           4.7       8.8      3.2      12.0
      1999             6.0         1.3        7.3         3.6         2.3           5.9       9.6      3.6      13.2
      2000             5.5         1.2        6.7         2.6         2.0           4.6       8.1      3.2      11.3
      2001             4.8         1.4        6.2         2.8         1.6           4.4       7.5      3.0      10.5
      2002             4.9         1.8        6.7         2.4         2.3           4.8       7.4      4.1      11.5
      2003             5.0         1.8        6.8         2.7         2.1           4.8       7.7      3.9      11.6
                                                                    Total(1)
      1994            84.1        8.0        92.1       43.8          21.3         65.1     127.9     29.3     157.1
      1995            67.5        8.3        75.8       35.7          18.6         54.3     103.2     26.9     130.1
      1996            51.7        9.2        60.9       30.3          19.4         49.8      82.0     28.6     110.7
      1997            51.9       10.4        62.4       29.2          22.8         52.0      81.1     33.3     114.4
      1998            58.7       11.7        70.4       31.9          24.6         56.5      90.6     36.3     126.9
      1999            64.8       13.6        78.4       34.0          26.9         60.9      98.8     40.6     139.3
      2000            56.4       13.1        69.5       30.6          23.9         54.5      87.0     37.0     124.0
      2001            49.5       11.5        61.1       26.9          21.1         48.0      76.4     32.6     109.1
      2002            42.4       13.6        56.0       24.6          22.0         46.6      67.0     35.6     102.6
      2003            40.7       12.7        53.4       25.5          22.4         47.9      66.1     35.1     101.3
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.




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                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.06

                                    Long-term Unemployed(1)(2)(3)
                                              By ethnic group
   Average for
                        European/
   Year ended                                  Mäori          Pacific Peoples        Other             Total(5)
                         Päkehä
    March(4)

                                                   Long-term Unemployed (000)
       1987                   7.6                3.6               ..                ..                  12.2
       1991                  28.3               12.4             5.4               2.3                   48.5
       1992                  43.8               18.9             9.7               3.5                   75.9
       1993                  51.1               18.3            10.7               3.2                   83.3
       1994                  45.6               17.7             9.5               3.5                   76.2
       1995                  32.4               14.2             7.6               2.7                   56.9
       1996                  23.2                9.1             4.7               3.1                   40.2
       1997                  21.5                9.2             4.5               2.9                   38.1
       1998                  21.8               10.8             4.7               4.8                   42.1
       1999                  26.7               12.5             4.5               5.3                   48.9
       2000                  24.4                9.8             4.7               3.9                   42.8
       2001                  18.6                7.9             4.1               3.5                   34.2
       2002                  14.9                6.7             2.6               3.0                   27.3
       2003                  12.7                6.6             2.3               3.3                   24.9
                                                     Total Unemployed (000)
       1987                  43.2               15.4             2.8               2.3                   64.0
       1991                  88.9               28.3            11.7               6.7                  135.7
       1992                 111.1               36.4            16.9               8.5                  172.9
       1993                 109.6               34.2            15.6               7.1                  166.7
       1994                 100.7               33.5            16.2               6.7                  157.1
       1995                  80.8               29.4            13.4               6.5                  130.1
       1996                  68.8               24.6             9.3               7.8                  110.7
       1997                  70.0               25.0            10.4               8.7                  114.4
       1998                  73.4               29.4            11.8              12.0                  126.9
       1999                  83.4               31.1            11.5              13.2                  139.3
       2000                  74.8               27.1            10.6              11.3                  124.0
       2001                  64.9               23.9             9.3              10.5                  109.1
       2002                  60.2               22.7             8.2              11.5                  102.6
       2003                  57.8               23.1             8.4              11.6                  101.3
                                    Long-term Unemployed as Percentage of Total Unemployed (%)
       1987                  17.6               23.4               ..                ..                  19.1
       1991                  31.8               43.8            46.2              34.3                   35.7
       1992                  39.4               51.9            57.4              41.2                   43.9
       1993                  46.6               53.5            68.6              45.1                   50.0
       1994                  45.3               52.8            58.6              52.2                   48.5
       1995                  40.1               48.3            56.7              41.5                   43.7
       1996                  33.7               37.0            50.5              39.7                   36.3
       1997                  30.7               36.8            43.3              33.3                   33.3
       1998                  29.7               36.7            39.8              40.0                   33.2
       1999                  32.0               40.2            39.1              40.2                   35.1
       2000                  32.6               36.2            44.3              34.5                   34.5
       2001                  28.7               33.1            44.1              33.3                   31.3
       2002                  24.8               29.5            31.7              26.1                   26.6
       2003                  22.0               28.6            27.4              28.4                   24.6
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Long-term unemployed are those people who have been unemployed for 27 weeks or longer.
(2) Over the years, between approximately 7 and 23 percent of the unemployed in the survey did not provide
    information on their duration of unemployment. This means that the true numbers and percentages of people
    who were unemployed long term are likely to be higher than the figures in this table indicate. Table 3.04 gives
    data on the numbers of unemployed people whose duration of unemployment was not specified.
(3) The introduction of a new standard classification of ethnic groups in the December 1991 quarter led to a
    discontinuity in the 'Pacific peoples' and 'Other' series. A new category, 'Other Pacific peoples', was added to
    the Pacific peoples group, increasing the number of people classified to this group and reducing the number
    classified to the 'Other' ethnic group.
(4) Statistics for the years 1988 to 1990 are available on request from Statistics New Zealand.
(5) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.




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                                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.07

                                                     Highest Educational Qualification
                                                           By ethnic group and sex
                                                       Average for year ended March 2003

                                                       European/Päkehä           Mäori        Pacific Peoples       Other     Total(1)
               Highest Qualification
                                                                                                   (000)

                                                                                                  Males
No Qualification                                                257.8                61.7             27.0             19.7      366.3
School Certificate                                              103.9                15.9              9.8              5.6      135.3
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)              112.9                 9.5                  7.2         14.0      143.8
Other School Qualification                                       35.6                 2.3                  9.9         21.0       69.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                          11.8                 1.2                  ..           1.1       15.0
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)                369.7                35.8            12.6              20.0      438.6
Bachelors Degree                                                 93.7                 4.1              3.8             23.8      125.6
Post Graduate Qualification                                      40.1                 1.4              ..               9.2       51.4
Post School Qualification Not Specified                          65.8                11.2              3.6              5.9       86.7
Not Specified                                                    22.6                 ..               ..               1.1       24.7
Total                                                         1,113.9               143.9            75.4             121.4    1,456.3
                                                                                                 Females
No Qualification                                                297.7                65.0            26.4              26.8      416.3
School Certificate                                              134.4                20.9            10.2               7.4      173.0
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)              127.3                13.3              7.5             13.0      161.2
Other School Qualification                                       68.3                 3.7             10.1             28.6      111.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                          89.3                 6.2              3.0              6.4      105.2
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)                233.3                35.0               11.5           17.2      297.2
Bachelors Degree                                                 87.2                 6.8                3.4           23.4      121.1
Post Graduate Qualification                                      31.5                 1.7                ..             5.6       39.2
Post School Qualification Not Specified                          67.3                11.0                3.8            6.4       88.5
Not Specified                                                    15.2                 ..                 ..             1.4       17.6
Total                                                         1,151.7               164.5               76.4          136.1    1,530.3
                                                                                          Total Males and Females
No Qualification                                                555.5               126.6               53.4           46.5      782.6
School Certificate                                              238.3                36.8               19.9           13.1      308.3
Sixth Form Certificate to Bursary Qualification(2)              240.3                22.9             14.6             27.0      304.9
Other School Qualification                                      103.9                 6.0             20.0             49.5      180.0
Nursing/Teaching Certificate or Diploma                         101.2                 7.4              3.9              7.5      120.2
Trade/Polytech/University Certificate/Diploma(3)                603.0                70.8             24.1             37.2      735.8
Bachelors Degree                                                180.9                10.9              7.2             47.2      246.7
Post Graduate Qualification                                      71.6                 3.1              1.0             14.7       90.5
Post School Qualification Not Specified                         133.1                22.2              7.4             12.3      175.2
Not Specified                                                    37.8                 1.6              ..               2.5       42.3
Total                                                         2,265.6               308.4            151.8            257.5    2,986.6
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.
(2) Includes Higher School Certificate and Scholarship.
(3) Includes Technician Certificate.




                                                                           124
                                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.08

                                          Number of Formal Tertiary Students
                                  By highest qualification award level and ethnic group
                                                            As at 31 July 2002
                                  European/
    Level of Qualification                              Mäori         Pacific Peoples         Asian             Other(1)     Total
                                   Päkehä

Certificate                        59,452               34,933               6,470                5,774             13,771    120,400
Diploma                            27,140               14,301               2,633                2,901              6,566     53,541
Degree                             65,248               12,530               4,526               13,371             24,876    120,551
Post-graduate University           14,230                1,930                 563                3,037              5,634     25,394
Total                             166,070               63,694              14,192               25,083             50,847    319,886

Source: Ministry of Education
(1) The Ethnic Group 'Other' classification consists of 'Other', 'International Student' and 'Not Stated' categories.




                                                                      125
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.09

          People Employed: Average Usual Weekly Hours Worked in All Jobs(1)
                            By ethnic group, full-time and part-time status and sex
                              Males                                       Females               Males and Females Combined
Average for
Year ended     Full-time    Part-time       Total       Full-time         Part-time   Total   Full-time   Part-time   Total
  March
                                                                           Hours

                                                                  European/Päkehä
   1994          46.99        13.01         43.74         41.85        14.46          31.57    45.19       14.10      38.41
   1995          47.54        13.00         44.27         41.90        14.63          31.57    45.56       14.24      38.66
   1996          47.59        13.00         44.18         41.93        14.58          31.71    45.57       14.19      38.66
   1997          47.72        13.30         44.23         41.95        14.91          31.60    45.66       14.52      38.58
   1998          47.42        13.28         43.82         41.76        14.85          31.46    45.40       14.45      38.31
   1999          47.35        13.69         43.76         41.97        14.79          31.29    45.43       14.51      38.16
   2000          47.47        13.07         43.73         42.00        14.93          31.54    45.49       14.46      38.22
   2001          47.33        13.21         43.63         41.63        15.04          31.74    45.24       14.56      38.27
   2002          47.12        13.65         43.46         41.56        15.15          31.45    45.09       14.77      38.00
   2003          47.01        14.04         43.45         41.59        15.31          31.54    45.03       14.99      38.04
                                                                       Mäori
   1994          44.62        13.92         41.23         41.09        13.98          32.92    43.19       13.96      37.37
   1995          45.21        14.19         41.81         41.45        14.77          32.67    43.79       14.60      37.74
   1996          45.26        13.91         41.86         41.16        14.86          32.94    43.68       14.58      37.87
   1997          45.67        15.37         42.82         41.42        14.97          32.83    44.04       15.07      38.27
   1998          45.36        13.60         41.95         41.15        14.45          31.75    43.78       14.22      37.33
   1999          45.41        13.63         41.20         41.11        14.28          31.66    43.69       14.09      36.71
   2000          45.80        14.29         41.94         41.46        15.01          32.38    44.06       14.81      37.44
   2001          45.30        13.31         41.39         41.32        14.26          32.20    43.71       13.98      37.08
   2002          45.79        12.83         41.89         41.68        15.19          32.90    44.14       14.52      37.68
   2003          45.16        13.36         41.00         40.99        15.97          33.26    43.46       15.11      37.41
                                                                    Pacific Peoples
   1994          42.71        14.04         40.49         39.99          16.55        34.90    41.55       15.82      37.88
   1995          42.24        14.74         39.68         40.60          15.11        33.78    41.56       15.01      36.90
   1996          42.47        16.00         40.42         41.02          14.49        34.40    41.89       14.90      37.68
   1997          43.11        15.29         40.52         40.66          14.77        33.46    42.12       14.92      37.27
   1998          43.09        14.47         39.97         40.61          14.67        34.00    41.99       14.61      37.06
   1999          42.65        14.85         39.09         40.82          15.35        33.68    41.87       15.18      36.55
   2000          43.09        14.60         40.02         40.12          15.11        34.80    41.82       14.92      37.62
   2001          42.74        14.48         39.53         40.20          14.93        35.39    41.63       14.74      37.63
   2002          43.32        15.44         40.18         40.65          16.64        35.19    42.25       16.17      38.01
   2003          43.69        15.11         40.43         41.08          15.68        35.30    42.62       15.46      38.16
                                                                           Other
   1994          47.51        13.59         44.20         44.31            15.24      37.74    46.25       14.64      41.42
   1995          48.70        14.62         44.99         43.93            12.48      36.41    46.78       13.26      41.20
   1996          47.24        14.65         43.41         42.91            15.40      35.87    45.41       15.14      39.90
   1997          46.62        13.57         42.38         43.60            14.59      34.53    45.44       14.25      38.85
   1998          45.80        13.98         40.39         42.64            13.72      33.43    44.52       13.82      37.23
   1999          46.39        12.39         39.98         43.22            14.27      33.72    45.06       13.52      37.08
   2000          45.94        11.71         39.61         42.89            13.93      34.14    44.71       12.96      37.20
   2001          46.08        12.82         39.83         43.24            14.02      33.74    44.91       13.53      37.04
   2002          45.82        13.10         39.71         42.78            15.21      34.04    44.58       14.33      37.17
   2003          45.53        13.79         40.68         42.86            14.65      34.11    44.46       14.32      37.72
                                                                           Total(2)
   1994          46.70        13.13         43.47         41.79            14.49      31.97    44.94       14.14      38.40
   1995          47.24        13.22         43.97         41.90            14.60      31.90    45.33       14.26      38.62
   1996          47.24        13.25         43.86         41.88            14.64      32.03    45.30       14.29      38.59
   1997          47.36        13.52         43.92         41.92            14.90      31.89    45.39       14.55      38.52
   1998          47.02        13.39         43.37         41.70            14.77      31.68    45.08       14.41      38.13
   1999          46.99        13.65         43.21         41.91            14.73      31.54    45.13       14.44      37.93
   2000          47.08        13.11         43.21         41.91            14.90      31.89    45.16       14.41      38.08
   2001          46.90        13.23         43.05         41.62            14.92      32.05    44.92       14.45      38.07
   2002          46.75        13.60         42.92         41.61            15.20      31.92    44.83       14.76      37.92
   2003          46.58        13.99         42.88         41.59            15.33      32.05    44.72       14.97      37.96
Source: Household Labour Force Survey
(1) Calculated as total usual hours worked in all jobs divided by total people employed.
(2) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.


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                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.10

        Average and Median Hourly Earnings for Those Earning Income
                          from Wage/Salary Jobs
                                    By ethnic group and sex

   June Quarter   European/Päkehä         Mäori          Pacific Peoples        Other   Total(1)


                                                           Males
                                                  Average Hourly Earnings ($)
      1997             16.51              13.44              12.14              16.08   16.05
      1998             16.88              14.06              12.19              16.39   16.40
      1999             17.26              14.07              12.59              17.01   16.73
      2000             17.24              14.42              13.11              16.53   16.70
      2001             18.51              14.09              13.67              16.61   17.71
      2002             18.76              14.97              13.38              17.17   17.94
      2003             19.88              16.29              13.90              17.91   19.02
                                                  Median Hourly Earnings ($)
      1997             14.36              11.75              11.25              13.27   13.95
      1998             15.00              12.86              11.50              14.30   14.43
      1999             15.00              12.50              12.00              14.96   14.50
      2000             15.00              13.00              12.00              14.11   14.60
      2001             15.63              13.16              12.00              14.50   15.00
      2002             16.00              13.54              12.50              14.38   15.34
      2003             16.30              14.00              13.00              15.30   15.70
                                                    Number of People (000)
      1997             587.2              66.4                31.6              30.3    716.0
      1998             572.2              65.4                28.4              33.2    699.2
      1999             564.7              60.4                35.3              38.0    699.1
      2000             564.4              71.7                34.7              37.8    711.1
      2001             583.1              74.9                34.7              48.2    741.5
      2002             589.3              84.2                43.0              53.2    770.2
      2003             600.7              84.0                43.6              56.5    785.7
                                                          Females
                                                  Average Hourly Earnings ($)
      1997             13.42              11.48              10.88              12.92   13.13
      1998             13.91              11.92              11.93              13.54   13.63
      1999             14.26              12.12              12.48              13.84   13.97
      2000             14.69              13.23              12.56              15.23   14.47
      2001             15.27              13.07              12.45              15.19   14.93
      2002             15.75              13.59              12.90              15.33   15.36
      2003             16.96              14.53              13.79              17.37   16.57
                                                  Median Hourly Earnings ($)
      1997             12.00              10.36              10.00              11.15   11.59
      1998             12.50              10.55              11.00              11.92   12.11
      1999             12.59              10.85              11.30              11.50   12.30
      2000             13.00              11.00              11.00              12.00   12.56
      2001             13.50              11.69              11.03              13.00   13.08
      2002             14.00              12.11              12.00              12.95   13.46
      2003             14.20              12.00              12.00              14.00   13.80
                                                    Number of People (000)
      1997             549.1              56.5                29.5              28.4    663.6
      1998             537.1              59.3                29.5              30.0    655.9
      1999             545.6              59.6                30.3              34.9    670.7
      2000             539.3              69.1                32.4              33.8    677.0
      2001             571.3              68.3                31.6              42.3    714.3
      2002             575.6              77.5                35.6              46.3    735.3
      2003             582.4              78.7                37.2              53.9    753.6




                                                  127
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.10
continued
          Average and Median Hourly Earnings for Those Earning Income
                            from Wage/Salary Jobs
                                             By ethnic group and sex

    June Quarter         European/Päkehä           Mäori          Pacific Peoples        Other   Total(1)


                                                            Total Males and Females
                                                           Average Hourly Earnings ($)
        1997                   15.01               12.52               11.52             14.58   14.64
        1998                   15.44               13.05               12.06             15.04   15.06
        1999                   15.78               13.10               12.54             15.50   15.38
        2000                   15.99               13.84               12.84             15.92   15.61
        2001                   16.90               13.60               13.09             15.95   16.35
        2002                   17.27               14.31               13.16             16.32   16.68
        2003                   18.44               15.44               13.85             17.65   17.82
                                                           Median Hourly Earnings ($)
        1997                   13.00               10.90               10.50             12.47   12.50
        1998                   13.70               11.83               11.10             12.60   13.28
        1999                   13.84               12.00               11.85             12.71   13.42
        2000                   14.00               12.00               11.65             13.50   13.55
        2001                   14.50               12.50               11.70             13.45   14.00
        2002                   15.00               13.00               12.09             13.91   14.50
        2003                   15.08               13.30               12.50             14.92   14.98
                                                             Number of People (000)
        1997                  1,136.3              123.0                61.1             58.7    1,379.6
        1998                  1,109.2              124.7                57.9             63.3    1,355.1
        1999                  1,110.3              120.0                65.5             73.0    1,369.8
        2000                  1,103.7              140.8                67.1             71.6    1,388.0
        2001                  1,154.5              143.2                66.3             90.5    1,455.8
        2002                  1,164.9              161.7                78.6             99.4    1,505.5
        2003                  1,183.1              162.7                80.7             110.4   1,539.3

Source: New Zealand Income Survey
(1) Totals include not specified category.




                                                           128
                                                   Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.11


                                     Average Weekly Income for All People
                                      Aged 15 years and over by ethnic group
                                                                Average Weekly Income from
                          Wages and                            Government                                                 All Sources
    June Quarter                          Self-employment                            Investments(1)   Other Transfers
                           Salaries                             Transfers                                                 Collected(2)
                                                                                 $

                                                                       European/Päkehä
      1997                     273                 87                  64              …                       4               429
      1998                     279                 90                  72              …                       6               448
      1999                     286                104                  70              …                       6               467
      2000                     290                 99                  72              …                       6               470
      2001                     322                103                  71              …                       6               504
      2002(3)                  331                115                  68 R            31                      7               550 R
      2003                     347                123                  68              35                      7               580
                                                                              Mäori
      1997                     214                 22                 97                    …                  1               334
      1998                     219                 23                101                    …                  1               346
      1999                     221                 22                106                    …                  1               351
      2000                     255                 26                100                    …                  1               386
      2001                     250                 36                 98                    …                  0               388
      2002(3)                  290                 40                 87 R                  3                  0               421 R
      2003                     308                 42                 86                    5                  1               444
                                                                        Pacific Peoples
      1997                     213                 11                  78                   …                  0               302
      1998                     215                 13                  85                   …                  0               314
      1999                     221                 14                  84                   …                  0               322
      2000                     252                 13                  80                   …                  1               346
      2001                     251                 23                  77                   …                  0               352
      2002(3)                  266                 21                  70 R                 2                  0               360 R
      2003                     288                 16                  65                   3                  0               373
                                                                              Other
      1997                     201                 51                  55                   …                  1               308
      1998                     194                 56                  63                   …                  2               315
      1999                     213                 68                  56                   …                  3               342
      2000                     211                 63                  58                   …                  2               335
      2001                     232                 65                  53                   …                  3               354
      2002(3)                  234                 79                  45 R                 15                 3               377 R
      2003                     259                 78                  44                   15                 2               393
                                                                              Total(4)
      1997                     261                 76                  67                   …                  4               408
      1998                     265                 79                  74                   …                  5               425
      1999                     272                 89                  73                   …                  5               441
      2000                     280                 86                  74                   …                  5               447
      2001                     305                 90                  73                   …                  5               474
      2002(3)                  315                 99                  68 R                 25                 5               513 R
      2003                     332                105                  67                   29                 6               539

Source: New Zealand Income Survey
(1) Investment income was not collected prior to the June 2002 quarter.
(2) All Sources Collected includes Investment Income in the June 2002 quarter.
(3) From 2002, there is a discontinuity in the time series for the 'government transfers' and 'all sources' categories.
(4) Those people who did not specify their ethnic status are included in the totals only.




                                                                 129
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 8.12


                     Ethnic Group (Grouped Total Responses)(1) by Age Group and Sex
                                        For the census usually resident population count
                                                             2001
                                                            Ethnic Group (Grouped Total Responses)
 Age Group
                  European             Mäori         Pacific Peoples          Asian             Other          Not Specified(2)      Total People

                                                                             Males
0-14                315,381            100,653             46,143            28,686               3,870               14,187            434,688
15-19                95,070             24,666             10,701            13,779               1,341                4,782            134,949
20-24                82,596             20,103              9,498            11,712               1,038                5,556            118,791
25-29                85,734             18,573              8,619             7,992               1,005                5,796            118,008
30-34                98,010             18,192              8,295             8,409               1,362                6,234            132,195
35-39               106,770             17,964              7,641            10,194               1,302                6,228            142,677
40-44               107,136             15,480              6,126             8,754               1,062                5,934            138,501
45-49                97,581             12,114              5,064             7,107                 759                5,295            123,528
50-54                95,580              9,462              3,933             5,484                 546                5,049            116,955
55-59                75,138              6,690              2,745             3,390                 327                3,846             90,180
60-64                63,006              5,592              2,130             3,033                 204                3,387             75,840
65 and over         173,892              7,995              3,255             4,533                 345                8,958            196,683
Total             1,395,900            257,484            114,153           113,067              13,161               75,258          1,823,004
                                                                            Females
0-14                300,546             95,829             44,001            27,591               3,567               13,446            413,055
15-19                92,802             24,864             10,782            13,323               1,218                4,242            130,332
20-24                84,783             21,987             10,281            12,306                 984                4,962            120,990
25-29                94,380             21,591              9,360             9,990                 945                5,346            128,892
30-34               108,792             21,057              9,480            11,538               1,080                6,054            147,081
35-39               116,058             20,361              8,370            12,528               1,089                6,057            154,785
40-44               112,941             17,379              6,630            11,052                 921                5,769            147,117
45-49               100,872             12,981              5,067             8,586                 666                5,133            128,256
50-54                97,443             10,011              4,044             6,036                 471                4,893            119,217
55-59                76,434              7,134              2,922             3,771                 279                3,849             92,082
60-64                65,346              5,958              2,331             3,159                 213                3,468             78,729
65 and over         225,135              9,642              4,377             5,229                 408               12,075            253,737
Total             1,475,532            268,797            117,648           125,106              11,832               75,291          1,914,273
                                                                    Total Males and Females
0-14                615,924            196,482             90,147            56,277               7,434               27,636            847,743
15-19               187,872             49,530             21,486            27,102               2,562                9,024            265,281
20-24               167,382             42,096             19,782            24,018               2,022               10,518            239,784
25-29               180,117             40,164             17,976            17,979               1,950               11,142            246,900
30-34               206,802             39,252             17,778            19,947               2,442               12,288            279,276
35-39               222,825             38,325             16,011            22,722               2,394               12,285            297,465
40-44               220,077             32,859             12,753            19,806               1,980               11,703            285,618
45-49               198,456             25,092             10,131            15,690               1,425               10,428            251,784
50-54               193,029             19,473              7,977            11,520               1,014                9,945            236,169
55-59               151,572             13,827              5,667             7,161                 606                7,695            182,262
60-64               128,352             11,550              4,461             6,192                 417                6,855            154,569
65 and over         399,024             17,637              7,635             9,759                 753               21,030            450,426
Total             2,871,432            526,281            231,801           238,176              24,993              150,546          3,737,277
Source: 2001 Census of Population and Dwellings
(1) Includes all of the people who stated each ethnic group, whether as their only ethnic group or as one of several ethnic groups. Where a
     person reported more than one ethnic group, they have been counted once in each applicable group.
(2) Includes Response Unidentifiable, Response Outside Scope and Not Stated.
Note: All cells in this table have been randomly rounded to base 3. This means any number when divided by 3 equals a whole number.
      The sum of figures within a table will not necessarily sum to give the stated totals.
      This data is not comparable to ethnic group data from previous censuses.




                                                                        130
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 9

Industrial relations
This chapter has a range of information on the state of industrial relations in New Zealand. Tables contain
work stoppage statistics by regional council, industry, sector, duration, cause and method of resolution of
dispute. A table from the Department of Labour’s Employment Relations Service on registered unions is also
provided.




                                                     131
                                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.01


                                                     Work Stoppages(1)(2)(3)(4)
                                    Number of Stoppages
                                                                                   Number of         Person-         Average       Estimated
                                                                                   Employees       days of Work      Person-        Loss in
  Year ended
                   Complete        Partial                                         Involved(7)       Lost(8)(9)     days Lost      Wages and
 31 December                                     Lockout(6)         Total
                    Strike         Strike(5)                                                                      per Employee     Salaries(10)
                                                                                              (000)                  Involved        $(000)



     1970            310              10              3               323             110.1             277.3           2.5             2,425
     1971            290              22              1               313              86.0             162.6           1.9             2,109
     1972            235              31              -               266              60.4             134.5           2.2             1,951
     1973            355              36              3               394             115.9             271.7           2.4             4,289
     1974            350              29              1               380              70.9             183.7           2.6             3,332
     1975            396              31              1               428              74.8             214.6           2.9             4,219
     1976            453              34              -               487             201.1             488.4           2.4            10,840
     1977            538              24              -               562             159.4             436.8           2.7            10,560
     1978            405               6              -               411             157.9             380.6           2.4            10,948
     1979            507              14              2               523             158.2             381.9           2.4            12,698
     1980            360              -               -               360             127.7             373.5           2.9            18,110
     1981            283               6              2               291             135.0             388.1           2.9            20,411
     1982            322               7              4               333             156.0             330.0           2.1            24,605
     1983            331               1              1               333             140.7             371.8           2.6            26,599
     1984            360               4              -               364             160.3             424.9           2.7            33,640
     1985            370               5              8               383             182.2             756.4           4.2            47,854
     1986            206               3              6               215             100.6           1,329.1          13.2           119,496
     1987            187               5              1               193              80.1             366.3           4.6            24,204
     1988            162              10              -               172             104.0             381.7           3.7            32,632
     1989            155              16              -               171              78.9             193.3           2.4            18,763
     1990            126              10              1               137              50.0             330.9           6.6            48,433
     1991             65               3              3                71              52.0              99.0           1.9            11,577
     1992             41               6              7                54              26.8             113.7           4.2            19,372
     1993             48               5              5                58              21.3              23.8           1.1             2,863
     1994             56               7              6                69              16.0              38.3           2.4             4,580
     1995             59               8              2                69              32.0              53.4           1.7             6,813
     1996             61               8              3                72              42.3              69.5           1.6             9,768
     1997             36               4              2                42               7.6              24.6           3.2             3,126
     1998             31               3              1                35              15.2              11.8           0.8             1,886
     1999             31                -             1                32              10.7              16.7           1.6             3,343
     2000             18               3              -                21               2.6              11.5           4.4             2,272
     2001             38               2              2                42              22.0              54.4           2.5             7,682
     2002             38               6              2                46              23.3              34.4           1.5             4,979
Source: Statistics New Zealand

 (1) All data relating to each stoppage is included in the period in which the stoppage terminated, regardless of when the stoppage began.
 (2) From January 1988 coverage of the stoppage statistics has been extended to include the public sector, including state-owned enterprises,
      as well as the private sector.
 (3) Complete strikes and complete lockouts which result in the loss of fewer than the equivalent of 10 person-days of work are excluded.
 (4) If two or more separate periods of industrial action which relate to the same issue occur, then these are grouped as one stoppage.
      Employees involved in two or more periods are counted only once in the series. The series also includes non-striking employees who
      are suspended because of the unavailability of normal work during the stoppage.
 (5) Reduction of normal rate of output. From January 1991, overtime bans have been classified as partial strikes. Prior to this date these were
      classified as complete strikes.
 (6) Includes partial lockouts.
 (7) Rounded to nearest 100 employees.
 (8) Rounded to nearest 100 days.
 (9) Previously termed working days lost.
(10) Rounded to nearest $1,000.




                                                                      132
                                  Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.02

                                   Work Stoppages
                                 By regional council area
                                                                        Average
                                 Number of           Person-                         Estimated
                                                                        Person-
                  Number         Employees           days of                          Loss in
 Year ended                                                            days Lost
                     of          Involved(1)       Work Lost(2)(3)                   Wages and
31 December                                                                per
                 Stoppages                                                           Salaries(4)
                                                                       Employee
                                               (000)                                  $(000)
                                                                        Involved

                                                Northland/Auckland
    1999              7               1.1                 2.1             1.9              208
    2000              2                ..                 ..               ..               ..
    2001             13               1.1                 6.9             6.4              726
    2002              7               1.4                 1.7             1.2              253
                                               Waikato/Bay of Plenty
    1999               5              1.9                2.8              1.5              388
    2000               3              0.3                1.0              3.7              192
    2001               2               ..                ..                ..               ..
    2002               4              0.7                1.6              2.2              160
                                               Gisborne/Hawke's Bay
    1999               2               ..                 ..               ..               ..
    2000               2               ..                 ..               ..               ..
    2001               -               -                   -                 -              -
    2002               -               -                   -                 -              -
                                          Taranaki/Manawatu/Wanganui
    1999               1               ..               ..                 ..               ..
    2000               3              0.1               0.6               5.6              120
    2001               4              0.5               1.0               2.2              117
    2002               4              0.1               0.1               1.4               14
                                                       Wellington
    1999              5               0.9                    3.0          3.1              331
    2000              4               0.2                    0.2          1.0               34
    2001              4               0.2                    0.3          1.4               25
    2002             10               1.0                    0.8          0.8              126
                                    Tasman/Nelson/Marlborough/West Coast
    1999               -               -                -               -                   -
    2000               1               ..              ..             ..                     ..
    2001               1               ..              ..             ..                     ..
    2002               7              0.5              0.4           1.0                    46
                                            Canterbury/Otago/Southland
    1999               5              0.5                 0.4             0.8                69
    2000               2               ..                 ..               ..                ..
    2001               5              3.9                 8.8             2.2             1,349
    2002               5              1.5                 3.0             2.0               408
                                                        Other(5)
    1999              7               6.2                   8.2           1.3             2,334
    2000              4               1.6                   5.3           3.2             1,373
    2001             13              15.9                  37.2           2.3             5,434
    2002              9              18.2                  26.8           1.5             3,973
                                                        Total(5)
    1999             32              10.7                  16.7           1.6             3,343
    2000             21               2.6                  11.5           4.4             2,272
    2001             42              22.0                  54.4           2.5             7,682
    2002             46              23.3                  34.4           1.5             4,979
Source: Statistics New Zealand

(1) Rounded to the nearest 100 employees.
(2) Rounded to nearest 100 days.
(3) Previously termed working days lost.
(4) Rounded to nearest $1,000.
(5) This category includes stoppages which occur in more than one region but for which
    data is not available at the individual regional level.


                                                133
                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.03

                                      Work Stoppages
                                         By industry (1)(2)
                                                                           Average Person-   Estimated
                                     Number of             Person-
                     Number                                                   days Lost       Loss in
  Year ended                         Employees             days of
                        of                                                        per        Wages and
 31 December                         Involved(3)         Work Lost(4)(5)
                    Stoppages                                                 Employee       Salaries(6)
                                                   (000)                       Involved       $(000)

                                                      Manufacturing
     1998                10               0.9                2.4             2.6                   285
     1999                 7               2.0                2.4             1.2                   281
     2000                 5               1.3                9.0             7.0                 1,772
     2001                17               2.3              22.4              9.9                 2,845
     2002                14               1.5                5.0             3.3                   601
                                                  Transport and Storage
     1998                  1              ..                ..               ..                     ..
     1999                  5              2.2                7.1             3.3                 2,083
     2000                  2              ..                ..               ..                     ..
     2001                  3             0.5                0.1             1.7                    181
     2002                  6             1.4                0.1             0.1                    11
                                        Government Administration and Defence
     1998                 1               ..                ..                 ..                  ..
     1999                 -                 -                  -               -                     -
     2000                 3               0.4                0.2             0.5                   46
     2001                 2               ..                 ..              ..                    ..
     2002                 1               ..                 ..              ..                    ..
                                                        Education
     1998                  6             11.9                6.6             0.6                 1,204
     1999                  8              0.8                0.9             1.1                   170
     2000                  1              ..                ..               ..                    ..
     2001                  3             11.6              19.7              1.7                 2,836
     2002                  6             17.2              25.5              1.5                 3,839
                                              Health and Community Services
     1998                 9               1.2                1.8             1.5                   272
     1999                 5               2.5                3.8             1.5                   488
     2000                 8               0.5                1.8             3.6                   356
     2001                 3               3.4                3.7             1.1                   655
     2002                11               0.8                1.9             2.4                   286
                                                          Other(7)
     1998                 8               0.9                 0.7                 0.8               99
     1999                 6               2.0                 1.9                 0.9              236
     2000                 2               ..                  ..                  ..               ..
     2001                14               4.0                 6.9                1.7               930
     2002                 8               2.0                 1.8                1.1               241
                                                   Total All Stoppages(8)
     1998                35              15.2                  11.8               0.8            1,887
     1999                32              10.7                  16.7               1.6            3,343
     2000                21               2.6                  11.5               4.4            2,272
     2001                42              22.0                  54.4               2.5            7,682
     2002                46              23.3                  34.4               1.5            4,979
Source: Statistics New Zealand
(1) Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification.
(2) Stoppages which affect more than one industry have been recorded in each of the industries
    concerned. For this reason the total figures may not be the sum of the industry figures.
(3) Rounded to the nearest 100 employees.
(4) Rounded to nearest 100 days.
(5) Previously termed working days lost.
(6) Rounded to nearest $1,000.
(7) This is a combination of industries. Mining; Electricity Gas and Water Supply;
    Construction; Wholesale Trade; Retail Trade; Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants;
    Finance and Insurance; Property and Business Services; Cultural and Recreational Services;
    and Personal and Other Services.
(8) The total figures for working days lost and losses in wages and salaries may not add to the
    sum of their respective columns due to rounding of each figure.



                                                   134
                                 Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.04

                                   Work Stoppages
                                 By institutional sector (1)

                                                       Person-           Average
                                    Number of                            Person-       Estimated
                      Number                           days of
   Year ended                       Employees                           days Lost       Loss in
                         of                             Work
  31 December                       Involved(2)                             per       Wages and
                     Stoppages                         Lost(3)(4)
                                                                        Employee    Salaries(5) $(000)
                                               (000)                     Involved

                                                     Public Sector(6)
      1991               31             31.5             54.5              1.7              6,280
      1992               25             21.9             21.3              1.0              2,536
      1993               29             18.8             19.2              1.0              2,347
      1994               24              6.5             10.2              1.6              1,206
      1995               30             25.2             27.4              1.1              3,779
      1996               36             35.2             45.1              1.3              6,379
      1997               20              2.5              4.2              1.7                553
      1998               19             13.6              8.9              0.7              1,566
      1999               13              3.3              4.7              1.4                658
      2000               12              1.3              2.5              2.0                498
      2001               14             19.2             30.9              1.6              4,717
      2002               19             19.4             27.5              1.4              4,138
                                                     Private Sector
      1991               43             20.5            44.5               2.2              5,297
      1992               30              4.9            92.4              18.9             16,836
      1993               29              2.5             4.5               1.8                516
      1994               45              9.5            28.1               2.9              3,373
      1995               39              6.8            26.0               3.8              3,034
      1996               36              7.1            24.4               3.4              3,389
      1997               22              5.2            20.4               4.0              2,573
      1998               16              1.6             2.9               1.8                320
      1999               19              7.4            12.0               1.6              2,685
      2000                9              1.4             9.0               6.6              1,774
      2001               28              2.8            23.5               8.4              2,964
      2002               27              3.9             6.9               1.8                841
                                                       All Sectors
      1991               71             52.0            99.0               1.9             11,577
      1992               54             26.8           113.7               4.2             19,372
      1993               58             21.3            23.8               1.1              2,863
      1994               69             16.0            38.3               2.4              4,580
      1995               69             32.0            53.4               1.7              6,813
      1996               72             42.3            69.5               1.6              9,768
      1997               42              7.6            24.6               3.2              3,126
      1998               35             15.2            11.8               0.8              1,887
      1999               32             10.7            16.7               1.6              3,343
      2000               21              2.6            11.5               4.4              2,272
      2001               42             22.0            54.4               2.5              7,682
      2002               46             23.3            34.4               1.5              4,979
Source: Statistics New Zealand

(1) Some stoppages may affect more than one sector of ownership. For this reason the
    sum of the stoppages for each sector may not equal the total number of stoppages.
(2) Rounded to nearest 100 employees.
(3) Rounded to nearest 100 days.
(4) Previously termed working days lost.
(5) Rounded to nearest $1,000.
(6) Central and local government.




                                               135
                                               Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.05

                                                Work Stoppages
                                                     By duration
                                   At Least 2             At Least 5             At Least 10
 Year ended                                                                                     At Least   Number of
                    1 Day        Days but Fewer        Days but Fewer          Days but Fewer
31 December                                                                                     20 Days    Stoppages
                                  than 5 Days           than 10 Days            than 20 Days


                                                      Number of Work Stoppages
    1983             161                96                     37                  21            18          333
    1984             148               108                     54                  42            12          364
    1985             101               126                     56                  62            38          383
    1986              55                60                     42                  31            27          215
    1987              49                48                     46                  31            19          193
    1988              56                41                     26                  28            21          172
    1989              61                45                     18                  29            18          171
    1990              41                38                     23                  17            18          137
    1991              24                13                     17                   7            10           71
    1992              10                20                      9                   6             9           54
    1993               8                26                      8                   5            11           58
    1994               9                21                     21                   9             9           69
    1995              14                19                     14                  12            10           69
    1996               9                23                     18                   9            13           72
    1997               6                17                      7                   8             4           42
    1998               4                10                     10                   5             6           35
    1999              10                13                      4                   3             2           32
    2000               6                 3                      8                   2             2           21
    2001               5                16                      8                   5             8           42
    2002               8                18                      9                   3             8           46
                                                 Percentage of Number of Stoppages (%)
    1983              48.3              28.8                   11.1                 6.3           5.4        100.0
    1984              40.7              29.7                   14.8                11.5           3.3        100.0
    1985              26.4              32.9                   14.6                16.2           9.9        100.0
    1986              25.6              27.9                   19.5                14.4          12.6        100.0
    1987              25.4              24.9                   23.8                16.1           9.8        100.0
    1988              32.6              23.8                   15.1                16.3          12.2        100.0
    1989              35.7              26.3                   10.5                17.0          10.5        100.0
    1990              29.9              27.7                   16.8                12.4          13.1        100.0
    1991              33.8              18.3                   23.9                 9.9          14.1        100.0
    1992              18.5              37.0                   16.7                11.1          16.7        100.0
    1993              13.8              44.8                   13.8                 8.6          19.0        100.0
    1994              13.0              30.5                   30.5                13.0          13.0        100.0
    1995              20.3              27.5                   20.3                17.4          14.5        100.0
    1996              12.5              31.9                   25.0                12.5          18.1        100.0
    1997              14.3              40.5                   16.7                19.0           9.5        100.0
    1998              11.4              28.6                   28.6                14.3          17.1        100.0
    1999              31.3              40.6                   12.5                 9.4           6.3        100.0
    2000              28.6              14.3                   38.1                 9.5           9.5        100.0
    2001              11.9              38.1                   19.0                11.9          19.0        100.0
    2002              17.4              39.1                   19.6                 6.5          17.4        100.0
Source: Statistics New Zealand




                                                           136
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.06

                                                             Work Stoppages
                                                           By cause of stoppage
                                                       Year ended 31 December 2002

                                                                               Dispute Over        Dispute Over
 Dispute Arising from       Dispute Over Wage       Dispute Over Hours
                                                                               Redundancy          Overtime/Shift
Negotiation of Coverage        Provisions of            of Work of                                                                     Number of
                                                                               Provisions of       Provisions of         Other
   of Employment               Employment              Employment                                                                     Stoppages(1)
                                                                               Employment          Employment
      Agreement                 Agreement               Agreement
                                                                                Agreement           Agreement


                  14                       32                      3                        4                4               16              46
Source: Statistics New Zealand

(1) As respondents may give more than one cause for their stoppage, total figures do not equal the sum of the respective row.




Table 9.07

                                                             Work Stoppages
                                           By method of resolution of issue of dispute (1)
                                                       Year ended 31 December 2002


                                                                                                            Average Person- Estimated Loss
                                                                      Number of Employees Person-days of
                                                                                                     (2)(3)  days Lost per   in Wages and
    Method of Resolution of Issue of Dispute      Number of Stoppages      Involved        Work Lost
                                                                                                              Employee         Salaries(4)
                                                                                                               Involved          $(000)
                                                                                     (000)

Not Resolved                                                      16                      2.8              2.4               0.9            353
Negotiations Between Employer and Employee
or their Representatives                                          21                      6.0              6.0               1.0            937
Mediation Services Provided by the Department
of Labour or a Private Provider                                    5                      0.5              2.6               5.2            312
A Decision of the Employment Court or Other
Third Party                                                        1                       .. C              .. C              .. C           .. C
Other                                                              3                       .. C              .. C              .. C           .. C
Total                                                             46                    23.3              34.4               1.5          4,979
Source: Statistics New Zealand

(1) 'Method of Resolution' is the method by which the dispute which resulted in the stoppage was resolved. This is distinct from
     'method of ending stoppage'. A stoppage may end with the dispute remaining unresolved.
(2) Rounded to nearest whole day.
(3) Previously termed working days lost.
(4) Rounded to nearest $1,000.




                                                                         137
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 9.08

                                          Registered Unions
                               Number of unions by size of membership
           Number of Members                   As at 1 March 2001     As at 1 March 2002   As at 1 March 2003

Under 1,000                                           88                    120                   134
1,000 and under 2,000                                 12                     14                    15
2,000 and under 3,000                                  5                      5                    4
3,000 and under 4,000                                  3                      3                    2
4,000 and under 5,000                                  -                      1                    1
5,000 and under 6,000                                  2                      1                    1
6,000 and under 7,000                                  1                      1                    2
7,000 and under 8,000                                  -                      -                     -
8,000 and under 9,000                                  1                      2                    2
9,000 and under 10,000                                 -                      1                     -
10,000 and under 20,000                                4                      2                    3
20,000 and under 30,000                                2                      2                    1
30,000 and under 40,000                                2                      1                    1
40,000 and over                                        1                      3                    3
Total                                                121                    156                   169
Source: Employment Relations Service, Department of Labour




                                                      138
                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 10

International comparisons
This chapter contains a range of information from selected OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development) countries for comparison purposes. Tables on the civilian labour force and employment,
distribution of civilian employment by economic sector, and standardised unemployment rates are provided.




                                                    139
                                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 10.01

                                                  Civilian Labour Force
                                                       Selected countries (1)
 Average
           New
 for Year         Australia Japan(2)           USA       Canada      UK(3)      France   Germany(4)    Italy   Sweden(5)   Norway(2)
          Zealand
  ended
December                                                                (000)

   1984      1,358      7,109     59,270     113,544     12,739     26,939      23,560       28,135   22,722     4,409       2,003
   1985      1,387      7,302     59,634     115,461     13,002     27,392      23,620       28,366   22,890     4,436       2,037
   1986      1,608      7,559     60,200     117,834     13,257     27,475      23,766       28,659   23,225     4,396       2,095
   1987      1,623      7,726     60,840     119,865     13,512     27,670      23,895       28,854   23,416     4,429       2,135
   1988      1,597      7,932     61,660     121,669     13,779     28,156      23,984       29,077   23,687     4,478       2,148
   1989      1,581      8,224     62,700     123,869     14,047     28,363      24,169       29,274   23,700     4,534       2,120
   1990      1,606      8,425     63,840     125,840     14,241     28,444      24,288       29,871   23,966     4,548       2,104
   1991      1,630      8,474     65,050     126,346     14,330     28,264      24,470       30,203   24,063     4,530       2,089
   1992      1,645      8,534     65,780     128,105     14,362     28,172      24,609       30,502   24,069     4,456       2,096
   1993      1,672      8,589     66,150     129,200     14,505     28,422      24,668       39,135   22,604     4,379       2,097
   1994      1,726      8,740     66,450     131,056     14,627     28,401      24,831       39,207   22,480     4,354       2,119
   1995      1,779      8,992     66,660     132,304     14,750     28,499      24,845       39,111   22,489     4,391       2,154
   1996      1,841      9,102     67,110     133,943     14,900     28,632      25,109       39,180   22,604     4,403       2,212
   1997      1,859      9,182     67,870     136,297     15,153     28,758      25,297       39,480   22,715     4,367       2,259
   1998      1,864      9,300     67,930     137,673     15,418     28,913      25,490       39,711   22,987     4,347       2,294
   1999      1,878      9,426     67,790     139,368     15,721     29,405      25,728       39,818   23,162     4,382       2,308
   2000      1,892      9,647     67,663     142,583     15,999     29,627      26,205       39,837   23,369     4,360       2,327
   2001      1,926      9,796     67,518     143,734     16,246     29,778      26,460       40,038   23,567     4,414       2,342
   2002      1,979      9,943     66,890     144,863     16,689        --       26,684       40,018   24,085     4,418       2,361
Sources: Labour Force Statistics, 1979-1999, OECD, Paris (2000)
         Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, Number 2, 2003, OECD, Paris (2003)
(1) Annual averages.
(2) Includes armed forces.
(3) This year's figure for the United Kingdom is unavailable due to a break in the series.
(4) Western Germany until 1992.
(5) Includes certain categories of permanent military personnel.




                                                                  140
                                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 10.02

                                                           Civilian Employment
                                                             Selected countries (1)

Average for      New
                           Australia    Japan(2)       USA         Canada          UK(3)     France    Germany(4)    Italy   Sweden(5) Norway(2)
Year ended      Zealand
December
                                                                                    (000)

    1984         1,281      6,471         57,660     105,005       11,300         23,909      21,199      25,770    20,418     4,255     1,939
    1985         1,329      6,703         58,070     107,150       11,617         24,213      21,142      25,876    20,508     4,299     1,984
    1986         1,544      6,949         58,530     109,597       11,979         24,246      21,238      26,387    20,614     4,269     2,053
    1987         1,557      7,100         59,110     112,440       12,321         24,764      21,320      26,707    20,584     4,337     2,090
    1988         1,508      7,366         60,110     114,968       12,710         25,816      21,521      26,889    20,818     4,399     2,079
    1989         1,468      7,716         61,280     117,342       12,986         26,620      21,842      27,469    20,833     4,466     2,014
    1990         1,481      7,837         62,490     118,793       13,084         26,888      22,083      28,825    21,215     4,465     1,992
    1991         1,463      7,668         63,690     117,718       12,851         26,023      22,121      36,892    21,410     4,383     1,973
    1992         1,475      7,613         64,360     118,492       12,760         25,493      22,018      36,400    21,270     4,195     1,970
    1993         1,513      7,645         64,500     120,259       12,857         25,481      21,739      36,019    20,305     3,964     1,970
    1994         1,585      7,886         64,530     123,060       13,112         25,736      21,725      35,901    19,972     3,928     2,003
    1995         1,668      8,217         64,570     124,900       13,357         26,039      21,908      35,821    19,851     3,986     2,047
    1996         1,729      8,324         64,860     126,708       13,463         26,340      21,961      35,688    19,951     3,963     2,104
    1997         1,736      8,387         65,570     129,558       13,774         26,785      22,087      35,573    20,207     3,922     2,166
    1998         1,725      8,553         65,140     131,463       14,140         27,095      22,425      35,830    20,242     3,979     2,219
    1999         1,750      8,765         64,620     133,488       14,531         27,651      22,813      36,167    20,493     4,068     2,233
    2000         1,779      9,031         64,463     136,891       14,910         28,031      23,687      36,604    20,874     4,157     2,247
    2001         1,823      9,130         64,121     136,933       15,077         28,265      24,139      36,731    21,300     4,239     2,259
    2002         1,877      9,311         63,303     136,485       15,412           --        24,279      36,522    21,612     4,242     2,269

Sources: Labour Force Statistics, 1979-1999, OECD, Paris (2000)
           Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, Number 2, 2003, OECD, Paris (2003)
(1) Annual averages.
(2) Includes armed forces.
(3) This year's figure for the United Kingdom is unavailable due to a break in the series.
(4) Western Germany until 1992.
(5) Includes certain categories of permanent military personnel.




                                                                            141
                                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 10.03

                                           Distribution of Civilian Employment
                                                            By economic sector
                                                                                     (1)(2)
                                                            Selected countries

Average for
            New Zealand Australia       Japan(3)      USA      Canada        UK(4)        France   Germany(5)   Italy   Sweden(6)   Norway(3)
Year ended
December
                                                                               %

                                                                          Primary
                                                   (includes Agriculture, Hunting, Forestry and Fishing)
   1990             10.6         5.6        7.2        2.8        4.2         2.1       5.6         3.5        8.8         3.3      6.5
   1991             10.7         5.5        6.7        2.9        4.5         2.3       5.4         3.3        8.5         3.2      5.9
   1992             10.8         5.3        6.4        2.9        4.1         2.3       5.2         3.2        8.2         3.2      5.6
   1993             10.6         5.3        5.9        2.7        4.2         2.0       5.1         3.5        8.2         3.4      5.6
   1994             10.4         5.1        5.8        2.9        4.1         2.1       4.9         3.3        7.9         3.4      5.3
   1995              9.7         5.0        5.7        2.9        4.1         2.0       4.7         3.2        7.5         3.1      5.2
   1996              9.5         5.0        5.5        2.8        4.0         1.9       4.6         3.0        7.0         2.9      5.2
   1997              8.7         5.1        5.3        2.7        3.8         1.8       4.5         2.9        6.2         2.8      4.8
   1998              8.5         4.9        5.3        2.7        3.8         1.7       4.4         2.8        5.9         2.6      4.7
   1999              9.5         4.9        5.2        2.6        3.6         1.5       4.1         2.8        5.5         2.5      4.6
   2000              8.7         4.9        5.0        2.5        3.3         1.5       3.9         2.7        5.4         2.4      4.1
   2001              9.1         4.8        4.9        2.4        2.9         1.4       3.7         2.6        5.3         2.3      3.9
   2002              8.8         4.3        4.7        2.5        2.8        --         3.7         2.6        5.1         2.1      3.8
                                                                        Secondary
                                 (includes Mining and Quarrying; Manufacturing; Electricity, Gas and Water; Construction)
   1990             24.6        25.4       34.1       26.2      24.6        28.6       30.0        39.8       32.7        29.1     24.8
   1991             23.5        24.1       34.4       25.3      23.2        27.8       29.5        39.2       32.3        28.2     23.7
   1992             22.8        23.8       34.6       24.6      21.6        27.0       28.7        38.2       32.2        26.6     23.5
   1993             23.5        23.8       34.3       24.1      21.1        29.1       27.7        38.6       32.6        25.4     23.1
   1994             25.0        23.6       34.0       24.0      22.6        27.6       26.7        37.5       32.4        25.0     23.4
   1995             25.1        22.9       33.6       24.0      22.9        27.4       26.5        36.3       32.3        25.9     23.4
   1996             24.7        22.5       33.3       23.9      21.9        27.2       26.0        35.5       32.1        26.1     23.2
   1997             23.9        22.2       33.1       23.9      22.5        26.9       25.5        34.8       33.3        26.0     23.2
   1998             24.1        21.9       32.0       23.6      22.7        26.6       25.0        34.5       33.2        25.7     23.1
   1999             22.9        21.5       31.6       23.1      22.5        25.8       24.4        33.7       32.9        25.1     22.2
   2000             23.2        22.0       31.2       22.7      22.6        25.1       24.1        33.4       32.4        24.6     21.9
   2001             22.8        21.2       30.5       22.1      22.7        24.8       24.0        32.7       32.1        23.8     21.8
   2002             22.7        21.3       29.7       21.1      22.8         --        23.7        32.0       32.1        23.1     21.9
                                                                          Services
                         (includes Wholesale and Retail Trade, Restaurants and Hotels; Transport, Storage and Communications;
                   Financing, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services; Community, Social and Personal Services; Not Specified)
   1990             64.8        69.1       58.7       70.9      71.2        69.2       64.4        56.7       58.5        67.5     68.8
   1991             65.8        70.4       58.9       71.8      72.3        69.8       65.1        57.5       59.2        68.4     70.4
   1992             66.3        70.9       59.0       72.5      74.2        70.7       66.0        58.6       59.6        70.0     70.9
   1993             65.9        70.8       59.8       73.2      74.6        68.3       67.2        57.9       59.3        71.0     71.3
   1994             64.6        71.3       60.2       73.1      73.3        69.8       68.4        59.1       59.7        71.5     71.2
   1995             65.3        72.1       60.7       73.1      73.0        70.1       68.8        60.5       60.3        71.0     71.5
   1996             65.9        72.4       61.2       73.3      74.1        70.4       69.3        61.5       60.9        70.9     71.6
   1997             67.6        72.6       61.6       73.4      73.7        70.9       70.0        62.3       60.5        71.2     71.9
   1998             67.4        73.2       62.7       73.7      73.6        71.5       70.6        62.6       60.8        71.6     72.1
   1999             67.7        73.6       63.2       74.4      74.0        72.4       71.5        63.4       61.5        72.2     73.1
   2000             68.1        73.1       63.7       74.8      74.1        73.2       72.0        63.9       62.2        72.9     73.8
   2001             68.1        74.1       64.6       75.5      74.4        73.6       72.2        64.7       62.6        73.7     74.2
   2002             68.5        74.4       65.7       76.4      74.4         --        72.7        65.4       62.9        74.6     74.2
Sources: Labour Force Statistics, 1979-1999, OECD, Paris (2000)
         Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, Number 2, 2003, OECD, Paris (2003)
(1) Annual averages.
(2) Subtotals may not add to 100 due to rounding.
(3) Includes armed forces.
(4) This year's figure for the United Kingdom is unavailable due to a break in the series.
(5) Western Germany until 1992.
(6) Includes certain categories of permanent military personnel.




                                                                       142
                                                      Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 10.04

                                                      Persons Unemployed
                                           Standardised (1) unemployment rates
                                                                               (2)
                                                        Selected countries

Average for New                                                                                                              OECD(4)
                   Australia       Japan      USA      Canada      UK      France     Germany(3)   Italy   Sweden   Norway
Year ended Zealand                                                                                                            Total
December
                                                                          %

   1984          5.7       9.0       2.7        7.5      11.3      10.9        9.4        7.1       7.9      3.3      3.2      --
   1985          4.2       8.3       2.6        7.2      10.7      11.2        9.8        7.2       8.1      2.9      2.6      --
   1986         4.0        7.9       2.8        7.0       9.6      11.2        9.9        6.5       8.9      2.7      2.0      --
   1987         4.1        7.9       2.8        6.2       8.8      10.3       10.1        6.3       9.6      2.2      2.1      --
   1988         5.6        7.0       2.5        5.5       7.8       8.5        9.6        6.2       9.7      1.8      3.2      --
   1989         7.1        6.0       2.3        5.3       7.5       7.1        9.1        5.6       9.7      1.5      5.4      --
   1990         7.8        6.7       2.1        5.6       8.1       6.9        8.6        4.8       8.9      1.7      5.7      --
   1991        10.3        9.3       2.1        6.8      10.3       8.6        9.1        4.2       8.5      3.1      6.0      --
   1992        10.3       10.5       2.2        7.5      11.2       9.7       10.0        6.4       8.7      5.6      6.5      --
   1993         9.5       10.6       2.5        6.9      11.4       9.9       11.3        7.7      10.1      9.1      6.5      --
   1994         8.1        9.5       2.9        6.1      10.4       9.2       11.8        8.2      11.0      9.4      5.9      7.7
   1995         6.3        8.2       3.1        5.6       9.4       8.5       11.4        8.0      11.5      8.8      5.4      7.3
   1996         6.1        8.2       3.4        5.4       9.6       8.0       11.9        8.7      11.5      9.6      4.8      7.2
   1997         6.6        8.3       3.4        4.9       9.1       6.9       11.8        9.7      11.6      9.9      4.0      7.0
   1998         7.5        7.7       4.1        4.5       8.3       6.2       11.4        9.1      11.7      8.2      3.2      6.9
   1999         6.8        7.0       4.7        4.2       7.6       5.9       10.7        8.4      11.3      6.7      3.3      6.7
   2000         6.0        6.3       4.7        4.0       6.8       5.4        9.3        7.8      10.4      5.6      3.4      6.3
   2001         5.3        6.7       5.0        4.7       7.2       5.0        8.5        7.8       9.4      4.9      3.6      6.5
   2002         5.2        6.3       5.4        5.8       7.7       5.1        8.7        8.6       9.0      4.9      3.9      6.9
Source: Quarterly Labour Force Statistics, Number 2, 2003, OECD, Paris (2003)
(1) Standardised rates are seasonally adjusted, and conform with standard International
    Labour Organization guidelines for comparability.
(3) Western Germany until 1992.
(4) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.




                                                                   143
Labour Market Statistics 2003




            144
                                         Labour Market Statistics 2003




Part 11

Socio-demographic characteristics of the population
This chapter contains a range of population statistics that impact on the present and future structure and
activities of the labour market. There are tables on the census usually resident population count; estimated
resident population by age and sex; and permanent and long-term migration by age, sex and occupation to
and from New Zealand.




                                                     145
                         Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.01

       Census Usually Resident Population Count
                               1951–2001
                                                   Intercensal Increase
       Census                                                             Average
                        Population
        Date                            Change            Percent         Annual
                                                                          Percent


17 April 1951           1,930,482          -                  -             -
17 April 1956           2,162,907        232,425              12.0          2.4
18 April 1961           2,403,624        240,717              11.1          2.2
22 March 1966           2,659,305        255,681              10.6          2.1
23 March 1971           2,845,998        186,693                7.0         1.4
23 March 1976           3,103,266        257,268                9.0         1.8
24 March 1981           3,143,307         40,041                1.3         0.3
4 March 1986            3,263,283        119,976                3.8         0.8
5 March 1991            3,373,926        110,643                3.4         0.7
5 March 1996            3,618,303        244,377                7.2         1.4
6 March 2001            3,737,277        118,974                3.3         0.7

Source: Censuses of Population and Dwellings 1951–2001




                                     146
                                                     Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.02


                                         Estimated Resident Population(1)(2)
                                                     By age group and sex
    Age Group                                                        As at 31 March
     (Years)           1996           1997          1998           1999          2000           2001           2002              2003

                                                                          Males
0-14                   441,240       446,060        449,360        450,450        451,260       450,670        451,850           453,910
15-19                  138,000       138,250        138,430        138,450        139,150       140,780        145,850           150,830
20-24                  141,210       138,310        134,190        129,910        127,850       127,890        132,230           140,790
25-29                  138,990       140,670        139,700        135,750        131,740       126,300        123,480           122,330
30-34                  148,220       147,210        144,820        142,350        141,090       139,730        140,540           140,860
35-39                  144,400       148,780        151,750        152,860        151,970       149,410        147,990           146,630
40-44                  129,810       133,470        136,410        139,170        141,920       144,350        148,050           152,310
45-49                  124,220       125,440        125,960        126,280        127,070       128,470        131,500           135,350
50-54                   96,070       101,290        108,040        113,830        118,430       121,500        122,160           123,090
55-59                   80,920        84,980         87,130         89,670         91,720        93,380         98,350           105,220
60-64                   68,580        68,560         69,580         71,440         73,930        78,280         82,100            84,140
65 and over            185,000       188,270        191,190        194,290        197,360       200,780        204,570           209,780
Total All Ages       1,836,700     1,861,300      1,876,600      1,884,400      1,893,500     1,901,600      1,928,700         1,965,200
                                                                         Females
0-14                   416,600       421,840        425,800        426,670        427,470       426,950        428,750           430,080
15-19                  132,730       132,480        133,000        133,060        134,020       135,490        139,270           143,670
20-24                  141,550       138,040        133,750        130,230        127,870       127,580        130,820           136,490
25-29                  145,410       147,590        147,040        143,980        140,400       134,410        130,690           127,560
30-34                  154,560       154,610        152,950        151,930        151,870       152,020        152,830           153,530
35-39                  148,980       154,340        158,910        160,780        160,950       158,770        157,860           156,680
40-44                  132,530       136,750        140,210        143,900        147,240       150,840        155,510           160,750
45-49                  123,770       125,210        126,280        127,600        129,600       132,010        135,480           139,670
50-54                   95,630       100,740        107,780        113,950        118,890       122,660        123,190           124,470
55-59                   81,840        85,730         88,230         90,330         92,700        94,670         99,590           106,440
60-64                   69,130        70,000         71,170         73,750         76,640        80,900         84,630            86,820
65 and over            243,940       246,580        249,530        252,350        254,730       258,390        261,800           266,160
Total All Ages       1,886,700     1,913,900      1,934,700      1,948,500      1,962,400     1,974,700      2,000,400         2,032,300
                                                                 Total Males and Females
0-14                   857,880       867,900        875,170        877,120        878,730       877,620        880,610           884,000
15-19                  270,730       270,740        271,440        271,510        273,180       276,270        285,130           294,500
20-24                  282,760       276,350        267,950        260,130        255,720       255,470        263,050           277,280
25-29                  284,400       288,260        286,730        279,730        272,150       260,710        254,170           249,890
30-34                  302,780       301,820        297,770        294,280        292,960       291,750        293,380           294,400
35-39                  293,380       303,120        310,660        313,640        312,920       308,180        305,860           303,300
40-44                  262,340       270,230        276,620        283,070        289,160       295,190        303,570           313,060
45-49                  247,990       250,650        252,240        253,890        256,670       260,490        266,980           275,010
50-54                  191,700       202,030        215,820        227,770        237,320       244,150        245,350           247,550
55-59                  162,760       170,720        175,360        180,010        184,420       188,050        197,940           211,660
60-64                  137,710       138,570        140,750        145,190        150,570       159,180        166,730           170,960
65 and over            428,900       434,840        440,720        446,640        452,090       459,170        466,360           475,930
Total All Ages       3,723,400     3,775,200      3,811,300      3,832,900      3,855,900     3,876,300      3,929,100         3,997,500

Source: Statistics New Zealand
(1) Resident population estimates are based on the 1996 and 2001 Censuses, adjusted for estimated undercount in the censuses
    and for New Zealand residents temporarily overseas on census night.
(2) Owing to rounding, individual figures may not always sum to the stated totals.




                                                                 147
                      Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.03


       Permanent and Long-term Migration(1)
                             New Zealand

 Year ended 31
                       Arrivals          Departures       Net Migration(2)
    March

      1955               19,453               9,012             10,441
      1956               20,878               9,436             11,442
      1957               23,030               9,220             13,810
      1958               26,254               8,108             18,146
      1959               24,852              10,985             13,867
      1960               20,294              13,420              6,874
      1961               21,424              14,848              6,576
      1962               32,769              12,691             20,078
      1963               32,589              14,454             18,135
      1964               34,234              14,903             19,331
      1965               35,446              18,159             17,287
      1966               35,299              18,589             16,710
      1967               38,999              21,128             17,871
      1968               30,660              28,472              2,188
      1969               23,225              29,802             -6,577
      1970               26,825              29,822             -2,997
      1971               39,377              38,165              1,212
      1972               45,099              37,546              7,553
      1973               54,651              35,483             19,168
      1974               69,815              42,338             27,477
      1975               65,900              43,461             22,439
      1976               48,460              43,160              5,300
      1977               37,020              56,092            -19,072
      1978               36,972              63,680            -26,708
      1979               40,808              81,008            -40,200
      1980               41,607              76,024            -34,417
      1981               44,965              69,790            -24,825
      1982               45,292              56,774            -11,482
      1983               45,854              42,674              3,180
      1984               40,705              34,147              6,558
      1985               36,243              44,327             -8,084
      1986               35,982              57,595            -21,613
      1987               44,360              58,629            -14,269
      1988               47,844              63,469            -15,625
      1989               46,233              70,941            -24,708
      1990               52,001              56,019             -4,018
      1991               57,088              45,472             11,616
      1992               49,010              44,723              4,287
      1993               49,562              42,714              6,848
      1994               57,257              41,670             15,587
      1995               67,591              45,894             21,697
      1996               80,288              50,456             29,832
      1997               76,896              55,948             20,948
      1998               62,928              60,221              2,707
      1999               56,580              66,779            -10,199
      2000               61,089              70,076             -8,987
      2001               66,465              79,065            -12,600
      2002               88,365              62,730             25,635
      2003               98,671              57,079             41,592
Source: Statistics New Zealand
(1) Immigrants intending to stay in New Zealand for 12 months or
     more or permanently, plus New Zealand residents returning after
     an absence of 12 months or more, or emigrants departing
     permanently or intending to be away for 12 months or more, plus
     overseas visitors departing after a 12-months or longer stay.
(2) Excess of arrivals over departures. A minus sign denotes
    an excess of departures over arrivals.


                                   148
                        Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.04

              Permanent and Long-term Migration
                        By age group and sex
                                New Zealand
                                 Age Group
Year ended
                                                                              Total
 31 March     0-14     15-24       25-44           45-64        65 and Over


                                          Arrivals(1)
                                          Males
   1989        4,658    5,417       11,057              2,059         443     23,634
   1990        5,342    5,839       12,363              2,619         480     26,643
   1991        5,725    6,668       13,888              2,700         475     29,456
   1992        4,627    6,111       12,246              2,646         419     26,049
   1993        4,999    5,818       11,797              2,633         405     25,652
   1994        6,392    6,083       12,931              3,126         466     28,998
   1995        7,700    7,050       15,168              3,550         598     34,066
   1996        9,712    7,589       18,781              4,081         707     40,870
   1997        8,301    7,713       17,741              4,252         683     38,690
   1998        6,423    6,060       14,149              3,655         709     30,996
   1999        5,544    5,624       12,345              3,515         685     27,713
   2000        5,642    7,002       13,858              3,282         712     30,496
   2001        6,023    8,869       14,136              3,568         744     33,340
   2002        7,802   12,947       18,814              4,611         912     45,086
   2003        8,999   14,903       20,938              4,873         829     50,542
                                        Females
   1989        4,506    6,139        9,714              1,682         558     22,599
   1990        5,054    6,687       10,938              2,075         604     25,358
   1991        5,355    7,633       11,777              2,193         674     27,632
   1992        4,070    6,468        9,911              1,957         555     22,961
   1993        4,478    6,495       10,407              2,012         518     23,910
   1994        5,809    6,836       12,658              2,388         568     28,259
   1995        7,091    7,784       15,116              2,808         726     33,525
   1996        8,491    8,541       18,463              3,103         820     39,418
   1997        7,683    8,321       17,902              3,512         788     38,206
   1998        6,137    7,010       14,705              3,323         757     31,932
   1999        5,170    6,542       13,224              3,224         707     28,867
   2000        5,198    7,447       14,170              3,014         764     30,593
   2001        5,638    8,808       14,600              3,324         755     33,125
   2002        7,293   12,464       18,621              3,974         927     43,279
   2003        8,297   13,862       20,846              4,228         896     48,129
                                          Total
   1989        9,164   11,556       20,771              3,741       1,001     46,233
   1990       10,396   12,526       23,301              4,694       1,084     52,001
   1991       11,080   14,301       25,665              4,893       1,149     57,088
   1992        8,697   12,579       22,157              4,603         974     49,010
   1993        9,477   12,313       22,204              4,645         923     49,562
   1994       12,201   12,919       25,589              5,514       1,034     57,257
   1995       14,791   14,834       30,284              6,358       1,324     67,591
   1996       18,203   16,130       37,244              7,184       1,527     80,288
   1997       15,984   16,034       35,643              7,764       1,471     76,896
   1998       12,560   13,070       28,854              6,978       1,466     62,928
   1999       10,714   12,166       25,569              6,739       1,392     56,580
   2000       10,840   14,449       28,028              6,296       1,476     61,089
   2001       11,661   17,677       28,736              6,892       1,499     66,465
   2002       15,095   25,411       37,435              8,585       1,839     88,365
   2003       17,296   28,765       41,784              9,101       1,725     98,671




                                    149
                                Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.04
continued
              Permanent and Long-term Migration
                        By age group and sex
                                New Zealand
                                  Age Group
Year ended
                                                                          Total
 31 March     0-14     15-24         25-44         45-64    65 and Over


                                        Departures(2)
                                            Males
   1989        6,610   11,888         14,808        3,074         725     37,105
   1990        4,337   10,221         11,320        2,327         517     28,722
   1991        3,390    8,214          9,466        1,859         455     23,384
   1992        3,682    7,224          9,710        1,971         482     23,069
   1993        3,735    6,691          8,900        1,943         515     21,784
   1994        3,432    6,653          8,438        1,982         537     21,042
   1995        3,786    7,503          9,271        2,112         676     23,348
   1996        4,101    7,774         10,266        2,405         829     25,375
   1997        4,675    8,227         11,802        2,783         782     28,269
   1998        4,955    8,507         13,223        3,033         835     30,553
   1999        5,649    9,234         15,356        3,339         633     34,211
   2000        6,062    9,439         15,851        3,724         726     35,802
   2001        7,114   10,103         17,787        4,337         665     40,006
   2002        5,024    7,987         14,190        3,585         598     31,384
   2003        4,465    7,873         12,242        3,157         586     28,323
                                          Females
   1989        6,206   12,287         11,840        2,721         782     33,836
   1990        4,315   10,905          9,375        2,084         618     27,297
   1991        3,203    8,922          7,712        1,689         562     22,088
   1992        3,327    8,097          7,847        1,784         599     21,654
   1993        3,399    7,419          7,666        1,849         597     20,930
   1994        3,241    7,461          7,409        1,885         632     20,628
   1995        3,492    8,079          8,088        2,086         801     22,546
   1996        4,018    8,533          9,235        2,380         915     25,081
   1997        4,258    9,261         10,675        2,635         850     27,679
   1998        4,636    9,277         11,962        2,947         846     29,668
   1999        5,445    9,617         13,568        3,211         727     32,568
   2000        5,735    9,948         14,250        3,554         787     34,274
   2001        6,801   10,965         16,575        3,978         740     39,059
   2002        4,808    8,746         13,585        3,538         669     31,346
   2003        4,358    8,586         11,864        3,253         695     28,756
                                            Total
   1989       12,816   24,175         26,648        5,795       1,507     70,941
   1990        8,652   21,126         20,695        4,411       1,135     56,019
   1991        6,593   17,136         17,178        3,548       1,017     45,472
   1992        7,009   15,321         17,557        3,755       1,081     44,723
   1993        7,134   14,110         16,566        3,792       1,112     42,714
   1994        6,673   14,114         15,847        3,867       1,169     41,670
   1995        7,278   15,582         17,359        4,198       1,477     45,894
   1996        8,119   16,307         19,501        4,785       1,744     50,456
   1997        8,933   17,488         22,477        5,418       1,632     55,948
   1998        9,591   17,784         25,185        5,980       1,681     60,221
   1999       11,094   18,851         28,924        6,550       1,360     66,779
   2000       11,797   19,387         30,101        7,278       1,513     70,076
   2001       13,915   21,068         34,362        8,315       1,405     79,065
   2002        9,832   16,733         27,775        7,123       1,267     62,730
   2003        8,823   16,459         24,106        6,410       1,281     57,079




                                             150
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.04
continued
                  Permanent and Long-term Migration
                                 By age group and sex
                                          New Zealand
                                            Age Group
Year ended
                                                                                     Total
 31 March        0-14         15-24            25-44         45-64     65 and Over


                                                 Net Migration(3)
                                                      Males
    1989          -1,952         -6,471         -3,751        -1,015        -282     -13,471
    1990           1,005         -4,382          1,043           292         -37      -2,079
    1991           2,335         -1,546          4,422           841          20       6,072
    1992             945         -1,113          2,536           675         -63       2,980
    1993           1,264           -873          2,897           690        -110       3,868
    1994           2,960           -570          4,493         1,144         -71       7,956
    1995           3,914           -453          5,897         1,438         -78      10,718
    1996           5,611           -185          8,515         1,676        -122      15,495
    1997           3,626           -514          5,939         1,469         -99      10,421
    1998           1,468         -2,447            926           622        -126         443
    1999            -105         -3,610         -3,011           176          52      -6,498
    2000            -420         -2,437         -1,993          -442         -14      -5,306
    2001          -1,091         -1,234         -3,651          -769          79      -6,666
    2002           2,778          4,960          4,624         1,026         314      13,702
    2003           4,534          7,030          8,696         1,716         243      22,219
                                                    Females
    1989          -1,700         -6,148         -2,126        -1,039        -224     -11,237
    1990             739         -4,218          1,563            -9         -14      -1,939
    1991           2,152         -1,289          4,065           504         112       5,544
    1992             743         -1,629          2,064           173         -44       1,307
    1993           1,079           -924          2,741           163         -79       2,980
    1994           2,568           -625          5,249           503         -64       7,631
    1995           3,599           -295          7,028           722         -75      10,979
    1996           4,473              8          9,228           723         -95      14,337
    1997           3,425           -940          7,227           877         -62      10,527
    1998           1,501         -2,267          2,743           376         -89       2,264
    1999            -275         -3,075           -344            13         -20      -3,701
    2000            -537         -2,501            -80          -540         -23      -3,681
    2001          -1,163         -2,157         -1,975          -654          15      -5,934
    2002           2,485          3,718          5,036           436         258      11,933
    2003           3,939          5,276          8,982           975         201      19,373
                                                      Total
    1989         -3,652       -12,619           -5,877        -2,054        -506     -24,708
    1990          1,744        -8,600            2,606           283         -51      -4,018
    1991          4,487        -2,835            8,487         1,345         132      11,616
    1992          1,688        -2,742            4,600           848        -107       4,287
    1993          2,343        -1,797            5,638           853        -189       6,848
    1994          5,528        -1,195            9,742         1,647        -135      15,587
    1995          7,513          -748           12,925         2,160        -153      21,697
    1996         10,084          -177           17,743         2,399        -217      29,832
    1997          7,051        -1,454           13,166         2,346        -161      20,948
    1998          2,969        -4,714            3,669           998        -215       2,707
    1999           -380        -6,685           -3,355           189          32     -10,199
    2000           -957        -4,938           -2,073          -982         -37      -8,987
    2001         -2,254        -3,391           -5,626        -1,423          94     -12,600
    2002          5,263         8,678            9,660         1,462         572      25,635
    2003          8,473        12,306           17,678         2,691         444      41,592
Source: Statistics New Zealand
(1) Immigrants intending to stay in New Zealand for 12 months or more.
(2) Emigrants departing permanently or intending to be away for 12 months or more.
(3) Excess of arrivals over departures. A minus sign denotes an excess of departures over
    arrivals.



                                                       151
                                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003


Table 11.05

                                                   Permanent and Long-term Migration
                                                                       By occupation (1)
                                                                             1992–2003

        Legislators,                                                                            Plant and
 Year                            Technicians              Service    Agriculture
        Administra-                                                                             Machine                   Response
ended                  Profes-        and                   and         and         Trades                  Elementary                     Not        Not
           tors                                  Clerks                                         Operators                 Unidentifi-                          Total
  31                   sionals     Associate               Sales      Fishery       Workers                 Occupations                 Applicable   Stated
           and                                                                                     and                      able
March                            Professionals            Workers     Workers
         Managers                                                                              Assemblers


                                                                                      Arrivals(2)
1992     2,473          4,659      3,786         3,079      2,482        862          2,922         2,991      669         2,496        21,713         878    49,010
1993     2,465          5,126      3,737         2,642      2,440        838          2,873         1,827      568         2,687        23,341       1,018    49,562
1994     2,931          6,899      4,148         2,678      2,526        836          3,247         1,032      613         2,632        28,245       1,470    57,257
1995     3,076          8,635      4,543         2,982      2,870        890          4,140         1,250      625         3,129        33,364       2,087    67,591
1996     3,192         10,951      5,106         3,431      3,220      1,049          5,302         1,374      596         4,190        39,639       2,238    80,288
1997     3,320         10,780      4,836         3,247      3,130      1,043          5,080         1,226      629         3,551        36,749       3,305    76,896
1998     2,433          8,380      3,888         2,542      2,890        917          2,786         1,002      588         3,643        29,814       4,045    62,928
1999     2,054          6,651      3,478         2,294      2,654        776          1,809           786      544         5,773        26,875       2,886    56,580
2000     1,820          6,626      3,906         2,329      2,858        775          1,868           762      537         6,921        28,084       4,603    61,089
2001     1,850          6,662      3,945         2,234      2,906        886          1,850           744      646         6,934        31,699       6,109    66,465
2002     2,813          8,798      4,330         3,183      3,555      1,021          2,332           934      651         9,415        43,696       7,637    88,365
2003     3,550          9,965      4,353         3,645      3,629      1,002          2,440           967      596        10,095        49,845       8,584    98,671
                                                                                    Departures(3)
1992     2,063          5,224      4,060         2,736      3,043      1,139          3,035       1,063        704          2,266       18,382       1,008    44,723
1993     1,923          4,871      3,710         2,312      2,888      1,049          2,644         952        655          2,068       18,810         832    42,714
1994     1,949          4,669      3,342         2,300      2,815        944          2,607       1,007        731          2,031       18,197       1,078    41,670
1995     2,168          5,057      3,613         2,569      3,242      1,127          3,024       1,339        833          1,855       19,182       1,885    45,894
1996     2,297          5,541      4,107         2,843      3,441      1,173          3,098       1,492        893          2,482       21,091       1,998    50,456
1997     2,710          6,386      4,591         2,802      3,748      1,336          3,383       1,602        930          2,342       23,170       2,948    55,948
1998     2,838          6,772      4,837         2,881      3,918      1,239          3,166       1,605        995          3,080       25,102       3,788    60,221
1999     2,857          7,218      4,958         2,863      4,184      1,195          3,396       1,585      1,098          6,604       26,949       3,872    66,779
2000     2,943          7,247      5,359         2,825      4,435      1,151          3,289       1,614      1,160          7,225       28,045       4,783    70,076
2001     3,616          8,684      5,625         3,075      5,262      1,218          3,284       1,666      1,176          8,961       31,554       4,944    79,065
2002     2,948          8,466      4,575         2,589      4,112      1,032          2,419       1,199        794          7,217       23,880       3,499    62,730
2003     2,588          7,976      3,949         2,553      3,643      1,055          2,161       1,101        730          5,471       22,788       3,064    57,079
                                                                                   Net Migration(4)
1992        410          -565       -274           343       -561       -277           -113      1,928         -35            230        3,331        -130      4,287
1993        542           255         27           330       -448       -211            229          875       -87            619        4,531         186      6,848
1994        982         2,230        806           378       -289       -108            640           25      -118            601       10,048         392     15,587
1995        908         3,578        930           413       -372       -237          1,116          -89      -208          1,274       14,182         202     21,697
1996        895         5,410        999           588       -221       -124          2,204         -118      -297          1,708       18,548         240     29,832
1997        610         4,394        245           445       -618       -293          1,697         -376      -301          1,209       13,579         357     20,948
1998       -405         1,608       -949          -339     -1,028       -322           -380         -603      -407            563        4,712         257      2,707
1999       -803          -567     -1,480          -569     -1,530       -419         -1,587         -799      -554           -831          -74        -986    -10,199
2000     -1,123          -621     -1,453          -496     -1,577       -376         -1,421         -852      -623           -304           39        -180     -8,987
2001     -1,766        -2,022     -1,680          -841     -2,356       -332         -1,434         -922      -530         -2,027          145       1,165    -12,600
2002       -135           332       -245           594       -557        -11            -87         -265      -143          2,198       19,816       4,138     25,635
2003        962         1,989        404         1,092        -14        -53            279         -134      -134          4,624       27,057       5,520     41,592

Source: Statistics New Zealand
(1) New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations 1990.
(2) Immigrants intending to stay in New Zealand for 12 months or more.
(3) Emigrants departing permanently or intending to be away for 12 months or more.
(4) Excess of arrivals over departures. A minus sign denotes an excess of departures over arrivals.




                                                                                    152
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003




Explanatory notes
Household Labour Force Survey
What the survey measures
The Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS)                        The statistics are averages for the three-month
provides a comprehensive range of statistics relating           period and do not apply to any particular time in the
to employment, unemployment and people not in the               period. This approach spreads the survey work load
labour force. In measuring levels, changes and                  throughout the quarter and, to a large extent,
characteristics of employment, unemployment and                 removes the within-quarter irregularities inherent in
potential labour supply, the survey offers a regular,           a fixed point survey estimate.
timely and comprehensive portrayal of New
Zealand’s labour force.                                         Definitions
                                                                The labour force category to which a person is
Background and coverage                                         assigned depends on his or her actual activity during
The HLFS commenced in October 1985 and the first                a survey reference week. The following definitions
quarterly statistics compiled applied to the three              conform closely to the international standard
months ended 31 December 1985. Since then the                   definitions specified by the International Labour
HLFS has been run on a regular basis.                           Organization.
The HLFS is based on a stratified sample of about               Working-age population
15,000 households, sampled on a statistically                   The usually resident non-institutionalised, civilian
representative basis from rural and urban areas                 population of New Zealand, aged 15 years and over.
throughout New Zealand each quarter. Information
is obtained for each member of a sampled household              Labour force
who falls within the scope of the survey and meets              Members of the working-age population who, during
the survey coverage rules. This yields about 30,000             their survey reference week, are classified as
individual respondents each quarter. Where                      ‘employed’ or ‘unemployed’ as defined below.
practicable, the information is obtained directly from
each household member. Otherwise a proxy                        The employed
interview is conducted whereby details are obtained             All people in the working-age population who during
from another responsible adult in the household.                the reference week:

Respondents are first interviewed face to face at their           (a) Worked for one hour or more for pay or profit
residence. Subsequent interviews are by telephone                     in the context of an employee/employer
whenever possible. The information obtained relates                   relationship or self-employment.
to the week before the interview (referred to as the
survey reference week).                                           (b) Worked without pay for one hour or more in
                                                                      work which contributed directly to the operation
The survey includes the total usually resident, non-                  of a farm, business or professional practice
institutionalised, civilian population of New Zealand                 owned or operated by a relative (before April
aged 15 years and over. This excludes the following                   1990, defined as 15 hours or more).
people:
                                                                  (c) Had a job but were not at work due to:
  q   long-term residents (six weeks or more) of                  q   own illness or injury
      homes for the elderly, hospitals and psychiatric
                                                                  q   personal or family responsibilities
      institutions
                                                                  q   bad weather or mechanical breakdown
  q   inmates of penal institutions
                                                                  q   direct involvement in an industrial dispute
  q   members of the New Zealand permanent armed
      forces                                                      q   leave or holiday.
  q   non-New Zealand diplomats and non-New                     The unemployed
      Zealand members of their staff and households             All people in the working-age population who were
  q   members of non-New Zealand armed forces                   without a paid job, were available for work, and had
      stationed in New Zealand and their dependants             actively sought work in the past four weeks ending
  q   overseas visitors who have been resident in New           with the reference week, or had a new job to start
      Zealand for less than 12 months and who do not            within four weeks.
      propose to stay in New Zealand for a total period
      of more than 12 months                                    A person whose only job-search method in the
                                                                previous four weeks has been to look at job
  q   people resident on offshore islands (except for           advertisements in the newspapers is not considered
      Waiheke Island)                                           to be actively seeking work.
  q   those living in non-private dwellings
  q   those under 15 years of age.

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                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003




People not in the labour force                                    of the sample from one survey quarter to the next
Any person who is neither employed nor unemployed,                improves quarterly estimates of labour force
as defined above, is deemed to be not in the labour               changes.
force. This category includes:
                                                                  Two types of error are possible in estimates based
  (a) retired people                                              on a sample survey. Sampling error is a measure
                                                                  of the variability that occurs by chance because a
  (b) people with personal or family responsibilities
                                                                  sample rather than an entire population is surveyed.
      such as unpaid housework and childcare
                                                                  Non-sampling errors include errors arising from
  (c) people attending educational institutions                   biases in the patterns of response and non-response,
                                                                  inaccuracies in reporting by respondents, and errors
  (d) people permanently unable to work due to
                                                                  in the recording and coding of data.
      physical or mental disabilities
  (e) people who were temporarily unavailable for                 Estimates of sampling errors for all of the HLFS
      work in the survey reference week                           published quarterly estimates are calculated using a
                                                                  replicated sampling technique. For example, the
   (f) people who were not actively seeking work.                 estimated total number of people employed in the
                                                                  March 2003 quarter (1,898,300 before seasonal
The jobless
                                                                  adjustment) was subject to a sampling error
The jobless are defined as the officially unemployed,
                                                                  measured at the 95 percent confidence level of plus
plus those people who were without employment and
                                                                  or minus 1.1 percent. This means that there was a
were either available but not actively seeking work,
                                                                  95 percent likelihood that the true value lies within
or actively seeking but not available for work.
                                                                  1.1 percent of 1,898,300.
The unemployment rate is the number of
                                                                  In general, the sampling errors associated with sub-
unemployed people expressed as a percentage of
                                                                  national estimates (such as an estimate of the
the labour force.
                                                                  employment level in a particular regional council area,
The labour force participation rate is the labour                 or an estimate of the unemployment rate among
force expressed as a percentage of the working-age                Mäori) are larger than those associated with national
population.                                                       estimates. For example, the estimate of employment
                                                                  in the Bay of Plenty region in the March 2003 quarter
Full-time workers are those who usually work 30                   (102,200) was subject to a sampling error measured
hours or more per week, even if they did not in fact              at the 95 percent confidence level of plus or minus
do so in the survey reference week because of                     7.0 percent. This means that there was a 95 percent
sickness, holidays and other reasons.                             chance that the true value lies within 7.0 percent of
                                                                  the estimated 102,200 employed. As the size of a
Part-time workers are those who usually work fewer                survey estimate increases, the relative size of the
than 30 hours per week.                                           sampling error decreases.
Other definitions used in the HLFS                                The sampling errors calculated by replicated
Household                                                         techniques are, in general, similar in magnitude to
A household is either one person who usually resides              the sampling errors calculated for an equivalent-sized
alone or two or more people who usually reside                    sample assuming simple random sampling, but
together and share facilities (such as eating facilities,         taking into account survey design effects. The major
cooking facilities, bathroom and toilet facilities, a             area of divergence between the two methods occurs
living area).                                                     for age-sex cell totals, which have a very small error
                                                                  due to post-stratification.
Average actual hours
Total actual hours divided by people employed who                 Estimates of the sampling errors typically associated
have stated their hours.                                          with HLFS estimates of varying sizes are presented
                                                                  in Table 1. These figures can be used as a general
Average usual hours                                               guide to the ‘actual’ sampling errors associated with
Total usual hours divided by people employed who                  particular HLFS results. Estimated sampling errors
have stated their hours.                                          are given for three distinct labour force groups: those
                                                                  not in the labour force, the employed, and the
Reliability of survey estimates
                                                                  unemployed. Typical sampling errors vary between
One-eighth of sample households are rotated out of
                                                                  these three groups because of survey design effects.
the survey each quarter and replaced by a new
sample of households. The overlap of seven-eighths




                                                            154
                                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




As an example, Table 1 shows that for an annual                                  The estimated sampling errors for the employed
estimate of employed people with a survey estimate                               should be used when an estimate of people in the
size of 100,000, the sampling error measured at the                              total labour force is considered, since those
95 percent confidence level is 8,320. Therefore, the                             employed make up the majority of the labour force.
survey estimate of 100,000 has an associated 95
percent confidence interval ranging from 91,680 to                               Relative sampling errors for estimates of
108,320. This means that the ‘true’ value or                                     percentages (for example unemployment rates) can
population value that the survey aims to measure                                 be approximated by using the relative error of the
can be expected, 95 percent of the time, to lie within                           numerator from which the percentage was
similar confidence intervals formed from all possible                            calculated. For example, if the number of
samples.                                                                         unemployed is 50,000 and the labour force is
                                                                                 1,000,000, the estimated unemployment rate would
                                                                                 be 5.0 percent. From Table 1, the relative sampling
Table 1
                                                                                 error for a quarterly estimate of size 50,000 is 6.7
       Sampling Errors for Annual HLFS Estimates                                 percent. For this estimate of 5.0 percent the sampling
                                                                                 error is 0.3 percentage points (that is 6.7 percent of
                                                      Relative Size of
 Size of Survey Estimates     Sampling Error
                                             (1)(2)
                                                      Sampling Error
                                                                     (3)         5.0 percent). Therefore, the 95 percent confidence
                                                                                 interval ranges from 4.7 to 5.3 percent.
                            Not in the Labour Force
                   1,000                   680                68.0               Changes to industry coding
                   2,000                   960                48.1               A change to the coding of industry took place in the
                   3,000                 1,180                39.2               March 2003 quarter. Prior to March 2003, industry
                   4,000                 1,360                33.9
                   5,000                 1,520                30.3
                                                                                 was coded using a ‘dual coding system’ where
                  10,000                 2,140                21.4               information was captured under both the NZSIC and
                  30,000                 3,700                12.3               ANZSIC classification systems. The new system
                  50,000                 4,760                 9.5
                                                                                 codes directly to ANZSIC.
                 100,000                 6,670                 6.7
                 300,000                11,070                 3.7
                 500,000                13,650                 2.7
                                                                                 A slight discontinuity may have been introduced to
               1,000,000                16,850                 1.7               some industry series. A technical paper discussing
                                                                                 the change and the likely impact was released on
                                  Employed                                       the Statistics New Zealand website on 14 April 2003.
                   1,000                 850                  84.8
                   2,000
                   3,000
                                       1,200
                                       1,470
                                                              59.9
                                                              49.0
                                                                                 New Zealand Income Survey
                   4,000               1,690                  42.4               What the survey measures
                   5,000               1,890                  37.9               The New Zealand Income Survey provides a
                  10,000               2,670                  26.7
                  30,000               4,620                  15.4
                                                                                 comprehensive range of income statistics for the
                  50,000               5,940                  11.9               June quarter. This allows analysis of the links
                 100,000               8,320                   8.3               between labour force status, educational
                 300,000              13,810                   4.6
                                                                                 achievement and income of individuals and
                 500,000              17,040                   3.4
               1,000,000              21,020                   2.1
                                                                                 households, both at an aggregate level and for sub-
               2,000,000              18,130                   0.9               populations of interest.

                                 Unemployed                                      Background and coverage
                  1,000                  480                  48.0
                                                                                 The New Zealand Income Survey is run annually as
                  2,000                  680                  34.0
                  3,000                  830                  27.7
                                                                                 a supplement to the Household Labour Force Survey
                  4,000                  960                  24.0               during the June quarter (April to June). It was run for
                  5,000                1,070                  21.5               the first time in the June 1997 quarter.
                 10,000                1,520                  15.2
                 30,000                2,620                   8.8               All respondents to the Household Labour Force
                 50,000                3,370                   6.7
                100,000                4,710                   4.7
                                                                                 Survey were asked to participate in the New Zealand
                110,000                4,930                   4.5               Income Survey. Data was accepted from a proxy only
                130,000                5,340                   4.1               if people were unable to answer the survey on health
                150,000                5,710                   3.8               or language grounds. Questions related to the
                200,000                6,520                   3.3
                300,000                7,830                   2.6
                                                                                 respondents’ most recent pay period, excepting
(1)   Equivalent to the 95 percent confidence level internal half
                                                                                 questions on annual income, self-employment
      width.                                                                     income, and investment income, which covered the
(2)   The figures given are simple random sampling errors with an                12 month period prior to the interview. The following
      adjustment for survey design effects. They approximate the                 items were collected:
      results obtained from replicated sampling methods, except
      in the case of age-sex totals where the error from replicated
      methods is much smaller.
(3)   Sampling error as a percentage of the survey estimate.


                                                                           155
                                             Labour Market Statistics 2003



  q   Actual and usual gross wages and salaries (for              In paid employment
      main job and up to two other jobs) by:                      The term ‘in paid employment’ is used to describe
      – ordinary time                                             those people who are working as self-employed or
                                                                  as a wage and salary earner.
      – overtime
      – other income (such as bonuses).                           Not in paid employment
                                                                  Those who are ‘not in paid employment’ are those
  q Weeks and hours worked corresponding to the                   who do not fit into the ‘in paid employment’ category.
    components of wages and salaries as above.                    These people may or may not have a source of
  q Sources of latest, actual, gross government                   income.
    transfers received.
                                                                  Government transfers
  q Total latest, actual, gross government transfers
                                                                  Government transfers is the sum of income from
    received, in total and from each agency (Ministry
                                                                  benefits, family support, student allowances,
    of Social Development, Inland Revenue
                                                                  Accident Compensation Corporation, New Zealand
    Department and Accident Compensation
                                                                  Superannuation, and veterans and war pensions.
    Corporation).
  q Total latest, actual, gross private superannuation            Other transfers
    payment(s) received.                                          Other transfers is the sum of private superannuation
  q Total latest, actual, gross ‘all other private                and other private transfers including pensions and
    transfers including pensions, annuities’ received.            annuities.
  q Weeks covered for the transfer payments
                                                                  Calculations
    defined above.
                                                                  Weekly income
  q Total annual gross income received from self-
                                                                  For all sources except self-employment and
    employment including overtime.                                investment income, respondents are asked to give
  q Total annual gross income from investment.                    the amount for their most recent pay period (weekly,
  q Total annual gross income from all income                     fortnightly, monthly or hourly). This amount is then
    sources (range categories as used in the                      converted to a weekly amount. For self-employment
    census).                                                      and investment income, respondents are asked to
                                                                  give their annual amount. This is then converted to
Investment income was not collected prior to the June
2002 quarter.                                                     a weekly amount by dividing by 52.14.

There were some forms of income that were not                     Weekly household income
asked for in detail in the New Zealand Income Survey.             The sum of the weekly income of all the people in
These included income from hobbies, casual jobs                   the household.
and other sources.
                                                                  Average weekly income
The collected data was cash-only, pre-tax (gross)                 Total weekly income for the working-age population
income (where ever possible) and did not include                  divided by the number of people in the working-age
any non-cash fringe benefits. In the published figures,           population.
usual income figures were used, rather than actual
income figures for all tables showing wages and                   Average weekly household income
salaries.                                                         Total weekly household income for all households
                                                                  divided by the number of households.
Definitions
Earnings                                                          Median hourly earnings
Earnings are received for paid employment that is                 The middle point of the distribution of hourly earnings,
undertaken. Earnings consist of wages and salaries,               when the responses are ordered from lowest to
back pay, commissions, allowances, bonuses                        highest. For example, if there were 99 people
(regular and non-regular), gratuities (tips), fees, piece         receiving wage and salary income, then the median
rates, retainers, honoraria and paid leave. They do               hourly earnings would be the hourly earnings of the
not include redundancy pay or reimbursement of                    50th person, when the people are ordered in terms
expenses.                                                         of hourly earnings.

Incomes                                                           Average hourly earnings
Incomes are gross cash received from all sources                  Total hourly earnings for all wage and salary earners
including wages and salaries, self-employment,                    divided by the number of people receiving wages
government transfers, private superannuation and                  and salaries.
pension schemes, annuities, interest, dividends,
commission and pre-tax business or farming income
(less expenses).

                                                            156
                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




Full-time ($/week) wage/salary jobs                            An ethnic group is defined as a social group whose
Total weekly income for all those working full time            members have the following four characteristics:
divided by the number of people working full time.
                                                                 q   share a sense of common origins
Full-time ($/hour) wage/salary jobs                              q   claim a common and distinctive history and
Total hourly income for all those working full time                  destiny
divided by the number of people working full time.               q   possess one or more dimensions of collective
                                                                     cultural individuality
Part-time ($/week) wage/salary jobs
Total weekly income for all those working part time              q   feel a sense of unique collective solidarity.
divided by the number of people working part time.
                                                               It is the standard definition used for ethnic group
Part-time ($/hour) wage/salary jobs                            population by Statistics New Zealand in the
Total hourly income for all those working part time            Household Labour Force Survey and the New
divided by the number of people working part time.             Zealand Income Survey. Ethnic group statistics in
                                                               this publication use the priority recording system,
Household statistics                                           which classifies people to a unique ethnic category
The New Zealand Income Survey can be analysed                  as below:
at both an individual and household level. The
household income statistics table included in this               q Any person who reports a ‘Mäori’ ethnicity is
publication excludes those households where all                    allocated to the ‘Mäori’ category.
members are outside the ages of 18 to 64 years.                  q Any person who reports a ‘Pacific peoples’

This exclusion primarily affects ‘couple-only’ and                 ethnicity (that is Samoan, Cook Island Maori,
‘one-person’ households. These households typically                Niuean, Tongan or Other Pacific) but not ‘Mäori’
contain two distinct groups of the population: those               ethnicity, is allocated to the ‘Pacific peoples’
couples and single persons who are likely to be in                 category.
the labour force, and those couples and single                   q Any person who reports a ‘Chinese’, ‘Indian’ and/
persons who are primarily retired. These groups can                or ‘Other’ ethnicity, but not ‘Mäori’ and/or ‘Pacific
have very different income characteristics. Hence,                 peoples’ ethnicity, is allocated to the ‘Other’
the household income table excludes those elderly                  category.
households where all members are aged 65 years                   q Any person who reports a ‘European/Päkehä’
and over.                                                          ethnicity only is allocated to the ‘European/
                                                                   Päkehä’ category only.
Reliability of estimates
The Household Labour Force Survey sample                       Up to three ethnic groups can be recorded for a
comprises approximately 15,000 households,                     person.
sampled on a statistically representative basis from
                                                               The priority recording system is designed to ensure:
rural and urban areas throughout New Zealand. The
final New Zealand Income Survey dataset for June                 q   that groups about whom policy decisions are
2003 consists of approximately 29,000 valid person                   commonly made continue to be identified for
records and 4,000 imputed person records.                            monitoring purposes
Two types of error are possible in estimates based               q   that important but numerically small groups are
on a sample survey. Sampling error is a measure                      identified.
of the variability that occurs by chance because a
sample rather than an entire population is surveyed.           Quarterly Employment Survey
                                                               What the survey measures
The New Zealand Income Survey is also subject to               The Quarterly Employment Survey (QES) is
non-sampling error. Non-sampling errors include                designed to measure quarterly estimates of change
errors arising from biases in the patterns of response         and levels of average hourly and average weekly
and non-response, inaccuracies in reporting by                 (pre-tax) earnings, average weekly paid hours, and
respondents, and errors in the recording and coding            the number of filled jobs.
of data. Non-sampling errors are not quantified.
                                                               Background and coverage
Ethnic group                                                   The survey population is all business locations
Ethnic group is based on the concept of cultural               belonging to economically significant enterprises in
affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality         surveyed industries with employees.
or citizenship. Thus ethnicity is self-perceived and
people can affiliate with more than one ethnic group.




                                                         157
                                                    Labour Market Statistics 2003



An economically significant enterprise is one which                       The nomenclature of quarters was changed in
meets at least one of the following criteria:                             September 2003, to March, June, September and
                                                                          December.
      q   has greater than $30,000 annual goods and
          services tax (GST) expenses or sales.                           The survey was updated in October 2003 as a result
                                                                          of changes to the Business Frame.
      q   at least three for its rolling mean employment(1)
      q   is in a GST-exempt industry (except residential                 However, it should be noted that these improvements
          property leasing and rental).                                   have not addressed some key limitations inherent in
      q   is part of a group of enterprises.                              the survey’s conceptual underpinnings. In particular,
                                                                          the QES average earnings statistic does not provide
      q   is a new GST registration that is compulsory,                   a reliable measure of wage inflation. QES
          special or forced (this means that the business                 movements in average earnings statistics are
          is expected to exceed the $30,000 boundary.                     influenced not only by changes in employees’
      q   is registered for GST and is involved in agriculture            remuneration resulting from changes in wage rates,
          or forestry.                                                    salaries and hours worked, but also by changes in
(1)   Rolling mean employment is the average employee count               the composition of the paid workforce from survey
      over the past 12 months. Employee count is the size measure         to survey.
      for businesses with paid employees, and is largely based on
      taxation data.                                                      Operation of the survey
                                                                          QES statistics are derived from surveyed data which
Surveyed industries in the QES exclude the following:                     relates to the pay week ending on, or immediately
                                                                          before, the 20th day of the middle month of the
Industry                                              ANZSIC(1)           quarter (that is February, May, August, and
Agriculture                                                 A01           November). A representative sample of about 18,000
Services to agriculture                                     A02           business locations is surveyed.
Commercial fishing                                          A04
                                                                          Respondents provide information about the number
International sea transport                               I6301
                                                                          of full-time and part-time employees and working
Residential property operators                            L7711
                                                                          proprietors, and employees’ aggregate earnings and
Foreign government representation                         M813
                                                                          hours paid for.
Private households employing staff                          Q97
                                                                          Results for the quarterly samples are released about
Non-civilian staff in ANZSIC(1) classification M82                        nine weeks after the end of the reference quarter.
Defence are also excluded.                                                Earnings, hours and jobs results are presented by
(1)                                                                       sex, industry, sector, regional council area and size
      ANZSIC – Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial
      Classification.                                                     of firm. Additionally, job figures are available by
                                                                          employment status (full-time employees, part-time
By definition, the self-employed with employees are                       employees or working proprietors).
excluded from the calculation of earnings and hours
statistics although they are included in the calculation                  Definitions
of the number of jobs. The sampling frame is                              Enterprise
Statistics New Zealand’s Business Frame.                                  A legal entity operating in New Zealand engaged in
                                                                          the provision of goods and/or services, or set up with
The QES has been produced by Statistics New                               the intention of providing goods and/or services,
Zealand since March 1989.                                                 which earns income and/or incurs expenses.

Before 1989, the QES was conducted by the                                 Small business
Department of Labour. The Department of Labour                            An enterprise in a geographic location which employs
survey covered businesses with two or more persons                        less than 2.5 employees.
(paid employee or working proprietor) engaged. The
Department of Labour’s sampling frame was its own                         Filled jobs
Central Register of Businesses, considered to be less                     Filled jobs comprise all full-time employees plus all
comprehensive than the Business Frame. In addition                        part-time employees plus working proprietors in
to those industries excluded from the current survey,                     businesses that have employees. Filled jobs results
waterfront work was also excluded from the                                measure the number of filled jobs, not the number
                                                                          of employed people. Individuals with more than one
Department of Labour survey.
                                                                          job are counted at each workplace.
Several improvements were made to the QES from
the August 1999 quarter onwards. The changes
included re-designing and re-weighting the sample
and extending the coverage to include small
businesses.


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                                           Labour Market Statistics 2003




Working proprietors                                             Average total hourly earnings
   a) A sole proprietor or partner who is actively              Total earnings (ordinary time earnings plus overtime
      engaged in the business, and/or                           earnings) divided by total hours (ordinary time paid
                                                                hours plus overtime paid hours).
   b) A shareholder in a limited liability company
      actively engaged in its management and                    Average ordinary time weekly earnings
      classified by the respondent as a working                 Ordinary time earnings divided by full-time equivalent
      proprietor consistently across survey periods.            employees.
Employees
Employees are paid workers in a business who are
                                                                Average overtime weekly earnings
not working proprietors. Employees temporarily                  Overtime earnings divided by full-time equivalent
absent from work (such as sick, on leave, on strike,            employees.
temporarily laid off) are included whether paid or not.         Average total weekly earnings
Employees working for commission are included, as               Total earnings (ordinary time earnings plus overtime
are managers and executives (where they are not                 earnings) divided by full-time equivalent employees.
working proprietors).
                                                                Filled jobs
Full-time/part-time                                             The number of full-time and part-time employees plus
Full-time are those who regularly require 30 hours              working proprietors in businesses with employees
or more work per week. Part-time are those where                as measured by the QES. Note that working
less than 30 hours work per week is regularly                   proprietors in businesses with no employees are
required.                                                       outside the scope of the survey and so are not
Full-time equivalent employees (FTE)                            included in the estimate of filled jobs.
The number of full-time employees plus half the                 Average ordinary time weekly paid hours
number of part-time employees.                                  Ordinary time paid hours divided by full-time
Ordinary time earnings                                          equivalent employees.
The gross total payout to all employees less any                Average overtime weekly paid hours
overtime payments. All shift, penal, and other                  Overtime paid hours divided by full-time equivalent
allowances are included, as are bonuses, paid leave,            employees.
and commissions earned in the pay week. Payments
not earned in the pay week (such as back pay,                   Average total weekly paid hours
redundancy, and severance pay), and non-taxable                 Total hours (ordinary time paid hours plus overtime
payments, such as tool money, are excluded.                     paid hours) divided by full-time equivalent employees.
Overtime earnings                                               History of improvements to the QES
The gross total payout for overtime paid hours                  The current sample design was implemented in the
worked by employees in the survey pay week.                     September 1999 quarter. It introduced a number of
Ordinary time paid hours                                        significant improvements to the QES, including a new
                                                                processing system, a redesigned sample and
The number of paid hours represented by ordinary
                                                                extension of the survey’s coverage.
time earnings. Paid travelling time and hours
represented by holiday pay and sick pay are included.           For the June 2001 to June 2003 quarters (inclusive),
                                                                the QES results incorporated a modelled component
Overtime paid hours
                                                                that improved the coverage of existing businesses
The number of overtime paid hours worked by all
                                                                that had started employing paid labour, and
employees in the survey pay week.
                                                                accounted for the effect of annual BF updates. The
Calculations                                                    results from the June 1999 to March 2001 quarters
For the purpose of this publication, the following              were revised to incorporate this improvement. The
calculations are carried out.                                   revisions were released on 19 July 2001.

Average ordinary time hourly earnings                           At the start of September 2003, the reference
Ordinary time earnings divided by ordinary time paid            quarters were renamed to bring them into line with
hours.                                                          other Statistics New Zealand surveys. The February,
                                                                May, August, and November quarters became
Average overtime hourly earnings                                March, June, September, and December quarters.
Overtime earnings divided by overtime paid hours.               The survey reference period has not changed; it
                                                                remains the payweek ending on or immediately
                                                                before the 20th of the middle month of the quarter.


                                                          159
                                            Labour Market Statistics 2003



In October 2003, the employee count (or EC)                      magnitude of the sampling is controlled by the size
replaced the full-time equivalent employee (or FTE)              of the sample and the use of statistically sound
as the business size indicator in the sample design.             techniques.
This was a result of changes in the way in which
Statistics New Zealand’s Business Frame (BF) was                 The sampling error of average total weekly and hourly
maintained. The changes provide more efficient and               earnings estimates is generally around 0.8 percent
effective updating of the characteristics of constituent         or lower at the 95 percent confidence level. The
businesses. The BF provides the survey frame for a               average total weekly earnings as at March 2003,
number of business surveys run by Statistics New                 using the FTE denominator estimate is $746.84, with
Zealand, including the QES. A key element is the                 a relative sampling error of 0.9 percent. The correct
use of tax data to update the business size indicator            actual value of earnings, had a full coverage rather
of each business on the BF. Previously, this indicator           than sample survey been conducted, is likely to lie
was updated annually using FTE data obtained from                between $740.12 and $753.56.
a frame update survey. Now it is updated monthly,                Estimates of change from one quarter to another are
using EC data obtained largely from employer tax                 also subject to sampling error. A change in an
returns.                                                         estimate (for example between adjacent quarters or
The business size indicator is used in the sample                between quarters a year apart) is said to be
design of the QES. The change in BF maintenance                  statistically significant if it is larger than the sampling
has, therefore, necessitated an update of the QES                error associated with that change. The sampling error
sample design, which resulted in some changes in                 for the quarterly change in total average hourly
the statistical output of the QES. Some of the                   earnings is generally around 0.4 percent at the 95
changes reflect ageing of the sample design and                  percent confidence level. This would mean a 0.3
would have occurred anyway as a result of a design               percent quarterly increase in total average hourly
update, regardless of which measure of business                  earnings would not be considered statistically
size was used. There were revisions to originally                significant.
published estimates for the December 1999 to June
                                                                 Interpreting results
2003 quarters (inclusive). The results for the June
                                                                 QES average earnings and hours statistics are
2003 release, published on 5 August 2003, were the
                                                                 derived from aggregate earnings and hours
last to be produced based on the use of the FTE
                                                                 information, which relate to all male and female
size indicator. The change has not affected the
                                                                 employees at business locations. Information is not
current range of outputs published from the QES.
                                                                 collected on the earnings and hours of individual
The EC business size indicator is a more robust and              employees. Therefore, movements in average
timely employment indicator on the BF, and improves              earnings statistics are influenced not only by changes
the accuracy of estimates of both levels and changes             in employees’ remuneration resulting from changes
in the QES. The update of the sample design has                  in wage rates, salaries and hours worked, but also
also made the QES sample more representative of                  by changes in the composition of the paid workforce
the latest population. An important result is more               from survey to survey.
timely representation of existing businesses that had
                                                                 Compositional changes which may affect
started to employ labour. This is due to monthly
                                                                 movements in average earnings statistics include
updating of the EC size indicator on the BF and
                                                                 changes in the relative number of male and female
quality gains from using EC as an employment
                                                                 employees, full-time and part-time employees,
indicator.
                                                                 employees in different industries, and employees in
A paper providing a more detailed and technical                  different sectors. This is in contrast to the Labour
description of the Business Frame change and                     Cost Index, which measures movements in salary
impact on the QES results is available from the                  and wage rates for a fixed quantity and quality of
Statistics New Zealand website.                                  work. The Labour Cost Index excludes irregular
                                                                 payments such as commissions, bonuses, and
Reliability of survey results                                    increases in salary and wage rates due to service
QES results are subject to two types of possible error:          increments and merit promotions. Any part of these
                                                                 payments relating to performance during the sample
Non-sampling error includes errors arising from                  pay week would be included in the QES.
biases in the patterns of response and non-response,
inaccuracies in reporting by respondents, and errors             Changes in the composition of the paid workforce
made in processing data. Non-sampling error, by                  are significant in times of economic recession, strong
definition, is difficult to measure.                             employment growth or rapid structural change.
                                                                 During these times the proportion of less skilled,
Sampling error is a measure of variability that occurs           lower paid employees in the workforce is likely to
by chance because a sample, rather than the entire               change. The effect of this in an economic recession,
population of all eligible businesses, is surveyed. The

                                                           160
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003




for example, is to cause QES average earnings to                   it would be necessary to have information on the
rise. Conversely, when the economy is growing and                  earnings and hours of each individual employee,
businesses are taking on staff, lower paid employees               whereas the QES collects only the total earnings and
may be rehired, thus forcing average earnings down.                hours of all employees at each surveyed business
                                                                   location.
These changes in workforce composition mean that
the QES does not provide a good measure of pure                    Median and average earnings can be calculated from
wage inflation, as it is not possible to isolate shifts in         information collected by the New Zealand Income
numbers of employees and paid hours from pure                      Survey. The New Zealand Income Survey is run every
wage increases. The QES collects total payout                      June quarter as a supplement to the HLFS and was
information for each business in the survey. An                    run for the first time in the June 1997 quarter. All
increase (or decrease) in total payout does not                    respondents to the HLFS are surveyed and
necessarily indicate that there has been an increase               information is collected on income from self-
(or decrease) in wages. Total payout for a firm could              employment, wages and salaries (up to three main
have increased for the following reasons: more                     jobs), government transfers (being payments from
people were employed, more hours were worked,                      the Ministry of Social Development, Inland Revenue
more qualified people were employed, or more full-                 Department and Accident Compensation
time workers were employed. Survey respondents                     Corporation), and other private transfers (being
are not asked to explain changes in total payout from              private superannuation, pensions and annuities).
period to period; therefore, there is no way to isolate
a pure wage increase.                                              Data from the New Zealand Income Survey for the
                                                                   June 2003 quarter showed that 66.2 percent of wage
QES employment results measure the number of                       and salary earners had hourly earnings lower than
filled jobs, not the number of employed. This limitation           the overall average for wage and salary earners. This
should be kept in mind when comparing QES                          confirms that the distribution of earnings is
employment results with figures from the Household                 asymmetrical, with a bulge at the low end and a tail
Labour Force Survey (HLFS). An individual usually                  at the high end. It is important to note that the data
working 20 hours per week in each of two jobs would                from the New Zealand Income Survey is not directly
be counted as one employed person in the HLFS,                     comparable with the QES.
while both jobs would be counted in the QES
measure of filled jobs. Further, both jobs would be                Business Frame
counted as part-time filled jobs in the QES, whereas               Scope of data
the individual would be classified as a full-time                  The Business Frame is a database of New Zealand
employed person in the HLFS.                                       businesses and their structure. It records details such
                                                                   as the names and addresses, predominant type of
Other factors that should be taken into account when               industrial activity performed, job levels, and the
comparing QES and HLFS employment results                          degree of overseas ownership. Businesses are
include the restricted industry coverage of the QES                identified from goods and services tax (GST)
and the difference in reference period (QES results                registrations supplied by the Inland Revenue
relate to mid-points of quarters, while HLFS figures               Department. For those businesses providing financial
are quarterly averages). Furthermore, the QES                      services and deemed to be providing ‘exempt
counts jobs filled by people under 15 years of age                 supplies’ under the Goods and Services Tax Act
who are not counted by the HLFS.                                   1985, the source used is the Employee Monthly
                                                                   Schedule (EMS).
Average and median earnings
It is sometimes said that QES average earnings                     Businesses on the Business Frame are assigned to
seem high, being boosted by those employees with                   one of three groups for maintenance purposes.
very high earnings, and that median earnings                       These are: (i) large and complex businesses, (ii)
measures would be more appropriate. QES average                    medium-sized businesses and (iii) small simple
hourly earnings are calculated by dividing the total               businesses.
earnings of employees in all surveyed businesses
by the total number of hours they are paid for.                    The Annual Frame Update Survey (AFUS),
Average weekly earnings are calculated by dividing                 conducted in mid-February, is used to update details
earnings of employees in all surveyed businesses                   for all large and complex businesses, and a rotating
by the number of FTEs.                                             sample of medium sized businesses. Tax data is
                                                                   used to update businesses not in the AFUS.
A median earnings estimate would be calculated by
ranking the earnings of individual employees in order              All GST-registered businesses are continually
from lowest to highest, and taking the middle figure.              monitored to determine if they meet the threshold of
However, it is not possible to calculate median                    economic significance, which is $30,000. A buffer
earnings from data collected by the QES. To do so,                 zone of $25,000 to $35,000 has been established to


                                                             161
                                              Labour Market Statistics 2003



prevent enterprises switching excessively between                 comes to hand. Once a dispute is identified in any of
‘economically significant’ and ‘economically                      these ways, a form is sent to the employer for
insignificant’. For example, an economically                      completion. Information prepared during this process
significant enterprise whose annual GST turnover                  is used to estimate the number of stoppages in
drops to $27,000 would not be reclassified as                     progress at the end of each month.
economically insignificant, but one whose annual
GST turnover drops to $23,000 would be reclassified               All data relating to each work stoppage is recorded
as such.                                                          in the period in which it ends. If there are two or more
                                                                  separate periods of industrial action that relate to
Historical information                                            the same issue, then these are grouped together
  q   From 1987 to 1994, the Business Frame included              and counted as one stoppage. A single stoppage
      only those businesses that had compulsory                   may therefore consist of one or more periods of
      registered for GST.                                         industrial action held in different places or at different
  q   Between 1994 and September 2001, the                        times, but which concern the same issue. Since the
      compulsory GST registration threshold for                   beginning of 1999, Statistics New Zealand has
      businesses was $30,000.                                     adopted the International Labour Organisation (ILO)
                                                                  recommendation that if separate periods occur more
  q   Up to and including October 2001, the threshold
                                                                  than two months apart they be classified as separate
      for compulsory GST registration for businesses
                                                                  stoppages.
      is $40,000.
                                                                  From the beginning of 2000, published statistics
Limitations                                                       relate to complete strikes and complete lockouts that
There are a number of limitations with data on the                involve the equivalent of five or more person-days
Business Frame. These are:                                        of work lost (as per ILO recommendations).
  q   non-coverage of ‘small’ enterprises that fall below         Previously it was 10 or more person-days of work
      the $30,000 turnover threshold                              lost. All partial strikes and partial lockouts that are
                                                                  identified are also included in the published statistics.
  q   lags in recording businesses that have ceased
      trading or whose activity has dropped below the             Occasionally a stoppage may occur that meets the
      $30,000 threshold                                           definition of an ‘unlawful stoppage’ laid down in
  q   difficulties in maintaining industrial and business         section 86 of the Employment Relations Act 2000.
      classifications for smaller firms.                          Such stoppages are treated in the same way as legal
                                                                  stoppages.
An enterprise which is outside the population scope
for any of Statistics New Zealand’s postal surveys is             Recording long-running work stoppage
ceased on the Business Frame once it deregisters                  statistics
for GST or files 12 consecutive months of zero GST                In the case of long-running stoppages, as with all
returns.                                                          stoppages, employers are regularly contacted to see
                                                                  if the stoppage continues to cause the loss of person-
Work stoppages                                                    days of work, wages and salaries. If, after three
What work stoppage information is                                 months, the stoppage has ceased to cause the loss
designed to measure                                               of person-days of work, wages and salaries, and has
Work stoppage information is used as an indicator                 little or no impact on the operation of the organisation,
of the state of industrial relations in New Zealand. It           the stoppage will be ceased in that month and
focuses particularly on the economic impact of events             removed from the ongoing stoppages statistics.
such as strikes and lockouts, and does not cover                  However, if the stoppage continues to impact on the
forms of industrial unrest such as stopwork meetings,             operation of the organisation and results in the loss
strike notices, protest marches and public rallies.               of person-days of work, wages and salaries, the
Demarcation and coverage disputes are only                        stoppage will not be ceased.
included where the participants are on strike or
locked out.                                                       Definitions
                                                                  A stoppage is made up of a series of ‘events’ (an
Recording work stoppage statistics                                event is an instance of industrial action) all relating
Work stoppage statistics are compiled by Statistics               to the same issue. Stoppages have two
New Zealand from the ‘Record of strike or lockout’                characteristics: type and degree.
forms submitted by the Department of Labour under
the Employment Relations Act 2000 section 98.                     The type of action is either a strike (action initiated
Stoppages are identified by scanning newspapers                   by an employee), or a lockout (action initiated by an
and by regular contact with employee and employer                 employer). The statutory definition of strikes and
organisations. Labour inspectors in Auckland and                  lockouts is given in sections 81 and 82 of the
Christchurch also pass on any information that                    Employment Relations Act 2000.


                                                            162
                                          Labour Market Statistics 2003




The degree of action is a measure of the severity of          to perform normal work as a direct result of the
the stoppage and can be either complete or partial.           stoppage. Employees involved in two or more periods
Complete strikes involve the complete withdrawal of           of industrial action which comprise only one stoppage
labour for a period, and include unauthorised                 are counted only once in the series.
stopwork meetings as well as failure to resume work
immediately after authorised stopwork meetings.               The amount of time not worked by employees
Partial strikes involve a reduction of normal output          involved in strikes and lockouts is reported by
and include go-slows, refusals to work overtime, work         employers in terms of the total number of hours lost.
to rules and other means of passive resistance that           A standard eight-hour day is then used to calculate
are clearly manifested.                                       the number of person-days of work (previously
                                                              termed working days) lost.
Complete lockouts involve an employer discontinuing
the employment of any employees for a period. They            In calculating the estimated loss in wages and
are similar to complete strikes but are initiated by          salaries, no account is taken of the fact that work
employers. Partial lockouts arise from the act of an          not performed during the period of the stoppage may
employer which, although allowing employees to                often be performed and paid for at a later date.
work normal hours of work, withdraws the provision            However, account is taken of orders of the
of other contractual obligations such as the                  Employment Court to pay workers arrears for work
opportunity to work overtime or the payment of penal          done and not compensated for at the rate set down
rates.                                                        in their employment contract. Repayments are
                                                              deducted from losses of wages and salaries, when
Work stoppages with more than one event are                   such information is available.
classified according to the following guidelines.
                                                              Available statistics
  1. A complete stoppage will always be recorded              Work stoppages are classified by industry,
     over a partial stoppage.                                 institutional sector, region, cause, method of
     Example: Employees at Firm A implement an                resolution (how the dispute was resolved) and
     overtime ban (a partial strike) but later                method of achieving a return to work (how the
     completely withdraw their labour over the same           stoppage ended).
     issue. The stoppage would be recorded as a
     complete strike.                                         Labour force projections
                                                              The labour force projections presented in Table 1.08
  2. In cases where the type of action changes but
                                                              were derived from the complementary 1996-base
     the degree of action does not change the
                                                              New Zealand Resident Population Projections, by
     stoppage is recorded as having the type of
                                                              multiplying the projected population by the assumed
     whichever event came first.
                                                              labour force participation rates in each age-sex
     Example: Employees at Firm A implement an                group.
     overtime ban, but at a later date their employer
     refuses to pay travel allowances (a partial              Labour force definition
     lockout) over the same issue. In this case the           These labour force projections are based on the
     stoppage is recorded as a partial strike.                labour force definition used at the 1996 Census of
  3. In stoppages where both the type and degree              Population and Dwellings. The labour force
     of action change, the degree of action is always         comprises those people aged 15 years of age and
     complete and the type of action is always that           over who regularly work for one hour or more per
     of any complete stoppage.                                week for financial gain, or work without pay in a family
     Example: Firm A partially locks out its                  business, as well as those who are unemployed and
     employees, who totally withdraw their labour at          actively seeking work.
     a later date. This stoppage would be recorded            Note: The 1996-base New Zealand Resident
     as a complete strike.                                    Population Projections has adopted a ‘resident
                                                              population’ concept which is based on the number
Indicators of work stoppages                                  of New Zealand residents in New Zealand on census
The indicators used to measure stoppage activity              night, 5 March 1996. The number is adjusted for the
include the number of stoppages (frequency), the              estimated net undercount of New Zealand residents
duration of stoppages (persistence), the number of            in the 1996 Census (1.2 percent), as measured by
employees involved (extent), the number of working            the Post Enumeration Survey, and for the estimated
days lost (economic impact) and the estimated loss            number of New Zealand residents temporarily
in wages and salaries (also economic impact).                 overseas on 5 March 1996. Overseas visitors are
The number of employees involved includes not only            excluded. Also, following consultation with users, the
those directly involved, but also non-striking                reference date has been shifted from 31 March to
employees, who are not locked out, but are unable             30 June.


                                                        163
                                        Labour Market Statistics 2003




Union statistics                                            Registered unemployed statistics
Before the Employment Contracts Act came into               The registered unemployed are those unemployed
effect in May 1991, unions were required by law to          people who have chosen, as one of their methods of
register with the Department of Labour. From its            job search, to enrol with the Ministry of Social
Registrar of Unions, the Department of Labour               Development - Work and Income, and who are
compiled information on the number of unions and            available for employment. Statistics on current and
the size of their membership.                               new registrations are published by the Ministry of
                                                            Social Development - Work and Income quarterly.
When the Employment Contracts Act was passed,
the requirement for unions to register ceased, and          Census of population and dwellings
the Act made no distinction between trade unions            Censuses of population and dwellings are taken
and other people, groups or organisations which             every five years under the authority of section 23(1)
seek to represent employees.                                of the Statistics Act 1975. Statistics in this publication
Since the passing of the Employment Relations Act           relate to the 2001 Census of Population and
in October 2000, unions and other people, groups            Dwellings held on 6 March.
or organisations which seek to represent employees
are required by law to register with the Department
of Labour. From its Registrar of Unions, the
department now compiles information on the number
of unions and the size of their membership.




                                                      164
                                                       Labour Market Statistics 2003




Available labour market information
Do you want to know more about the New Zealand                            Industry
labour market? Labour market data, other than that                        Institutional sector
published in Labour Market Statistics, is available                       Average earnings
from Statistics New Zealand on request. Various
                                                                          Average total hourly earnings
combinations of the following variables can be
                                                                          Average weekly earnings using full-time equivalent
provided.(1)
                                                                             employees as the denominator
Household Labour Force Survey                                             Average weekly paid hours using full-time equivalent
Age                                                                          employees as the denominator
Sex                                                                       Average weekly earnings using total employees as
                                                                             the denominator
Country of birth
                                                                          Average weekly paid hours using total employees
Years in New Zealand for those that were not born
                                                                             as the denominator
   here
Ethnicity                                                                 New Zealand Income Survey
Marital status                                                            Average and median hourly earnings for those
Regional council area                                                     receiving income from wage and salary jobs
Highest school qualification                                              Average and median hourly earnings for those
Highest post school qualification                                         receiving income from wage and salary jobs by
Labour force status                                                       various characteristics such as sex, age group,
Employed full-time                                                        industry and occupation
Employed part-time
                                                                          Average and median weekly earnings for those
Actual hours                                                              receiving income from wage and salary jobs by full-
Usual hours                                                               time/part-time status
Employment status
Occupation*                                                               Average and median weekly income by source of
                                                                          income
Industry*
Multiple job holders                                                      Sources of income including:
Underemployment                                                            q Income from wages and salaries

Main activity of those not in the labour force                             q Income from self-employment

Unemployed - looking for full-time work                                    q Income from government transfers

Unemployed - looking for part-time work                                      Income from government benefits
                                                                             Income from New Zealand superannuation or
Duration of unemployment*
                                                                               veterans pension
Occupation sought
                                                                             Income from ACC or private workplace insurer
Previous employment status                                                 q Income from investments
Previous occupation                                                        q Income from other private transfers such as
Previous industry                                                            annuities and private pensions
Reason for leaving last job
* The classifications for these series have changed since the             Average and median weekly income by various
  HLFS was first published. This publication only presents                demographic characteristics such as sex, age group,
  statistics for the latest classifications.                              ethnic group, labour force status

Quarterly Employment Survey                                               Average and median weekly income for various
Sex                                                                       populations such as those in paid employment, those
Regional council area                                                     not in paid employment
Employment estimates