COMPENDIUM08 FINAL VERSION

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COMPENDIUM08 FINAL VERSION Powered By Docstoc
					Compendium of International
 Environmental Agreements

     September 2008 - 4th Edition
                  Acknowledgement




We would like to express special thanks to all employees and managers who
             have taken the time to contribute to this product.




                  Additional copies can be obtained from


                        International Affairs Branch
              Multilateral and Bilateral Relations Directorate
                           Environment Canada
                       14th Floor, Fontaine Building
                            200, Sacré-Coeur
                         Gatineau, QC K1A 0H3
        Telephone: (819) 994-0989
         Facsimile: (819) 994-6227

(Cette publication est aussi disponible en français)
                                        PREFACE



       In 1998, Environment Canada undertook an intensive internal review of its
international involvement and activities to understand how Canada was progressing
on international work. One of the recommendations that came from this review was
the compilation of a summary of international environmental agreements and
commitments in order to allow improved tracking of departmental progress on
international environmental obligations. This fifth edition of the compendium is part of
Environment Canada’s sustained effort to corporately monitor its international
commitments, take stock of progress, and measure results.


       The number of environmental agreements, with the addition of new
agreements at the global, regional, and bilateral levels, has grown substantially.
Governments face the challenge of managing a growing body of commitments with
limited resources. National level coordination is essential for effective coordination at
the international level. This compendium is one of the tools that can help Canada
ensure its coordination at home.


       We are grateful for the assistance of colleagues throughout the department in
constructing this compendium of agreements. It is not intended to be exhaustive—
there are other arrangements with environment-related components that are mainly
the responsibility of other government departments, so they are not included.
However, taken as a whole, this fifth edition of the compendium provides a more
comprehensive picture of the scope of Environment Canada’s international activities.
Within each chapter, the agreements are sorted by issue area. We hope this will be a
useful reference tool for those involved in international activities.


We would welcome any comments or feedback on this publication. Please provide
any comments to:


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                      IV
Multilateral and Bilateral Relations Directorate
International Affairs Branch
Environment Canada
14th Floor, Fontaine Building
200 Boulevard Sacré-Coeur
Gatineau, QC
K1A 0H3
Fax: (819) 994-6227




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              V
                                               Table of Contents

                     Compendium of International Environmental Agreements



THEMATIC INDEX OF AGREEMENTS

AIR ..................................................................................................................... XV

BIODIVERSITY/ECOSYSTEMS........................................................................... XV

CHEMICALS....................................................................................................... XVI

CLIMATE CHANGE ........................................................................................... XVII

ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION .................................................................. XVIII

FRESHWATER ................................................................................................... XXI

HAZARDOUS WASTES ..................................................................................... XXII

MARINE/ OCEANS ........................................................................................... XXII

METEOROLOGY .............................................................................................. XXIII
INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS) ............................ 2

Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears and Their Habitat ............................. 4

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes
and Their Disposal (Basel Convention) .................................................................... 6

Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety ............................................................................ 12

Convention on Biological Diversity ......................................................................... 14

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) ............................................................................................................... 19

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other
Matter (LC72) ...................................................................................................... 22


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                        VI
Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents ............................ 25

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization ............................................. 28

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
(Ramsar) ............................................................................................................. 33

Declaration of Intent for the Conservation of North American Birds and their Habitat 36

International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Waster and
Sediments ............................................................................................................ 38

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) ....... 40

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) ............... 42

International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation
(OPRC) ............................................................................................................... 44

International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships
(AFS) .................................................................................................................. 46

International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for
Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) .................................................... 48

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture ............... 51

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation ..................................... 53

OECD DECISIONS:

         Decision Concerning the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes
          Destined for Recovery Operations ............................................................... 57

         Decision Concerning the Minimum Pre-Market Set of Data (MPD) in the
          Assessment of Chemicals (82) 196 ............................................................ 62

         Decision on the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of
          Chemicals C(81)30 ................................................................................... 64




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                      VII
        Decision on the Protection of the Environment by Control of Polychlorinated
         Biphenyls (PCBs) C(73)1 and C(87)2 ....................................................... 67

        Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Principles of Good Laboratory
         Practice (C[89] 87) .................................................................................. 69

        Decision-Recommendation on Cooperative Investigation and Risk Reduction of
         Existing Chemicals ..................................................................................... 72

        Decision — Recommendation on the Systematic Investigation of Existing
         Chemicals C(87)90 ................................................................................... 75
Madrid Protocol - Antarctic Treaty System ......................................................... 77
Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of
Wastes and Other Matter ...................................................................................... 81

Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain
Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade .................................... 84

Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North American ................................ 87

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ............................. 90
UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP):
        Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-level Ozone
         (Gothenburg Protocol) ............................................................................... 93

        Protocol Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds
         (VOCs) or their Transboundary Fluxes........................................................ 96

        Protocol Concerning the Control of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary
         Fluxes ....................................................................................................... 98

        Protocol on Further Reductions of Sulphur Emissions ................................ 100

        Protocol on Heavy Metals ......................................................................... 102




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                    VIII
         Protocol on Long-Term Financing of the Co-operative Programme for
          Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmissions of Air Pollutants in
          Europe (EMEP) ....................................................................................... 104

         Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ..................................... 106

         Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes
          by at Least 30 Percent ............................................................................. 109

UNECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary
Context (Espoo Convention) ............................................................................... 112

Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers under the UNECE Convention
on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to
Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) ......................................... 114

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ................. 117

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – Kyoto
Protocol .............................................................................................................. 119

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) .............................. 122

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ........................................... 126

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer ..................................... 130

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer – Protocol on Substances
that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) ................................................ 132
CANADA/US AGREEMENTS
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States on Air Quality ........................................................................................... 137

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States concerning the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste .................. 143

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States on the Conservation of the Porcupine Caribou Herd ................................... 147



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                       IX
Agreement between the Canada and the United States for Water Supply and Flood
Control in the Souris River Basin ......................................................................... 150

Agreement between Canada and the United States of America Relating to the
Exchange of Information on Weather Modification Activities .................................. 153

Agreement to Provide for Joint Canada–US Collaboration in Use of the Meteorological
Service of Canada Airborne Imaging Microwave Radiometer (AIMR) .................... 154

Canada–United-States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan ............................. 156

Canada–US Bilateral Agreement on Shellfish Sanitation ....................................... 158

Canada–United States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan ............................ 162

Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in the United States and Canada . 164

Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
United Sates of America to Expand and Intensify Existing Bilateral Efforts to Address
Global Climate Change ....................................................................................... 166

Environment Canada – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joint Statement of
Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound Ecosystem ........................... 168

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) ................................................. 170

Letter of Agreement between the United States Coast Guard International Ice Patrol
and Environment Canada’s Canadian Ice Service ................................................. 172

Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States of America and the Department of the Environment of Canada
Concerning Cooperation in Research, Development and Demonstrations in Science
and Technology Related to Environmental Protection............................................ 175

Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Coast Guard and the
Department of the Environment of Canada Concerning Research and Development
Cooperation in Spill Response Technology........................................................... 177




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                               X
Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce's National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in the Field of Meteorology, Hydrology, and
Climate Forecast Service and Programs .............................................................. 178

Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce’s National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in Environmental Data Acquisition and Utilization
.......................................................................................................................... 180
North America Ensemble Forecast System Joint US National Weather Service–
Meteorological Service of Canada Ensemble Forecasting Research, Development,
and Implementation Plan ..................................................................................... 182

Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Relating to Cooperative
Development of the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River
Treaty) ............................................................................................................... 185

Treaty between Canada and the United States of America relating to the Skagit River
and Ross Lake, and the Seven Mile Reservoir on the Pend d'Oreille River ............ 188

Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Concerning the Diversion of
the Niagara River ................................................................................................ 190

Treaty Relating to the Boundary Waters and Questions Arising Along the Border
between the United States and Canada ............................................................... 192
BILATERAL AGREEMENTS
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany on Scientific and Technical Cooperation .............................. 197

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Japan on
Cooperation in Science and Technology .............................................................. 200

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian
Federation concerning Environmental Cooperation ............................................... 201




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                          XI
Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the Government of
Canada and the Government of the Republic of India ........................................... 205

Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the Government of the Republic of Chile .............................................................. 207

Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica ..................................................... 210

Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the United Mexican States ................................................................................... 213

Canada–China Framework Statement for Cooperation on Environment into the 21st
Century .............................................................................................................. 215

Canada–South Africa Joint Declaration of Intent on Strengthened Bilateral
Cooperation ........................................................................................................ 217

Cooperative Arrangement between the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and
Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) of Australia and the Minister of Environment Canada
(EC) and the Minister of Health Canada (HC), on the Subject of Sharing Information
on New Industrial Chemicals ............................................................................... 219

Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
People’s Republic of China on Strengthened Dialogue and Future Cooperation on
Climate Change .................................................................................................. 221

Joint Statement between the Department of the Environment of Canada and the
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the United Mexican States on
Strengthened Dialogue and Cooperation on Climate Change ................................ 223

Exchange of Letters between Canada and the European Commission on
Environmental Cooperation.................................................................................. 225

Memorandum of Understanding between Canada and Brazil on Cooperation in the
Area of Climate Change Initiatives including the Clean Development Mechanisms . 227




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                     XII
Memorandum of Understanding between China Meteorological Administration (CMA),
People’s Republic of China, and Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC),
Environment Canada, Canada on Cooperation in Science and Technology Related to
Meteorology, Hydrology, Environmental Predictions and Climate Change .............. 228

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil on Environmental and Sustainable
Development Consultations and Cooperation ....................................................... 230

Memorandum of Understanding between the Minister of Environment of Canada and
the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of
the Federal Republic of Germany on Environmental Cooperation .......................... 232

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Concerning the Provision of
Technical Expertise in Areas of Environmental Management ................................. 234

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Environment of the
Republic of Korea ............................................................................................... 235

Memorandum of Understanding for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field
of the Environment between Environment Canada and the French Ministry Attached to
the Prime Minister Responsible for the Environment and the Prevention of Major
Technological and Natural Risks .......................................................................... 237

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Science, technology
and Environment of the Kingdom of Thailand ....................................................... 239

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of Environment of Canada and the State Environmental Protection
Administration of China ....................................................................................... 241

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Collaboration between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Planning, Environment and Lands


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                XIII
Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of
China ................................................................................................................. 243

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
Government of India on Climate Change initiatives, including Clean Development
Mechanism Projects ............................................................................................ 245

List of Acronyms ................................................................................................. 246

CONTACT LIST .................................................................................................. 250




                               THEMATIC INDEX OF AGREEMENTS




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                     XIV
                                THEMATIC INDEX OF AGREEMENTS


AIR
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States on Air Quality ........................................................................................... 137
UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP):
        Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-level Ozone
         (Gothenburg Protocol) ............................................................................... 93

        Protocol Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds
         (VOCs) or their Transboundary Fluxes........................................................ 96

        Protocol Concerning the Control of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary
         Fluxes ....................................................................................................... 98

        Protocol on Further Reductions of Sulphur Emissions ................................ 100

        Protocol on Heavy Metals ......................................................................... 102

        Protocol on Long-Term Financing of the Co-operative Programme for
         Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmissions of Air Pollutants in
         Europe (EMEP) ....................................................................................... 104

        Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ..................................... 106

        Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes
         by at Least 30 Percent ............................................................................. 109


BIODIVERSITY/ECOSYSTEMS
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States on the Conservation of the Porcupine Caribou Herd ................................... 147

Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS) ............................ 2

Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears and Their Habitat ............................. 4

Canada–US Bilateral Agreement on Shellfish Sanitation ....................................... 158



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                     XV
Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety ............................................................................ 12

Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in the United States and Canada . 164

Convention on Biological Diversity ......................................................................... 14

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) ............................................................................................................... 19

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
(Ramsar) ............................................................................................................. 33

Declaration of Intent for the Conservation of North American Birds and their Habitat 36

Environment Canada – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joint Statement of
Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound Ecosystem ........................... 168

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture ............... 51
Madrid Protocol - Antarctic Treaty System ......................................................... 77


CHEMICALS
Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents ............................ 25

Cooperative Arrangement between the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and
Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) of Australia and the Minister of Environment Canada
(EC) and the Minister of Health Canada (HC), on the Subject of Sharing Information
on New Industrial Chemicals ............................................................................... 219

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) ............... 42
OECD Decisions:
   Decision Concerning the Minimum Pre-Market Set of Data (MPD) in the
          Assessment of Chemicals (82) 196 ............................................................ 62

         Decision on the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of
          Chemicals C(81)30 ................................................................................... 64

         Decision on the Protection of the Environment by Control of Polychlorinated
          Biphenyls (PCBs) C(73)1 and C(87)2 ....................................................... 67



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                    XVI
        Decision-Recommendation on Compliance with Principles of Good Laboratory
         Practice (C[89] 87) .................................................................................. 69

        Decision-Recommendation on Cooperative Investigation and Risk Reduction of
         Existing Chemicals ..................................................................................... 72

        Decision — Recommendation on the Systematic Investigation of Existing
         Chemicals C(87)90 ................................................................................... 75

Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers under the UNECE Convention
on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to
Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) ......................................... 114

Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain
Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade .................................... 84

Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) ............................. 90

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer ..................................... 130

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer – Protocol on Substances
that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) ................................................ 132


CLIMATE CHANGE
Joint Statement between the Department of the Environment of Canada and the
Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the United Mexican States on
Strengthened Dialogue and Cooperation on Climate Change ................................ 223

Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
People’s Republic of China on Strengthened Dialogue and Future Cooperation on
Climate Change .................................................................................................. 221

Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
United Sates of America to Expand and Intensify Existing Bilateral Efforts to Address
Global Climate Change ....................................................................................... 166

Memorandum of Understanding between Canada and Brazil on Cooperation in the
Area of Climate Change Initiatives including the Clean Development Mechanisms . 227


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                              XVII
Memorandum of Understanding between China Meteorological Administration (CMA),
People’s Republic of China, and Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC),
Environment Canada, Canada on Cooperation in Science and Technology Related to
Meteorology, Hydrology, Environmental Predictions and Climate Change .............. 228

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
Government of India on Climate Change initiatives, including Clean Development
Mechanism Projects ............................................................................................ 245

Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce's National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in the Field of Meteorology, Hydrology, and
Climate Forecast Service and Programs .............................................................. 178

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ................. 117

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – Kyoto
Protocol .............................................................................................................. 119

United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification ........................................... 126



ENVIRONMENTAL COOPERATION
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Federal
Republic of Germany on Scientific and Technical Cooperation .............................. 197

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Japan on
Cooperation in Science and Technology .............................................................. 200

Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian
Federation concerning Environmental Cooperation ............................................... 201

Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the Government of
Canada and the Government of the Republic of India ........................................... 205

Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica ..................................................... 210




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                   XVIII
Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the Government of the Republic of Chile .............................................................. 207

Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
the United Mexican States ................................................................................... 213

Canada–China Framework Statement for Cooperation on Environment into the 21st
Century .............................................................................................................. 215

Canada–South Africa Joint Declaration of Intent on Strengthened Bilateral
Cooperation ........................................................................................................ 217

Canada–United States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan ............................ 162

Canada–US Bilateral Agreement on Shellfish Sanitation ....................................... 158

Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in the United States and Canada . 164

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization ............................................. 28

Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents ............................ 25

Cooperative Arrangement between the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and
Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) of Australia and the Minister of Environment Canada
(EC) and the Minister of Health Canada (HC), on the Subject of Sharing Information
on New Industrial Chemicals ............................................................................... 219

Environment Canada – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joint Statement of
Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound Ecosystem ........................... 168

Exchange of Letters between Canada and the European Commission on
Environmental Cooperation.................................................................................. 225

International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation
(OPRC) ............................................................................................................... 44

Letter of Agreement between the United States Coast Guard International Ice Patrol
and Environment Canada’s Canadian Ice Service ................................................. 172

Memorandum of Understanding between Canada and Brazil on Cooperation in the
Area of Climate Change Initiatives including the Clean Development Mechanisms . 227


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                    XIX
Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency of the
United States of America and the Department of the Environment of Canada
Concerning Cooperation in Research, Development and Demonstrations in Science
and Technology Related to Environmental Protection............................................ 175

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Environment of the
Republic of Korea ............................................................................................... 235

Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil on Environmental and Sustainable
Development Consultations and Cooperation ....................................................... 230

Memorandum of Understanding between the Minister of Environment of Canada and
the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of
the Federal Republic of Germany on Environmental Cooperation .......................... 232

Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Coast Guard and the
Department of the Environment of Canada Concerning Research and Development
Cooperation in Spill Response Technology........................................................... 177

Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce’s National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in Environmental Data Acquisition and Utilization
.......................................................................................................................... 180
Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce's National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in the Field of Meteorology, Hydrology, and
Climate Forecast Service and Programs .............................................................. 178

Memorandum of Understanding for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field
of the Environment between Environment Canada and the French Ministry Attached to
the Prime Minister Responsible for the Environment and the Prevention of Major
Technological and Natural Risks .......................................................................... 237




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                         XX
Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Collaboration between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Planning, Environment and Lands
Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of
China ................................................................................................................. 243

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of Environment of Canada and the State Environmental Protection
Administration of China ....................................................................................... 241

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Science, technology
and Environment of the Kingdom of Thailand ....................................................... 239

Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Environment of the
Republic of Korea ............................................................................................... 235

North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation ..................................... 53

Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North American ................................ 87

UNECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary
Context (Espoo Convention) ............................................................................... 112

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) ................. 117


FRESHWATER
Agreement between the Canada and the United States for Water Supply and Flood
Control in the Souris River Basin ......................................................................... 150

Environment Canada – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joint Statement of
Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound Ecosystem ........................... 168

Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) ................................................. 170

Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Concerning the Diversion of
the Niagara River ................................................................................................ 190




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                     XXI
Treaty between Canada and the United States of America relating to the Skagit River
and Ross Lake, and the Seven Mile Reservoir on the Pend d'Oreille River ............ 188

Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Relating to Cooperative
Development of the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River
Treaty) ............................................................................................................... 185

Treaty Relating to the Boundary Waters and Questions Arising Along the Border
between the United States and Canada ............................................................... 192

HAZARDOUS WASTES
Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
States concerning the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste .................. 143

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes
and Their Disposal (Basel Convention) .................................................................... 6

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other
Matter (LC72) ...................................................................................................... 22

OECD Decision Concerning the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes
Destined for Recovery Operations ......................................................................... 57


MARINE/ OCEANS
Canada–United-States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan ............................. 156

Canada–US Bilateral Agreement on Shellfish Sanitation ....................................... 158

Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other
Matter (LC72) ...................................................................................................... 22

International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Waster and
Sediments ............................................................................................................ 38

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) ....... 40

International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) ............... 42




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                    XXII
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation
(OPRC) ............................................................................................................... 44

International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships
(AFS) .................................................................................................................. 46

International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for
Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) .................................................... 48

Letter of Agreement between the United States Coast Guard International Ice Patrol
and Environment Canada’s Canadian Ice Service ................................................. 172

Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of
Wastes and Other Matter ...................................................................................... 81

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) .............................. 122


METEOROLOGY
Agreement between Canada and the United States of America Relating to the
Exchange of Information on Weather Modification Activities .................................. 153

Agreement to Provide for Joint Canada–US Collaboration in Use of the Meteorological
Service of Canada Airborne Imaging Microwave Radiometer (AIMR) .................... 154

Convention of the World Meteorological Organization ............................................. 28

Memorandum of Understanding between China Meteorological Administration (CMA),
People’s Republic of China, and Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC),
Environment Canada, Canada on Cooperation in Science and Technology Related to
Meteorology, Hydrology, Environmental Predictions and Climate Change .............. 228

Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce's National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
Service of Canada on Cooperation in the Field of Meteorology, Hydrology, and
Climate Forecast Service and Programs .............................................................. 178

Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce’s National
Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological


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                                                                                                                   XXIII
Service of Canada on Cooperation in Environmental Data Acquisition and Utilization
.......................................................................................................................... 180
North America Ensemble Forecast System Joint US National Weather Service–
Meteorological Service of Canada Ensemble Forecasting Research, Development,
and Implementation Plan ..................................................................................... 182




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                                      XXIV
                          INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              1
            Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards (AIHTS)


Status
Signed December 15, 1997
Ratified May 31, 1999
Provisionally in force in Canada since June 1, 1999


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
The agreement requires that traps meet specific performance thresholds related to animal
welfare and that such traps are to be approved and regulated by the competent
provincial/territorial government authorities responsible for furbearer management.


Commitments
Canada is required to:
    -    meet annually with the European Union (EU) in the Joint Management Committee
         established under the agreement
    -    prohibit the use of conventional steel-jawed leghold restraining traps for the 12
         Canadian species listed, effective in the 2001 trapping season
    -    conduct additional research on trap improvement against an agreed set of standards
    -    establish a system of certificate of origin for fur and fur products of Canadian origin
         destined for the European market
    -    establish an appropriate process for certifying traps in accordance with the standards
    -    ensure that trappers are trained in the humane, safe, and effective use of trapping
         methods for existing and newly developed traps


Action Required
Environment Canada's responsibility is to monitor and manage the transfer funds to the Fur
Institute of Canada for research into the improvements of trapping systems.


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                                                                                                  2
Activities
Environment Canada has a contribution agreement with the Fur Institute of Canada to do the
research.


The provinces, territories, and some Aboriginal groups that have finalized land claims are the
competent authorities under the agreement and as such are responsible for implementing the
agreement.


Evidence of Compliance
− Canada has provided annual reports to the EU to ensure compliance.
− A permit system administered by the provinces and territories is in place.




Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-0289
Facsimile: (819) 994-4445


Department of Foreign Affairs and International Affairs
Telephone: (613) 995-6115
Facsimile: (613) 944-0034


Web Site
http://www.fur.ca/index-e/index.asp




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                                                                                            3
         Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears and Their Habitat



Status
Signed November 15, 1973, in Oslo, Norway
Ratified December 14, 1974
In force in Canada May 26, 1976
In force internationally May 26, 1976
Indefinite continuation agreed to by all parties at consultative meeting January 1981 held in
Oslo, Norway


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity/Ecosystems


Summary
This agreement is intended to protect the polar bear as a significant resource of the Arctic
region through conservation and management measures, including prohibitions against the
taking of polar bears, trade in polar bears or polar bear parts, and ecosystem protection
measures. There are exemptions from the prohibitions in the agreement, including continued
harvest by local people using traditional means, scientific research, or conservation purposes.
All five Arctic nations with jurisdiction over areas where polar bears are distributed (Canada,
Denmark, Norway, the United States, and the former USSR) are signatories to the
agreement.


Commitments
Canada agreed to protect polar bears and their habitat; enact and enforce such legislation as
needed to give effect to the agreement; manage polar bears according to "sound
conservation practices," and conduct national research programs on polar bears.


Action Required




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                                                                                             4
Environment Canada is the lead. Although the agreement was signed by the federal
government on behalf of all the jurisdictions, the responsibility for the management of polar
bears in Canada lies with the provinces and territories.


Activities
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) is the primary vehicle for federal government management of polar bears.
International coordination of polar bear research and management, plus adherence to the
spirit of the agreement, is through membership by Environment Canada scientists in the World
Conservation Union/Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC) Polar Bear Specialist Group.
Polar bear research and management are coordinated through two national committees: the
Polar Bear Technical Committee and the Polar Bear Administrative Committee. These
committees are made up of scientists and administrators, respectively, who meet annually to
evaluate ongoing research and management and to plan and implement new activities in
response to perceived needs. Scientists from Environment Canada play a key role in leading
and coordinating these two committees and in conducting research on polar bears throughout
their range in Canada.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada's reports under the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and Regulation of International
and Interprovincial Trade Act (WAPPRIITA), Canada's National Report to the CITES
secretariat, and Canada's reports on management and research to periodic meetings of the
IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group.


Contacts
Prairie and Northern Region, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada
Telephone: (780) 435-7349
Facsimile: (780) 435-7359


Web Sites
http://www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES/eng/index.shtml
http://www.pbsg.npolar.no




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           5
 Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes
                          and Their Disposal (Basel Convention)



Status
Signed March 22, 1989
Ratified by Canada August 28, 1992
Entered into force internationally May 5, 1992
Entered into force in Canada November 26, 1992


Lead Department
Environment Canada, assisted by Health Canada, Industry Canada, Natural Resources
Canada, Canada Border Services Agency, Transport Canada, and Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada.


Subject Category
Hazardous Wastes


Summary
The overall goal of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and the environment
against the adverse effects resulting from the generation, transboundary movements, and
management of hazardous wastes.

The convention seeks to minimize the generation of hazardous waste, including hazardous
recyclable materials, to ensure they are disposed of in an environmentally sound manner and
as close to the source as possible, and to minimize the international movement of hazardous
waste and hazardous recyclable materials.

Commitments

Classification and tracking: The convention establishes a core list of hazardous wastes to be
controlled when they exhibit one or more of the hazard characteristics set out in Annex III of
the convention and allows the parties to control wastes beyond those in the core list. In 1998,
two new waste annexes were adopted (Annexes VIII and IX, the hazardous waste and non-
hazardous waste lists, respectively). The convention also requires parties to


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                                                                                             6
    -   establish conditions and a licensing system for the transboundary movement and
        disposal (disposal includes recycling) of hazardous wastes
    -   require that a movement document accompany any hazardous wastes subject to
        transboundary movement from the point of generation to the point of management
    -   establish national requirements for packaging, labelling, and transporting, in
        accordance with recognized international rules and standards

Prohibition of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes: Parties may not carry out or
authorize transboundary movements of hazardous wastes

    -   to states that are not parties to the Convention unless they have a bilateral agreement
        under Article 11
    -   to Antarctica
    -   if the prospective state of destination has prohibited such imports
    -   if appropriate disposal or recycling facilities are available in the state of origin unless
        the waste is needed as a raw material for recycling or recovery industries in the state
        of import
    -   if there is reason to believe that environmentally sound management/disposal options
        are not available in the prospective state of destination.

Note that in September 1995, Parties adopted an amendment (the so-called Ban
Amendment) to prohibit immediately exports of hazardous wastes destined for final disposal
from Annex VII countries to non-Annex VII countries and to phase out by December 31, 1997,
and to prohibit as of that date, exports of hazardous recyclables from Annex VII to non-Annex
VII countries. Currently, Annex VII consists of members of the European Union, the
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Liechtenstein. The
Ban Amendment does not currently have sufficient ratifications to come into force. Canada
has not ratified the amendment.

Illegal traffic and duty to re-import: In the case of illegal traffic, the state of export is
responsible to ensure the wastes are managed properly and re-imported, if necessary, if
alternative arrangements cannot be made. If a transaction takes place in accordance with the
Convention and management cannot be carried out as foreseen, the exporting state must find
a suitable alternate arrangement or, if this is not possible, ensure re-importation.




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                                                                                                 7
Prior informed consent: Where transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and hazardous
recyclable materials is not prohibited in principle, Parties may only authorize movement after
the states of import and transit have given written consent to the state of export, based on
detailed information provided to them by that state.

General obligations:

    -   reduce the generation of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials, and
        keep their transboundary movement to a minimum
    -   ensure environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes and hazardous
        recyclable materials (a set of technical guidelines have been and are being developed
        that will recommend the means to accomplish this)
    -   cooperate in promoting new low-waste technologies with a view to eliminating, as far
        as practicable, the generation of hazardous wastes
    -   promote technical cooperation and exchange of information with other Parties and
        interested organizations
    -   ensure that disposal and recycling of imported hazardous waste occurs only at
        authorized facilities.
    -   Parties must provide information if any changes to their national definition of
        hazardous wastes.

Reporting: Parties must annually provide information to the secretariat on domestic legislation
and policies and on hazardous wastes/hazardous recyclable materials import/export activity.




Action Required

Compliance with the Convention requires the following:

    -   legislation and regulations to implement the classification, import/export controls, and
        tracking requirements, and environmentally sound management

    -   legislation and policy to implement the general obligations with regard to waste
        minimization

    -   administrative procedures to administer and enforce the import/export regime


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                               8
    -   support for technical cooperation initiatives

    -   regular reporting

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA 1999) allows Canada to

    -   fully implement its Basel obligations concerning the transboundary movement of
        hazardous wastes, including hazardous recyclable materials

    -   prohibit exports or imports of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials
        when required under international agreements or when the wastes will not be
        managed in an environmentally sound manner

    -   control the transboundary movements of prescribed non-hazardous wastes destined
        for final disposal

    -   require exporters of hazardous wastes and prescribed non-hazardous wastes
        destined for final disposal to submit export reduction plans when requested by the
        minister

    -   list conditions for the environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and
        hazardous recyclable materials that will be considered by the minister when refusing
        to issue a permit to import, export, or transit.


Activities
CEPA 1999 and the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable
Material Regulations (EIHWHRMR 2005) provide the legal authority to implement the specific
obligations (along with federal and provincial transportation of dangerous goods legislation),
which implement various forms of the prescribed classification scheme. The EIHWHRMR
2005 revoked and replaced the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste Regulations of 1992.

Environment Canada's Waste Reduction and Management Division administers the CEPA
1999 waste provisions and regulations and coordinates the reporting requirements and
various technical and policy cooperation initiatives. The Waste Reduction and Management
Division is the competent authority and the national focal point for Canada with respect to the
Basel Convention.. Enforcement is performed by headquarters and regional enforcement
officials in collaboration with Canada Border Services Agency, the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police, the provinces, and foreign officials.


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             9
The main issues that continue to require attention are the following:

    -     the status of the 1995 amendment banning exports to non-Annex VII countries

    -     international agreement on what constitutes "environmentally sound management"

    -     work on dismantling of ships

    -     monitoring of illegal traffic and enforcement of the CEPA 1999 provisions with
          respect to transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable
          materials

    -     development of technical guides on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These
          were considered and welcomed by the Stockholm Convention on POPs

    -     decision whether to accede to the protocol on liability and compensation

    -     harmonization of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
          (OECD) and Basel waste lists.



Evidence of Compliance
The Waste Reduction and Management Division provides evidence of compliance by
communicating its control instruments, such as the EIHWHRM Regulations to the Basel
secretariat and through its regular reports as required under the Convention. The Waste
Reduction and Management Division has also sponsored various impact studies and client
satisfaction studies. In addition, the regime has been the subject of reviews, including the
1997 Auditor General Report.


Contact
Waste Reduction and Management Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3377
E-mail: tmb@ec.gc.ca


Web Sites
Waste Management Division of Environment Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-dgd




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           10
Information on the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material
Regulations can be found at: http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-
dgd/default.asp?lang=En&n=C55741FD-1#one
Basel Convention and secretariat: http://www.basel.int
Copies of the Convention can be found at http://www.basel.int/text/documents.html




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                      11
                              Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety



Status
Signed April 19, 2001
Not ratified


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is an international treaty under the United Nations
Convention on Biological Diversity. The objective of the protocol is to contribute to ensuring
an adequate level of protection in the field of the safe transfer, handling, and use of living
modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on
the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, taking also into account the risks
to human health, specifically focusing on transboundary movements. The primary focus of the
protocol is ensuring that a party has the opportunity to make an informed decision regarding
the potential impact that a living modified organism (LMO) could have on its biodiversity, prior
to deciding whether to allow that LMO to be imported. The core mechanism for this is the
provision that a party can utilize a risk assessment process prior to making a decision on
whether to permit the import of an LMO for the first time. The protocol provides for a party to
refuse to allow the import of an LMO if the risk it poses to the party’s biodiversity is
considered too great.


Commitments
The protocol entered into force internationally on September 11, 2003. As a signatory,
Canada is required not to act in a manner that is inconsistent with the objective of the
protocol. If Canada were to ratify the protocol, it would be required to enact domestic
legislation to give effect to the provisions of the protocol. The main requirements of the
protocol are related to ensuring that LMO exporters, under the jurisdiction of parties, provide


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             12
the information required for a potential importing country to make an informed decision on
whether to allow the import of an LMO. The protocol also requires that LMOs being shipped
internationally must be accompanied by specific documentation. The protocol also mandates
the creation of an information exchange mechanism known as the Biosafety Clearing-House
to which parties are required to post particular information.


Action Required
Environment Canada co-leads this issue with Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada,
although action by all jurisdictions and other government departments is required.
Environment Canada facilitates the development of Canadian negotiating positions for
international meetings and consultations with national stakeholders. Canada has been an
active participant in the work of the Meeting of Parties. Environment Canada also hosts the
National Focal Point for the Protocol within its office of biosafety. Canada has contributed to
international workshops to examine the capacity development needs of developing countries
and countries with economies in transition.


Canada is not a party to the protocol and is therefore not bound by its requirements; however,
as a signatory, Canada does not act in a manner that is inconsistent or contrary to the
objective of the protocol.


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3181
Facsimile: (819) 953-7682


Web Sites
http://www.biodiv.org/biosafety/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           13
                             Convention on Biological Diversity



Status
Signed June 11, 1992
Ratified December 4, 1992
In force internationally and for Canada December 29, 1993


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
The convention‘s three objectives are the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable
use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the
utilization of genetic resources, including by appropriate access to those resources, transfer of
relevant technologies, and appropriate funding. The third objective is currently the subject of
intensive international negotiations, and supporting policies and processes have not been
finalized. The first and second objectives have received in-depth consideration by the
Conference of the Parties (CoP) at eight meetings, and the focus has shifted from policy
development to implementation.


Commitments
Canada must report to the CoP on national implementation of the convention. Following an
analysis of first national reports submitted in 1998, the CoP, at its fifth meeting, endorsed a
format for future national reporting through which the status of national implementation,
including the level of implementation, relative priorities, constraints encountered, and issues
not yet addressed, can be measured. Parties submitted their second national reports for
consideration at the sixth meeting of the CoP (April 2002), and their third national reports for
the eighth meeting of the CoP (March 2006)




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             14
At CoP 8, parties also agreed that the deadline for the fourth national report will be March
2009. This report will have particular significance. It will include an overview of national status
and trends of biodiversity and the main threats to biodiversity, assess the implementation of
national biodiversity strategies, and review progress towards the 2010 target ‚to achieve … a
significant reduction of the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global, regional and national
level as a contribution to poverty alleviation and to the benefit of all life on earth.‛


At CoP 2, in Jakarta, Indonesia, in 1995, parties decided to accept the offer of the
Government of Canada to host the secretariat of the convention in Montreal. Included in this
offer was a direct financial contribution from the City of Montreal of US$100,000 for furniture
and other office equipment, a financial contribution of US$200,000 per year for five years
from the Government of Quebec, and a financial contribution of US$800,000 per year for the
first five years from the Government of Canada. At CoP 6, in April 2002, Canada renewed its
financial commitment to provide US$1 million a year as host country to the secretariat in
Montreal ($800,000 from the federal government and $200,000 from Quebec) through to
2005. This agreement was subsequently renewed for an additional five-year period through
to 2010.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead, although action by all jurisdictions and other government
departments is required. Environment Canada must facilitate the following:
       federal and national reporting
       the development of a national strategy
       the development of Canadian negotiating positions for meetings of the parties (CoPs),
        the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical, and Technological Advice (SBSTTA),
        the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (although Canada has not ratified this protocol),
        and the convention's four ad hoc open-ended working groups: Article 8(j): Traditional
        Knowledge, Innovations and Practices; Access and Benefit-Sharing; Review of
        Implementation of the Convention; and Protected Areas.


Activities
Environment Canada led the development of the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy. It reflects the
measures set out in the convention relevant to Canada. In April 1996, ministers from federal,
provincial, and territorial governments signed a commitment to use this strategy ‚as a guide to


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                               15
our actions.‛ The strategy recognizes that ‚an ecological approach to resource management is
central to conserving biodiversity and using our biological resources in a sustainable manner,‛
and that this will require ‚Cooperation and a sharing of knowledge, costs, and benefits.‛ It
provides a national planning framework for the integration of biodiversity conservation and the
sustainable use of biological resources into sectoral and cross-sectoral, land, water, and
resource-use decisions.


As a means to further enhance implementation of the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, the
ministers of wildlife, forestry, and fisheries met jointly in 2001 and agreed on four national
biodiversity priorities that require collaborative action across sectors and jurisdictions:


    -   addressing the threat of invasive alien species
    -   engaging and enabling Canadians through stewardship
    -   developing a biodiversity science agenda for Canada, including a biological
        information component
    -   enhancing the capacity to report on biodiversity status and trends, including integrated
        monitoring


Canada’s Stewardship Agenda and the National Invasive Alien Species Strategy are two
products of that collaboration. Work continues in the areas of biodiversity science and
information and on monitoring and reporting on biodiversity status and trends.


In June 2005, deputy ministers of wildlife, forestry and fisheries discussed options with
respect to developing a biodiversity outcomes framework as a companion implementation and
reporting framework to the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy. They agreed that a Biodiversity
Outcomes Framework is needed to support the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy and to enable
reporting against international agreements, in particular, the convention and its 2010 target.
This framework was considered for endorsement by ministers in October 2006.


Other relevant activities have included the following:
    -   reports on federal implementation of the strategy (Biodiversity in the Forest,
        Biodiversity in Agriculture, Protected Areas, Learning About Biodiversity, 1997–1998;
        Conserving Wildlife Diversity: Implementing the Canadian Biodiversity Strategy, Spring
        1998)


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              16
   -      provincial and private sector implementation of the strategy (Quebec, Ontario,
          Saskatchewan, and the Northwest Territories have developed their own strategies
          and/or action plans, and the private sector and conservation groups have adopted
          the direction of the strategy, as is evidenced in their plans, programs, and strategies.)
   -      Canada’s three national reports to the Conference of the Parties (CoP)
   -      Canada’s negotiating positions for 8 CoPs, 11 SBSTTA meetings, 4 meetings of the
          Ad Hoc Working Group on Article 8 (j), 4 meetings of the Ad Hoc Working Group on
          Access and Benefit-Sharing, etc.
   -      Canada’s national node for the convention’s Clearing-House Mechanism — the
          Canadian Biodiversity Information Network (CBIN)
   -      enhanced federal cooperation in the areas of biosystematics and biological information
          management through a memorandum of understanding among Agriculture and Agri-
          Food Canada, Natural Resources Canada/Canadian Forest Service, Environment
          Canada, Parks Canada Agency, the Canadian Museum of Nature, the Public Health
          Agency of Canada, and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency
   -      a variety of national consultative mechanisms on traditional knowledge, innovations,
          and practices, including ongoing relationships with national Aboriginal organizations
   -      incorporation of biodiversity into sectoral policies and programs (e.g., agriculture,
          fisheries, forestry, and tourism)
   -      education, training, and awareness materials produced in cooperation with partners
   -      capacity-building initiatives, such as the Equator Initiative, that enhance the
          participation of developing countries


Evidence of Compliance
See Commitments and Activities sections, above.


Contact
Multilateral an Bilateral Affairs Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989
Facsimile: (819) 994-6227


Web Sites
http://www.biodiv.org/
http://www.cbin.ec.gc.ca/index.cfm?lang=e


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                                                                                                  17
Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              18
  Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
                                             (CITES)



Status
Signed July 2, 1974
Ratified April 10, 1975
Entered into force internationally July 1, 1975
Came into effect in Canada July 9, 1975


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
The convention seeks to control the trade in species of wild animals and plants that are, or
may be, threatened with extinction as a result of international trade. For purposes of the
convention, international ‚trade‛ includes the international movement of plant and animal
species. The convention applies to both live and dead specimens, as well as their parts and
derivatives. Currently, the convention lists over 30,000 different animal and plant species.


The convention uses an import/export permitting system to regulate trade. Permit
requirements differ depending on which of three different CITES appendices a species is
listed in.
    -    Appendix-I includes species that are now threatened with extinction and may not be
         traded for primarily commercial purposes. Trade for scientific, captive breeding, and
         other limited uses is permitted under strict conditions.
    -    Appendix-II includes species that are not currently threatened, but may become so if
         their trade is not monitored. Trade is permitted as long as specimens are
         accompanied with appropriate CITES documentation.
    -    Appendix-III contains species that are under special management regimes in
         individual countries and require the cooperation of other countries in the control of


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                                                                                               19
        trade. For example, Canada has listed the walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) in Appendix-
        III.


Changes to appendix listings are made at the Conference of the Parties (CoP), which are
held every two to three years. Parties also adopt resolutions at each CoP that provide
clarification and guidance on the provisions of the convention and its implementation.


Commitments
Under the convention, Canada must
    -   implement an international system of import and export permits for CITES-listed
        species
    -   designate scientific and management authorities
    -   take measures to enforce the convention
    -   prepare annual reports with details on trade records and biennial reports on
        legislative, regulatory, and administrative actions taken to implement the convention


Action Required
Environment Canada leads the implementation of CITES in Canada and is required to
    -   provide a scientific and management authority to administer and oversee the import
        and export of CITES-listed species
    -   issue CITES import/export permits, including the provision of guidance to Fisheries
        and Oceans Canada (which issues permits for fish and marine species) and the
        provinces/territories that issue CITES export permits for provincially/territorially
        managed species
    -   coordinate enforcement of the convention in Canada through a network of national
        and international partners (e.g., Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Canada Border
        Services Agency [CBSA], Interpol, etc.)
    -   submit annual and biennial reports to the CITES secretariat and report on Canadian
        activities as required
    -   lead Canadian delegations to the CoPs and other subsidiary committee meetings


Activities
Environment Canada administers and enforces the Wild Animal and Plant Protection and
Regulation of International and Interprovincial Trade Act (WAPPRIITA) and Wild Animal and


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                                                                                                20
Plant Trade Regulations, both of which came into force in 1996 and are the domestic
legislation for implementing CITES in Canada. The sixth annual report for WAPPRIITA for the
year 2001 was tabled by the Minister of the Environment in Parliament on February 3, 2004.

Customs memorandum D19-7-1, CITES, outlines the procedures CBSA has in place to assist
Environment Canada with the enforcement of CITES with respect to the importation and
exportation of CITES-listed species.

Environment Canada coordinates joint enforcement operations with provinces, other countries,
and international wildlife enforcement agencies. Environment Canada represents wildlife
enforcement at Interpol and the World Customs Organization.

Memoranda of understanding have been signed with some provinces and territories for
cooperation on the administration and enforcement of WAPPRIITA.

Evidence of Compliance
Reports to Parliament under WAPPRIITA and Canada’s national reports to the CITES
secretariat.


Contact
International Wildlife Trade Division, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada
Telephone: 1 800 668-6767 (toll-free number), (819) 997-1840 (National Capital Region)
Facsimile: (819) 953-6283


Web Sites
http://www.cites.ec.gc.ca/eng/sct0/index_e.cfm
http://www.cites.org




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                                                                                         21
 Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other
                                       Matter (LC72)



Status
Signed December 29, 1972
Entered into force internationally August 30, 1975
Ratified November 13, 1975
In force for Canada December 13, 1975


Amendment concerning the settlement of disputes signed October 12, 1978; not yet in force
because of insufficient number of signatories.


Amendments concerning incineration at sea accepted and came in force March 11, 1979


Amendment to Annexes I and II to the convention accepted and came into force for Canada
November 3, 1981


Amendment to Annex III to the convention signed November 3, 1989; in force for Canada
May 19, 1990


Amendments concerning radioactive wastes accepted February 16, 1994; in force for Canada
February 20, 1994 (In force for all parties as of 2005)


Amendments concerning phasing out sea disposal of industrial waste accepted and came in
force February 16, 1994


Amendment concerning incineration at sea accepted February 16, 1994; in force for Canada
February 20, 1994


Lead Department:
Environment Canada, supported by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada (DFAIT), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and Transport
Canada (TC).


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                                                                                      22
Subject Category
Wastes/Marine/Oceans


Summary
The convention prohibits the disposal at sea of wastes and other matter except under a permit
issued by a contracting party, depending on the nature of the wastes and other matter as
described in Annexes I and II. Annex III sets out factors to be considered in establishing
domestic permit systems.


Commitments
Parties must (except in emergency situations)
   prohibit dumping of Annex I wastes
   require a special permit for dumping of wastes or other matter listed in Annex II
   require prior general permit for dumping of all other wastes or matter
   keep records, monitor, and report on actions under the convention
   support on a voluntary basis technical assistance to other parties
   promote the development of international measures to protect the marine environment
    from various types of pollution.


Action Required
Environment Canada's main obligations are to develop the legal and administrative regime to
implement and report on the convention. The treaty is fully implemented in Canada.


Activities
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), Part 7, Division 3, and schedules 5 and
6 create the legal framework for full implementation of the convention.


The Environmental Stewardship Branch and enforcement offices
   implement and enforce the CEPA permit system
   provide technical assistance to parties, and technical and policy input to the convention
    secretariat.


Evidence of Compliance


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                          23
The CEPA annual report and the annual report to the convention secretariat.


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-4341
Facsimile: (819) 953-0913


Web Sites
http://www.londonconvention.org
http://www.imo.org/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                              24
            Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents



Status
Adopted March 17, 1992
Entered into force April 19, 2000


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals/Cooperation


Summary
The convention aims to strengthen international cooperation on the prevention of,
preparedness for, and response to industrial accidents with the potential for transboundary
effects in order to improve overall emergency preparedness in the United Nations Economic
Commission for Europe (UNECE).


The Protocol on Civil Liability for Damage and Compensation for Damage Caused by
Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents on Transboundary Waters, adopted on May 21,
2003, is a joint instrument to the convention.


Commitments
Support the entry into force and the implementation of the convention, as agreed by the
parties and signatories.


Action Required
The Conference of the Parties met for the first time in November 2000 where they accepted
the UNECE Industrial Accident Notification System as an early-warning tool and adopted
guidelines to facilitate the identification of hazardous activities that are capable of causing
transboundary effects. They also approved the terms of reference for cooperation between the
UNECE secretariat and the European Commission’s Major Accident Hazards Bureau to collect
and analyze information on past industrial accidents


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            25
During its second meeting in 2002, the Conference of the Parties took a decision on
strengthening the implementation of the convention. They also recognized the need to assist
some countries with economies in transition in their efforts to apply the convention in practice.
To this end, the Conference of the Parties entrusted the Bureau to draw up an internationally
supported assistance program. The Conference of the Parties also considered the exchange
of safety technologies and of experience on safety management systems to be an important
factor in the convention’s implementation.


At its third meeting in October 2004, the Conference of the Parties adopted the internationally
supported assistance program for the East European, Caucasian and Central Asian and the
South-East European countries. It established the Working Group on the Development of the
Convention to review its Annex I – the categories of substances and preparations and named
substances and their quantities for the purpose of defining hazardous activities. The
Conference of the Parties also amended the guidelines to facilitate the identification of
hazardous activities for the purpose of the convention and its early warning tool, the UNECE
Industrial Accident Notification System. It also established a task force to review the system’s
communication procedures.


The Conference of the Parties works on the prevention of accidental water pollution in
cooperation with the UNECE Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary
Watercourses and International Lakes and undertakes biennial joint special sessions for this
purpose.


Activities
Environment Canada follows the activities under the convention and maintains contacts with
US Environmental Protection Agency counterparts to ensure that activities that are jointly
undertaken by the two countries, at minimum, meet the spirit of the convention.




Contact
Environmental Emergencies Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-0607
Facsimile: (819) 997-5029


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             26
Web Site
http://www.unece.org/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              27
                    Convention of the World Meteorological Organization



Status
Came into force in 1950


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Meteorology


Summary
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a
membership of 187 member states and territories. It originated from the International
Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. WMO became the
specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational
hydrology, and related geophysical sciences in 1951. Its purpose is


   -     to facilitate world-wide cooperation in the establishment of networks of stations for the
         making of meteorological as well as hydrological and other geophysical observations
         related to meteorology, and to promote the establishment and maintenance of centres
         charged with the provision of meteorological and related services
   -     to promote the establishment and maintenance of systems for the rapid exchange of
         meteorological and related information
   -     to promote the standardization of meteorological and related observations and to
         ensure the uniform publication of observations and statistics
   -     to further the application of meteorology to aviation, shipping, water problems,
         agriculture, and other human activities
   -     to promote activities in operational hydrology and to further close cooperation between
         meteorological and hydrological services
   -     to encourage research and training in meteorology and, as appropriate, in related
         fields and to assist in coordinating the international aspects of such research and
         training


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                                                                                              28
    WMO achieves its objectives through its major programs:


    -   Applications of Meteorology Programme (AMP)
    -   Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme (AREP)
    -   Education and Training (ETR)
    -   Hydrology and Water Resources (HWR)
    -   Regional Programme (RP)
    -   Technical Cooperation (TCO)
    -   World Climate Programme (WCP)
    -   WMO Space Programme (WSP)
    -   World Weather Watch (WWW)




Commitments
The assistant deputy minister of the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) is the
permanent representative for Canada and Canada is an active participant in the generation
and exchange of information on weather, water, and climate according to internationally
agreed standards. In fact, Canada is an integral part of the global communications network
and undertakes specific tasks on behalf of WMO. Canada participates in all eight of the
technical commissions that deliver the programs of WMO, and the assistant deputy minister of
MSC has historically been a member of the executive body of WMO.


Action Required
In addition to its work in the scientific arena, Canada has been a strong proponent of results-
based planning and continues to work with WMO with this goal in mind. Canada is working to
influence the WMO Congress, which will meet in May 2007 to establish the long-term plan
for the organization. Preparations for the congress began in late 2006 and are a significant
undertaking for Environment Canada.


Activities


Technical Commissions, Expert Teams


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           29
Canada is active on all eight of the technical commissions and on a large number of expert
teams. Each of the commissions meets once during the four years between the WMO
Congress. Expert teams meet more frequently, although often only by correspondence.


Through its involvement in technical commissions and expert teams, Canada
    -   provides a forum to influence the future direction of international meteorology and its
        applications
    -   leverages international science and technology expertise
    -   helps to build capacity in developing nations, which in turn increases the
        comprehensiveness of Canada's international data networks
    -   elicits international recognition and support for Canadian expertise and successes
        (e.g., Alert and the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Data Centre as components of the
        WMO Global Atmospheric Watch [GAW] Programme)
    -   creates opportunities for side-line meetings and bilateral agreements
    -   maintains Canada at the forefront of knowledge and technology with respect to
        meteorology worldwide


In this year leading to the congress in 2007, Canada will participate in five commission
meetings. The level of activity varies by commission. It should be noted that Canada was
elected president of the Commission for Atmospheric Research in February 2006 and is
running for the presidency of the Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology. (Canada is
currently the vice president.)


Four commissions were held in the fall of 2006. Activities under these commissions are
provided for illustrative purposes.




Commission for Agriculture
    -   Environment Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada participated in expert
        teams related to ‚Weather, Climate and Farmers‛ and ‚Contribution of Agriculture to
        the State of Climate.‛




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            30
   -   The delegation supported the objective of strengthening information and dissemination
       networks supporting agriculture, including early warning systems and reducing the
       impact of natural disasters and mitigation of extreme events in agriculture, rangelands,
       forestry, and fisheries.


Commission for Basic Systems
   -   Participated in expert teams related to integrated global observations, information
       systems and services, data processing and forecast systems, and public weather
       services.
   -   Canada has some strong niche areas, such as nuclear emergency response activities,
       and continues to reap huge rewards through linkages to the global activities on
       ensemble forecasting, satellite systems, metadata, and data processing.


Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation
   -   Participated in expert teams on surface observation technology, upper air observation
       technology, and capacity building.
   -   The data collected through these observations and shared globally is the foundation of
       the global weather prediction enterprise. The level of global sharing and cooperation
       on these activities is unsurpassed in any other area of human endeavour.
   -   Ensure a cost-effective way for Canada to be aware of emerging technologies and
       observation methods
   -   Influence international standards for observing and associated equipment.


Commission for Aeronautical Meteorology
   -   One of the most important sectors from a meteorological perspective is aviation.
       Canada has a leading role in aspects of aeronautical meteorology worldwide.
   -   Ensured that Carr McLeod, who is currently Vice President of CAeM, was elected
       president.
   -   Provision of meteorological information required by civil aviation is a core business
       and often the primary funding source of national weather services around the world. It
       lends itself to customer consideration, cost recovery, quality and performance
       management, and training and education activities


Evidence of Compliance


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           31
N/A
Canada is a full partner in WMO, which supports the delivery of the weather service in
Canada.


Web Site
http://www.wmo.int




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                   32
 Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat
                                           (Ramsar)



Status
Acceded January 15, 1981
Entered into force internationally December 21, 1975
In force for Canada May 15, 1981
Signed June 2, 1983
In force for Canada October 1, 1986


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity/Ecosystems


Summary
Ramsar seeks to ensure the sustainable, wise use of wetland resources, including the
designation of wetland sites of international importance, and to ensure that all wetland
resources are conserved, now and in the future.


Commitments
Canada is required to
   -     implement the "wise use" principles of the convention in Canada (including wetland
         policies, awareness programs, and legislative review) and cooperate with other
         contracting parties, notably the United States and Mexico
   -     manage a network of protected wetland sites of international importance in
         cooperation with provinces, territories, and non-governmental organizations
   -     foster cooperation through joint work plans and memoranda of understanding (MOUs)
         with the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Bonn Convention, the World Wildlife
         Fund for Nature, Wetlands International, BirdLife International, the World Conservation
         Union (IUCN), the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
         Fauna and Flora (CITES), and other international treaties and organizations


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            33
    -   contribute financially to the convention


Action Required
As the lead, Environment Canada must
    -   facilitate policies and principles for the wise use of wetlands in Canada
    -   facilitate management of a network of protected wetland sites
    -   work within the convention to build international cooperation on wetlands conservation
    -   make financial contributions to the convention


Activities
    -   Since accession in 1981, Canada has nominated and received designation of 36 sites
        as Wetlands of International Importance under the convention.
    -   Canada has sent national delegations to each Conference of the Parties (CoP), held
        every three years.
    -   Canada's dues are fully up to date, paid on an annual basis against a United Nations
        scale percentage of the annual budget.
    -   Environment Canada has published a national procedures booklet on the process for
        designating Ramsar sites in Canada agreed to by all the jurisdictional governments; a
        review of management plans on all Ramsar sites (28 of the 36 sites now have a
        management plan in place or under development as urged by the convention); a
        strategic overview and recommendations for expansion/future focus of the national
        program; and several public information booklets as well as a National Atlas of
        Canada map focusing on the nature and application of the convention's programs and
        goals within Canada.
    -   Canada has tabled national reports at each CoP and published those for 1993 (CoP
        5) and 1996 (CoP 6),.The CoP 7 and CoP 8 reports were prepared and are
        available on the Ramsar Convention Web site: (www.ramsar.org under "National
        Reports"). Canada has worked through the convention and Ramsar partners such as
        the IUCN and Wetlands International to assist other organizations and governments
        on a wide variety of wetland and peatland management and conservation policy
        projects in several countries (including Malaysia, Trinidad and Tobago, Australia,
        Costa Rica, Uganda, and Mexico). Canada has led drafting of International Guidelines
        on the Development and Implementation of National Wetland Policies published by
        the Ramsar Convention in 2000 and Guidelines on Global Action for Peatlands,


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           34
          which was adopted at CoP 8. It is facilitating a proposal for Global Guidelines on
          Wetland Mitigation to be developed through an IUCN Global Biodiversity Forum in
          November 2002 for consideration by Ramsar CoP 9. Canada works closely with the
          United States and Mexico to assist in Mexico’s National Wetland Managers Training
          Course offered annually.
   -      Canada has worked closely with Mexico and the United States in a continental
          framework to promote the goals of the Ramsar Convention through the North
          American Waterfowl Management Plan and the actions of the Trilateral Committee on
          Wildlife Conservation and Ecosystem Management, including the recent establishment
          of a Trilateral Working Table on Wetlands.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada’s national reports


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-1303


Web Sites
http://www.ramsar.org
http://www.wetlandscanada.ca
http://www.terreshumidescanada.ca
http://www.wetlands.org




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         35
 Declaration of Intent for the Conservation of North American Birds and their Habitat



Status
Signed by the governments of Canada, the United States and Mexico in 2005, declaration is
reviewed every five years.


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
This agreement affirms governments support for the North American Bird Conservation
Initiative (NABCI) which aims to ensure that populations and habitats of North America's birds
are protected, restored and enhanced through coordinated efforts at international, national,
regional and local levels guided by sound science and effective management. It is designed to
increase the effectiveness of existing and new initiatives through: effective coordination,
building on existing regional partnerships, and fostering greater cooperation among the
nations and the peoples of the continent.


Activities
At a continental level, NABCI is establishing conservation projects that link habitats for
species with high conservation concern in all three countries. Nationally, NABCI is completing
landscape-level conservation plans in a partnership that includes federal, provincial and
territorial governments as well as NGOs and industries.


Contact
NABCI Coordinator
Population and Conservation Management Division
Canadian Wildlife Service
819-953-3166




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           36
Web Site
www.nabci.net




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              37
  International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Waster
                                       and Sediments



Status
Signed in 2004
Not yet in force
Canada has not ratified


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Oceans/Wastes


Summary
A diplomatic conference held February 9–13, 2004, adopted the International Convention for
the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments in order to move the
overall management of ballast water from ocean exchange to treatment. The convention will
require all ships to implement a Ballast Water and Sediments Management Plan. All ships will
have to carry a Ballast Water Record Book and will be required to carry out ballast water
management procedures to a given standard. Existing ships will be required to do the same,
but after a phase-in period. Parties to the convention are given the option to take additional
measures that are subject to criteria set out in the convention and to International Maritime
Organization (IMO) guidelines. The convention will enter into force 12 months after ratification
by 30 states, representing 35 percent of world merchant shipping tonnage.


Commitments
Canada would need to adopt the treatment and exchange standards set in the convention.
The convention provides for more stringent standards, where consistent with international law,
which would allow for joint standards for the Great Lakes with the United States.


Action Required


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             38
Environment Canada will advise Transport Canada on the effectiveness of ballast water
treatment systems and environmental impacts of ballast water.


Activities
Environment Canada has carried out research on treatment systems and impacts on aquatic
ecosystems. Environment Canada is a member of Canada’s delegation to the IMO committee
administering the convention and advises Transport Canada on environmental aspects of
technical issues.


Evidence of Compliance
Surveys of salinity in ballast water tanks by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Transport
Canada show most ships are carrying out mid-ocean exchange (75 percent).




Contacts
Conservation Priorities, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9428


Coastal and Marine Compliance, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6949


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/Environment/mainframe.asp?topic_id=548




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                    39
    International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL)



Status
In force.
Canada signed in 1992 and has ratified key parts, but not all parts.


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Oceans


Summary
The MARPOL Convention is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution
of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. It is a combination
of two treaties adopted in 1973 and 1978, respectively, and updated by amendments through
the years. The convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution
from ships — both accidental pollution and that from routine operations — and currently
includes six technical annexes:
    -    Annex I Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
    -    Annex II Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
    -    Annex III Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged
         Form
    -    Annex IV Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
    -    Annex V Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
    -    Annex VI Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships


Canada has ratified Annexes I, II, and III and intends to ratify the others once implementing
regulations are in place.


Commitments
Canada would need to adopt the discharge standards set in the convention.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            40
Action Required
Environment Canada advises Transport Canada on the environmental impacts of ship source
pollution and technical amendments to the convention, and aids the enforcement of Canada’s
laws that implement oil pollution prevention in accordance with a memorandum of
understanding signed by both departments.


Activities
Environment Canada is a member of Canada’s delegation to the International Maritime
Organization committee administering the convention and advises Transport Canada on
environmental aspects of technical issues.


Evidence of Compliance
Transport Canada air surveillance in 2005 of 9,724 ships found 78 spills with 5 attributed
directly to ships and the remaining 73 being mystery spills.


Contact
Coastal and Marine Compliance, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6949
Facsimile: (819) 953-0913


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/Conventions/mainframe.asp?topic_id=255




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       41
         International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC)



Status
Adopted November 29, 1969, and came into force June 19, 1975
Acceded to the protocol of 1976 on November 9, 1976, and came into force April 8, 1981
Superseded by the protocol of 1992 on November 27, 1992, and came into force May 30,
1996
Acceded to the 2000 amendments on October 18, 2000, and entry info force November 1,
2003 (under tacit acceptance)


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals/Oceans


Summary
The International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC) operates in
tandem with the International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for
Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage. The CLC prescribes uniform international rules and
procedures for determining questions of liability and providing adequate compensation where
damage is caused by pollution resulting from the escape or discharge of oil from ships.


The 1992 protocol amends both the CLC and the Oil Pollution Fund Agreement. It
significantly increases the potential compensation available from the ship owner and expands
the scope of both conventions to include environmental remediation, restoration, and
reasonable prevention measures.


The 2000 amendments raised the compensation limits by 50 percent compared to the limits
set in the 1992 protocol.


Commitments




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                          42
Support the entry into force and the implementation of the convention, as agreed by the
parties and signatories.


Action Required
Environment Canada maintains an advisory role and can also recover reasonable costs
incurred for environmental remediation, restoration, and prevention measures associated with
ship source oil spills through the Ship Source Oil Pollution Fund.


Activities
Transport Canada is the lead. The Ship Source Oil Pollution Fund under the Canada Shipping
Act administers these provisions.


Environment Canada advises Transport Canada on environmental matters regarding the
convention through its participation on an interdepartmental committee for the International
Maritime Organization’s legal committee, which addresses issues related to this agreement.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-1140
Facsimile: (819) 997-5029


Transport Canada
Telephone: (613) 998-0708
Facsimile: (613) 998-1845


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             43
 International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation
                                             (OPRC)



Status
Adopted November 30, 1990
In force May 13, 1995


The Protocol on Preparedness, Response, and Cooperation to Pollution Incidents by
Hazardous and Noxious Substances, 2000 (OPRC-HNS Protocol) was adopted in March
2000 and will enter into force on June 14, 2007.


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Oceans/Cooperation


Summary
Parties to this convention are required to establish measures for dealing with pollution
incidents, either nationally or in cooperation with other countries. They are also required to
provide assistance to others in the event of a pollution emergency; provision is made for the
reimbursement of any assistance provided.


Commitments
The convention commits Canada to strengthen its legal framework for the prevention of,
control of, and capacity to respond to environmental pollution by oil, in general, and marine
pollution by oil, in particular, by providing a basis for preparedness and for response capability
to deal with incidents of oil pollution in the marine environment.


Action Required
The Canadian Coast Guard is the lead operational agency. Environment Canada has a
significant scientific and technical advisory role.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              44
Activities
Environment Canada advises the Coast Guard and Transport Canada on environmental
matters regarding the convention through its participation on an interdepartmental committee.
Environment Canada has an advisory role, providing input to the preparedness component,
particularly in the areas of contingency planning and training, and the provision of technical
advice regarding environmental priorities related to the response to oil and hazardous and
noxious substances (HNS) emergencies. Environment Canada also participates on the
International Maritime Organization's legal committee, which addresses issues related to this
convention.


Environment Canada regional offices chair regional environmental emergency teams that
coordinate Canada’s response efforts in the event of an oil spill. These are standing
committees and include representatives from various federal departments, as well as
provincial and municipal governments.




Evidence of Compliance
Transport Canada revised the Canada Shipping Act to implement the convention.


Contacts
Environmental Emergencies, Environment Canada
Telephone: (514) 283-1141
Facsimile: (514) 496-1157


Transport Canada
Telephone: (613) 990-5913


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           45
      International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships
                                            (AFS)


Status
Signed October 5, 2001
Not yet in force
Canada has not ratified.


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Oceans


Summary
The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, which
was adopted October 5, 2001, will prohibit the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints
used on ships and will establish a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other
harmful substances in anti-fouling systems. The convention will enter into force 12 months
after 25 states representing 25 percent of the world's merchant shipping tonnage have ratified
it.


Commitments
Canada agreed to ban organotin coatings and Canadian flag ships are to remove or seal any
organotin coatings by 2008 and have certificates of compliance. The convention provides a
mechanism to assess and control other anti-fouling systems that may be harmful to the
marine environment.


Action Required
Environment Canada will provide advice should other anti-fouling systems be considered for
controls.


Activities




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           46
Environment Canada has carried out research on the presence of organotin compounds in
marine harbour sediments. Environment Canada is a member of Canada’s delegation to the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) committee administering the convention and
advises Transport Canada on environmental aspects of technical issues.


Evidence of Compliance
The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) withdrew all licences for tributyl tin paints
and other organotin hull paints. Transport Canada is proposing regulations for removal or
sealing of organotin coatings from Canadian ships and for certification of compliance with the
convention.


Contact
Coastal and Marine Compliance, Environment Canada: (819) 953-6949


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/Environment/mainframe.asp?topic_id=223




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           47
         International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for
                     Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND)



Status
Adopted December 18, 1971
Entered into force October 16, 1978
Acceded to the protocol of 1976 November 19, 1976
Entered into force November 22, 1994
Acceded to the protocol of 1984 May 25, 1994
Superseded by the protocol of 1992 November 27, 1992
Entered into force May 30, 1996
Acceded to 2000 amendments October 18, 2000
Entered into force November 1, 2003 (under tacit acceptance)
Acceded to the protocol of 2003 (supplementary fund) May 16, 2003
Entered into force March 30, 2005


Lead Department
Transport Canada


Subject Category
Oceans


Summary
The International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Compensation
for Oil Pollution Damage (FUND) operates in tandem with the International Convention for
Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage (CLC). This convention established the International Oil
Pollution Compensation Fund to provide supplementary compensation for pollution damage
resulting from the escape or discharge of oil from ships. The convention outlines the
conditions under which compensation is given to persons suffering pollution damage.
Essentially, it provides compensation if there is inadequate money available pursuant to the
CLC.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             48
The 1992 protocol amends both the CLC and the Oil Pollution Fund Agreement. It
significantly increases the potential compensation available from the International Oil Pollution
Compensation Fund and expands the scope of both conventions to include environmental
remediation, restoration, and reasonable prevention measures.


The 2000 amendments raise the maximum amount of compensation payable from the 1992
Oil Pollution Fund.


The 2003 protocol establishes an International Oil Pollution Compensation Supplementary
Fund. The aim of the established fund is to supplement the compensation available under the
1992 CLC fund with an additional third tier of compensation. This supplementary fund will
apply to damage in the territory, including the territorial sea and exclusive economic zone of a
contracting state.


Commitments
Support the entry into force and the implementation of the convention, as agreed by the
parties and signatories.


Action Required
Environment Canada can also recover reasonable costs incurred for environmental
remediation, restoration, and prevention measures associated with ship source oil spills
through the Ship Source Oil Pollution Fund.


Activities
Transport Canada is the lead. The Ship Source Oil Pollution Fund under the Canada Shipping
Act administers these provisions.


Environment Canada advises Transport Canada on environmental matters regarding the
convention through its participation on an interdepartmental committee of the International
Maritime Organization’s legal committee, which addresses issues related to this agreement.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-1140


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             49
Facsimile: (819) 997-5029


Transport Canada
Telephone: (613) 998-0708
Facsimile: (613) 998-1845


Web Site
http://www.imo.org/




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              50
         International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture



Status
Signed June 10, 2002
Ratified June 10, 2002
Entered into force June 29, 2004


Lead Department
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity/Ecosystems


Summary
The treaty’s main provisions promote the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and
agriculture (PGRFA); their sustainable use; facilitated access to PGRFA for research,
breeding, and education; benefit-sharing arrangements; a funding strategy; and agreement on
terms of access to important collections managed by international agricultural research
centres. It sets up a Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-Sharing, which will apply to an
initial list of about 40 food crops and about 40 forages. The treaty was negotiated under the
auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization.


Commitments
Ensure that Canadian plant breeders access PGRFA through the Multilateral System of
Access and Benefit-Sharing and that benefits derived from the use of PGRFA are shared in
accordance with the provisions of the treaty.


Action Required
None


Activities
Protracted negotiations of a standardized Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) were concluded
at the first meeting of the Governing Body.


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           51
Evidence of Compliance
The entry into force of the treaty is recent and little information is available to assess the level
of efficiency and compliance by parties.


Contact
Access and Benefit Sharing, Integrated Ecosystem Management, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-9885


Web Site
http://www.fao.org/ag/cgrfa/itpgr.htm




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               North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation



Status
Signed September 14, 1993
In force internationally January 1, 1994
In force in Canada January 1, 1994


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Environmental cooperation


Summary
The North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC), one of two side
agreements to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (the other a labour
cooperation agreement), was signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States in 1993 and
came into force in January 1, 1994. The NAAEC was developed to support the environmental
provisions of the NAFTA by establishing a level playing field with a view to avoiding trade
distortions and promoting environmental cooperation.

The NAAEC establishes the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to oversee
implementation of the agreement and monitor the abilities of the parties to meet the
obligations.

The CEC is a forum for cooperation to achieve a wide range of objectives identified in the
NAAEC and discuss environmental issues of a mutual concern. The CEC also has a quasi-
judicial role in reviewing submissions from the public on enforcement matters and in
supporting an arbitral panel process to resolve disputes between the parties on specific trade-
related issues associated with failure to effectively enforce environmental laws and
regulations.

The CEC consists of a council of ministers, a secretariat headed by an executive director, and
a joint public advisory committee (JPAC).


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The council is made up of environment ministers from each of the parties and is the governing
body of the CEC. The council oversees and develops recommendations on the
implementation and further elaboration of the NAAEC. It is responsible for directing the
secretariat, conducting a cooperative work program, and developing recommendations to
address key environmental issues and addressing any questions that may arise between the
parties regarding the application of the NAAEC. The council is also the focal point for dealing
with trade and environment issues arising between the three countries. The council meets at
least once a year in regular session; however, it may convene at any time if so requested by
a party. The council has appointed alternate representatives to monitor the day-to-day
operations of the commission.

The secretariat, which is headed by an executive director, is made up of a professional staff
of approximately 30, drawn equitably from each of the three countries. It is located in
Montréal, Québec. and technical, administrative, and operational support to the council and to
any committees and groups established by the council. It is responsible for preparing the
annual work program and budget of the CEC and also for preparing reports on matters that
fall within the scope of the NAAEC.

The secretariat is also responsible for management of the submissions on enforcement
matters process. Any person or non-governmental organization may make submissions to the
secretariat asserting a party's failure to effectively enforce its environmental laws.
Consideration of such submissions may result in a decision by the council to direct the
secretariat to develop a factual record.

The JPAC is made up of 15 citizens, 5 from each country, representing a broad range of
interests. It creates the bridge for public participation in the activities of the CEC through
public sessions held in each of the countries. The JPAC also provides advice to the council
on any matter within the scope of the NAAEC, including the CEC's annual program and
budget. In addition, it may provide relevant technical, scientific, and other information to the
secretariat. The JPAC meets during the regular session of council as well as three additional
times annually.

Commitments
The key objectives of the NAAEC are to promote sustainable development, encourage
pollution prevention policies and practices, and enhance compliance with environmental laws


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                                                                                            54
and regulations. The NAAEC also promotes transparency and public participation in the
development and improvement of environmental laws and policies.

The NAAEC requires that each party ensure its laws provide for high levels of environmental
protection without lowering standards to attract investment. Each party agrees to effectively
enforce its environmental laws through using inspectors, monitoring compliance, and pursuing
the necessary legal means to seek appropriate remedies for violations. Each party must also
provide a report on the state of its environment; develop environmental emergency
preparedness measures; promote environmental education, research, and development;
assess environmental impacts; and promote the use of economic instruments. Parties may
also appoint national advisory committees composed of private sector representatives to
assist in implementing the agreement domestically.

Action Required
Working closely with Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Environment Canada is
the "one-window" for Canadian government participation in this agreement.


Environment Canada’s work includes the following:
    -   supporting the minister in his/her capacity as council member and chair, as well as
        the work of the Canadian alternate representative (EC/ADM of International Affairs)
    -   coordinating input and developing positions for the CEC work plan, which is part of
        the annual operational plan
    -   managing and coordinating Articles 14 and 15, Citizen Submissions Process
    -   working with the secretariat to manage the day-to-day business of the CEC
    -   working with other government departments (OGDs) and signatory provinces to
        develop Canadian positions
    -   acting as secretariat to the Canadian National Advisory Committee


Activities
In June 2005, the council adopted Looking to the Future: Strategic Plan of the Commission
for Environmental Cooperation 2005–2010, which describes the council’s new priorities for its
cooperative program and the goals and initiatives for accomplishing them. Based on this, an
operational plan was developed that presents how the goals and objectives of the strategic
plan will be accomplished over a three-year period by describing the implementation of the



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key Initiatives. The operational plan will be updated annually, with a rolling three-year horizon,
to reflect shifts in programming and associated budget reallocations.


Canada convened its first National Advisory Committee in August 1996. The committee is
usually made of up of 10 non-government representatives, who provide letters of advice to
the Governmental Committee. Environment Canada acts as secretariat for this committee and
provides financial support.


Evidence of Compliance
Compliance with the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation is outlined in
the CEC annual reports.


Contact
Americas Directorate, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada,
(819) 953-6905


Web Sites
Commission for Environmental Cooperation:
http://www.cec.org/home/index.cfm?varlan=english
Canadian Implementation:
http://www.naaec.gc.ca/eng/implementation/implementation_e.htm




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   OECD Decision Concerning the Control of Transboundary Movements of Wastes
                              Destined for Recovery Operations



Status
Decision C(92)39 adopted March 30, 1992

Implemented in Canada in November 1992

Lead Department
Environment Canada, assisted by Health Canada, Industry Canada, Natural Resources
Canada, Canada Border Services Agency, Transport Canada, and Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada.


Subject Category
Hazardous Wastes


Summary
Between 1984 and 1992, eight Council Acts were adopted covering waste identification and
definition and control of transboundary movements of waste. These acts formed the basis of
the Basel Convention and several European Economic Community directives. The acts are
currently being consolidated and updated with the ultimate goal of building a global control
system for hazardous waste movements.


Because of the volume and value of waste crossing Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) borders annually for recovery, the OECD has developed a control
system, based on risk assessment, designed to facilitate waste recovery within the OECD
area [C(92)39/Final]. This control system has recently been revised [C(2001)107] to
harmonize more effectively with the Basel Convention and consists of a green list of waste
requiring the normal controls of an international commercial transaction and an amber list of
waste requiring specific controls as laid out in the decision and implemented through domestic
laws and regulations.


Commitments



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Council Decision C(92)39/Final: This decision provides for a simplified means to control the
transboundary movements of wastes destined for recovery/recycling operations that are
environmentally sound within the OECD area, and is reflected in the Canadian Export and
Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Materials Regulations. The three-tier
system (green, amber, and red) was established based on the overall risk to the environment
and human health, and sets out the controls to be applied to such transfrontier movements.

The purpose of the three-tier system is to place a given hazardous waste into one of three
categories, based on the overall risks and the intrinsic properties of the waste itself, in
combination with the way that such material is commonly handled in trade or commerce.
Once the waste has been categorized, it is subject to the controls appropriate to that
category. The controls established for the three tiers are based on an increasing scale of
hazard from green (negligible risk) to red (high risk), with a respective increase in the level of
controls placed on those wastes.

Council Decision C(2001)107: This decision provides for a simplified means to control the
transboundary movements of wastes destined for recovery/recycling operations that are
environmentally sound. It supersedes Decision C(92)39/Final to more effectively harmonize
with the Basel Convention. Under the 2001 revision of the Council Decision, wastes that pose
a significant risk (former OECD Red list) are now subject to the requirements of the Basel
Convention and not those of the OECD decision. Its terms are also implemented in Canada
through the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Materials
Regulations.


Specific Commitments: This decision establishes a core list of hazardous wastes and
hazardous recyclable materials to be controlled. The list consists principally of the Basel
Convention’s Annex IX (OECD Green List) and Annexes II and VIII (OECD Amber List), as
well as other wastes determined by OECD member countries to require control. Wastes that
are not found on the OECD lists but that exhibit a hazard set out in Appendix 2 of the OECD
decision shall also be subject to control.


Prior informed consent: Prior to shipment, the exporter will provide written notification to the
competent authorities of the countries concerned or, depending on domestic law, to the



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competent authority of the country of export, which will in turn notify the competent authority
of the country of import.


Existence of contracts and use of a movement document: Transboundary movements of
wastes under the OECD Amber control procedure may only occur under the terms of a valid
written contract, or chain of contracts, or equivalent arrangements, starting with the exporter
and terminating at the recovery facility. The contracts will include obligations to find alternative
management of the waste, including the duty to return if necessary. The contracts will also
provide that relevant requirements of the OECD Decision are taken into account and are
binding on all parties to the contracts. The shipment will be accompanied by a movement
document at all times.


Right to consent or object: Within 30 days of receiving a notification, the competent authority
of the importing country must provide either written consent or written objection. There is tacit
consent for the proposed movement if no written response is provided within 30 days of
notification. Competent authorities having jurisdiction over specific recovery facilities in a
country of import may decide not to raise objections concerning transboundary movements of
certain types of wastes to a specific recovery facility. Such facilities are termed ‚pre-
consented recovery facilities.‛


Duty to return or re-import: When a transboundary movement of wastes subject to the OECD
Amber control procedure cannot be completed in accordance with the terms of the contract for
any reason, the competent authority of the country of import shall immediately inform the
competent authority of the country of export. If alternative arrangements cannot be made to
recover these wastes in an environmentally sound manner in the country of import, the waste
will be either returned to the original country of export or shipped to another member country
for recovery.


Action Required
Compliance with the decision requires

    -   legislation and regulations to implement the classification, import/export controls, and
        tracking requirements, and environmentally sound management

    -   administrative procedures to administer and enforce the import/export regime



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    -     support for technical and policy cooperation initiatives


Activities
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act 1999 (CEPA 1999) allows Canada to

    -     fully implement its OECD obligations concerning the transboundary movement of
          hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials

    -     prohibit exports or imports of hazardous wastes and hazardous recyclable materials
          when required under international agreements or when the wastes will not be
          managed in an environmentally sound manner

    -     list conditions for the environmentally sound management of hazardous waste and
          hazardous recyclable materials that will be considered by the minister when refusing
          to issue a permit to import or export.

CEPA 1999 and the new Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable
Material Regulations (EIHWHRMR 2005) provide the legal authority to implement the specific
obligations (along with federal agencies, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the provinces,
and foreign officials.

Evidence of Compliance
The Waste Reduction and Management Division provides evidence of compliance through its
regular participation in and communication with the OECD’s Working Group on Waste
Prevention and Recycling and through its reporting obligations. The Waste Management
Division has also sponsored various impact studies and client satisfaction studies. In addition,
the regime has been the subject of reviews, including the 1997 Auditor General Report.


Contact
Waste Management, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3377
Facsimile: (819) 997-3068
E-mail: tmb@ec.gc.ca


Web Sites
Waste Management Division of Environment Canada: http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-dgd)



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Information on the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material
Regulations can be found at http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-
dgd/default.asp?lang=En&n=C55741FD-1#one
OECD Waste Department:
http://www.oecd.org/department/0,2688,en_2649_34395_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
Copies of the relevant OECD Decisions are available through the Web site of the OECD,
http://www.oecd.org




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      Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision
    Concerning the Minimum Pre-Market Set of Data (MPD) in the Assessment of
                                     Chemicals (82) 196



Status
Adopted December 1982
Implemented by regulation under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) in 1994


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary and Commitments
This decision requires that sufficient information on the properties of chemicals be available
before they are marketed to enable a meaningful assessment of hazard to human health and
the environment can be carried out. A list of Minimum Pre-Market Set of Data (MPD)
components was established by an Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) Recommendation that accompanied the decision.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead, while Health Canada is the supporting department. The
revised New Substances Notification Regulations (NSNR) under CEPA (1999) continue to
provide the basis for implementing the OECD decision.


Activities
The NSNR under CEPA were promulgated in 1994 to implement a pre-market chemical
notification system for chemicals and polymers, which includes a requirement for an OECD
MPD to accompany the notification.




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Under CEPA (1999), a pre-manufacture or pre-import notification and assessment process is
employed, whereby risk management action can be taken if the new substance poses a risk
to human health or the environment.


Environment Canada's New Substances Division, Science and Technology Branch,
administers the CEPA provision on new chemical notification, MPD, and assessment.


In September 1997, the NSNR were amended so that features of the decisions were
extended to biotechnology substances.


Evidence of Compliance
Approximately 14,000 notifications have been submitted to Environment Canada’s New
Substances Program since 1994; risk management measures have been taken for over
90 substances to minimize any risk to human health or the environment. Except for
exemptions or special requirements with some chemicals, OECD countries have found MPD
to be generally satisfactory for initial assessment of hazard. OECD countries find that, in
general, the notification/MPD approach has been protecting human health and the
environment.


Contact
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-5804
Facsimile: (819) 953-7155


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/




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 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision on the
     Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of Chemicals C(81)30



Status
Adopted May 1981


Lead Department
Environment Canada and Health Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
Annex I contains the first approved Test Guidelines. Supplementary Council Decisions, (e.g.,
C[89]23) revise Annex I by adding new or updated test guidelines
Annex II - Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) (see separate Agreement Summary
Council Decision [89]87 for the application of GLP)
Adherence of non-member countries to the Council Acts related to the Mutual Acceptance of
Data (MAD) and applying GLP in the assessment of chemicals – Council Decision
C(97)114/FINAL


Accept, for risk assessment purposes, chemical test data generated in accordance with
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines and
OECD GLP.


The adherence of non-member countries to the Council Acts related to MAD in the
assessment of chemicals sets out a step-wise procedure for non-OECD countries with a
significant chemical industry input to take part as full members in this system.


Commitments
Accept such data from other countries and apply the OECD test guidelines and GLP
principles to data generated in support of Canadian programs that protect human health and
the environment.


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Support the development of new and updated OECD test guidelines.


Apply the GLP principles: see separate Agreement Summary - Council Decision (89)87.


Inform, advise, and encourage non-member countries to participate in the programs and
activities related to the mutual acceptance of data in the assessment of chemicals that have
been established by OECD countries pursuant to Council Acts, as laid out in Council Decision
C(97)114/FINAL –


Action Required
Environment Canada and Health Canada share responsibility for the continued application of
the MAD decision in the development and implementation of legislation, regulations, policies,
and assessment practices.


Activities
The New Substances Notification Regulations (NSNR) of the Canadian Environmental
Protection Act, 1999 (CEPA, 1999) provide the authority and a policy reference for the
application of the MAD decision.


GLP principles are intended to promote the quality and validity of test data and to establish a
basis for MAD. The current NSNR require that ‚The laboratory practices to be followed in
developing data for specified tests must comply with the practices set out in the 'Principles of
Good Laboratory Practice' that are current at the time the test data are developed.‛


Health Canada leads the national coordination of the OECD test guidelines activity in Canada.


Environment Canada contributes to the development of new and updated OECD test
guidelines for determining the hazard of chemicals to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.


Canada is working cooperatively within the OECD New Chemicals Task Force and is
participating in the two-year New Chemicals Parallel Process Pilot Project with the objective
of increasing mutual understanding and acceptance of hazard assessments.




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Evidence of Compliance
The decision of the council indicates the need for and benefits of mutual acceptance in OECD
countries of test data used in the assessment of chemicals.


An OECD project aimed at promoting mutual recognition of assessments relies on MAD and
provides indirect evidence that MAD is followed by OECD countries.


The NSNR include provisions that allow Canada to comply with OECD council decisions on
GLP. The OECD council decisions on GLP serve as a basis for the OECD work on MAD.


Contact
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-1680
Facsimile: (819) 953-4936


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/




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  Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision on the
Protection of the Environment by Control of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) C(73)1
                                           and C(87)2



Status
Adopted February 1973
Supplementary control measures in OECD Council Decision (87)2 and Recommendations
adopted February 1987


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary and Commitments
The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision ensures
    -    the cessation of all manufacturing, trade, or sale of new polychlorinated biphenyls
         (PCBs) and new PCB-containing equipment
    -    the safe use and gradual safe phase-out of existing PCB-containing equipment
    -    the safe handling and disposal of waste PCBs and PCB-containing waste products
         and equipment


Details covered by the accompanying recommendations are for the management of existing
PCB equipment and stocks and the management of PCB wastes.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead. It is to
    -    promulgate legislation and regulations to implement this decision
    -    develop policies, programs, and procedures for implementing the decision and
         recommendations.


Activities


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Regulations developed under the Environmental Contaminants Act and its successor, the
Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), provide the authority for implementing the
decision.   The   Environmental   Contaminants Act      Regulation    (1977) disallowed     the
manufacture, trade, or sale of new PCBs and new PCB-containing products or equipment.
This regulation was replaced by the Chlorobiphenyls Regulations (1987, 1991) under CEPA,
which provided restrictions and conditions on the use of existing PCB equipment and PCB
releases.


Programs and projects were developed, in cooperation with other government departments
and with provinces under the aegis of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment,
to monitor and manage existing PCB equipment, to arrange for phased safe withdrawal of
PCB equipment from existing uses, and to arrange for the safe handling and destruction of
waste PCBs and PCB-containing equipment and products. Federal regulations under CEPA
were also enacted to control these activities including transportation, storage, and disposal on
federal lands.


Evidence of Compliance
Regulations and programs completely cover the prerogatives of the OECD decision and
recommendations.


The 1995 Auditor General Report identified where the regulations and programs have been
successful and areas where further work or a change in emphasis is needed to meet the
goals of the OECD decision and recommendations.


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263
Facsimile: (819) 997-3068


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/




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        Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision-
Recommendation on Compliance with Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (C[89]
                                                87)



Status
Adopted in October 1989


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
The purpose of this decision-recommendation is to ensure that test data on chemicals
provided to regulatory authorities for purposes of assessment and other uses related to the
protection of human health and the environment are of verifiable quality and accepted
internationally. (See Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD]
Decision on the Mutual Acceptance of Data, C[81] 30.)


OECD member countries shall
    -     establish national procedures for monitoring laboratory compliance with the principles
          of good laboratory practice (GLP) and designate an authority, or authorities, to
          manage compliance activities
    -     recognize the assurance by another country that test data have been generated in
          accordance with the principles
    -     designate an authority or authorities for international liaison and to exchange program
          and test facility compliance information


The requirements and procedures underpinning these specific agreements are stipulated in
this Council Decision.


Commitments


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Member countries agreed to put in place a GLP compliance monitoring program based on test
facility inspections and study audits, as well as to exchange information with other OECD
member countries on the compliance status of laboratories.


Action Required
Canada has committed to develop a GLP compliance monitoring program, as per obligations
set out under the OECD, considering that recognition of procedures for monitoring compliance
with GLP will facilitate mutual acceptance of data.


Certain aspects of the program are being reviewed. The final program following the
requirements in the corresponding monographs will be published and reported.


Activities
Environment Canada is participating in the work of the OECD Working Group on Good
Laboratory Practice (GLP) regarding developing specific guidance on technical and
administrative matters pertaining to GLP; monitoring compliance with the GLP principles; and
fostering initiatives and exchanges of information among member countries to ensure
harmonized approaches to procedures for monitoring compliance with the principles.


The revised New Substances Notification Regulations (NSNR) (Chemicals and Polymers)
under CEPA (1999) require all toxicity and biodegradation tests to comply with the practices
set out in the ‚Principles of Good Laboratory Practice‛ that are current at the time the test
data are developed. The responsibilities of the GLP compliance monitoring unit were
transferred from the Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate (ETAD) to the
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate (SRAD). Environment Canada has initiated
discussions with the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) to act as the GLP compliance
monitoring authority for Canadian facilities involved in testing of new chemical/polymeric
substances.


Evidence of Compliance
The revised NSNR (Chemicals and Polymers) under CEPA (1999) has made compliance
with GLP a regulatory requirement for toxicological and biodegradation tests. A mechanism for
information exchange on data quality with the GLP compliance monitoring authority is being
considered for development in order to support the reliability of test data generated by


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                                                                                          70
Canadian GLP-compliant facilities and to resolve GLP compliance issues with tests generated
in other countries.


The current review of the GLP compliance monitoring program will ensure continued
compliance with the requirements set out in the Council Act and the corresponding
monographs.


Contact
Science and Risk Assessment Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-5804
Facsimile: (819) 953-7155


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/




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     Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision-
    Recommendation on Cooperative Investigation and Risk Reduction of Existing
                                         Chemicals



Status
Adopted January 1991


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
This Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) decision-
recommendation established the cooperative investigation of high-production volume (HPV)
chemicals by cooperatively selecting chemicals for investigation and agreement by countries
to acquire needed data or to ensure that such chemicals are tested.


Countries are to establish or strengthen programs to reduce the risks of existing chemicals,
collaborate to select candidate toxic chemicals, and take concerted action to reduce their risk
to human health and the environment.


Commitments
The International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) launched a global initiative on
HPV chemicals on October 3, 1998. As of late 2005, the ICCA initiative presented
conclusions and recommendations on screening information datasets (SIDS) for 327
chemicals to the OECD SIDS Initial Assessment Meetings (SIAMs). The ICCA board of
directors reiterated its commitment to the ICCA HPV initiative in October 2005.


Action Required




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The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) provides general authority for action.
Environment Canada is responsible for the development and implementation of legislation,
regulation, and other controls and policies to apply OECD decisions.


Activities


Investigation:
    -   Environment Canada has the lead in collaboration with Health Canada and in
        cooperation with the chemical industry by participation in the OECD chemicals
        projects on the SIDS for HPV existing chemicals.
    -   Environment Canada and Health Canada have sponsored eight chemicals, which
        provided SIDS and SIDS initial assessment reports for the OECD HPV program.
    -   Environment Canada and Health Canada have provided scientific reviews on OECD
        HPV assessment for 650 chemicals to date and expect to continue their participation
        in the investigation of HPV chemicals. Most of the Canadian-sponsored assessments
        were simultaneously part of the Priority Substances Assessment Program.
    -   Environment Canada and Health Canada have categorized the 23,000 substances on
        the Domestic Substances List to determine those that have the greatest potential for
        human exposure or those that are persistent, bioaccumulative, and inherently toxic.
        Candidate substances will undergo a risk assessment to identify those that will require
        risk management action.
    -   Canadian activities are managed by the Existing Substances Division, Environment
        Canada, and the Existing Substances Division at Health Canada.


Risk reduction:
    -   Environment Canada was the lead and Natural Resources Canada and the chemical
        industry were involved in the five pilot risk reduction activities.
    -   Environment Canada and Health Canada participated in the selection of priority
        chemicals and the development of policy and criteria for risk reduction, taking into
        account ongoing initiatives in other international fora.
    -   Environment Canada and Health Canada participated in risk reduction activities on
        specific chemicals: lead, mercury, cadmium, brominated flame retardants, and
        methylene chloride.




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   -      Environment Canada has developed a parallel project under the Toxic Substances
          Management Policy (TSMP) to virtually eliminate or control the life-cycle of toxic,
          persistent, and bioaccumulative substances and a Strategic Options Process to
          develop options for the safe management of toxic chemicals.
   -      Environment Canada, along with the Pest Management Regulatory Agency
          (PMRA)/Health Canada, implement the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed
          Consent.


Evidence of Compliance
See Activities, above.


Contact
Existing Substances Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-4977
Facsimile: (819) 953-4936


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/




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    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Decision —
   Recommendation on the Systematic Investigation of Existing Chemicals C(87)90



Status
Adopted June 1987


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary and Commitments
Countries agree to establish or strengthen national programs to systematically investigate
existing chemicals, in order to identify those which need to be managed and/or controlled to
protect health and the environment. The recommendation includes harmonized technical
guidance on identification of relevant chemicals; priority setting; collection of information
needed for priority setting; generation of information, including testing, needed for hazard
assessments; and performance of hazard and risk assessments.


Action Required
Develop legislative and regulatory basis and the administrative infrastructure that is needed to
implement the commitment, as well as undertake the systematic investigation of priority
chemicals of concern for health and environmental protection in Canada.


Activities
Environment Canada had the lead in developing the new Canadian Environmental Protection
Act (CEPA), which was promulgated in 1999. Part 5 (Toxic Substances) incorporates the
relevant harmonized Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
requirements and guidance for the investigation of existing chemicals under the title "Priority
Substances." Part 5 identifies ministerial prerogatives for setting priorities, for the systemic
investigation and assessment of hazard and for deciding if a chemical is "toxic." It also
provides the powers enabling the collection and generation of the information needed.


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Environment Canada strengthened its capability to undertake the systematic investigation of
priority substances by increasing the resources and expanding the Existing Substances
Branch in order to meet CEPA requirements and prescribed time limits.


Environment Canada initiated a Priority Substances List (PSL) program. PSL1 consisted of
44 substances that have been assessed. For the 25 PSL1 substances considered under
CEPA, regulations or other management options have been, or are being, developed. PSL2
consisted of 25 substances that have been assessed. All mandated deadlines for PSL
assessments have been met. Risk management is being considered for 18 substances.


Environment Canada and Health Canada have categorized the 23,000 substances on the
Domestic Substances List to determine those that have the greatest potential for human
exposure or those that are persistent, bioaccumulative, and inherently toxic. Candidate
substances will undergo a risk assessment to identify those that will require risk management
action.


Evidence of Compliance
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) was promulgated in 1999. Part 5 (Toxic
Substances) incorporates the relevant harmonized Organisation for Economic Cooperation
and Development (OECD) requirements and guidance for the investigation of existing
chemicals under the title "Priority Substances." See also the CEPA annual reports.


Contact
Existing Substances Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-4977
Facsimile: (819) 953-4936


Web Site
http://www.oecd.org/env/acts.htm




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                         Antarctic Treaty System – Madrid Protocol


Status
The Antarctic Treaty concluded in 1959 and entered into force June 23, 1961.             Canada
acceded to the treaty, as a Non-Consultative Party, on May 4, 1988.


Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (The Madrid Protocol) concluded
in 1991 and entered into force October 4, 1998. Canada signed the Protocol October 4, 1991
and ratified in 2003.


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Ecosystems


Summary
During the first half of the twentieth century, several countries made territorial claims to
various parts of the Antarctic. The International Geophysical Year (1957-58) presented an
opportunity to discuss ways to avoid possible problems with conflicting claims and establish a
means to facilitate continued international scientific collaboration. It led to the development of
the Antarctic Treaty, which was signed in Washington, D.C., December 1, 1959, and entered
into force when ratified by the original 12 parties (Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, the
French Republic, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, the Union of South Africa, the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the
United States of America) on June 23, 1961. The goal of the Antarctic Treaty is to ensure "in
the interests of all mankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for
peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord."


The Treaty's main features include: prohibition of all military activities; freedom and
international cooperation in scientific research and exchange of information; suspension of
claims of territorial sovereignty; and prohibitions of nuclear explosions or disposal of
radioactive waste.      A distinct characteristic of the treaty is the two-tiered category of
contracting parties. ‚Consultative Parties‛ are those parties that conduct ongoing national


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research activities in the Antarctic. The other group consists of ‚Non-Consultative Parties‛ that
do not have such activities in the region, but have ratified or acceded to the treaty's principles
and provisions. Currently, there are 28 Consultative Parties and 17 Non-Consultative Parties.
Canada became a Non-Consultative Party when it acceded to the Treaty in 1988.


Since 1961, Parties to the Antarctic Treaty have negotiated several international agreements
and more than 200 resolutions and decisions dealing with the governance and management
of Antarctica.   Although the Antarctic Treaty was established to promote international
cooperation in scientific investigation and to ensure that the continent of Antarctica was to be
used solely for peaceful purposes, there are no provisions specifically addressing
environmental issues.


Agreements that have since been developed by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings
(ATCMs) to address environmental issues include: Agreed Measures for the Conservation of
Antarctic Fauna and Flora (AMCAFF), 1964; the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic
Seals (CCAS), 1972; the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Resources (CCAMLR), 1980; and the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic
Treaty, 1991 (Madrid Protocol). The Department of Environment specifically works under the
Antarctic Treaty System, through the Madrid Protocol, to address environmental issues and
governance in the Antarctic.


Commitments
The Antarctic Treaty System was strengthened with the 1991 adoption of the Protocol on
Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. The Protocol came into force in 1998 and
has been ratified by more than thirty countries. Parties are required to oversee the activities of
expeditions organized in or proceeding from their territory, as well as the activities of their
vessels, aircraft and stations in the Antarctic.      The Protocol requires that all activities
undertaken in the Antarctic be subject to prior assessment of their environmental impacts and
requires the development of contingency plans to respond to environmental emergencies. The
Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP) is established under the Protocol to assist
Parties in implementing the Protocol.


The CEP provides advice and recommendations to the Parties, and monitors the
environmental effects of the implementation, including environmental assessment activities


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and the management of protected areas. Canada has, in the past, been an active member of
the CEP, but has not recently attended the annual meetings.


As part of a global effort to protect the Antarctic environment, Canada ratified the Madrid
Protocol on December 1, 2003.          Domestic legislation was required to fulfill Canada’s
obligations under the Madrid Protocol, and so Canada passed the Antarctic Environmental
Protection Act (AEPA) in 2003. The Act provides a permitting regime that gives the Minister
of Environment the necessary powers to ensure that activities undertaken by Canadian
expeditions, Canadian vessels and Canadian aircraft in the Antarctic do not result in
deleterious impacts on the Antarctic land and seascape. Permit applications are reviewed by
experts within the Department and interdepartmentally.


The Treaty system is administered through annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings
(ATCMs). While Canada has attended meetings in the past, Canada has not participated in
the last two meetings.


Action Required
The issuing of permits is the primary way in which Canada fulfills its obligations under the
Madrid Protocol. The Department typically issues about three permits per austral summer
season, mostly in relation to tourism activities. Some permits are issued to cover several
voyages under the umbrella of a single expedition.


Activities
In addition to issuing permits under the AEPA and participation at the annual ATCMs,
Canadian activity in the Antarctic is mainly focused on weather observation and monitoring;
climate and climate change research; stratospheric ozone; long-range pollutant studies;
glaciology and terrestrial water balance investigations; and a range of scientific studies related
to sea birds and marine mammals, all of which are related to Antarctic activities under the
auspices of the Antarctic Treaty System as well as departmental programs.


Evidence of Compliance
Compliance with the obligations of the Antarctic Treaty System can be measured by our
obligation to review and issue permits for travel to the Antarctic; submissions of annual




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reports; attendance and participation at the ATCMs, as well as activities in the CEP and its
associated working groups.


Contact
Multilateral and Bilateral Affairs, Environment Canada
Telephone: 819 – 997 - 4046


Web Site
www.ats.aq




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    Protocol to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of
                                  Wastes and Other Matter



Status
Canada adopted the protocol November 8, 1996, at the Special Meeting of the Parties to the
London Convention 1972,
Acceded to the protocol May 15, 2000
London Protocol entered into force March 24, 2006


Lead Department
Environment Canada, supported by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada (DFAIT), Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), and Transport
Canada (TC).


Subject Category
Oceans/Waste


Summary
The protocol is a full treaty intended to eventually replace the London Convention 1972
(LC72). The protocol prohibits the disposal at sea of wastes and other matter except under a
permit issued by a contracting party, depending on the nature of the wastes and other matter.
To be considered for a permit, a waste or other matter must be listed in Annex I and
assessed for a permit according to Annex II. Parties must monitor disposal sites and report.


Commitments
Parties must (except in emergency situations)
   implement a precautionary approach to environmental protection
   take into account the polluter pay principle
   not transfer damage from one component of the environment to another
   prohibit dumping of all wastes except those listed in Annex I
   prohibit the export of wastes for dumping at sea and incineration at sea of wastes
   require a permit for dumping of wastes listed in Annex I, issued according to guidance in
    Annex II


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   keep records and monitor, enforce, and report on actions under the protocol
   support on a voluntary basis technical assistance to other parties
   promote development of international measures to protect the marine environment from all
    sources of pollution


Action Required
The protocol is fully implemented in Canada. Environment Canada's main obligations are to
develop the legal and administrative regime to implement and report on the protocol. It
assesses wastes, controls disposal, and monitors disposal sites.


Activities
Refer to the 1972 London Convention (LC72). Parties to the protocol must, by 2008,
develop legal and administrative regimes to implement and report on compliance activities.
Parties will also develop guidances on waste assessment and monitoring. Canada is assisting
in the development of guidance on action lists (levels above which ocean disposal is not
allowed) and will input to guidance on assessing, managing, and monitoring the storage of
CO2 in geological formations in the sub-seabed.


In addition to what it provides for the convention, Canada now provides annual reports on
monitoring and identifies activities in internal marine waters as separate from activities
occurring seaward of the baselines of the territorial sea to satisfy the protocol.


Evidence of Compliance
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), Part 7, Division 3, and schedules 5 and
6 create the legal framework for full implementation of the protocol.


The Environmental Stewardship Branch and enforcement offices
   implement and enforce the CEPA permit system
   provide technical assistance to parties, and technical and policy input to the convention
    and protocol secretariat.


Canada only permits ocean dumping of substances on the protocol’s list (excluding sewage
sludge).




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Canada conducts disposal site monitoring to assess effects.


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-4341
Facsimile: (819) 953-0913


Web Sites
http://www.londonconvention.org
http://www.imo.org/




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  Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Procedure for Certain
              Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade



Status
Text of the convention adopted September 10, 1998
Convention entered into force February 24, 2004
Canada has been a party to the convention since August 2002


Lead Departments
Environment Canada and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Health Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
The Rotterdam Convention fulfills a commitment made at the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 under
Chapter 19 of Agenda 21 on Toxic Chemicals and Chemical Risks. It creates an international
framework for the exchange of information on hazards and control measures taken for certain
hazardous chemicals and pesticides. The convention covers pesticides and industrial
chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted by parties for health or environmental
reasons.


The main component to the Rotterdam Convention is a legally binding prior informed consent
(PIC) procedure. The PIC procedure is a means of formally obtaining and disseminating the
decisions of importing parties as to whether they wish to receive future shipments of certain
hazardous chemicals and pesticides covered by the procedure. The convention also contains
provisions for the exchange of information among parties about potentially hazardous
chemicals that may be exported.


Commitments
Parties commit not to export chemicals subject to the PIC procedure unless the importing
party agrees to their shipment. Under the information exchange procedure, parties are
required to provide information about each ban or severe restriction on a chemical it


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implements nationally. Further, a party that plans to export a chemical that is banned or
severely restricted for use within its territory, must inform the importing party that such export
will take place.


Action Required
Environment Canada and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency of Health Canada are the
leads. Actions relating to the agreement are as follows:
    -     notify the convention secretariat of regulatory actions to ban or severely restrict a
          substance
    -     provide advance notification to importing parties of exports of substances banned or
          severely restricted in Canada
    -     participate to regular Conferences of the Parties, and when required, to meetings of
          the Chemical Review Committee




Activities
The implementing regulations, the Export of Substances under the Rotterdam Convention
Regulations, came into force on December 1, 2002. The regulations are being amended to
better reflect some provisions of the convention and simplify certain requirements of the
regulations.


Evidence of Compliance
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (1999) and the Export of Substances Under the
Rotterdam Convention Regulations provide the legal authority to implement the main
convention obligations. Some administrative obligations of the convention will be implemented
in parallel to the regulations.


Contact
Chemical Management, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263
Facsimile: (819) 994-0007


Web Site


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http://www.pic.int




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               Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP) of North American



Status
Partnership created on March 23, 2005


Lead Departments
Industry Canada (Prosperity); Public Safety Canada (Security); Department of Foreign Affairs
and Trade


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America (SPP) is an ongoing dialogue that
seeks to address common challenges, strengthen security and enhance the quality of life for
the citizens of Canada, the United States, and Mexico.


The SPP is divided into two categories:
         1) security; and
         2) prosperity and quality of life (which promotes enhanced environmental cooperation
            under the heading ‚Joint Stewardship of our Environment‛).


The SPP builds on other existing bilateral and trilateral relationships established with
Canada's North American partners, through such mechanisms as the North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA); the Canada-U.S. Smart Border Declaration; and the Canada-
Mexico Partnership. The SPP provides a flexible means for a dialogue, priority setting,
collaboration and action on issues affecting the security, prosperity and quality of life of
Canadians, Americans and Mexicans. It addresses diverse issues, such as border facilitation,
the environment, food and product safety, and includes measures to improve overall North
American competitiveness. The SPP is a non-binding partnership, it seeks to find practical
solutions to concrete issues while not duplicating or replicating existing mechanisms. It is
neither a treaty nor an international agreement but rather, an ongoing dialogue among
Canada, the U.S. and Mexico to address common challenges across North America.


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Commitments
The SPP promotes an evergreen agenda by hosting annual North American Leaders’
meetings and intermittent SPP Minister’s meetings. While initially consisting of a broad
agenda with multiple working groups the SPP has refocused itself to focus on fewer priorities
announced by Leaders’ at annual meetings. The five priority themes for the SPP agreed to in
August 2007 include Enhancing the Global Competitiveness of North America; Safe Food
and Products; Sustainable Energy and Environment; Smart and Secure Borders; Emergency
Management and Preparedness.


EC is currently engaged in work under the competitiveness and energy and environment
themes. The three current projects include chemical assessment and management efforts,
vehicle and engine emission standards and work to achieve comparable emission
measurement, reporting and verification systems that would enable the three countries to
develop publicly available national emissions inventories in North America.

Action Required
Working closely with the Lead SPP departments, International Affairs Branch, Americas
Directorate is the "one-window" for Environment Canada’s participation in this partnership,
tracking where there might be opportunities to advance EC’s agenda through this Leaders
forum,.


Evidence of Compliance
Reporting is done annually with the release of a Report to Leaders’ on the current initiatives
included in the SPP workplan. This report is made public and supported by leaders in a
trilateral leader’s statement.


Contact
Americas Directorate, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada,
(819) 953-6905


Web Sites
Security and Prosperity Partnership website
http://www.spp-psp.gc.ca


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            Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)



Status
Open for signature/ratification May 23, 2001
Canada signed and ratified the convention on May 23, 2001
Entered into force May 17, 2004


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
The objective of the Stockholm Convention is to control, reduce, or eliminate discharges,
emissions, and losses of POPs to the environment. Three measures are used as obligations
in the convention: for some substances, production and use are eliminated; for other
substances, use is severely restricted; and for those substances that are formed
unintentionally as a result of combustion or processing activities, total annual emissions are to
be reduced. A process incorporated into the convention allows for substances to be added or
current obligations to be modified as new information is obtained.


Commitments
The convention seeks the elimination or restriction of production and use of all intentionally
produced POPs listed in the convention. Initially, the chemicals slated for elimination are
aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex, toxaphene,
and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Continued use of DDT is allowed for vector control
until safe, affordable, and effective alternatives are in place. Countries must make determined
efforts to identify, label, and remove PCB-containing equipment from use by 2025 and
manage those wastes in an environmentally sound manner. The convention also seeks the
continuing minimization and, where feasible, ultimate elimination of the releases of
unintentionally produced POPs such as dioxins and furans. Stockpiles and wastes containing
POPs must be managed and disposed of in a safe, efficient, and environmentally sound


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manner, taking into account international rules, standards, and guidelines. Each party is
required to develop a plan for implementing its obligations under the convention.


Action Required
Collectively, the existing federal, provincial, and territorial management instruments provide
appropriate mechanisms for implementing Canada's commitments under the convention. In
accordance with Article 7, Canada submitted our national implementation plan in May 2006.
The plan was prepared in consultation with non-government organizations.


Activities
Canada’s priority is to support actions that facilitate effective implementation of the Stockholm
Convention:


      -    A key aspect is actions that will address the needs of developing countries and
           countries with economies in transition to facilitate their implementation and ratification
           of the convention. The Canada POPs Fund is a $20M fund administered by the World
           Bank, which supports capacity-building projects in developing countries and countries
           with economies in transition and


           -Canada is continuing to emphasize that prompt global action on POPs is imperative.
           Canada is very active on a number of specific issues, including the POPs Review
           Committee to undertake technical assessments of candidate substances for addition
           to the convention; the Expert Group on Best Available Techniques / Best
           Environmental Practices to control releases of unintentionally produced POPs; and the
           Global POPs Monitoring Group for evaluating the effectiveness of the convention.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada developed its national implementation plan and submitted it to the convention’s
secretariat by the deadline of May 17, 2006.


Canada complies with the obligation to eliminate production and/or use of the 12 POPs. All
12 are targeted for virtual elimination under the federal Toxic Substances Management Policy.
The       pesticides   aldrin,   chlordane,   DDT,   dieldrin,   endrin,   heptachlor,   mirex,   and
hexachlorobenzene and PCBs are controlled under Canadian Environmental Protection Act


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1999 regulations. Use of lindane in Canada is currently restricted to small amounts for
pharmaceutical use against lice and scabies.


To ensure continuing reduction in emissions, standards for dioxins and furans emitted from
the main source sectors have been developed under the Canada-wide Standards process.
Reductions in hexachlorobenzene are expected to parallel reductions in dioxin and furan
emissions. Canada is revising its PCB regulations in line with its commitments under the
convention to end the existing use of PCBs and destroy PCBs by specified timeframes.


Contact
Chemical Management, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-7157
Facsimile: (819) 953-8963


Web Sites
http://www.pops.int




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg Protocol)



Status
Signed December 1, 1999
Entered into force May 17, 2005


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The Gothenburg Protocol is the first multi-pollutant, multi-effect protocol to the Convention on
Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. It is also the first protocol to include ammonia
control measures and the first to seek controls to limit the effects of ozone using critical
levels.


The aim of the protocol is to cut emissions of sulphur, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic
compounds, and ammonia in a cost-effective way to prevent adverse environmental and
health effects from acidification, ground-level ozone, and eutrophication (depleted oxygen in
aquatic ecosystems caused by increased plant growth from excess nutrients). In Europe, an
integrated assessment model based on the effects of each country’s emissions and the costs
of emission reduction measures guided the negotiation of emission reductions for each party,
although final commitments were also influenced by domestic considerations. The protocol’s
main feature is mandatory emissions ceilings for SO2, NOx, VOCs, and ammonia to be met by
the year 2010. In addition, for certain new stationary and mobile sources, parties are required
to apply stated limit values that set the maximum amount of a pollutant that may be emitted
from a specific source. Parties have also stated that best available techniques should be used
in new and existing stationary and mobile sources. A further obligation requires parties to take
appropriate measures, based inter alia on scientific and economic criteria to reduce emissions




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of VOCs associated with the use of products such as paints. Finally, the protocol requires
European parties to control ammonia emissions from agriculture.


Commitments
As North America is not covered by the modeling domain used to determine emissions
ceilings, Canada and the United States tailored their commitments to the North American
context, consistent with the convention’s flexible approach. Given that in North America, major
bilateral and national initiatives are ongoing to address ground-level ozone and acidification,
consensus was reached that Canada and the United States could bring their emission ceilings
into the protocol when they ratify it. The protocol does not contain any ammonia-related
obligations for Canada and the United States as there is no evidence that eutrophication is an
issue of transboundary concern in North America. Other commitments for Canada under the
protocol are written in a flexible manner and more or less reflect the status quo.


Action Required
To permit ratification, Canada will need to set national and or regional emissions ceilings for
SO2, NOx, and VOCs. These could flow from the existing ozone annex to the 1991 Canada–
United States Air Quality Agreement, the announced provincial targets and schedules for SO2
reductions under the Canada-wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000 in Ontario, Quebec,
New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, and reliable measures and tracking of VOC reductions and
inventories consistent with achievement of the Canada-wide Standard for Ozone.


Activities
Continue domestic policy development to put in place the elements of a ratification
commitment package.


Evidence of Compliance
Annual reporting on emissions and biannual reports on strategies and policies.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263


Web Site


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http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
Concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) or their
                                  Transboundary Fluxes



Status
Signed November 19, 1991
Not ratified by Canada
In force internationally September 29, 1997


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The protocol sets out options for emission reduction targets including variations on a 30
percent reduction in emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by 1999, or a
stabilization of 1988 levels by 1999, if emissions levels in 1988 did not exceed certain
specified levels.


Commitments
If Canada were to become a party, in addition to other measures, Canada would be required
to reduce its annual emissions of VOCs from Tropospheric Ozone Management Areas
specified in Annex I by at least 30 percent by 1999, using 1988 levels as a basis, and ensure
that total national annual emissions of VOCs by 1999 did not exceed 1988 levels. Canada
signed the protocol with the intention of reducing VOC emissions by 30 percent in the Lower
Fraser valley and the Windsor–Quebec corridor, where smog problems are most severe.


While some VOC reductions in these areas have occurred, they have been less than 30
percent. Therefore, Canada has not ratified the protocol. Canada has negotiated and signed
the Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication, and Ground-level Ozone (Gothenburg




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Protocol), which addresses VOC emissions and reflects Canada’s implementation of domestic
VOC programs.


Action Required
Any commitments for Canada on VOC emissions will be brought into the Gothenburg Protocol
upon ratification and will be based on domestic and bilateral initiatives that are currently under
way.


Activities
Canada signed the protocol in 1991, based on ministerial approval of the Nitrogen Oxides
(NOx)/Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Management Plan at the Canadian Council of
Ministers of the Environment (CCME), which included a wide range of federal and provincial
initiatives and measures to reduce NOx and VOCs.


Canada did not ratify the protocol because the 30 percent reduction in VOCs could not be
shown to have occurred by 1999 in the Tropospheric Ozone Management Areas in British
Columbia, Ontario, or Quebec for reasons noted above


Canada reports annually to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
secretariat on emissions, monitoring, and national strategies and policies.


Evidence of Compliance
Not ratified


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone (819) 956-5263


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
         Concerning the Control of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes



Status
Signed November 1, 1988
Ratified January 25, 1991
In force internationally February 4, 1991
In force in Canada April 25, 1991


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The protocol requires a freeze of total annual emissions of nitrogen oxides at 1987 levels by
the end of 1994 and requires parties to the protocol to take a variety of domestic measures
aimed at reducing nitrogen oxide pollution. The protocol also aims to develop an approach to
emission reductions that is guided by the exposure the receiving environment can sustain
without significant damage ("critical loads" approach).


Commitments
Canada was, and is, required to control and/or reduce national annual emissions of nitrogen
oxides or their transboundary fluxes by December 31, 1994, at or below emissions for 1987.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead. It must facilitate controlling or reducing emissions of nitrogen
oxides, negotiate for further emissions reductions on behalf of Canada, and report annually on
emissions and national strategies and policies.


Activities




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Since 1987, Canada has frozen its national annual emissions of nitrogen oxides at 1987
levels of 2,131 kt.


Canada reports annually to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
secretariat on emissions, monitoring, and national strategies and policies.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada's annual submission to the UNECE secretariat on its nitrogen oxide emissions.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
                        on Further Reductions of Sulphur Emissions



Status
Signed June 14, 1994
Ratified July 8, 1997
In force in Canada August 5, 1998
In force internationally August 5, 1998


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
This protocol (second sulphur dioxide [SO2] protocol of the Convention on Long-Range
Transboundary Air Pollution), also known as the 1994 Oslo Protocol, sets long-term targets
for reductions in sulphur emissions using an effects-based approach. The effects-based
approach means that there is a differentiation of emissions reduction obligations for parties to
the protocol. It aims to gradually attain critical loads using best available technology, energy
savings, application of economic instruments, and other considerations.


Commitments
Canada is required to reduce its national emissions to 3,700 kt by 1990 and to 3,200 kt by
2000, the latter of which is a 30 percent emission reduction from a 1980 base year.
Emissions were to be reduced in the sulphur oxide management area (a region that included
much of eastern Canada) to 1,750 kt, which is a 46 percent reduction from a 1980 base
year. Canada is also required to report annually on emissions and biannually on national
strategies and policies. Canada has met its obligations to reduce sulphur emissions. (Canada
was 18 percent below the cap at 2.65 kt in 1995.)


Action Required


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As the lead department, Environment Canada must facilitate the reduction of sulphur
emissions, report annually on emissions, and report biannually on national strategies and
policies.


Activities
Canada reports annually to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
secretariat on emissions and reports biannually on national strategies and policies.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada's annual submission to the UNECE secretariat.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) –Protocol
                                       on Heavy Metals



Status
Signed June 24, 1998
Ratified December 18, 1998
Entered into force December 29, 2003


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The protocol aims to cut emissions of lead, cadmium, and mercury from industrial sources
(for example, the iron and steel industry and the non-ferrous metals industry); combustion
processes (power generation and road transport); and waste incineration. It sets limits for
emissions from stationary sources and suggests best available techniques, such as special
filters, scrubbers, or mercury-free processes, to achieve these limits. The protocol requires
countries to phase out leaded petrol (gasoline) and introduces measures to lower emissions
of mercury from products such as batteries.


Commitments
For the three specified heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), Canada will be required
to
     control atmospheric emissions from new plants in designated industrial sectors
     reduce total atmospheric emissions of each of the three metals from existing facilities by
      50 percent (based on 1990 values)
     control lead content in gasoline and mercury content in alkaline batteries and develop and
      maintain emission inventories for specified heavy metals


Action Required


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                                                                                           102
Collectively, the existing federal, provincial, and territorial management instruments provide
appropriate mechanisms for implementing Canada's commitments under this protocol.


Activities
Environment Canada leads Canada’s participation in a Heavy Metals Task Force, which works
on technical issues related to the protocol. In 2006, the task force prepared draft documents
for a sufficiency and effectiveness review of the protocol.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada’s emissions inventories and reporting indicate that Canada has met its obligations of
reducing emissions of each of cadmium, lead, and mercury by more than 50 percent from
1990 levels. Obligations to reduce levels of lead in gasoline and mercury in batteries specified
in the protocol have also been met. The obligation to apply best available techniques to new
stationary sources would be addressed by provinces and territories should new facilities be
proposed for approval.


Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263
Facsimile: (819) 994-0007


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
        on Long-Term Financing of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and
      Evaluation of the Long-range Transmissions of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP)



Status
Signed October 3, 1984
Ratified December 4, 1985
In force in Canada January 28, 1988
In force internationally January 28, 1988


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The monitoring and evaluation of long-range transmission of pollutants is an integral
component of the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. EMEP has
three main components: collection of emissions data; measurement of air and precipitation
quality; and modeling of the movement of air pollution. The 1984 protocol established ongoing
funding for a monitoring program that is critical to support work under the convention where
review and assessment of air pollution in Europe is required. The protocol establishes funding
based, for the most part, on annual mandatory contributions from countries covered by the
geographic scope of EMEP. Voluntary contributions can be made by countries, such as
Canada, that are outside the geographic scope of EMEP.


Commitments
Canada is not obligated by the protocol to contribute financially in support of EMEP, but can
voluntarily contribute. Canada makes voluntary contributions. Canada is, however, required to
cooperate to collect emission data for sulphur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), and other air pollutants. In its compilation of emission
inventories, Canada uses methods that are comparable to those in the United Nations


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                                                                                         104
Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) emissions inventory guidebook to ensure that
data collected are consistent and compatible with other parties to the protocol. In addition,
Canada must measure air and precipitation quality, as well as model atmospheric dispersion.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead. It must cooperate to collect emission data, measure air and
precipitation quality, and model atmospheric dispersion.


Activities
Canada has reported annually on emissions, monitoring, and national strategies and policies
to the UNECE secretariat. As well, Canada has made voluntary contributions under this
protocol.


Canada participates in harmonization of emission methodologies and uses methodologies that
are harmonized with UNECE parties.




Evidence of Compliance
Canada's annual report to the UNECE secretariat.


Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 956-5263


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) – Protocol
                          on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)



Status
Signed June 24, 1998
Ratified December 18, 1998
Entered into force October 23, 2003


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The objective of the Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) is to control, reduce, or
eliminate discharges, emissions, and losses of POPs to the environment. Three measures are
used as obligations in the protocol: for some substances, production and use are eliminated;
for other substances, use is severely restricted; and for those substances that are formed
unintentionally as a result of combustion or processing activities, total annual emissions are
reduced from a reference year. A process included in the protocol allows for substances to be
added or current obligations to be modified as new information is obtained.


Commitments
16 POPs are managed under the LRTAP POPs Protocol. Canada* is required to
     eliminate the production and/or use of 12 POPs (aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT,
      dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexabromobiphenyl, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, PCBs, and
      toxaphene)
     restrict the use of three POPs (DDT, lindane, and PCBs)
     control the atmospheric emissions of four POPs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,
      dioxins, furans, and hexachlorobenzene) from designated industrial sectors
     commit to environmentally sound destruction and disposal of substances that are subject
      to elimination


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   maintain/develop emission inventories for substances requiring atmospheric emission
    controls as well as collect available information relating to the production and sale of
    substances scheduled for elimination of production and/or use and restriction of use


*Note that some substances are subject to multiple control regimes.


Action Required
Collectively, the existing federal, provincial, and territorial management instruments provide
appropriate mechanisms for implementing Canada's commitments under this protocol.




Activities
A Strategic Implementation Framework developed by the National Air Issues Coordinating
Committee–Air Hazardous Air Pollutants (NAICC-A_HAPS) Task Group in 1998–1999 was
updated in 2004.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada complies with the obligation to eliminate production and/or use of the 12 POPs. The
pesticides aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, mirex,
hexachlorobenzene, and toxaphene are not registered for use in Canada under the Pest
Control      Products   Act.   The    industrial   chemicals    mirex,    hexachlorobenzebe,
hexabromobiphenyl, and PCBs are controlled under CEPA 1999 regulations. Use of lindane in
Canada is currently restricted to small amounts for pharmaceutical use against lice and
scabies.


To ensure continuing reduction in emissions, standards for dioxins and furans emitted from
the main source sectors have been developed under the Canada-wide Standards process.
Reductions in hexachlorobenzene are expected to parallel reductions in dioxin and furan
emissions. Technological improvements in the aluminium industry, the largest source of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) releases in Canada, have led to reduced PAH
emissions by approximately 50 percent since 1990.




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Contact
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6072
Facsimile: (819) 953-8963


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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                                                              108
 UNECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) –Protocol
on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at Least 30
                                             Percent



Status
Signed July 9, 1985
Ratified December 4, 1985
In force in Canada September 2, 1987
In force internationally September 2, 1987


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The 1985 Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes
(first SO2 protocol), designed to implement the 1979 United Nations Economic Commission
for Europe (UNECE) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, planned to
reduce sulphur emissions or their transboundary fluxes by 30 percent as soon as possible
and at the latest by 1993 using 1980 as the base year. Taken as a whole, the 21 UNECE
parties reduced 1980 sulphur emissions by 50 percent by 1993.


Commitments
Canada was required to reduce national annual sulphur emissions or their transboundary
fluxes by at least 30 percent as soon as possible and at the latest by 1993, using 1980 levels
as the basis for calculation of reductions. As well, Canada was not to increase national annual
emissions of sulphur or their transboundary fluxes beyond the 30 percent reduction. Canada
is also required to report annually on Canadian emissions and national strategies and policies.


Action Required




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                                                                                          109
Environment Canada is the lead. It must facilitate reduction of emissions by 30 percent by
1993 and report to the UNECE secretariat on emissions.


Environment Canada facilitates Canada's annual report to the UNECE secretariat on
emissions, monitoring, and national strategies and policies.


Activities
Canada met the target of 30 percent reduction nationally by 1993 with reduction from 4,634
kt in 1980 to 2,650 kt in 1995.


Environment Canada facilitates Canada's annual report to the UNECE secretariat on
emissions, monitoring, and national strategies and policies.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada's annual report to the UNECE secretariat.




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                                                                                     110
Contacts
Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6072


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/lrtap/




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                                                              111
    UNECE Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary
                                  Context (Espoo Convention)



Status
Signed 1991
Ratified February 26, 1998
In force internationally September 10, 1997
In force in Canada August 11, 1998


Lead Department
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency


Subject Category
Environmental cooperation


Summary and Commitments
Signed under the auspices of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UNECE),      this   convention   seeks   to:   minimize   significant   adverse   transboundary
environmental impacts of certain projects that are likely to cause adverse transboundary
impacts; ensure that an environmental assessment is undertaken for those projects; provide to
the government and public of an affected country an opportunity to participate in the
environmental assessment; and ensure that the results of the environmental assessment are
taken into account in the final decision about the project. Parties to the convention are
required to notify and consult each other on major projects under consideration that are likely
to have significant adverse transboundary effects.


The Canada–France Agreement on Transboundary Hydrocarbon Fields, signed May 17,
2005, provides that Canada and France are to conclude an administrative arrangement to
assist them to fulfil their obligations under the Espoo Convention in the event of future
projects near the Canada–France maritime border around the French islands of St. Pierre et
Miquelon. While this agreement has yet to enter into force, the Canadian Environmental
Assessment Agency is exploring the possibility of initiating negotiations with France on the
administrative arrangement.


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Supplementary to the Espoo Convention, the Protocol on Strategy Environmental Assessment
(the SEA Protocol) was adopted during an Extraordinary Meeting of the Parties on May 21,
2003, in Kiev, Ukraine. Canada is not a party to the SEA Protocol, and the protocol has not
yet come into force internationally.


Action Required
Identify and monitor projects likely to cause adverse transboundary impacts.


Activities
No action until projects are identified.


Evidence of Compliance
No projects identified to date.




Contact
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
Telephone: (613) 957-0700
Facsimile: (613) 948-1354


Web Site
http://www.unece.org/env/eia/eia.htm




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                                                                                      113
 Protocol on Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers under the UNECE Convention
   on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to
                   Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention)



Status
Open for signature May 21–23, 2003, until 31 December 2003, Kiev, Ukraine
Canada has not signed
Signatories: 37
Parties: 2
Not yet in force


Lead Department
Environment Canada, Science and Technology Branch; International Affairs Branch


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
Pollutant release and transfer registers (PRTRs) are inventories that collect and make publicly
available information on pollution from industrial sites and other sources. The Protocol on
Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers was adopted at an Extraordinary Meeting of the
Parties to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Convention on
Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making, and Access to Justice in
Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention) on May 21, 2003. The meeting took place in the
framework of the fifth "Environment for Europe" Ministerial Conference in Kiev, May 21–23,
2003. Thirty-six states and the European Community signed the protocol in Kiev.


The protocol is the first legally binding international instrument on PRTRs. Its objective is "to
enhance public access to information through the establishment of coherent, nationwide
pollutant release and transfer registers...."


Commitments




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                                                                                            114
The legal basis in the convention can be found in article 5, paragraph 9, and article 10,
paragraph 2. The protocol requires each party to establish a PRTR that


    -   is publicly accessible through the Internet, free of charge
    -   is searchable according to separate parameters (facility, pollutant, location, medium,
        etc.)
    -   is user-friendly in its structure and provide links to other relevant registers
    -   presents standardized, timely data on a structured, computerized database
    -   covers releases and transfers of at least 86 pollutants covered by the protocol, such
        as greenhouse gases, acid rain pollutants, ozone-depleting substances, heavy metals,
        and certain carcinogens, such as dioxins
    -   covers releases and transfers from certain types of major point sources (e.g., thermal
        power stations, mining and metallurgical industries, chemical plants, waste and
        wastewater treatment plants, and paper and timber industries)
    -   accommodates available data on releases from diffuse sources (e.g., transport and
        agriculture)
    -   has limited confidentiality provisions
    -   allows for public participation in its development and modification


Just as the convention, the protocol sets minimum requirements, which means that parties are
free to include additional pollutants and facilities. The parties to the protocol are also required
to work towards convergence between PRTR systems.


Action Required
Not applicable.


Activities
Canada participated in negotiations of the protocol to encourage international consistency with
Canada’s National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI), to encourage international
collaboration in the development of effective PRTR regimes, and to reinforce Canada’s
cooperative relations with the UNECE. The NPRI, established under the Canadian
Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), provides nationwide, publicly accessible information on
annual releases to air, water, and land and disposals and recycling from industrial and
commercial facilities. The NPRI meets most of the elements of the final protocol (adopted


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                                                                                              115
May 2003 in Kiev), and in fact goes beyond the protocol in many cases. For example, NPRI
requires reporting on a much greater number of substances and includes industrial sectors
such as automobile manufacturing and upstream oil and gas. However, some provisions of
the protocol would require significant changes to current pollutant reporting activities. The key
areas of divergence are reporting of greenhouse gases, pesticides, and intensive agricultural
operations.


Evidence of Compliance
Not applicable.


Canada’s Membership Contribution
Not applicable.


Contacts
Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-5462


International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025


Web Sites
http://www.unece.org/env/welcome.html
Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999


http://lois.justice.gc.ca/en/C-15.31/
National Pollutant Release Inventory




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                                                                                            116
         United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)



Status
Signed June 12, 1992
Ratified December 4, 1992
Entered into force March 21, 1994


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted May
9, 1992, at United Nations Headquarters in New York. The convention was opened for
signature in June 1992 at the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, where it was signed by 154
countries and the European Community. It entered into force on March 21, 1994, and over
185 states have ratified or acceded, thereby binding themselves to the convention’s terms.
The ultimate objective of the convention is to "stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG)
concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
interference with the climate system." Under the convention, developed countries committed
to enact policies and measures with the aim of returning greenhouse gas emissions to 1990
levels by 2000. During a review of the adequacy of the terms of the convention to enable
parties to meet its stated objective, it was determined that Annex 1 countries (developed
countries), including Canada, were experiencing considerable difficulty in reaching the
voluntary 1990 emission stabilization target by 2000. This led to the negotiation of legally
binding obligations under the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC at CoP 3 in December 1997.


Convention Commitments
Parties to the UNFCCC have a number of commitments under the convention, including the
following:
    -    submitting a national inventory of emissions and removals of greenhouse gases


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    -     implementing national programs to mitigate climate change and adapt to its impacts
    -     strengthening scientific and technical research and systematic observation related to
          the climate system and promoting the development and diffusion of relevant
          technologies
    -     promoting education programs and public awareness about climate change and its
          likely effects
    -     periodically submitting comprehensive national communications (i.e., reports) on
          activities to implement commitments under the convention


Action Required
Environment Canada, in consultation with other government departments, is the Government
of Canada lead on both international and domestic climate change. These responsibilities
include the following:
    -     setting environmental policy
    -     managing climate change science
    -     leading international climate change negotiations and policy development
    -     managing stakeholder outreach and consultations on climate change
    -     analyzing the health and environment benefits of actions to reduce greenhouse gas
          emissions
    -     preparing annual emissions inventories


Contact
Climate Change International, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
None




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                                                                                          118
    United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) – Kyoto
                                          Protocol



Status
Signed April 29, 1998
Ratified December 17, 2002
Entered into force February 16, 2005


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
In December 1997 at the third Conference of the Parties (CoP 3) to the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Kyoto, Japan, parties agreed on
specific obligations to reduce greenhouse gases emissions as contained in the Kyoto Protocol
to the UNFCCC. The Kyoto Protocol commits Annex B countries (developed countries) to
reduce their overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 5 percent annually during the first
commitment period from 2008 to 2012. The protocol entered-into-force on February 16,
2005, and has been ratified, accepted, acceded, or approved by 166 parties.


Commitments
Canada's primary commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce its GHG emissions to
6 percent below 1990 levels during the first commitment period.


Action Required
See corresponding section for UNFCCC on previous page.


Activities
Within the federal government, Environment Canada has the government-wide lead for setting
environmental policy; managing climate change science; leading international climate change


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                                                                                       119
negotiations at the ministerial level; developing and implementing a national public education
and outreach strategy; developing policy for international emissions trading and sinks (articles
4.8 and 4.9); analyzing the health and environment benefits of actions to reduce GHG
emissions; preparing annual emissions inventories; and developing and implementing the
federal communications strategy in cooperation with appropriate departments. Environment
Canada also has a major supporting role on climate change technology development and
deployment. More generally, Environment Canada is one of the core departments responsible
for developing the federal government's position on all aspects of climate change.


Because climate change is a global problem that requires a global solution, Environment
Canada is also fully committed to advancing the international effort to address climate
change. It has played a key role in climate change policy development since the inception of
negotiations on climate change under the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol.


Environment Canada provides leadership in the development and integration of Canada's
national monitoring networks as part of its continuing commitment to the Global Climate
Observing System. Ongoing work in climate analysis has helped track the state of the climate
in Canada. One source of this information for Canadians is the Climate Trends and Variability
Bulletin,    an     Internet-based     product      issued     quarterly    (http://www.msc-
smc.ec.gc.ca/ccrm/bulletin/).


Among the key areas of investigation in climate processes are those pertaining to the water
and energy cycle. As part of the Mackenzie Basin Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment
(Mackenzie GEWEX), Environment Canada scientists and their colleagues have determined
how much water originates outside the basin and how much is recycled within the basin in
warm and cold seasons. Global climate model development is conducted in conjunction with
other federal departments, with recent work focusing on incorporation of the ocean carbon
cycle into the global model. Regional model development is done in collaboration with the
university community. The supercomputer resources required to run these models are housed
within Environment Canada. Canadian expertise in climate modelling is highly respected
worldwide.


With respect to the study of biophysical impacts, in northern and western Canada,
Environment Canada researchers have examined climate impacts on extreme events such as


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floods and low flows, particularly as they affect transboundary waters. Environment Canada
operates a national Climate Scenarios Network, which provides scenarios for impacts and
adaptation research and training in their use. In addition to coordination of the Canadian
involvement in the activities of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in the
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, there is also ongoing science assessment work within
Environment Canada.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and has prepared its Fourth National Communication,
Demonstrable Progress Report and Initial Report and annually submits a report on its
emissions inventories. Under the Kyoto Protocol, each developed country party must
demonstrate progress in achieving its commitments. However, parties' compliance to their
commitments under the Kyoto Protocol will be assessed in relation to emissions during the
first commitment period, from 2008 to 2012.


Contact
Climate Change International, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
http://unfccc.int




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              United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)



Status
Signed and open for signature December 10, 1982
Entered into force internationally November 16, 1994
Ratified by Canada November 7, 2003
In force for Canada December 7, 2003


Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the convention (Deep Seabed Mining)
In force July 28, 1996, with 123 parties; Canada ratified November 7, 2003


Agreement for the implementation of the provisions of the convention relating to the
conservation and management of straddling fish stocks and highly migratory fish stocks (UN
Fish Stocks Agreement [UNFSA])
In force December 11, 2001, with 60 parties; Canada ratified August 3, 1999)


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) is the lead, supported by
Environment Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO), Transport Canada, and Natural
Resources Canada (NRCan).


Subject Category
Oceans


Summary
The 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) sets out the legal
framework within which all activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out. The
convention governs many aspects of oceans affairs, from navigation and fisheries to scientific
research and the rights of coastal states to explore, exploit, conserve, and manage resources
within 200 miles of their shores. Most of UNCLOS is now considered to be customary
international law, applicable to all states. The convention’s success lies in balancing the rights
of coastal states over resources with the demands of maritime states for freedoms on the high
seas, particularly navigation for military and shipping purposes.


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Commitments
The convention is often described as the ‚constitution of the oceans,‛ and it sets out the
principles and norms for the conduct of relations among states on maritime issues. More
specifically, the convention


  -     establishes 12 nautical miles as the breadth of the territorial sea with a right of
        innocent passage through these waters
  -     provides coastal states with the right to prevent, reduce, and control marine pollution
        from vessels in ice-covered areas within the limits of the exclusive economic zone.
  -     secures for coastal states resource jurisdiction in a 200-nautical-mile exclusive
        economic zone
  -     provides for establishment of the outer limits of the continental shelf
  -     guarantees access to and from the sea for land-locked states
  -     provides for a regime for archipelagic states
  -     establishes a regime for the development of the mineral resources of the deep seabed
  -     sets out rules for the conduct of marine scientific research
  -     imposes duties on all states to ensure, through proper conservation and management
        measures, the long-term sustainability of fish resources
  -     contains comprehensive rules for the protection and preservation of the marine
        environment and imposes duties on states to protect the oceans from all sources of
        pollution
  -     promotes the peaceful settlement of disputes relating to the oceans by establishing
        mechanisms and compulsory procedures for the settlement of disputes arising from
        the interpretation and application of the provisions of the convention.


Action Required
Certain provisions of the Oceans Act were drafted to implement UNCLOS. The act asserts
Canada’s territorial sea, contiguous zone, and exclusive economic zone.


Activities
Canada participates in the work of the International Seabed Authority (ISA), an organization
created under UNCLOS to administer the mineral resources of the international seabed area.




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                                                                                          123
Canada is a member of the assembly, one of the governing bodies of the ISA, and sits on the
council, a decision-making body within the ISA.


Canada supports the work of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS),
a body mandated to facilitate the implementation of UNCLOS in respect of the establishment
of the outer limits of the continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles from the baselines from
which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured. Canada is currently in the process of
delineating the outer edge of its continental shelf, which must be completed by 2013 (10
years after Canada’s ratification of UNCLOS).


Canada participates actively in the annual meeting of states parties to UNCLOS and in 2005
voted in the election of judges to the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS).]


In keeping with its commitments under the UN Fish Stocks Agreement, Canada ratified the
Convention on the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the
Western and Central Pacific (WCPFC) (December 5, 2005). As a founding member of the
North Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) (1979), Canada is also promoting reforms in
the organization based on the UN Fish Stocks Agreement.


Environment Canada’s Environmental Stewardship Branch and enforcement offices provide
environmental advice to DFAIT and to DFO. These departments participate in the annual
meeting of the United Nations Open-ended Informal Consultative Process on Oceans and the
Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS or ICP).


Under recent initiatives, Canada actively participated in an ad hoc open-ended informal
working group to study issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use of marine
biological diversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction, which was established by the United
Nations General Assembly in 2005. The working group met in February 2006 and produced
a report that is available on the UN Web site. A summary of trends, as well as a list of studies
that would facilitate understanding of issues relating to the conservation and sustainable use
of marine biodiversity, was prepared by the co-chairpersons.


Evidence of Compliance




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UNCLOS requires states to join more specific global conventions on air and water pollution
prevention, safety, navigation, shipping, and land-based activities.


Environment Canada implements the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA), which
partially fulfills the requirements for domestic legislation for clean air, disposal at sea, and
land-based activities.


Canada’s Membership Contribution
Canada makes yearly contributions to ITLOS, CLCS, and ISA. DFAIT pays these contributions
based on assessments determined by the United Nations.


Contacts
Oceans and Environmental Law Division, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Telephone: (613) 996-6287
Facsimile: (613) 992-6483


Marine Environmental Protection, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-4341
Facsimile: (819) 953-0913


Web Site
http://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.ht
m




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                                                                                           125
                   United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification


Status
Founded: Adopted in 1994 and entered into force in December 1996
Canada Member Since: 1994 (signed), 1995 (ratified)


Lead Department
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)


Subject Category
Climate Change



Summary
Adopted as a UN Convention in 1994, the United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification (UNCCD) is the sole internationally recognized, legally binding instrument that
addresses the global problem of land degradation in dryland rural areas. With an international
membership of 192 Parties, the Convention aims to promote effective actions to mitigate and
reverse land degradation through innovative national and local programmes and supportive
international partnerships. Desertification is defined under the UNCCD as the degradation of
land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including
climatic variations and human activities.


Commitments
Canada has been a supporter of the UNCCD since its inception in 1995 and recognizes that
land degradation, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, contributes directly to food insecurity,
famine, migration, conflict and poverty. Canada plays a dual role in the implementation of the
Convention, both as an affected country (i.e. the arid regions of Western Canada) and, more
significantly, as a donor country assisting the developing world in trying to meet the objectives
of the Convention. Domestic issues related to land degradation and Canada's status as an
affected country party to the Convention fall under the federal mandate of Agriculture and
Agri-food Canada’s Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA).


Action Required



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Developed country Parties to the UNCCD have a number of commitments identified under the
Convention. Core among these are to:
    -        implement their obligations under this Convention, individually or jointly, either
             through existing or prospective bilateral and multilateral arrangements or a
             combination thereof, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to coordinate efforts
             and develop a coherent long-term strategy at all levels;
    -        promote the use of existing bilateral and multilateral financial mechanisms and
             arrangements that mobilize and channel substantial financial resources to affected
             developing country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects
             of drought;
    -        actively support, as agreed, individually or jointly, the efforts of affected
             developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, and the least developed
             countries, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
    -        provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist
             affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, effectively to
             develop and implement their own long-term plans and strategies to combat
             desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
    -        encourage the mobilization of funding from the private sector and other non-
             governmental sources; and,
    -        promote and facilitate access by affected country Parties, particularly affected
             developing country Parties, to appropriate technology, knowledge and know-how.


Activities
CIDA, as the federal department responsible for administering overseas development
assistance and as the national focal point for international land degradation/desertification,
leads the Government of Canada’s collaborative efforts under the UNCCD. CIDA works with
other government departments, in particular Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Environment
Canada, Natural Resources Canada, as well as the International Development Research
Centre on a variety of international projects that address land degradation and desertification.
CIDA’s collaborative efforts also extend to a number of Canadian partners from the private
sector, academic institutions and non-governmental organizations, and to select multilateral
partners such as the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Canada recently served
as a member of the Conference of Parties (COP) Bureau, a key decision-making body under
the Convention.



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Specific responsibilities include:
    -   setting desertification and land degradation policy;
    -   leading international desertification negotiations and policy development;
    -   managing stakeholder outreach and consultations on desertification;
    -   managing bilateral and multilateral projects and programs to combat desertification;
    -   analyzing the economic and environment benefits of actions to combat desertification;
        and,
    -   preparing national reports on Canada’s activities, both domestically and internationally,
        to combat desertification and land degradation.


Evidence of Compliance
-   annual core contribution from Canada to the UNCCD Secretariat based on UN
    assessment;
-   Canada’s active participation in the Conference of Parties (COP) sessions and meetings
    of the Committee for the Review of the Implementation of the Convention (CRIC) under
    the UNCCD;
-   funding for sustainable land management programs and projects, both bilateral and
    multilateral, to combat desertification in Africa and other regions; and
-   submission of national reports to the UNCCD on Canada’s activities to combat
    desertification in Canada, Africa and others regions of the world.


Contact(s)
Canadian National Focal Point to the UNCCD
Environment Division
Strategic Policy and Performance Branch
Canadian International development Agency
Telephone: (819) 953-2216


UNITED NATIONS
Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
UNCCD Secretariat
P.O. Box 260129
D-53153 Bonn, Germany



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Web Site(s)
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
http://unccd.int


Canada’s national reports to the UNCCD
http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/CIDAWEB/acdicida.nsf/En/JUD-121165318-TNZ




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                 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer



Status
Signed March 22, 1985
Ratified June 4, 1986
In force in Canada September 22, 1988
In force internationally September 22, 1988


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Chemicals


Summary
The purpose of the Vienna Convention is to establish a framework for cooperation,
development of policies, and formulation of agreed measures in order to protect human health
and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities
that modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer (art. 2[1][2]). Specific obligations relating
to the control and elimination of ozone-depleting substances are contained in the Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.


Commitments
Canada is required to
        take appropriate measures to protect human health and the environment against
         adverse effects resulting from human activities that modify, or are likely to modify, the
         ozone layer
        initiate and cooperate with other parties in the conduct of research and scientific
         assessments
        facilitate and encourage the exchange of scientific, technical, socio-economic,
         commercial, and legal information relevant to the convention
        cooperate with other parties in promoting the development and transfer of technology
         and knowledge


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         transmit to the Conference of the Parties (CoP) information on the measures adopted
          by them in the implementation of the convention and protocol.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead department and is responsible for implementing the
commitments of the Vienna Convention.


Activities
Environment Canada regularly undertakes the monitoring of stratospheric ozone levels and
ultraviolet radiation. Environment Canada actively supports the expansion of the Global Ozone
Observation System to the tropics and southern hemisphere, notably by participating in
network meetings of the Latin American and Caribbean region and making presentations on
UV-B radiation and its implications on human health and the environment. Obligations
pertaining to the non-scientific aspects of the Vienna Convention are being met by the
implementation of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.


Evidence of Compliance
The activities undertaken by Environment Canada mentioned above and in support of the
Montreal Protocol demonstrate compliance to the Vienna Convention.


Contact
Transboundary Air, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-1143
Facsimile: (819) 953-8963


Web Sites
http://www.unep.org/ozone/vienna.htm
http://www.unep.org/ozone/montreal.htm




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                                                                                        131
 Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer – Protocol on Substances
                    that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol)



Status
Signed September 16, 1987
Ratified June 30, 1988
In force in Canada January 1, 1989
In force internationally January 1, 1989

London Amendment
Accepted July 5, 1990

Copenhagen Amendments
Signed November 22, 1992
Ratified March 16, 1994
In force June 14, 1994

Montreal Amendments
Signed September 25, 1995
Ratified March 27, 1998
In force November 10, 1999

Beijing Amendments
Accepted February 9, 2001
In force February 25, 2002

Lead Department
Environment Canada is the lead and is advised by Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canada (DFAIT) as well as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Industry Canada, Health
Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA); the Pest Management
Regulatory Agency, and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency on certain issues.


Subject Category
Chemicals



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Summary
The objective of the Montreal Protocol is to prescribe precautionary measures in order to
equitably control and eventually eliminate total global emissions of ozone-depleting
substances. To this end, parties must gradually phase out the production and consumption of
ozone-depleting substances as well as reduce and eliminate trade in these substances.


Commitments
Parties are required to reduce or eliminate their production and consumption of ozone-
depleting substances identified in the protocol. (Consumption is defined as production plus
imports minus exports of controlled substances.)

The phase-out schedule for developed countries is as follows (subject to essential use
authorizations):

    -   halons: 100 percent elimination by January 1, 1994
    -   chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), HBFCs, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride:
        100 percent elimination by January 1, 1996
    -   hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs): freeze consumption by January 1, 1996; freeze
        production by 2004; 100 percent elimination by January 1, 2020
    -   methyl bromide: freeze consumption by January 1, 1995; 100 percent elimination by
        January 1, 2005 and report on annual consumption
    -   bromochloromethane: ban on production and consumption from January 1, 2002.

Developing countries have, on average, a 10- to 15-year grace period to meet these targets.

Additionally, Canada is committed to providing annual contributions to the Montreal Protocol’s
Multilateral Fund which has the objective of assisting developing countries in phasing out their
consumption of ozone-depleting substances.

Action Required
Environment Canada is required to:

    -   ensure that all control measures regarding ozone-depleting substances are put into
        place



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    -   regulate the manufacture, import and export of ozone-depleting substances and
        certain products
    -   compile an annual report to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
        Ozone Secretariat
    -   contribute to the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol (EC
        contributes 20 percent of the Government of Canada's contribution to the Multilateral
        Fund, while CIDA contributes the remaining 80 percent.)

Activities
Environment Canada regulates the manufacture, import and export, and use of ozone-
depleting substances under the Ozone-depleting Substance Regulations 1998 promulgated
under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). Amendments to these regulations
are made, as required, to reflect further reduction and revised phase-out schedules adopted
by the parties to the Montreal Protocol.

Environment Canada also regulates the emission of ozone-depleting substances on federal
land under the Federal Halocarbon Regulations, 2003.

Environment Canada has developed two Environmental Codes of Practice for both the private
and public sectors, recommending practices for pollution prevention, emission reduction,
environmental management and preventative maintenance, alternatives, and the phase-out of
ozone-depleting substances use from existing systems and equipment.

Environment Canada coordinates the activities of the Federal–Provincial Working Group on
Ozone-Depleting Substances and their Halocarbon Alternatives to implement Canada's
National Action Plan for the Environmental Control of Ozone-Depleting Substances and their
Halocarbon Alternatives.

Environment Canada compiles an annual report for each class of ozone-depleting
substances. UNEP receives the reporting information for Canada and all countries that are
signatories to the Montreal Protocol.

Environment Canada contributes 20 percent of the Canadian contribution to the Montreal
Protocol Multilateral Fund. For the period 2006-2008, Canada’s total annual assessed




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                                                                                          134
contribution to the Multilateral Fund is approximately CDN$ 6 million, of which Environment
Canada contributes CDN$ 1.2 million.

Evidence of Compliance
Canada's annual report under the protocol demonstrates that it is in compliance with all
control and trade provisions. Statistical data on production and consumption of ozone-
depleting substances indicate that Canada is in full compliance with the phase-out schedules
prescribed by the protocol.


Canada’s membership contribution
Parties contribute to the Protocol's trust fund for the functioning of the Protocol's secretariat
(based on the UN scale of assessment). Canada’s contribution is paid by DFAIT.

Industrialized countries also contribute to the Protocol's multilateral fund to assist developing
countries in meeting their commitments under the Protocol. (EC contributes 20 percent of the
Government of Canada's contribution, while CIDA contributes the remaining 80 percent.)

Contacts
Chemical Management, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 934-3545
Facsimile: (819) 994-0007


Montreal Protocol Bilateral Program, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-2768
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025


Web Site
http://www.unep.org/ozone/




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                                                                                            135
                          CANADA/US AGREEMENTS




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                                                              136
  Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
                                     States on Air Quality



Status
Signed March 13, 1991
In force internationally March 13, 1991
In force for Canada March 13, 1991
Amendments to the agreement and addition of Annex III, Ozone Annex, in force
internationally December 7, 2000, and in force for Canada December 7, 2000


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Air


Summary
The agreement seeks to control and reduce transboundary air pollution between Canada and
the United States and includes commitments on notification of potential new sources of
transboundary pollution, on consultation on existing sources of possible transboundary
pollution, and on biennial progress reports. Annex I, the Acid Rain Annex, contains specific
objectives to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), the
precursors to acid rain. Annex II, contains guidelines concerning scientific and technical
activities, economic research, and the exchange of information. Annex III, the Ozone Annex,
contains commitments to control and reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile
organic compounds (VOCs), the precursors to ground-level ozone, a major component of
smog. The purpose of Annex III is to achieve the ozone air quality standards in both Canada
and the United States. All three annexes are an integral part of the agreement.


Commitments




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Canada is required to control its emissions that contribute to transboundary air pollution
between the two countries and is further required to implement specific emissions limitations
or reductions of air pollutants through programs and other measures.


Annex I:
Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides:
    -   by 1994, reduction of annual sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions in seven easternmost
        provinces to 2.3 million tonnes
    -   by 2000, permanent national emissions cap of 3.2 million tonnes per year of sulphur
        dioxide
    -   by 2000, reduction in annual stationary source nitrogen oxides emissions of 100,000
        tonnes below the year 2000 forecast level of 970,000 tonnes
    -   by 1995, develop further annual nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission reduction
        requirements from stationary sources to be achieved by 2000 and/or 2005


Mobile Sources:
    -   implement a more stringent NOx control program
Compliance Monitoring:
    -   by 1995, investigate feasibility of using continuous emissions monitoring (CEMS) and
        estimate emissions of NOx and SO2 from new electric utility units and existing electric
        utility units greater than 25 MWe (megawatts electrical) using methodologies like
        CEMS
    -   work toward comparable effective methods of emission estimation for SO2 and NOx
        emissions from all major industrial boilers and process sources, including smelters


Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)/Visibility:
    -   develop and implement a means for achieving levels of PSD/Visibility protection
        comparable to those in the United States with respect to sources that could cause
        significant transboundary air pollution


Annex III:


With the long-term purpose of achieving the Canada-wide Standard for Ozone in Canada and
the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for Ozone in the United States, Canada and the



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                                                                                          138
United States committed to reduce their emissions in their Pollutant Emission Management
Areas (PEMAs) in order to reduce transboundary flows contributing to ozone formation.
    -   The PEMA is the area defined in each country to which the Ozone Annex obligations
        apply. The area defined for Canada is central and southern Ontario and southern
        Quebec; in the United States, the area includes 18 states and the District of Columbia
        located within 500 km of the border with eastern Canada. Reductions of emissions of
        NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in these areas will reduce transboundary
        flows of ozone.


Vehicles and Fuels
    -   stringent emission reduction standards regulated to align with the United States to
        reduce NOx and VOCs from vehicles (including cars, vans, light-duty trucks, and off-
        road vehicles), small engines, diesel engines, and fuels.


Stationary Sources of NOx and VOC Emissions
    -   by 2007, annual caps of 39 kilotonnes (kt) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions from
        fossil-fuel power plants in central and southern Ontario and 5 kt of NOx in southern
        Quebec aligned with US standards year-round
    -   measures required to attain the Canada-wide standard for ozone to address NOx
        emissions from key industrial sectors and to address VOC emissions from solvents,
        paints, and consumer products.


Ontario and Quebec Specific Measures
    -   measures to reduce emissions of NOx and VOCs.


Reporting
    -   beginning in 2004, annual and ozone season emissions of NOx and VOCs for the
        PEMA
    -   beginning in 2002, ambient ozone, NOx and VOC concentrations, and 10-year trends
        within 500 km of the Canada-US border.


Revisiting
    -   in 2004, assess progress in implementing the annex with a view to negotiating further
        reductions



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                                                                                         139
    -     at the request of either party discuss the possibility of amending the annex to
          designate additional PEMAs or to revise annex commitments.


In addition, Annex II sets out scientific and technical cooperation for Canada and the United
States:
    -     conduct air pollutant monitoring activities
    -     harmonize methods for emissions inventories, trends, and projections
    -     cooperate and exchange information on scientific and technical activities and
          economic research
    -     provide public access to the databases containing the emissions and monitoring data
          reported or shared under the agreement
    -     explore with the United States, analysis and experience with market-based
          mechanisms including emissions trading
    -     consult and share respective information on data, tools, and methodologies and
          develop joint analyses including those designed to track health and the environmental
          responses to controls; facility-specific emissions data and related information required
          for modeling and regulatory policy development; evaluation of transboundary
          transport; evaluation of the adequacy of monitoring networks; and review of new
          technologies and analyses of options for reductions from significant emitting source
          categories.


Action Required
As the lead, EC must
    -     facilitate emissions limitations/reductions
    -     conduct emissions reporting and air quality monitoring activities
    -     effect information exchanges
    -     prepare and provide reviews and reports on progress


Activities
Environment Canada has facilitated the following:
    -     Sulphur dioxide: In 2004, Canada’s SO2 emissions were 28 percent below the
          national cap of 3.2 million tonnes. As of 2003, SO2 emissions in the seven
          easternmost provinces were 29 percent below the eastern Canada cap of 2.3 million
          tonnes.



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                                                                                             140
   -   Nitrogen oxides: Canada has surpassed its NOx emission reduction target at power
       plants, major combustion sources, and metal smelting operations by 100,000 tonnes
       below the forecast level of 970,000 tonnes, and is continuing to develop programs to
       further reduce NOx emissions nationwide as part of its obligations in the Ozone
       Annex.
   -   Compliance monitoring: Canada has met the obligations in the agreement with respect
       to new and existing electrical utility units and other major stationary sources.
   -   Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD)/visibility: The Canada-wide Standards
       for Particulate Matter and Ozone contain Continuous Improvement (CI) and Keeping
       Clean Areas Clean (KCAC) provisions to prevent the deterioration of air quality and
       address pollutants involved in visibility impairment. A national guidance document on
       CI/KCAC is being developed to assist Canadian jurisdictions in developing their
       implementation plans to meet the Canada-wide standards by 2010.
   -   Cooperation and harmonization continue to occur with the United States with respect
       to monitoring, emissions inventories, and exchange of information.
   -   Notification processes are being perfected in both Canada and the United States.
   -   Vehicles and fuels: Canada has aligned its new vehicle and fuels standards with those
       in the United States.
   -   NOx emissions from large fossil fuel–fired power plants in Ontario were almost
       50 percent below 1990 levels by 2004.
   -   Ontario and Quebec specific measures: Both Ontario and Quebec are on track to
       meet all of their commitments for the PEMA region.
   -   Reporting: Canada began reporting industrial emissions of NOx and VOCs annually in
       2003 and has reported with the United States the ambient concentrations of ozone,
       NOx, and VOCs, and 10-year trends within 500 km of the Canada–US border since
       2002.
   -   Revisiting: In June 2004, Canada and the United States assessed progress on
       implementing the Ozone Annex and concluded that both countries were on track to
       implementing their specific obligations under the annex.
   -   An exploration of emissions trading with the United States is under way. A study on
       the feasibility of developing a cross-border cap and trading for SO2 and NOx
       emissions was completed in July 2005. The study concluded that a cross-border
       emissions cap and trade program could be feasible if certain critical program elements
       were implemented, including emission caps for the electricity sector in Canada.



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                                                                                          141
   -      The Georgia Basin–Puget Sound in British Columbia and Washington State have
          completed a joint review of air quality in their transboundary airshed and completed a
          report in July 2005 on maintaining air quality in their region.
   -      A Great Lakes Basin Airshed Management framework pilot project was completed in
          autumn 2005 for the Windsor-Detroit-Port Huron-Sarnia region.
   -      Progress reports are being completed and delivered to the public every two years.
   -      Comprehensive review reports of the agreement are being completed every five years
          and delivered to the public.
   -      Annual meetings are being held to implement the agreement.


Evidence of Compliance
Canada’s progress and comprehensive review reports.


Contact
Air Emissions Priorities, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-3655
Facsimile: (819) 953-8963




Web Sites
http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/Pollution_Issues/Transboundary_Air-WS587B56F8-
1_En.htm




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                                                                                              142
  Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
         States concerning the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste



Status
Signed October 28, 1986
Entered into force November 8, 1986
The agreement renews itself every five years unless one of the Parties gives written notice of
termination.

An amendment to the agreement came into force November 25, 1992, to ensure consistency
with Annex II of the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) with the inclusion of ‚other wastes.‛
The Canada–USA agreement is recognized as an Article 11 bilateral agreement under the
Basel Convention, which allows the continued movement between the two countries of
hazardous waste, hazardous recyclable material, and other wastes, since the United States
has not ratified the Basel Convention.

Lead Department
Environment Canada, assisted by Health Canada, Industry Canada, Natural Resources
Canada, Canada Border Services Agency, Transport Canada, and Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada.


Subject Category
Waste


Summary
The agreement is intended to ensure that movements of hazardous wastes, including
hazardous recyclable materials, and municipal solid waste destined for final disposal crossing
the Canada–United States boundary are conducted so as to reduce the risks to human health
and the environment.

The agreement is based on the same principles as the Basel Convention, while recognizing
the proximity principle. The Basel Convention‘s key objectives are to



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                                                                                          143
   -   minimize the generation of hazardous wastes
   -   ensure they are disposed in an environmentally sound manner and as close to the
       source of generation as possible
   -   reduce the international movement of hazardous wastes

Commitments
The agreement requires Canada to

   -   cooperate to ensure, to the extent possible, that all transboundary shipments of
       hazardous wastes and other waste comply with the tracking requirements of both
       countries
   -   cooperate in monitoring and spot-checking transboundary shipments of hazardous
       wastes and other waste
   -   notify the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) of proposed
       transboundary shipments of hazardous wastes and other waste
   -   immediately transmit in writing an acknowledgement of receipt (AOR) to export
       notices received from the US EPA;
   -   respond, indicating its consent or its objection to the export, within 30 days after
       transmitting the AOR to notices from the US EPA, of proposed shipments of
       hazardous wastes or other waste, otherwise the United States will consider that there
       is no objection to the export described in the notice and the export may take place
   -   permit the export, import, and transit of hazardous wastes and other waste across the
       Canada–United States border for treatment, storage, recycling, or disposal pursuant to
       terms of Canadian or American laws, regulations, and administrative practices and the
       terms of this Agreement
   -   re-admit shipments of hazardous wastes and other waste returned by the country of
       import or transit
   -   notify the US EPA of any Canadian shipments transiting through the territory of the
       United States, i.e., Canada-to-Canada movements through the United States.

Action Required

Compliance with the agreement requires:




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                                                                                         144
    -   legislation and regulations to implement the classification, import/export controls, and
        tracking requirements, and environmentally sound management;

    -   administrative procedures to administer and enforce the import/export regime

    -   support for technical and policy cooperation initiatives including an annual bilateral
        meeting


Activities
The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA 1999) and Export and Import of
Hazardous Waste and Hazardous Recyclable Material Regulations (2005) provide the legal
authority to implement the 1986 agreement. The federal Transportation of Dangerous Goods
Act and Regulations is used to assist in the implementation of the prescribed hazards
classification scheme for wastes and recyclable materials that are hazardous.

Environment Canada's Waste Reduction and Management Division administers the CEPA
1999 waste provisions and regulations and coordinates the reporting requirements and
various technical and policy cooperation initiatives. Enforcement is performed by headquarters
and regional enforcement officials, in collaboration with Canada Border Services Agency, the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the provinces, and foreign officials.

CEPA 1999 provides the legal authority to apply the export/import requirements to non-
hazardous waste destined for final disposal, as required by the 1992 amendments to the
agreement. Environment Canada is developing regulatory provisions for the export, import,
and transit of non-hazardous waste destined for final disposal, taking into consideration
comments received during public consultations in 2006. It is anticipated that the proposed
regulatory provisions will be published in the Canada Gazette, Part I at the end of 2008.
Stakeholders will have an additional opportunity to comment on the proposed regulatory
provisions at that time.

Evidence of Compliance
Environment Canada has modernized the federal regulatory framework related to the
international movements of hazardous waste and hazardous recyclable material and is
developing a regulatory framework for the international movement of non hazardous waste.
Information related to transboundary movement data of hazardous waste and hazardous




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                                                                                            145
recyclable material can be found on the Waste Reduction and Management Division Web site
(http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-dgd).


Contact
A copy of the agreement can be obtained from Waste Reduction and Management Division,
Environment Canada, Telephone (819) 997-3377.


Web Sites
The text of the agreement and 1992 Amendment can be found via Internet at
http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-dgd/default.asp?lang=En&n=E31AE77A-1

Information and user guides on the Export and Import of Hazardous Waste and Hazardous
Recyclable   Material   Regulations   can   be   found   at   http://www.ec.gc.ca/wmd-
dgd/default.asp?lang=En&n=C55741FD-1#one




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                                                                                   146
    Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the United
                 States on the Conservation of the Porcupine Caribou Herd



Status
In effect 1987


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity


Summary
The International Porcupine Caribou Agreement provides for the coordinated conservation of
the Porcupine caribou herd between Canada and the United States.


Commitments
Canada is co-chair of the International Porcupine Caribou Board (IPCB). Duties include the
following:
     -   organize and attend meetings
     -   facilitate the appointment of Canadian members to the board
     -   carry out the activities set out in the agreement (see actions required)


Action Required
-    To advise on and recommend programs for monitoring herd status.
-    To advise on and recommend actions for the collecting and sharing of harvest data.
-    To advise on and recommend overall harvest and harvest limits for each country.
-    To advise on and recommend actions for monitoring and conserving the habitat of the
     herd.
-    To identify, advise on and recommend actions to conserve sensitive habitats for the
     Porcupine caribou herd.




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-   To advise on and recommend ways of ensuring opportunities for customary and traditional
    uses of the herd.
-   To advise on and recommend ways to enable user participation in the international
    coordination of Porcupine caribou conservation.
-   To advise on and recommend ways to encourage, and to facilitate, communication among
    governments, users and others.


Activities
-   The meeting rotates between Alaska and Canada. The last meeting was in Fairbanks in
    April 2000. It is up to Canada to call the next meeting.
-   The IPCB approved an international conservation plan in 1995. The Yukon government
    took the lead on developing and drafting the plan.
-   The IPCB approved a report on the sensitive habitats of the Porcupine caribou herd in
    1993. Environment Canada took the lead on drafting the report.
-   The IPCB was co-sponsor of a workshop on harvest reporting for the Porcupine herd. As
    a follow-up, user representatives on the board agreed to form a sub-committee to
    recommend a protocol for monitoring the harvest between the two countries. Lead on the
    workshop was Environment Canada.
-   The IPCB formally recognized a Porcupine Caribou Technical Committee (PCTC), made
    up of representatives of management agencies and University of Alaska researchers. The
    committee has been meeting informally since 1978. The first task of the PCTC was to
    produce a report on sensitive habitats.
-   The IPCB does not formally coordinate research, but does provide a forum to discuss and
    report on current research and monitoring activities within the range of the herd.
-   The IPCB has produced five ‚annual‛ reports since its inception. The last report was
    produced in 1998.
-   Each country agreed to table a consultation plan for its respective country. Canada tabled
    a plan in 1998 (lead Porcupine Caribou Management Board). The United States has not
    tabled their plan to date.


Evidence of Compliance
International Porcupine Caribou Board annual reports


Contact



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                                                                                         148
Pacific and Yukon Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada
Telephone: (867) 667-3929


Web Site
None




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                                                                  149
 Agreement between the Canada and the United States for Water Supply and Flood
                               Control in the Souris River Basin



Status
Signed and effective October 26, 1989
Apportionment provisions amended in 1995 due to a dispute over interpretation of the original
apportionment provisions of the Agreement.
Apportionment provisions are administered by the International Joint Commission (IJC)
through the International Souris River Board


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Freshwater


Commitments
The agreement provides for the construction, maintenance, and operation of the Rafferty and
Alameda dams and other works by Canada in the Souris River basin in Saskatchewan for the
purposes of water supply in Canada and flood control in the United States.


The agreement also established the Water Quality Monitoring Group, which administers a joint
water quality program.


In 2005, diplomatic notes were exchanged between Canada and the United States that
established an amendment to the 1989 agreement that moved the duties of the Water Quality
Monitoring Group to the IJC.


All operational responsibilities under the agreement related to construction, maintenance, and
operation of the dams were transferred to the province of Saskatchewan under a
memorandum of understanding.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         150
In 2006, the International Souris River Board was reconstituted with a new order with
responsibilities for water quality. The responsibilities for a water quality program under the
agreement were moved to the new IJC board.


Action Required
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) is the lead. Environment Canada
must support the International Souris River Board.


The International Souris River Board has the lead responsibility for the apportionment of the
waters of the Souris River basin and the implementation of a water quality program formally
administered under the Canada–US agreement.


The new board has six members from Canada (Environment Canada and the provinces of
Saskatchewan and Manitoba), and six US members.


Environment Canada provides the Canadian co-chair for the board and one other member.


In its support role to the board, Environment Canada
    − provides water quantity and quality monitoring of the Souris River in the Saskatchewan
      and Manitoba portions of the basin as well as at the boundary crossings
    − provides meteorological information for use in apportionment calculations
    − calculates the apportionment of the water


Activities
Environment Canada provides annual water quantity and quality monitoring data to the IJC
board and calculates annual natural flows in Saskatchewan to allow determination of the
apportionment of the river.


Environment Canada operates a water quality monitoring station at the Manitoba/North
Dakota border and provides data to the IJC board.


Environment Canada sends up to five staff to attend each IJC board meeting, which occurs
twice each year. Two staff are members of the board and the others report on monitoring and
natural flow calculations and provide secretarial support to the board.



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         151
Evidence of Compliance
The International Souris River Board produces an annual report to the IJC summarizing how
apportionment was met and will, after 2006, discuss water quality monitoring results in
consideration of water quality objectives at the border.


When significant floods occur, the US Army Corps of Engineers produces a report on the
operations that transpired and documents that its operations were in accordance with the
agreed operating plan under the agreement.


Contacts
Transboundary Waters Unit, Prairie and Northern Region, Environment Canada
Telephone: (306) 780-7004
Facsimile: (306) 780-6810


Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Telephone: (613) 944-6912
Facsimile: (613) 943-2423


Web Sites
http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/e_main.html
http://www.ijc.org/en/home/main_accueil.htm




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                                                                                    152
     Agreement between Canada and the United States of America Relating to the
               Exchange of Information on Weather Modification Activities




Status
Inactive


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Meteorology


Summary
Under this agreement, information relating to weather modification activities of mutual interest
shall be transmitted as soon as practicable to the responsible agency of the other party.
Whenever possible, this information shall be transmitted prior to the commencement of such
activities.


Activities
None


Contact
Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3844


Web Site
None




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                                                                                           153
Agreement to Provide for Joint Canada–US Collaboration in Use of the Meteorological
          Service of Canada Airborne Imaging Microwave Radiometer (AIMR)



Status
Not in force (expired in 2001)
Follow-up with the National Center for Atmospheric Research to ensue


Lead Department
Environment Canada, Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) (Atmospheric Environment
Service [AES] at the time of the agreement)


Subject Category
Meteorology


Summary
The AES Ice Branch (renamed the Canadian Ice Center of MSC) conceived and funded the
development of the airborne imaging microwave radiometer (AIMR) to support its research
and operational needs in the remote detection of sea-ice properties. The opportunity for AES
to collaborate with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in the development
of remote sensing capabilities on the NCAR C-130 Hercules platform by arranging for the
semi-permanent installation of the AES AIMR on the NCAR C-130 aircraft spawned this
memorandum of agreement (MOA). The MOA establishes conditions for the joint
development of microwave remote sensing capability for the NCAR C-130 aircraft. The MOA
is based on the loan of the AIMR by the AES Ice Branch to NCAR ATD for installation on
their aircraft and the collaboration of the AES and NCAR in future research conducted with
the AIMR. The MOA contains the following details:
        the loan of the AIMR to NCAR and its operation in support of National Science
         Foundation-funded research
        access to the AIMR by the AES
        financial commitments
        joint management for development and use of the AIMR
        data management, sharing, and ownership




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                                                                                       154
An amendment (‚Amendment 1‛) was written to reflect the Canada Treasury Board Decision
T.B. 827371 to change the ‚Atmospheric Environment Service (AES) to the ‚Meteorological
Service of Canada (MSC)‛. Also included in this amendment was an agreement to extend the
duration of the MOA for a further five years from the date of the amendment's signing.


Activities
    -     Determine the status of the AIMR equipment.
    -     Determine if there is any interest in its use. Suggestion that it should perhaps be
          written off.


Contact
Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (613) 947-9178


Web Site
http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca/App/WsvPageDsp.cfm?ID=1&Lang=eng




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                                                                                         155
              Canada–United-States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan



Status
Signed and entered into force July 25, 1994


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Canada–United-States Joint Inland Pollution Contingency Plan is an agreement between
Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). It is
intended to complement the Canada–United-States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan
and is consistent with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Convention on Transboundary Effect of Industrial Accidents. The purpose of the Inland
Pollution Plan is to mitigate the effects on public health and welfare, the environment, and
property by providing for coordinated and integrated responses to polluting incidents along the
shared inland Canada–US boundaries.


Annexes to the 1994 plan cover the following: CANUSWEST (I) signed in 1998 and covers
the combined border of the Yukon and British Columbia with US EPA Regions 8 and 10
(Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Alaska); the British Columbia–Alaska border, a sub-annex
to CANUSWEST, is also in development; CANUSPLAIN (II) signed in 2001 and covers the
combined border of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba with US EPA Regions 5 and 8
(Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota); CANUSSCENT (III) signed in 2002 and covers the
border of Ontario with US EPA Regions 2 and 5 (New York and Minnesota); CANUSQUE
(IV) not yet signed, covers the border of Quebec and US EPA Regions 1 and 2 (New
Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, and New York); CANUSEAST (V) signed in 2005 and covers
the border of New Brunswick and US EPA Region 1 (Maine).


Commitments


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                                                                                          156
Environment Canada is committed to maintain a cooperative mechanism between the United
States and Canada for preparedness and response to spill and releases of oil and hazardous
substances along the shared Canada–US boundary.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the Canadian co-lead with the US EPA and plays an active role with
regard to environmental sensitivities of affected areas and may mobilize scientific support and
technical resources to assist in the overall response.


Activities
In the event of a polluting incident, the plan provides for an international joint advisory team
and a regional joint response team to facilitate the provision of emergency resources and
other support with members from both countries.


Environment Canada will undertake activities to ensure the following:
          -   timely and accurate notification of incidents that threaten the shared inland border
          -   safe and timely movement of personnel, equipment, and supplies across the
              Canada–US border
          -   coordinated and timely flow of information to the public and media.


Evidence of Compliance
The notification and communication provisions of this plan are regularly put into action and
exercises to test the regional annexes are conducted on a regular basis.


Contact
Preparedness and Response, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3053
Facsimile: (819) 953-5361


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/ee-ue/default.asp?lang=En&n=8A6C8F31-1




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              157
                  Canada–US Bilateral Agreement on Shellfish Sanitation



Status
Signed in Canada March 4, 1948
Signed in the United States April 30, 1948
Remains in force unless one of the parties gives 30 days' notice


Lead Department
Canadian Food Inspection Agency


Subject Category
Biodiversity/Ecosystems/Oceans


Summary
The agreement was signed to improve the sanitary practices prevailing in the molluscan
shellfish industries. It is intended to ensure that the raw molluscan shellfish that is traded
between the two countries is harvested, handled, and processed in accordance with agreed
sanitary principles; that each country informs the other on compliance with the sanitary
principles; and that each country facilitates the inspection of each other's shellfish handling
facilities and shellfish growing areas.


Commitments
Canada must
        agree to common sanitary principles governing the harvesting, handling, and
         processing of shellfish
        inform the United States on compliance with those principles
        facilitate inspections of its shellfish handling facilities and shellfish growing areas if
         requested.


Action Required
The Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program (CSSP), Canada's commitment to meeting the
Canada–US Bilateral Agreement, is a program shared by Environment Canada, the Canadian
Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO). A memorandum


Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              158
of understanding (MOU) between Environment Canada and DFO was signed in 2000,
outlining the responsibilities of each agency for the CSSP. The lead for negotiations with the
United States is the CFIA, supported by Environment Canada and DFO. A common principle
of the Canadian and American programs is that the proper survey and classification of
shellfish growing areas is the first critical control point in shellfish contamination. Environment
Canada's responsibility within the CSSP is the survey and classification of shellfish growing
areas.


Activities
The CFIA is the lead. Environment Canada is responsible for carrying out shoreline sanitary
and bacteriological water quality surveys of the shellfish growing areas according to the
procedures, standards, and protocols of the Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program (CSSP)
Manual of Operations. This includes the continuing evaluation of the level of fecal
contamination on the water overlying shellfish growing areas, the identification of point and
non-point pollution sources impacting on these areas, and recommendations to DFO and the
CFIA for classification of these areas based on sanitary quality and general sanitary
conditions. DFO implements closures through the Management of Contaminated Fisheries
Regulations under the Fisheries Act. Fish Inspection Regulations under the Fish Inspection
Act require that molluscan shellfish processed by federal processing plants be harvested from
waters that would ensure that the shellfish are wholesome.


Evidence of Compliance
The CSSP internal audits in Quebec, Pacific and Yukon, and Atlantic regions have found the
program to be in general compliance with the principles of the CSSP. Health Canada has also
audited the CFIA's biotoxin monitoring component of the program. The United States Food
and Drug Administration (USFDA) has routinely audited the CSSP every few years, most
recently in 2004 in the Atlantic region. Audits have usually concluded that the CSSP is in
general compliance with agreed sanitary principles. In 2004, the USFDA found the program
as delivered in that region to be in general compliance with the CSSP. During the process of
the audit, however, the USFDA identified three significant differences between the CSSP and
the US program, the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). Officials in Environment
Canada, DFO, and CFIA are working to resolve these differences with the USFDA. Two of the
differences relate to Environment Canada’s activities.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              159
Canada has not audited the NSSP as delivered in the United States since 1995. At that time,
an audit by Canadian auditors of the NSSP in two states indicated that the program was
delivered in general compliance with agreed sanitary principles.


Contacts
National Marine Water Quality Monitoring Office, Environment Canada
Telephone: (514) 283-5869


Fish, Seafood and Production Division, Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Telephone: (613) 221-7028


Web Sites
CSSP Manual of Operations
http://www.inspection.gc.ca/english/anima/fispoi/manman/cssppccsm/toctdme.shtml


Atlantic
Environment Canada - Atlantic Region Marine Water Quality Monitoring Program
http://www.ns.ec.gc.ca/epb/sfish/sfish.html


Quebec
Environment Canada - Quebec Region Marine Water Quality Monitoring Program
http://www.qc.ec.gc.ca/dpe/Anglais/dpe_main_en.asp?eau_salub1


CSSP (EC/DFO/CFIA) Quebec Region
http://www.mollusca.gc.ca/pccsm_e.asp




Pacific
Environment Canada - Pacific Region Marine Water Quality Monitoring Program
http://www.pyr.ec.gc.ca/EN/Shellfish/index.shtml


Fisheries and Oceans Canada closures
http://www.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/ops/fm/shellfish/Biotoxins/closures/default_e.htm



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                                                                                      160
Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              161
            Canada–United States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan



Status
Signed and entered into force June 19, 1974
Last revised May 22, 2003;


Lead Department
Canadian Coast Guard, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation/Oceans


Summary
The Canada–United States Joint Marine Pollution Contingency Plan is an agreement between
the Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) and the United States Coast Guard. It evolved out of the
1972 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) and is designed to deal with
accidental and unauthorized releases of pollutants that cause or may cause damage to the
environment along the shared maritime boundary.


The last revision (May 22, 2003) consolidates into the main body of the document those
points that are common to all annexes.


Annexes to this plan cover CANUSLAK – the Great Lakes; CANUSLANT – the Atlantic coast;
CANUSPAC – the Pacific coast; CANUSNORTH – the Beaufort Sea; and CANUSDIX – the
Dixon Entrance; All annexes were signed in the 1980s and are regularly updated.


Commitments
Canada is committed to ensuring cooperative bilateral response planning at the local and
national levels to releases of pollutants that affect the geographical areas included in the
annexes.


Action Required




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       162
The CCG is the lead agency. Environment Canada plays an advisory role with regard to
environmental sensitivities of affected areas and may mobilize scientific and technical
resources to assist in overall response efforts.


Activities
The Joint Environmental Emergency Response Team (JEERT) is an integrated response
team with members from both countries. Environment Canada chairs Regional Environmental
Emergency Teams (REETs), which coordinate Canada’s environmental response efforts.
These standing committees include scientific and technical experts from various federal
departments, as well as provincial and municipal governments.


Evidence of Compliance
The plan has been invoked on approximately 10 occasions, and exercises to test the plan and
regional annexes are conducted biannually.


Contacts
Preparedness and Response, Environmental Stewardship Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3053
Facsimile: (819) 953-5361


Safety and Environmental Response, Canadian Coast Guard, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Telephone: (613) 990-3115
Facsimile: (613) 996-8902


Web Site
Under construction




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                      163
  Convention for the Protection of Migratory Birds in the United States and Canada



Status
Signed August 16, 1916
Ratified December 7, 1916
In force internationally December 7, 1916
In force in Canada December 16, 1916
Amending protocol signed December 14, 1995
Amending instruments exchanged October 7, 1999
Came into force in Canada October 8, 1999


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Biodiversity/Cooperation


Summary
The convention extends protection to migratory birds in Canada and the United States and
provides for the management of nuisance migratory bird species, sustainable hunting, and a
modern conservation approach to sustaining migratory bird populations.


Commitments
The requirements of the convention have legislated components embedded in the Migratory
Birds Convention Act, 1999. Other commitments linked to the convention are included in the
North American Waterfowl Management Plan and the Declaration of Intent for the North
American Bird Conservation Initiative; both of the latter agreements were signed by the
Minister of the Environment.


Action Required
Regulation development, notably annual hunting regulations. Conservation of migratory bird
populations.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                     164
Activities
Coordination of bird conservation in Canada through the North American Bird Conservation
Initiative – Canada – Council. Planning, funding, and implementing waterfowl conservation
programs under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. Consultations and
cooperative work with US agencies through fora such as US Flyway Councils.


Evidence of Compliance
Regulations well-established and generally intra vires. An extinction of a migratory bird
species due to Canadian failure to address threats to its survival would constitute non-
compliance.


Contact
Population Conservation and Management, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-1422


Web Sites
http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/M-7.01/
http://www.pnr-rpn.ec.gc.ca/nature/migratorybirds/dc00s06.en.html




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                    165
   Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
United Sates of America to Expand and Intensify Existing Bilateral Efforts to Address
                                  Global Climate Change



Status
Issued March 7, 2002
Parties: David Anderson, Canadian Minister of the Environment; Christie Todd Whitman,
Administrator of the US Environmental Protection Agency; James Connaughton, Chairman of
the Whitehouse Council on Environmental Quality; Glenn Hubbard, Chairman of the
President’s Council of Economic Advisors; and Paul Dobriansky, Under Secretary of State for
Global Affairs


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change/Cooperation


Summary
Building on the 1997 Canada–US Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Cooperation in
the Field of Climate-Related Programs, the 2002 joint statement announced the agreement
by both countries to pursue increased bilateral cooperation on such issues as climate change
science   and    research,   technology   development,   carbon   sequestration,   emissions
measurement and accounting, capacity building in developing countries, carbon sinks,
targeted measures to spur the uptake of cleaner technology, and market-based approaches.


Examples of activities that are contemplated under this cooperation agreement include, but
are not limited to, clean coal technology and carbon dioxide capture and storage technology
development, expanded use of cogeneration, and renewable sources of energy, as well as
concrete ways of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through sustainable agriculture and
forestry management practices.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       166
Activities
Under this joint statement, the Canada–US Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) was
created and has met annually since 2002. An inventory of Canada–US climate change
activities is maintained and reviewed annually by the CCWG. Activities carried out under this
joint statement reflect the broad scope of climate change cooperation in areas including
emissions monitoring and reporting, energy R&D, energy efficiency, vehicles, science,
impacts and adaptation, biological sequestration, and activities in developing countries.


Contact
Climate Change International, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483
Fax: (819) 997-0962




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            167
    Environment Canada – U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Joint Statement of
             Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound Ecosystem



Status
Signed January 19, 2000


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Ecosystems


Summary
In 2000, the Joint Statement of Cooperation on the Georgia Basin and Puget Sound
Ecosystem (SOC) was signed by the Minister of Environment in Canada and the
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the United States. The SOC is a
uniquely written bilateral agreement that supports national bilateral agreements, outlines
common goals and objectives, and serves as a framework for undertaking joint sustainability
initiatives in the Georgia Basin/Puget Sound (GBPS) transboundary ecosystem.


The GBPS ecosystem, which includes the Georgia Strait, the Strait of Juan de Fuca,
and Puget Sound in Washington State, is of significant importance in North America
as one of the richest in biodiversity, but also one where common airsheds,
watersheds, marine estuaries, and common flyways for migratory birds face serious
and mounting pressures from rapid population and urban growth.


Commitments
In acknowledging the uniqueness of the GBPS ecosystem, the SOC serves to
-   publicly confirm the commitment and leadership of the two federal levels of government
-   recognize the special interests of First Nations and Tribes
-   establish a formal Canada–US mechanism at the regional level to act on sustainability
    challenges and promote multi-jurisdictional collaboration on transboundary issues.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         168
It also commits Environment Canada and the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop
regular action plans and to routinely report to the public on progress.


Activities
-   Hold regular meetings of Environment Canada/Pacific and Yukon Region and
    EPA/Region 10 staff and executive to maintain a long-standing relationship and pursue
    ongoing collaboration.
-   Collaborate with the Washington–British Columbia Environmental Cooperation Council and
    other bilateral mechanisms to establish priorities and deliver environmental results in the
    ecosystem.
-   Co-host a bi-annual transboundary scientific research conference.
-   Pursue key joint initiatives such as the International Airshed Strategy, the Transboundary
    Ecosystem Indicators Report, and the Transboundary University Course and Seminar
    Series.
-   Jointly agree to and draft regular action plans and reports on progress and communicate
    these efforts to the public and key stakeholder groups.


Contact
Environment Canada / Pacific and Yukon Region
Telephone: (604) 664-666-2143
Facsimile: (604) 664-9126


Web Site
http://www.pyr.ec.gc.ca/EN/index.shtml




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                                                                                          169
                    Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA)


Status
Signed April 15, 1972
Amended in 1978
Renegotiated by Protocol in 1987


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Water Quality, Great Lakes


Summary
The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) commits the governments of Canada
and the U.S. to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the
waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem.


Commitments
Canada is responsible for implementing the appropriate measures to meet the objectives set
out in the Agreement through programs, standards, regulatory requirements, research and
other measures. It is also responsible for seeking: the funds required to implement the
GLWQA; enactment of any additional legislation; and cooperation of Provincial governments.
The terms of the GLWQA also require that the governments of Canada and the U.S. review
the Agreement every six years.


Action Required
Under the terms of the, GLWQA the two federal Governments are expected to implement
programs and report on their progress in restoring, preserving, and protecting the Great
Lakes. The International Joint Commission (IJC) has been charged with reviewing and
evaluating these programs and progress. In Canada, Environment Canada leads delivery on
the Agreement, while the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency spearheads the United
States efforts. Both work in partnership with provincial, state, and municipal governments.




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                                                                                              170
Canadian federal-provincial implementation is coordinated through the Canada-Ontario
Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. This Agreement was first signed in
1971 and most recently renewed in 2007.              Further information is found online at
www.on.ec.gc.ca/coa.


Activities
Canada and the United States established the Binational Executive Committee (BEC) to set
general priorities and strategic directions for activities under the GLWQA. The BEC, co-
chaired by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, meets twice
a year to coordinate respective work plans with regard to implementing the GLWQA and to
evaluate progress made. The BEC is a permanent, senior-level mechanism, comprised of
Canadian and U.S. federal, state, and provincial agencies that are accountable for delivering
major programs and activities, along with other stakeholders as affiliate members, whose
skills are required to address various issues. Further information is found online at
http://www.binational.net.




Eight federal departments’ activities are integrated with those of the Province of Ontario
through the 2007 COA. The COA is a successful model of federal-provincial cooperation
that recognizes the shared jurisdiction surrounding many of the issues faced within the Great
Lakes Basin, establishes common goals and results, and coordinates actions to eliminate
overlap and optimize use of resources for maximum results.


Three key Environment Canada instruments for ensuring Canada’s obligations under the
GLWQA:

       Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) – Under the 1978 Agreement the parties committed to
        develop plans to guide the restoration and protection efforts of specific geographic
        areas which are severely degraded. These identify environmental problems, uncover
        the sources and causes of the problems, establish shared goals and objectives, and
        list the agreed upon recommended actions, implementation plans and monitoring
        strategies.          Further   information      can    be     found     online     at
        http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/water/raps.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         171
        Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) – Under the 1978 Agreement the parties
         committed to develop plans of action to assess, restore, protect and monitor the
         ecosystem health of a Great Lake. These are used to coordinate the work of all the
         government, tribal and non-government partners working to improve the Lake
         ecosystem. Further information can be found online at http://binational.net.

        Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (BTS) – in response to the IJC’s 1994
         Biennial Report the parties developed a framework for actions to reduce or eliminate
         persistent toxic substances, especially those which bioaccumulate, from the Great
         Lakes Basin. Further information can be found online at http://binational.net.


Evidence of Compliance
Under the Canada-United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the International
Joint Commission is required to monitor and assess progress made pursuant to the Great
Lakes Water Quality Agreement, in particular the adequacy of actions by the two federal
governments, the province of Ontario, and the eight Great Lakes states. The Commission
fulfills this responsibility in part by reporting every two years. The first Biennial Report was
released in 1981 and the most recent, the 13th Biennial Report, released in 2007.


Contacts
Environment Canada’s Great Lakes Environmental Office
(416) 739-4936


Web Sites
http://www.on.ec.gc.ca/greatlakes/
www.binational.net
http://www.ijc.org/
 Letter of Agreement between the United States Coast Guard International Ice Patrol
                     and Environment Canada’s Canadian Ice Service



Status
Signed May 1, 2002




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           172
Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperations/Oceans


Summary
The intent of this letter of agreement between the International Ice Patrol (IIP) of the United
States Coast Guard (USCG) and the Canadian Ice Service (CIS) of Environment Canada is
to document existing exchange arrangements between the two organizations. This letter of
agreement, which is a non-binding working arrangement, will build on the general terms of
reference of the Joint Ice Working Group (JIWG), of which both parties to this agreement are
members. Included in the terms of the JIWG is the requirement to coordinate iceberg
information, data exchange for operational analysis and forecasting, and the provision of
mutual backup for critical services.


Although the CIS and the IIP have significant differences in their mandates, the information
gathered by each of the agencies is freely exchanged between the two agencies for their
mutual benefit and is considered operationally essential.


Periodic review and amendment of this letter of agreement will be accomplished to reflect
organizational and operational changes.


Activities
The following principles govern day-to-day interaction between the IIP and the CIS:
       real-time data exchange
       numerical model output data exchange
       iceberg reconnaissance coordination
       analysis and forecast product exchange
       mutual backup
       staff exchange
       research and development
       software exchange
       incremental cost recovery



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                                                                                          173
Evidence of Compliance
Unknown


Contact
National Services Operation Division, Weather and Environmental Prediction and Services
Directorate, Environment Canada
Telephone: (418) 722-1491
Fax: (418) 722-1485


Web Site
http://ice-glaces.ec.gc.ca/App/WsvPageDsp.cfm?ID=1&Lang=eng




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                                                                                  174
Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Protection Agency of the
      United States of America and the Department of the Environment of Canada
 Concerning Cooperation in Research, Development and Demonstrations in Science
                    and Technology Related to Environmental Protection.



Status:
Signed in 1997
Still active, no ending date
Can be terminated after 180 days' notice by either party


Lead Department:
Environment Canada


Subject Category:
Cooperation


Summary
The memorandum of understanding (MOU) aims at providing a framework under which
individual research and development and demonstration science and technology (R&DD S-T)
activities would take place. It also refers to an agreement on intellectual property between the
US        and    the      Canadian        governments      that    can     be      found      at
http://www.lexum.umontreal.ca/ca_us/en/cts.1997.05.en.html


Activities
Various collaboration activities in the aforementioned field. Regular high level (ADM)
meetings took place under the MOU until 2000 and the Technology Strategies Division is
currently working at reviving this relationship.


Contact
Innovative Solutions, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-0226




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                                                                                           175
Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              176
   Memorandum of Understanding between the United States Coast Guard and the
  Department of the Environment of Canada Concerning Research and Development
                         Cooperation in Spill Response Technology



Status
Currently active


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The agreement with the United States Coast Guard is to provide a means to carry out joint
projects on oil and chemical spills.


Activities
Several joint projects were carried out.


Contact
Emergencies Science       and Technology Division, Environmental Technology Centre,
Environment Canada


Web Site
http://www.etc-cte.ec.gc.ca/etchome_e.html




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                                                                                    177
Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce's National
 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
      Service of Canada on Cooperation in the Field of Meteorology, Hydrology, and
                           Climate Forecast Service and Programs



Status
Signed and entered into force


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation/Meteorology


Summary
The purpose of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) is to document certain
arrangements and understandings to improve the cooperation and coordination of
meteorology, hydrology, and climate forecast services and programs and activities undertaken
by the National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration of the United States of America and the Meteorological Service of Canada,
Environment Canada. This improved cooperation is desirable


      to enhance and maximize program capabilities in these areas in both countries
      to encourage joint efforts to resolve common problems
      to avoid unplanned duplication of effort
      to help ensure that the collection, analysis, archiving, and dissemination of data are
       compatible so that results can be compared and pooled, when desired.


This MOU is not intended to create binding international legal obligations.


Specific activities, including tasks, responsibilities, and conditions connected therewith, will be
set forth in annexes to this MOU. Future programs resulting from this MOU will be coordinated




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                                                                                              178
through the heads of the two agencies or their designates. Coordinators and working groups
may be appointed, as required, to consider and act on matters related to the implementation
of this MOU. There are three annexes:


             Annexe 1: Exchange on Radar Products (expired in January 2006)
             Annexe 2: Ship Observation Data
             Annexe 3: Cooperative Program for Meteorology, Education and Training
              (COMET)


Activities
Subject to the availability of appropriated funds and personnel and in accordance with the
laws and regulations of each country, the participants intend to


                 assist each other in planning meteorology, hydrology and climate-related
                  programs
                 assist each other in program operation to the extent practical and mutually
                  desirable.
                 assist each other in communicating and sharing meteorology, hydrology and
                  climate-related information.


Contact
Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada
Telephone:                -5776


Web Site
None




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                                                                                        179
Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Commerce’s National
 Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Environment Canada's Meteorological
 Service of Canada on Cooperation in Environmental Data Acquisition and Utilization



Status
Signed and entered into force April 22, 2003


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation/Meteorology


Summary
The purpose of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) is to recognize the long-standing
cooperation between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the
Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) of Environment Canada (participants), to enhance
current cooperative efforts, and to supply a mechanism through which future efforts can be
facilitated. This improved cooperation is desirable
         1. to enhance and maximize program capabilities in both countries
         2. to encourage joint efforts to resolve common problems
         3. to promote compatibility in the collection, analysis, archival, and dissemination of
            data so that the data can be readily accessed, analyzed, and integrated as
            desired


This MOU is not binding on either participant and is not intended to create any obligation
under international law.


IAs may be added to this MOU in the form of annexes. Each annex is subject to the approval
of the Cooperation Steering Committee. There are three annexes:
    -    Annexe 1: Cooperation Steering Committee
    -    Annexe 2: North American Ice Service




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                                                                                           180
    -     Annexe 3: North American Strategic Plan for Monitoring Climate and Weather
          Extremes for Improved Decision Making


Activities
The participants have identified a number of areas of mutual interest for potential cooperation
pursuant to this MOU, including but not restricted to the following:
    1. shared environmental data and products
    2. data analysis and dissemination
    3. data management, archive, and retrieval
    4. infrastructure utilization and cooperation
    5. applications development and scientific research
    6. education, training, and outreach.


Contact
Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada
Telephone:     (613) 943-5776
Facsimile: (819) 994-8864


Web Site
None




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                                                                                          181
   North America Ensemble Forecast System Joint US National Weather Service–
  Meteorological Service of Canada Ensemble Forecasting Research, Development,
                                 and Implementation Plan



Status
Signed and entered into force December 2, 2003


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Meteorology


Summary
At the February 2003 American Meteorological Society (AMS) annual meeting in Long
Beach, California, senior officials from the US National Atmospheric and Oceanic
Administration (NOAA) (Jack Hayes, Director, Office of Science and Technology, National
Weather Service [NWS]; David Rogers, former Director of Office of Weather and Air Quality;
and Louis Uccellini, Director, National Centers for Environmental Prediction [NWS]) and from
the Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) (James Abraham, Director, Meteorological
Research Branch [MRB]; Dr. Michel Béland, Director General of the Atmospheric and
Climate Sciences Directorate; and Pierre Dubreuil, Director General of Atmospheric
Environment Prediction Directorate of MSC) met to discuss strategic directions and priorities
in the areas of collaboration between Canada and United States in environmental prediction.
The focus of the meeting was to identify what part of the weather program could be targeted
and prioritized to initiate such a collaboration. Discussions covered the topic of ensemble
prediction systems in the short/medium range and seasonal forecasting.


As a result, ensemble prediction systems for days 1 to 15 emerged as the top priority in which
both organizations should first invest in order to develop this cooperative effort. Areas of
potential collaboration include exchange of EPS forecast output and development of a
coordinated research, development, and implementation (RDI) approach regarding statistical




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                                                                                         182
post-processing of ensembles, product development based on a joint ensemble (targeted
both at operational forecasters and end-users), verification techniques, and training/outreach.
The planned joint activities will build on an existing exchange of ensemble research results.
Note also that output from the MSC EPS system have been provided routinely to the National
Centres for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) since 1999, following the fire that affected the
NCEP C90 computer (resulting in a major outage that for a period of time precluded the
execution of the NCEP EPS operational system).


The RDI activities indicated above have a considerable overlap with the general objectives of
the THORPEX (The Observing-System Research and Predictability Experiment) international
research program. The bilateral collaborative efforts established here between MSC and the
US National Weather Service (NWS) will offer guidance to other scientific groups as to the
research needs of operational centres, and will offer a platform that other organizations may
wish to join. NCEP has already established, and is in the process of expanding, ensemble
data exchange activities with other Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) centres. The
research findings and the resulting joint North American ensemble forecast data from the
bilateral collaboration between the NWS and MSC can provide the basis for the formation of a
future multi-centre international ensemble forecast system.


Commitments
Main area of collaboration:


General information, as well as specific issues regarding research, development, and
implementation activities related to the North American Ensemble Forecast System will be
presented in the RDI plan. The plan is divided into four different components:
   -   data exchange
   -   post-processing (bias removal before merging ensembles
   -   product development
   -   verification


Research and development work can be shared by the two centres in many of these areas
while in others alternative approaches can be pursued and compared. This collaboration will
lead to acceleration in the schedule and enhancement in the quality of ensemble-related
operational implementations at both centres.



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                          183
Action Required
Possible announcement of joint North America Ensemble Forecast products.


Activities
-   Data exchange: Identify a common set of ensemble data that the two centres will
    exchange for research and operational purposes for the development and operational
    generation of products based on a joint ensemble system.
-   Post-processing (bias removal before merging ensembles): Develop statistical post-
    processing algorithms for eliminating the bias from each ensemble before they are
    combined.
-   Product development: Design new forecast products based on the joint ensemble for use
    by operational forecasters, specialized users, and the public to provide a forecast suite
    that is seamless across the border.
-   Verification: Develop and compile a set of verification routines to measure the
    performance of the joint ensemble forecast system as well as its constituents generated at
    the two centres.


Contact
Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada
Telephone: (613) 943-5776


Web Sites
http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/gmb/ens/NAEFS/toth_naefs_thorpex_montreal_final.doc
http://wwwt.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/gmb/ens/NAEFS/NAEFS-refs.html




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                                                                                         184
  Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Relating to Cooperative
 Development of the Water Resources of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River
                                            Treaty)



Status
Signed January 17, 1961
Ratified September 16, 1964
Came into force September 16, 1964
Termination: Certain parts may be terminated in 2024 with 10 years' notice


Lead Department
Natural Resources Canada


Subject Category
Freshwater


Summary
In 1961, Canada and the United States signed the Columbia River Treaty (CRT) to develop
the hydroelectric potential of the Columbia River basin. Canada constructed three reservoirs
on the Canadian side of the basin and receives, in return, one-half of the additional electricity
generation and payment for increased flood control benefits enabled on the US side as a
result of this additional storage. The treaty may not be terminated sooner than 60 years from
its ratification (i.e., 2024), and even if terminated, parts of the treaty pertaining to flood
control remain in effect. Ten years' notice is required for termination (i.e., 2014 at the
earliest).


Commitments
All commitments and financial returns pertaining to the treaty were assigned by Canada to
British Columbia. British Columbia has designated BC Hydro as the ‚Canadian Entity‛ to
deliver on the river management terms of the treaty.


Action Required




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            185
None


Activities
The treaty was written with power generation and flood control as its primary purposes.
Environmental issues such as species at risk must be addressed within the limitations of
these primary purposes. As a result, many individuals and agencies on both sides of the
border are viewing the termination date as an opportunity to address these shortcomings, and
the 10-year notice (2014) as the first opportunity to be heard. These agencies are engaging
in dialogue aiming to influence the future of the treaty.


Environment Canada provides atmospheric and hydrometric monitoring services as outlined in
various agreements with BC Hydro.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       186
Evidence of Compliance
Natural Resources Canada sits on the CRT Permanent Engineering Board to oversee delivery
of treaty commitments. Canada does not have an Act of Parliament pertaining to this treaty.


Contact
REED, Electricity Resources Branch, Natural Resources Canada
Telephone: (613) 996-3027


Water Issues, Environment Canada
Telephone: (604) 664-9345
Facsimile: (604) 664-9126


Web Sites
http://pubx.dfait-
maeci.gc.ca/A_BRANCH/AES/env_commitments.nsf/0/ae32f904f7c7963885256b6c004
aeb88?OpenDocument
http://www.bchydro.com/info/system/system15276.html
http://www.cbt.org/about/main.asp?fl=3&pg=treaty




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                                                                                         187
Treaty between Canada and the United States of America relating to the Skagit River
         and Ross Lake, and the Seven Mile Reservoir on the Pend d'Oreille River



Status
Signed April 2, 1984
Ratified December 14, 1984
Came into force December 14, 1984
Termination: No sooner than January 1, 2065, with one year's notice


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Freshwater


Summary
The treaty sets out Canada’s obligations related to the agreement between British Columbia
and the City of Seattle, by which Seattle agrees not to construct the Ross High Dam, which
would have the effect of raising the level of Ross Lake and the Skagit River at the
international boundary, provided that British Columbia supply it with the electricity
approximately anticipated from the construction of the Ross High Dam.


The treaty protects the Government of Canada in the event British Columbia fails to comply
with the BC–Seattle agreement.


Commitments
Under the BC–Seattle agreement, British Columbia is to supply Seattle, for 80 years, with
power equivalent to that which would have been generated if the Ross High Dam height had
been raised. Seattle will pay British Columbia the equivalent of the cost of building the Ross
High Dam. Either party to the agreement may give notice to terminate after 1991. If British
Columbia gives notice, it must return the money to Seattle so that the dam can be raised,
which will lead to the flooding of the Skagit Valley. British Columbia was also allowed to raise




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           188
the operating level of the Seven Mile reservoir on the Pend d’Oreille River to help produce the
required power. If Seattle terminates the agreement, it loses the right to flood the Skagit
Valley


Action Required
None at present. Environment Canada co-signed the related agreement between Canada and
British Columbia with Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT) and would play
a supporting role to DFAIT in the event any federal action is required under the treaty.


Activities
Although Environment Canada has no obligations under the treaty, it maintains a water level
monitoring station on the Skagit River at the international boundary as part of its overall joint
monitoring program with the United States.


Evidence of Compliance
The United States Geological Survey monitors Ross Reservoir levels at the international
gauging station near Newhalem, Washington. BC Hydro and Seattle City Light monitor the
elevation of the Seven Mile Reservoir.


Contacts
US Relations Division, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Telephone: (613) 944-6911
Facsimile: (613) 943-2423


Water Issues, Environment Canada
Telephone: (604) 664-9345
Facsimile: (604) 664-9126


Web Sites
http://pubx.dfait-
maeci.gc.ca/A_BRANCH/AES/env_commitments.nsf/0/f7d7c582815409e385256b6c00
4aebaf?OpenDocument
http://www.lexum.umontreal.ca/ca_us/en/cts.1984.16.en.html




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                                                                                            189
 Treaty between Canada and the United States of America Concerning the Diversion
                                    of the Niagara River


(An agreement between Canada and the United States
respecting the uses of the waters of the Niagara River)




Status
Signed February 27, 1950


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada
Environment Canada provides the Canadian member, appointed through an order in council


Subject Category
Freshwater


Summary
The International Niagara Committee was set up by the governments of Canada and the
United States by an exchange of notes during January 1955, in accordance with provisions of
Article VII of the Niagara Treaty of 1950 between the two countries.


The committee reports to Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and the State
Department in the United States.


Commitments
Environment Canada also provides technical support to the Canadian member in the form of
an on-site representative and the conduct of weekly inspections to verify determination,
recording, and reporting of water use and allocation under the terms of the treaty.


Action Required
The committee usually meets twice a year, with the meetings attended by representatives of
Ontario Power Generation, the New York Power Authority, the St. Lawrence Seaway




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                      190
Management Corporation, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and the Ontario
Ministry of Natural Resources.


Activities
The primary functions of the committee are as follows:


    -     to ascertain, determine, and record the amounts of water available for the purpose of
          the treaty
    -     to record the amounts of water taken from the Niagara River and Welland Ship Canal
          for hydro-electric power generation by both countries
    -     to ensure that the amount of water flowing over Niagara Falls meets the requirements
          specified in the treaty
    -     to investigate, explain, and report on the causes of any treaty violations
    -     to inspect the power plants to ensure accurate determination of water diversions


Evidence of Compliance
A report is submitted to the Canadian and United States governments annually.


Contact
International Niagara Committee
Burlington, Ontario
Telephone: (905) 336-4580


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             191
   Treaty Relating to the Boundary Waters and Questions Arising Along the Border
                           between the United States and Canada



Status
Signed January 11, 1909 (supplemented by many subsequent agreements)


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Freshwater


Summary
The Boundary Waters Treaty (BWT) established the principles and a mechanism for
addressing boundary and transboundary water issues and resolving disputes between Canada
and the United States. The BWT stipulates that boundary and transboundary water shall not
be polluted in either country to the injury of property or health of the other country (Article IV).
Also, water levels and flows must not be altered without the approval of the responsible
government and the International Joint Commission (IJC). The BWT also created the IJC to
provide a mechanism to resolve and prevent disputes along the Canada-US boundary
concerning water quantity and quality or in other areas (e.g., air pollution). The IJC is a
permanent body composed of three commissioners appointed by each country. Its duties
include responding to applications for the use, obstruction, or diversion of certain boundary
and transboundary waters affecting levels and flows. Where the IJC has the authority to grant
approval, it may impose binding conditions on both countries and appoint an international
board of control to oversee compliance with the conditions.


Commitments
The key provisions of the BWT are as follows:
    -    Canada and the United States maintain exclusive jurisdiction and control over the use
         and diversion of all waters on their own side of the boundary. However, if any injuries
         occur, the injured party shall be entitled to the same rights and remedies as if such




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                               192
        injury took place in the country where the diversion or interference occurred (Article
        II).
    -   Boundary and transboundary waters shall not be polluted on either side to the injury
        of health or property on the other (Article IV).
    -   Canada and the United States, "enjoy equal and similar rights in the use of waters"
        on their own side of the boundary, and in the event of a dispute among competing
        uses, water use priorities will be ranked in the following order: domestic and sanitary;
        navigation; power (Article VIII).


No project (use, obstruction, or diversion) that would affect the natural level or flow on the
other side of the international boundary or raise the level of transboundary rivers at the
boundary can proceed except by authority of Canada or the United States and with the
approval of the IJC. In granting approval, the IJC may impose binding conditions on both
countries and private parties, and usually appoints an international board of control to oversee
compliance with the conditions of approval (Article III). Either government may refer to the
IJC any question or matter of difference concerning water quantity and water/air quality
issues along the common frontier. In practice, such references have been transmitted jointly
by the two governments, after consultations on the specific terms. The IJC investigates,
reports, and makes recommendations for resolving the issue in question. Implementation of
the commission's recommendations is at the discretion of the governments, and is usually
exercised after bilateral consultation. The IJC is responsible for alerting the governments of
emerging or potential water or air pollution problems along the boundary, and has arbitral
authority over any subject referred to it, but the governments have not made use of this
provision.


Action Required
Environment Canada provides technical support to the IJC and advises Foreign Affairs and
International Trade Canada (DFAIT) on technical matters relating to the licensing of
developments on transboundary waters in accordance with the International Boundary Waters
Treaty Act.


Activities
When requested by the two federal governments, the IJC provides advice on matters affecting
the shared environment or undertakes specific investigations. More than 100 boundary water



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           193
issues have been referred to the IJC. In addition, the IJC has created control boards (12),
pollution boards (4), advisory boards, and study boards.


Environment Canada supports the IJC, providing secretariat and technical support.
Environment Canada also monitors levels, flows, and water quality to ensure compliance with
IJC objectives and with the BWT and related agreement requirements, including water
apportionment provisions. Environment Canada officials also participate directly on the boards
set up under the treaty. Americas Branch provides national policy coordination for the
department’s involvement with the IJC at semi-annual meetings with governments. The
National Water Issues Branch provides national coordination and scientific and technical
advice to regions, other government departments, and provinces in meeting commitments
under the BWT. This includes resolution of transboundary issues, development of a Canadian
position, and scientific and technical support to the IJC and other Canada–US transboundary
agreements.


Environment Canada also supports the BWT with the International River Improvements Act
and the air quality provisions with the Canada Environmental Protection Act.


Evidence of Compliance
Relevant reports include the following:
    -     IJC biennial reports on Great Lakes water quality
    -     regular reports from boards established under the BWT.
    -
Emerging issues include the following:
    -     Devils Lake Outlet, North Dakota
    -     Garrison Diversion Project, North Dakota
    -     IJC proposal to establish 10 ecosystem-based watershed boards across Canada
    -     bulk water removal, including export of water
    -     review of Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement


Contact
Canada-US Transboundary Issues, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-1655




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                                                                                         194
Web Site
http://www.ijc.org/en/home/main_accueil.htm




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              195
                           BILATERAL AGREEMENTS




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              196
 Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Federal
              Republic of Germany on Scientific and Technical Cooperation



Status
Signed April 16, 1971
Renewed every 2 years


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The agreement aims to facilitate and encourage scientific and technological cooperation and
exchanges of information and personnel between agencies, research organizations, and
enterprises in the public and private sectors in both countries. Under the agreement,
Environment Canada has had a successful scientific and technological bilateral relationship
with the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) of the Federal Republic of
Germany, which is the coordinating body of the agreement for the Germans. For example,
several joint projects with German scientists from research centres and technical universities
have taken place. As well, activities consisting of joint research and studies, technology
transfer, joint publications, lectures, and exchanges of information have been implemented.


Activities
Under the agreement, individual projects are connected by three networks: ecosystem health;
remediation of contaminated soil, sediment, and water; and energy and water transfer in
climate systems. Projects have focused on atmosphere, ecotoxicology, microbiology, water
and sediments, and remediation.


One of the major topics being studied in the biological response field is the loading of
nutrients in waterways. The objective of one study is to develop and validate an integrated




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                                                                                         197
biomonitoring method for assessing non-point loadings on selected waterways in Germany
and Canada. In-situ test methods for nutrient limitation were tested and adapted in Germany.
The project also contributes to the scope of growth concept, and has links to effects
monitoring (e.g., monitoring the role of contaminants in reproductive dysfunctions in fish).


Another joint project is a study to evaluate the presence of endocrine disrupters in the
environment and to detect the responses in selected fish species of economic and ecological
value to both countries. A vitellogenin assay for fish of similar species in Canada and
Germany is to be developed. The production of antibodies specific to fish species found in
both countries will be mutually beneficial in addressing the endocrine disrupter problem.


A very promising approach based on quantifying immunosuppressive effects in organisms and
populations is being developed, which will make an important contribution to ecosystem health
assessment. By means of measurements and the comparison of immunological and
biochemical endpoints to assess their performance in detecting metabolic responses in
shellfish exposed to pollution gradients in Canada and Germany, this approach will contribute
to the understanding of the risk potential to the environment. This new test procedure on
immunological resistance of mussels is increasingly required by government authorities, and
this summarizing effect parameter will provide authorities with a powerful new parameter to
promote a sustainable public water management plan and environmental management in
general.


In fall 2005, a meeting took place under the network for ecosystem health in Potsdam,
Germany. More recently, a special session was held at the Aquatic Toxicity Workshop (ATW)
-2006, as suggested by the German partners, on the topic of ‚Toxicology meets
ecotoxicology: narrowing the gap between environmental and human health issues.‛ The
workshop session was held under the auspices of the Ecosystem Health Network and took
place October 1–6 , 2006, in Canada.


Progress has been made in several informal collaborations involving scientists from partner
countries. Dr. G. Huschek and Professor P.D. Hansen at the Technical University at Berlin in
collaboration with Dr. J. Sherry at Environment Canada’s National Water Research Institute
(NWRI) have made progress in the use of a QTOF-MS method that they originally developed
for use with rainbow trout to measure biomarker proteins in feral fish taken from Great Lakes



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                               198
Areas of Concern. Dr. K. Schirmer of the Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig
and Dr. J. Sherry of NWRI are using ceramic dosimeters that were developed in Germany to
study the progress of the Randle Reef remediation project in Hamilton Harbour. The Randle
Reef area is heavily contaminated with ITER polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The
dosimeters are passive sampling devises that can be deployed in the water column and in the
sediment for periods of up to one year. The dosimeters absorb PAHs and other hydrophobic
substances.


For the most part, however, activity under the agreement since 2005 has been less frequent
due in large part to the lack of a sponsoring agency in Germany.


Other Canada–Germany scientific activities include Canada Meets Germany (CMG) – A
Forum for Young Leaders, which took place in Montreal October 20, 2006. The theme was
renewable energy. The CMG works to strengthen the bilateral ties between both countries and
to serve as a source of expertise on topics pertinent to Canada and Germany. Its aim is to
develop lasting relationships between future leaders from Canada and Germany in the fields
of politics, academia, science, media, business, and culture.


Contacts
Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (905) 336-4625 and (905) 336-4813
Facsimile: (905) 336-6444


Web Site
http://www.ecosystem-health-network.de/




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                                                                                      199
  Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of Japan on
                          Cooperation in Science and Technology


Status
Entered into force May 7, 1986


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
This agreement aims to broaden the scope of scientific and technological cooperation
between Canada and Japan. It provides the framework for the exchange of researchers and
students, collaboration on joint projects, exploration of new areas for cooperation, and the
exchange of policy and program information. Some 200 collaborative projects in a wide range
of fields are recognized under the agreement.


The agreement is managed by the Canada–Japan Joint Committee on S&T Cooperation,
which meets every two years. Panels and workshops are the two principal mechanisms for
advancing cooperation. The Joint Panel on Space Science guides a comprehensive program
of collaborative research in microgravity, earth observation, space science, and new space
technologies. The recently established Joint Panel on Earth Science and Environment in the
North Pacific coordinates bilateral projects addressing global environmental challenges.


Activities
The key priority areas in which Japan and Canada have significant interaction already or are
expected to have in the future are (in no particular order) as follows:
    -    earth science and environmental variations, including Arctic research
    -    nuclear and energy-related science, including the ITER (International Thermonuclear
         Experimental Reactor) project
    -    space science.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           200
Environment Canada participates in bilateral S&T research activities through the
Meteorological Service of Canada and the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and
Analysis, which primarily collaborate with the Japan Meteorological Institute and the Japan
Meteorological Agency in projects such as climate modelling and simulation, experiments in
the Arctic ozone layer, and climate change in the hydrologic cycle in snowy and cold regions.


Contact
Global Issues, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3844


Web Site
http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/tna-nac/can-jap-ecoframe-en.asp
http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/agreements-en.htm


 Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian
                   Federation concerning Environmental Cooperation



Status
Signed May 1993
Automatically renewed every four years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Agreement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the Russian
Federation concerning     Environmental Cooperation aims to enhance environmental
cooperation and assist Canadian industry in marketing its products, services, and




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                                                                                         201
technologies. It also serves to exchange views and consult on major global and regional
environmental issues and on domestic environmental policies. Areas of cooperation identified
in the agreement may include atmospheric monitoring issues, including climate change and
its impacts; atmospheric ozone; air pollution; meteorology and climatology; protection of
marine and freshwater environments; prevention of ground water and surface water
contamination; environmental problems related to agriculture; conservation of ecosystems;
waste        management;   environmental     technologies;     environmental     monitoring   and
environmental quality assessment methods; environmental emergency response; environment
and economics; environmental impact assessment; training and education; environmental
laws and policies; and national environmental plans.


Activities
Under the 1989 Canada–Russia Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the
Government of Canada and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics – now
dissolved but which preceded the 1993 agreement with the Russian Federation – the
Canada–Russia Mixed Environmental Commission (MEC) was established as an umbrella
mechanism to provide direction and oversee bilateral cooperation. According to the
agreement, the MEC is to meet annually, alternately in Canada and Russia, to direct the
work and set the policy direction of the agreement. The MEC is also captured in the 1993
agreement.


The MEC has met only four times since 1989. The Fourth Meeting of the Canada–Russia
Mixed Environmental Commission was held in Moscow, June 1–2, 2000. An objective of the
meeting was to re-establish dialogue with Russia and engage in a high-level policy discussion
on global and regional environmental issues. Potential areas for follow-up included climate
change (e.g., joint work on emission inventories and small-scale energy efficiency projects)
and enforcement of environmental legislation. Prior to the fourth meeting, the MEC met in
Hull, Quebec, in 1995. However, it has not met since 2000, primarily because of operational
challenges that have hindered its ability to meet as regularly as it initially intended.


Other Canada–Russia environmental activities include cooperation on Northern issues. These
featured prominently in the joint statement communicated by Prime Minister Stephen Harper
of Canada and President Vladimir Putin of the Russian Federation during the G8 Summit
Meeting (July 15, 2006). More specifically, both countries made a commitment to the welfare



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                                                                                              202
of Arctic communities and, as partners in the Arctic Council, agreed to continue to work
together toward sound and sustainable Northern development.


In addition, while Canada continues to develop and implement domestic programs to
decrease anthropogenic emissions of mercury, Canada is also very active in advancing
international action on mercury, since a large portion of atmospheric mercury deposited in
Canada originates from foreign sources. Environment Canada has participated in the Arctic
Council Action Plan ‚Mercury Project‛ with Russia, along with other Arctic countries. Since
2002, the project has included finalizing a regional mercury inventory and a separate Russian
mercury assessment report. Current project activities include the selection of one of more pilot
projects (in Russia) for demonstrating mercury emissions reductions.


Environment Canada is also involved in the Global Partnership Program (GPP or GPX); a
commitment made by G8 leaders in Kananaskis, Alberta, in 2002, which aims to address
non-proliferation, disarmament, and nuclear safety in Russia and countries of the former
Soviet Union and to counter weapons of mass destruction-based terrorism. Environmental
considerations within the GPP include Arctic issues and sensitivities surrounding the Northern
environment, including circumpolar peoples, health and environmental linkages, and science
and technology.


Environment Canada is involved in reviewing research proposals of former Soviet weapons
scientists submitted to the Moscow-based International Science and Technology Centre
(ISTC) at which an Environment Canada official represents Canada on the ISTC Science
Advisory Committee. Department representatives act as research collaborators on several
ongoing ISTC projects. In light of this, a series of workshops between Environment Canada
and Russian officials took place in 2006 and early 2007.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0148
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025


Web Site
None



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                                                                                           203
Other Web Sites
G8 (2006)
http://en.g8russia.ru/
Arctic Council
http://www.arctic-council.org/
Global Partnership Program
http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/foreign_policy/global_partnership/menu-en.asp




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                                                                             204
 Agreement for Scientific and Technological Cooperation between the Government of
                   Canada and the Government of the Republic of India



Status
Entered into force November 18, 2005


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
This agreement covers specific areas of S&T collaboration in research fields of mutual
interest and benefit. The five themes initially covered under the agreement are nanoscience
and nanomedicine, information and communication technology, biotechnology and health
research and medical devices, sustainable and alternate energy and environmental
technologies, and earth sciences and disaster management. Foreign Affairs and International
Trade Canada does not expect funding for projects to start flowing until February/March
2007.


Activities
While individual Environment Canada scientists may be cooperating with counterparts in India,
no activities are currently associated with this agreement.


Environment Canada’s Terry McIntyre, Chief, Environmental Biotechnology Applications
Division, is serving as the Canadian expert coordinator for the biotechnology theme of the
agreement.




Web Site
http://www.infoexport.gc.ca/science/india_home-en.htm




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                                                              206
 Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
                          the Government of the Republic of Chile



Status
Signed by the Government of Canada and the Government of Chile in February 1997
Entered into force July 1997
No expiry date


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Canada–Chile Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (CCAEC) came into force in
July 1997 at the time of the Canada–Chile Free Trade Agreement (CCFTA) and the Canada–
Chile Agreement on Labour Cooperation (CCALC). Under the auspices of the CCAEC,
Canada and Chile agree to enhance environmental cooperation and to effectively enforce
environmental laws, such as those governing water, air, toxic substances, and wildlife. The
goal of the agreement is to ensure that environmental laws and regulations in both countries
provide for high levels of environmental protection.


The agreement establishes the Canada–Chile Commission for Environmental Cooperation.
This commission is composed of a council, a joint submissions committee, a joint public
advisory committee (JPAC), and two national s, one in each country, that support the work of
the commission.


Commitments
Each party is committed to
    -    ensuring high levels of environmental protection
    -    striving to improve environmental laws and regulations




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    -   effectively enforcing environmental laws and regulations through appropriate
        government actions
    -   publishing environmental laws, regulations, procedures, and administrative rulings
    -   making available judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative enforcement proceedings
        under a party's law to sanction or remedy violation of environmental laws and
        regulations
    -   ensuring private access to remedies and procedural guarantees


Canada and Chile are committed to
    -   establishing national secretariats to support the work of the commission
    -   having annual council sessions, including a public session and a meeting of the JPAC
    -   approving and implementing an biannual work program and budget for the
        commission
    -   addressing questions and differences that may arise between parties regarding
        interpretation
    -   cooperating with the Canada–Chile Free Trade Commission to achieve the
        environmental goals of the Free Trade Agreement
    -   responding to submissions on enforcement matters under Articles 14 and 15 of the
        agreement
    -   party-to-party consultation and resolution of disputes


Canada is responsible for half of the total costs of operating the Canada–Chile Commission
for Environmental Cooperation, including the Canadian national secretariat.


Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead. Other departments participate in cooperative activities.
Environment Canada must help ensure that Canada meets its financial, national, and common
obligations, as well as encourage provincial participation.


Canada is bound for matters within federal jurisdiction and has committed to use its best
efforts to encourage provinces to sign on to the Canada–Chile Agreement on Environmental
Cooperation.


Activities



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    -     The council meets annually. Secretariats have ongoing communication and meet at
          least twice a year.
    -     The 2005–2007 biannual program of work includes joint activities in four main areas:
          environmental law enforcement and compliance; participation of civil society in
          environmental management; health and environment; and trade and the environment.
    -     The JPAC provides advice to the council.


Evidence of Compliance
The national secretariat prepares an annual report containing information on how Canada is
meeting its obligations.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6905
Facsimile: (819) 997-0199


Web Site
http://can-chil.gc.ca/English/Default.cfm




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 Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
                      the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica



Status
Signed by the Government of Canada and the Government of the Republic of Costa Rica
April 23, 2001
Entered into force November 1, 2002
No expiry date


Lead Department:
Environment Canada


Subject Category:
Cooperation


Summary
The Canada–Costa Rica Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (CCRAEC) is the
environmental side agreement to the Canada–Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement. This
environmental cooperation agreement seeks to foster the protection and improvement of the
environment; to ensure effective enforcement of environmental laws and regulations; to
enhance bilateral cooperation and promote sustainable development through mutually
supportive economic and environmental policies; and to strengthen cooperation and promote
transparency and public participation in the development of environmental laws, procedures,
policies and practices.

Under the auspices of the CCRAEC, Canada and Costa Rica commit to ensure that their laws
provide for high levels of environmental protection and to effectively enforce those laws
through appropriate government action. The CCRAEC also calls for the advance publication,
to the extent possible, of proposed laws or regulations to allow the public to comment.

Commitments
Canada and Costa Rica are obligated to




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                                                                                          210
    -   ensure that all laws, regulations, and administrative rulings respecting any matter
        covered by the agreement are promptly published or made publicly available
    -   ensure that interested persons can request the investigation of alleged violations of
        environmental laws and that these requests be given due consideration in accordance
        with its law
    -   ensure that interested persons can access judicial, quasi-judicial, or administrative
        enforcement proceedings
    -   ensure a process is in place to submit written questions to either party with respect to
        the enforcement of their environmental laws and regulations
    -   meet at least every two years to review progress on implementation
    -   establish a point of contact for communications between the parties and from the
        public




Action Required
Environment Canada is the lead. Other departments and agencies at the federal and
provincial levels participate in cooperative activities with Costa Rica. Environment Canada
must strive to ensure that Canada meets its financial, national, and common obligations, as
well as encourage provincial and territorial participation. Canada is bound for matters within
federal jurisdiction and has committed to use its best efforts to encourage provinces to sign on
to the CCRAEC.


Activities
Activities included the following:
    -   July 2004: fact-gathering mission on innovative instruments of environmental
        management
    -   June 2004: workshop on capacity building, trade and environment, and governmental
        /round table discussion
    -   March 2004: detailed study of Costa Rica’s chemical management capacity
    -   December 2003: workshop on pollutant release and transfer registries
There have been no activities since July 2004.


Evidence of Compliance



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                                                                                           211
Environment Canada is meeting the obligations set out in the CCRAEC.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6905
Facsimile: (819) 997-0199


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/costarica/index_e.htm




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                                                                       212
 Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the Government of Canada and
                                  the United Mexican States



Status
Signed March 19, 1990


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Canada–Mexico Agreement on Environmental Cooperation was designed to provide a
framework for cooperation on a number of environmental issues, including atmospheric
environment, ecosystems, water, wastes, emergencies, and sustainable development. A
steering committee, co-chaired by Environment Canada and the Mexican Ministry of
Environment and Natural Resources (SEMARNAT), is responsible for overseeing the
implementation of the agreement.


Activities
Cooperation was very active between 1992 and 1995 under the Canada–Mexico
Environmental Cooperation Program, funded by Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canada (DFAIT) and managed jointly with Environment Canada. This initiative had two main
objectives: to assist in the development and enforcement of Mexico’s environmental legislation
and to demonstrate Canadian expertise in environmental management and technology.


In December 1996, the work plan featured 14 projects in environmental management,
conservation, and technologies.

The Americas Directorate of the International Affairs Branch is responsible for the overall
coordination of the agreement and the relations with SEMARNAT.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         213
There have been no further activities under the agreement since 1996. For the last decade,
focus has been on trilateral activities.

Contact
Americas Directorate, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-6905
Facsimile: (819) 997-0199


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/mexico_e.htm




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                                                                                     214
 Canada–China Framework Statement for Cooperation on Environment into the 21st
                                           Century



Status
Signed November 1998


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The Canada–China Framework Statement for Cooperation on Environment into the 21st
Century was signed during Premier Zhu Rongji's visit to Canada and reflects a shared interest
in enhancing cooperation on environmental and sustainable development issues. It provides
an umbrella for collaboration on the environment, especially climate change and sustainable
development, through the coordination of all federal efforts with China on environmental and
sustainable development issues.


Activities
Under the framework statement, the two countries have established the Canada–China Joint
Committee on Environment Cooperation (JCEC) as a forum to discuss environmental issues.
Environment Canada and the Chinese State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA)
are the key coordinating agencies for the JCEC. They are also the state co-chairs for the
meetings at the director general level. Several departments and agencies on the Canadian
side (e.g., Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, the Canadian International
Development Agency, Industry Canada, and the Environmental Assessment Agency) and
Chinese ministries and administrations (e.g., Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Science
and Technology) participate in the JCEC.




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                                                                                         215
The JCEC held its inaugural meeting March 20–21, 2000. The fifth meeting took place in
Xi’an in April 2006 and focused its policy discussion on environmental impact assessments;
environmental emergencies and preparedness; greening the Olympics; and cooperation with
environmental industries. Previous meetings have focused on a range of topics, including air
pollution, environmental legislation, and sustainable urbanization.


Follow-up to the JCEC is carried out under the Environment Canada–SEPA Memorandum of
Understanding on Environmental Cooperation.


Contact
Bilateral Affairs Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/china_e.htm




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                                                                                       216
         Canada–South Africa Joint Declaration of Intent on Strengthened Bilateral
                                         Cooperation



Status
Signed November 4, 2003
Renewable


Lead Departments
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada and Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
Canada and South Africa signed a joint declaration on November 4, 2003, during the visit of
President Thabo Mbeki to Canada. The declaration provides a new framework for cooperation
in a number of areas, including enhanced cooperation on climate change.


Canada and South Africa confirmed their commitment to strengthening their partnership on
environmental issues, especially with respect to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.


Both governments recognized the need to enhance cooperation on climate change through
policy dialogue, through cooperation on capacity building by seeking expansion of the Clean
Development Mechanism projects in support of sustainable development in South Africa, and
by helping South Africa to address its problem of desertification.


Activities
As a follow-up to the joint declaration, representatives from Environment Canada and Foreign
Affairs and International Trade Canada visited South Africa in August 2004. The objectives of
the mission were to initiate a dialogue with the South African government; to establish formal
communications between the two governments and civil society, including influential




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                                                                                         217
organizations and international bodies; to explore the state of the Clean Development
Mechanism (CDM) readiness in South Africa; and to explore opportunities for CDM project
development.


Contact
Climate Change International, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
None




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                                                                                  218
 Cooperative Arrangement between the National Industrial Chemicals Notification and
Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) of Australia and the Minister of Environment Canada
(EC) and the Minister of Health Canada (HC), on the Subject of Sharing Information
                                 on New Industrial Chemicals



Status
The New Substances Program is in the process of renewing the arrangement.


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The arrangement includes exchanging information on both Canadian and Australian new
chemical regimes, working cooperatively through projects of mutual benefit, sharing
assessment and management-related resources, and adopting, when desirable and where
possible, consistent practices and regulatory approaches. It is in keeping with many
international efforts aimed at learning from each other's expertise.


Activities
Implementation of this arrangement will be achieved through a cooperative work program
(outlined in a work plan) and adopted on an annual basis. The work program addresses six
specific areas of cooperation as outlined below:


    -    Expanding knowledge and information sharing – involves increasing knowledge and
         building confidence in each country’s assessment programs by exchange of
         assessment reports, summaries of underlying test data, model results, program
         guidelines, policies, and related information. In some cases, it might result in existing
         systems being modified to be more conducive to such exchanges.




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                                                                                             219
   -      Scientific and regulatory consultative services – enables participants' experts to
          consult on scientific and regulatory aspects of notifications submitted to either or both
          countries, including industrial chemical identity, listing of industrial chemicals on
          domestic inventories, interpretation and validation of test and predicted data, and risk
          management options.


   -      Work sharing on co-notifications – enables participants to negotiate sharing of tasks
          associated with the assessment of notifications submitted simultaneously in both
          countries by one or more industries.


   -      Advancing scientific tools – concerns the development of models, databases, and
          other scientific resources in support of effective and valid assessments.


   -      Staff development – includes staff exchanges and joint training programs, where
          appropriate and achievable.


   -      Special projects – includes projects that support meaningful initiatives such as those
          emerging under the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
          (OECD) Task Force on New Chemicals.


In addition, the participants will communicate on a regular basis, in the form of reports,
electronic mail, telephone conferences, or meetings concerning, each area of cooperation.


Contact
New Substances Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-4336


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/substances/nsb/eng/home_e.shtml




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                              220
   Joint Statement between the Government of Canada and the Government of the
   People’s Republic of China on Strengthened Dialogue and Future Cooperation on
                                      Climate Change



Status
Signed October 22, 2003


Lead Departments
Environment Canada and Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
The joint statement reaffirms both Canada's and China’s commitment to implementing existing
bilateral agreements and affirms their mutual interest in strengthening the partnership between
them on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto
Protocol. Both countries commit to enhancing the policy dialogue on such issues as the Clean
Development Mechanism, clean technology, public awareness, energy efficiency and
renewable energy, capacity building, climate science impacts and adaptation, and other
climate change issues.


Activities
Participants have established the Climate Change Working Group (CCWG), which is led on
the Canadian side jointly by Environment Canada and Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canada and on the Chinese side jointly by the National Development and Reform
Commission (NDRC) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


Canada will host the next meeting of the CCWG in spring 2007.


Contact
Climate Change International, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                          221
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              222
    Joint Statement between the Department of the Environment of Canada and the
    Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources of the United Mexican States on
               Strengthened Dialogue and Cooperation on Climate Change



Status
Signed by the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico December 8, 2005
No expiry date


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
The objectives of the joint statement include the following:
-   to strengthen, broaden, and deepen efforts to combat climate change and to support
    strong, sustainable growth
-   to cooperate in international climate change negotiations with a view to developing an
    approach to future international cooperation
-   to confirm mutual interest in strengthening the partnership between the two countries
    through enhanced cooperation in the areas of
    -    the Clean Development Mechanism
    -    adaptation
    -    technology development and deployment opportunities
    -    raising public awareness about climate change


The joint statement established the Joint Working Group on Climate Change Cooperation led
on the Canadian side jointly by Environment Canada and Foreign Affairs and International
Trade Canada and on the Mexican side by the Ministry of Environment and Natural
Resources (SEMARNAT).




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                     223
No specific funding set aside


Activities
Discussions on identifying members of the climate change working group have begun.


Contact
Climate Change International, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/mexico_e.htm




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                                                                                     224
         Exchange of Letters between Canada and the European Commission on
                                Environmental Cooperation



Signed
November 6, 1975


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
Canada’s environmental relations with the European Commission were confirmed in 1975 with
the signing of an exchange of letters on environmental cooperation. The purpose of the
exchange is to facilitate exchanges of environmental information and expertise in areas of
common interest such as the evaluation of risks to human health and the environment from
pollution; the establishment of quality objectives in dealing with environmental pollution,
particularly in the areas of water pollution; and protection of the natural environment. The
structural framework for cooperation consists of four elements: cooperation at the expert level
on specific subjects; ad hoc cooperation; exchanges of views at the occasion of international
environmental meetings; and participation by experts in technical symposia.


Activities
Over the years, Canada and the European Commission have established a series of
mechanisms for policy consultations to address a number of issues of mutual interest,
including the environment. High-level consultations on environmental policy were held until
1983 and then restarted in 1991. These meetings currently take place roughly every 18
months, alternately in Brussels (Belgium) and Gatineau (Quebec), between the Deputy
Minister of Environment Canada and the Director General for Environment at the European
Commission. The Canada–European Commission High-Level Meeting on Environment is an
opportunity for informal strategic discussions on topical environmental issues of a bilateral or




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           225
multilateral nature. These consultations tend to take place in an informal setting so as to
encourage frank and open discussion on a range of domestic and international environmental
issues of common interest, to exchange views on respective approaches, and to identify
possible areas for future cooperation.


The most recent Canada–European Commission High-Level Meeting on Environment took
place in Brussels on March 6, 2006. A number of issues (e.g., chemicals, waste, biodiversity,
and climate change) were discussed. The next meeting will be hosted by Canada and is
tentatively scheduled to take place in September 2007 in Gatineau, Quebec.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025




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                                                                                        226
  Memorandum of Understanding between Canada and Brazil on Cooperation in the
   Area of Climate Change Initiatives including the Clean Development Mechanisms



Status
Signed by the Government of Canada and the Government of Brazil and entered into force on
November 23, 2005
Renewed automatically every 5 years


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
This memorandum of understanding (MOU) was created to help foster cooperation in the
area of climate change, provide a forum for regular bilateral consultation, facilitate the
development and implementation of projects that reduce net greenhouse gas emissions, and
exchange information on national programs. In addition, this MOU provides for the
establishment of a bilateral working group.


Activities
None to date


Contact
Climate Change International, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


Web Site
None




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                                                                                     227
Memorandum of Understanding between China Meteorological Administration (CMA),
       People’s Republic of China, and Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC),
Environment Canada, Canada on Cooperation in Science and Technology Related to
         Meteorology, Hydrology, Environmental Predictions and Climate Change



Status
Signed June 1, 1986, as the MOU on Cooperative Meteorological Matters
Signed October 23, 2001


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation/Meteorology


Summary
This memorandum of understanding (MOU) builds on the successful history of the MOU on
Cooperative Meteorological Matters. Based on equality, mutual benefits, and reciprocity, the
Meteorological Service of Canada (MSC) and the China Meteorological Administration (CMA)
wish to improve the application of science and technology as they relate to meteorology,
hydrology, environmental predictions, and climate change toward mitigating the social and
economic risks and impacts caused by vulnerabilities to atmospheric and climate change and
variability including extreme events.


The purpose of this MOU is to improve cooperation in science and technology related to the
fields of meteorology, hydrology, environmental predictions and climate change undertaken by
the CMA and MSC and their cooperators. This cooperation is desirable to enhance and
maximize capabilities in these areas in both countries and to encourage collaboration for
mutual benefit.


Activities




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                                                                                       228
Work plans are developed jointly by MSC and CMA. A joint working group (JWG) meets
every two years to review progress on the current work plan and to agree on a work plan for
the following two years. The last JWG meeting took place in Canada in September 2006.


Projects included on previous work plans have included a study on network design for urban
observations; development of new techniques for air quality prediction and monitoring; an air
quality workshop; wind energy mapping; co-sponsorship of a climate change adaptation
workshop; and senior management training.


Contact
Global Issues, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 997-3844


Web Site
None




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                                                                                        229
       Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
 Government of the Federative Republic of Brazil on Environmental and Sustainable
                        Development Consultations and Cooperation



Status
Signed by the Government of Canada and the Government of Brazil and entered into force
November 26, 1996
Renewed automatically every 5 years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The objectives of the memorandum of understanding (MOU) include the following:
   -     cooperation and information exchange related to sound environmental technologies
         and their application in areas of mutual concerns
   -     exchange of experience on instruments for environmental policy and management
   -     the sharing of perspectives and positions on key environmental issues
   -     consultations on efforts of international and regional bodies dealing with the
         environment and sustainable development


To further the objectives mentioned above, this MOU provides for the following:
   -     the establishment of a Joint Environmental Committee, co-chaired by Environment
         Canada and Industry Canada for Canada and the Ministry of External Relations for
         Brazil
   -     annual consultations, alternating in Canada and in Brazil, with the participation of
         senior officials of each country’s foreign affairs and environment ministries and other
         government agencies.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                           230
There is no specific funding set aside for the MOU.


Activities
Under the framework of the MOU, one consultative meeting was held in Ottawa in 1997;
environment ministers from Canada and Brazil met at the 11th Session of the Commission on
Sustainable Development (CSD 11) in 2003; and two policy dialogues have taken place. On
October 3–4, 2005, a Canada–Brazil policy dialogue took place in Ottawa with senior
environmental officials from Brazil. Discussions were held on climate change, forestry,
multilateral environmental institutions, biodiversity, overfishing, and biosafety. As well, in
August 2004, Canadian and Brazilian foreign affairs and environment officials met in Brasilia,
Brazil, to discuss issues including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, the Convention on
Biodiversity, the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent, health and environment,
forestry issues, and international environmental governance.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-3406
Facsimile: (819) 997-0199


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/brazil_e.htm




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                                                                                         231
 Memorandum of Understanding between the Minister of Environment of Canada and
 the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of
              the Federal Republic of Germany on Environmental Cooperation



Status
Signed September 17, 1990
Automatically renewed every four years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
In 1990, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on environmental cooperation was signed
between Environment Canada and the German Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation
and Nuclear Safety with a view to strengthening cooperation on environmental policy. As
identified in the MOU, cooperation will take place through the exchange of information and
consultation on major global environmental issues and other mutually decided upon
international environmental topics. Information will also be exchanged on domestic
environmental issues, including environmental polices, programs, and initiatives; monitoring,
impact assessment; research; and legal and administrative questions. Other forms of
cooperation may include, inter alia, research and development projects, exchanges of
personnel, and the joint promotion of measures to protect the environment. Areas of
cooperation identified in the MOU include climate change; environment and energy;
environment and economy; sustainable development; West–East environmental issues;
North–South environmental issues; protection of the aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial
environment; and nature conservation.


Activities




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                        232
While scientific and technological activities took place under the Science and Technology
Agreement between Canada and Germany (1971), policy exchanges under the MOU on
environmental cooperation have been less frequent. Currently, there is no bilateral activity
under the MOU.


Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       233
     Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
   Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Concerning the Provision of
              Technical Expertise in Areas of Environmental Management



Status
Signed in October 1996


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The purpose of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) is to provide technical expertise in
environmental management.


Activities
The Science and Technologies Strategies Directorate, in consultation with Americas
Directorate, is the coordinator for the implementation of the MOU. The only bilateral
cooperation activity was in 1996, when an Environment Canada official facilitated a workshop
in Trinidad and Tobago on greening government operations.

There have been no further activities under the agreement since 1996.

Contact
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-3406
Facsimile: (819) 997-0199


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                       234
      Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
   Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Environment of the
                                   Republic of Korea



Status
Expired


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
In September 1995, Environment Canada and the Ministry of Environment of the Republic of
Korea signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on environmental cooperation. The
MOU established a framework for environmental cooperation with a view to improving
environmental cooperation in both countries, mainly in the areas of clean technologies,
environmental impact assessment, public education and awareness, and atmospheric issues.


Activities
In the past, the Pacific and Yukon Region of Environment Canada hosted, as part of an
exchange program, senior officials from Korea who focused their studies on environmental
impact assessment and sustainable development. The Pacific and Yukon Region also hosted
a two-week study tour for 10 senior officials from the Korean Ministry of Environment to
exchange information on environmental policies and management approaches in ecosystem
management. Environment Canada collaborated with Foreign Affairs and International Trade
Canada to organize a Canadian environmental mission to Seoul. Canada and Korea co-
hosted symposiums on marine environment and on harbour and coastal management.


Contact
Pacific and Yukon Region, Environment Canada




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                     235
Telephone: (604) 664-9119


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/korea_e.htm




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              236
 Memorandum of Understanding for Scientific and Technical Cooperation in the Field
of the Environment between Environment Canada and the French Ministry Attached to
   the Prime Minister Responsible for the Environment and the Prevention of Major
                               Technological and Natural Risks



Status
Signed February 1, 1991; automatically renewed every four years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The purpose of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) is to exchange scientific and
technical information on, inter alia, programs, relevant policies and regulations, significant
research, monitoring, socio-economic implications, training, and communications in key areas,
including the following:


    -    management of major rivers
    -    management of major lakes
    -    metrology and hydrological monitoring
    -    contamination of the aquatic environment
    -    remote sensing and processing of applied environmental data
    -    domestic and industrial wastewater treatment
    -    the functioning of ecosystems
    -    protection of genetic heritage (fauna-flora)
    -    meteorology
    -    management of parks, historic sites and other protected areas
    -    management of waste and contaminated soil




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                         237
Activities
While annual consultation meetings took place at regular intervals during the 1990s, recent
exchanges between the two countries have taken place on an ad hoc basis, mainly at the
scientific level. For example, Canadian and French collaborators have been involved in the
validation of a protozoan toxicity test, optimization of a genotoxicity screening tool,
development of a miniaturized phytotoxicity assay, technology transfer of a hydra-based
toxicity test, and a review of phytotoxicity tests useful in the assessment of aquatic
contamination. In turn, many of these activities resulted in scientific publications in acclaimed
academic journals such as Environmental Toxicology and the Journal of Applied Toxicology.
During the 2002–2005 period, activities involved investigations on the hazards of nonphenol,
a review of articles in ecotoxicology, editing a book on aquatic toxicological tools and
strategies, and publishing a detailed article on a microplate toxicity technique in small-scale
freshwater toxicity investigations.


In 1997, Canada and France signed a declaration of enhanced partnership. Both countries
made a commitment to revive bilateral consultations on their environment policies under the
MOU on scientific and technological cooperation, as well as enhance the effectiveness of their
multilateral activities through such means as information exchanges when preparing for major
multilateral conferences.


Contacts
International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989
Facsimile: (819) 953-7025


Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (514) 283-2509


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                            238
       Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
  Department of the Environment of Canada and the Ministry of Science, technology
                       and Environment of the Kingdom of Thailand



Status
Signed in 1997
Automatically renewed every 3 years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
The purpose of this memorandum of understanding (MOU) is to reinforce the friendly ties and
cooperative activities that exist between Canada and Thailand and to exchange experience,
knowledge, technologies, and methodologies in the field of the environment.


Activities


In the past, the Pacific and Yukon Region of Environment Canada collaborated with a
Canadian consulting firm to conduct an external audit of the pulp mill industry in Thailand.
Also, departmental officials participated in three audits in Thailand as part of a project plan to
train Thai inspectors on audit procedures. There has been no recent action under this MOU.


Contact
Bilateral Affairs Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989


Web Site
None




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             239
Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              240
      Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Cooperation between the
    Department of Environment of Canada and the State Environmental Protection
                                  Administration of China



Status
Signed in 1993 with China’s National Environmental Protection Agency (now called the State
Environmental Protection Administration)
Renewed every 5 years; last renewed 2003


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Cooperation


Summary
This memorandum of understanding (MOU) provides a framework for cooperation on regional
and global environmental issues with a focus on transboundary air and toxic substance
control, water resource management, smart growth and sustainable development,
environmental management policies and regulations, ecosystem and biodiversity protection,
and the transfer of clean technologies. Annual work plans are developed in consultation with
Environment Canada’s Chinese partners to implement the MOU through workshops, missions,
exchanges of information, hosting Chinese officials, and study tours.


Activities
To date, projects and policy discussions under the MOU have focused on the management of
toxic chemicals and hazardous waste, climate change, ozone depletion, transboundary air
issues (i.e., mercury) migratory species and wetlands protection, freshwater ecosystems, the
importance of sustainability and greening in government operations, the demonstration and
transfer of Canadian environmental technology and expertise, education and capacity building,
emergency preparedness, and the adoption of an environmental impact assessment
processes.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                        241
Contact
Bilateral Affairs Division, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 994-0989


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/china_e.htm




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              242
      Memorandum of Understanding on Environmental Collaboration between the
Department of the Environment of Canada and the Planning, Environment and Lands
 Bureau of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of
                                           China



Status
Signed 1992
Renewed in 2003 for 5 years


Lead Department
Environment Canada


Subject Category
Environmental cooperation


Summary
In September 2003, Environment Canada and the Planning, Environment and Lands Bureau
of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China signed a
memorandum of understanding (MOU) on environmental cooperation. The MOU establishes a
framework for environmental cooperation with a view to improving environmental cooperation
in both countries, mainly in the areas of sustainable development, air quality management and
monitoring, water management, nature conservation, climate change, greenhouse gas
emission reduction, transfer of Canadian environmental technologies, public awareness and
engagement, environmental science and technology research, environmental law development
and enforcement, management of toxics and waste, and capacity building.


Activities
In the past, the Pacific and Yukon Region of Environment Canada co-led a Trade Team
Canada Environmental Mission. Also, the Pacific and Yukon Region hosted an Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) Workshop and participated in a seminar in Hong Kong on the
protection of natural resources and the control of trade of endangered species. There has
been no recent action under this MOU.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                        243
Contact
Pacific and Yukon Region, Environment Canada
Telephone: (604) 664-9119


Web Site
http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/bilat/hongkg_e.htm




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                              244
     Memorandum of Understanding between the Government of Canada and the
   Government of India on Climate Change initiatives, including Clean Development
                                        Mechanism Projects



Status
Signed December 8, 2005
Valid for five years; can be terminated earlier by either party by providing six months' notice.


Lead Department
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada


Subject Category
Climate Change


Summary
This memorandum of understanding (MOU) is intended to facilitate cooperation on climate
change initiatives between Canada and India (the parties) and pursue joint projects that
reduce net greenhouse gas emissions. Both countries will encourage market-oriented
deployment      of   greenhouse   gas     mitigation   technologies,   including   renovation   and
modernization of old thermal power plants; energy efficient and renewable energy
technologies and sustainable practices that promote the safeguarding and and/or
enhancement of sinks and carbon pools; and the exchange of information on national
programs.


This MOU does not commit the parties to provide any financial resources towards the
development and implementation of Clean Development Mechanism projects and activities.


Activities
This MOU builds bridges for Canadian companies to demonstrate their environmental
capabilities.




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                                245
   -      The Government of Canada is promoting and supporting opportunities for Canadian
          companies to participate in projects.
   -      Canadian companies, like those from other countries over the world, are anxious to
          prove themselves within India’s emerging economy.
   -      Both the need and the demand for quality environmental technologies and sustainable
          practices are increasing with the pace of development.
   -      The value of environmental quality for the health of our citizens is priceless while the
          cost of environmental degradation is prohibitively expensive for future generations.


Contact
Climate Change International, International Affairs Branch, Environment Canada
Telephone: (819) 953-9483


                                         List of Acronyms


AES               Atmospheric Environment Service

AIHTS Agreement on International Humane Trapping Standards

AMP               Applications of Meteorology Programme

AMS               American Meteorological Society

AREP              Atmospheric Research and Environment Programme

ATW               Aquatic Toxicity Workshop

CCME              Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment

CCRAEC            Canada–Costa Rica Agreement on Environmental Cooperation

CCWG Climate Change Working Group

CEPA              Canadian Environmental Protection Act




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                             246
CIS          Canadian Ice Service

CITES        Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
             Fauna and Flora

CLC          Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

CLC          International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage

CLCS         Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf

CMA          China Meteorological Administration

CSSP         Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program

EIA          Environmental Impact Assessment

EMEP         European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme

ETR          Education and Training)

FAO          Organisation pour l’agriculture et l’alimentation

GLP          Good laboratory practice

GPP          Global Partnership Program

HNS          Hazardous and noxious substances

HWR          Hydrology and Water Resources

ICCA         International Council of Chemical Associations

IIP          International Ice Patrol

IMO          International Maritime Organization

ISTC         Moscow-based International Science and Technology Centre

ITER         International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

ITLOS        International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

JCEC         China Joint Committee on Environment Cooperation




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                                    247
JEERT Joint Environmental Emergency Response Team

JIWG         Joint Ice Working Group

LRTAP Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

MAD          Mutual Acceptance of Data

MARPOL       Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

MOU          Memorandum of understanding

MPD          Minimum Pre-Market Set of Data

MSC          Meteorological Service of Canada

NACECNorth American Commission for Environmental Cooperation

NAFO         North Atlantic Fisheries Organization

NOAA         National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration

NOAA         National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NPRI         National Pollutant Release Inventory

NSNR         New Substances Notification Regulations

NWS          National Weather Service

OECD         Economic Cooperation and Development

PAH          Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons

PCB          Polychlorinated Biphenyl

PIC          Prior Informed Consent

POP          Persistent Organic Pollutant

PSL          Priority Substances List

RP           Regional Programme

SCC          Standards Council of Canada

SRAD         Science and Risk Assessment Directorate



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                     248
TCO          Technical Cooperation)

TSMP         Toxic Substances Management Policy

UNECE        The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

UNFCCC       United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USCG         United States Coast Guard

WCP          World Climate Programme

WSP          World Space Programme

WWW          World Weather Watch




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                     249
                                    CONTACT LIST




                                        AIR
            BRANCH                       PHONE                     FAX
Air Emissions Priorities,
Environmental Stewardship             (819) 994-3655          (819) 953-8963
Branch, Environment Canada
Environmental Stewardship
                                      (819) 956-5263
Branch, Environment Canada
                                    BIODIVERSITY
            BRANCH                        PHONE                    FAX
Access and Benefit Sharing,
Integrated Ecosystem
                                      (819) 956-9885
Management, Environment
Canada
Bilateral Affairs, Environment
                                      (819) 994-0148
Canada
Canadian Wildlife Service,
                                      (780) 435-7208          (780) 435-7359
Environment Canada
Department of Foreign Affairs
                                      (613) 992-6115          (613) 944-0034
and International Affairs
Environmental Stewardship
                                      (819) 953-0289          (819) 953-7682
Branch, Environment Canada
Fish, Seafood and Production
Division, Canadian Food               (613) 221-7028
Inspection Agency
Indian and Northern Affairs
                                      (819) 997-9208          (819) 997-3554
Canada
International Wildlife Trade
Division, Canadian Wildlife
                                      1 800 668-6767          (819) 953-6283
Service, Environment Canada
(National Capital Region)
Multilateral an Bilateral Affairs
                                      (819) 994-0989          (819) 994-6227
Directorate, Environment Canada
National Marine Water Quality
Monitoring Office, Environment        (514) 283-5869
Canada
Pacific and Yukon Canadian
Wildlife Service, Environment         (867) 667-3929
Canada



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                               250
Population Conservation and
Management, Environment              (819) 953-1422
Canada
Prairie and Northern Region,
Canadian Wildlife Service,           (780) 435-7349           (780) 435-7359
Environment Canada
                                    CHEMICALS
           BRANCH                      PHONE                       FAX
Chemical Management,
Environmental Stewardship            (819) 956-5263           (819) 994-0007
Branch, Environment Canada
Environmental Stewardship
                                     (819) 953-1140           (819) 997-5029
Branch, Environment Canada
Existing Substances Division,
Science and Technology Branch,       (819) 997-4977           (819) 953-4936
Environment Canada
International Affairs Branch,
                                     (819) 994-0989           (819) 953-7025
Environment Canada
Montreal Protocol Bilateral
Program, International Affairs       (819) 997-2768           (819) 953-7025
Branch, Environment Canada
Science and Risk Assessment
                                     (819) 997-5804           (819) 953-4936
Directorate, Environment Canada
Transboundary Air,
Environmental Stewardship            (819) 953-1143           (819) 953-8963
Branch, Environment Canada
Transport Canada                     (613) 998-0708           (613) 998-1845
                                 CLIMATE CHANGE
           BRANCH                       PHONE                      FAX
Chemical Management,
Environmental Stewardship            (819) 953-7157           (819) 953-8963
Branch, Environment Canada
Climate Change International,
                                     (819) 953-9483           (819) 997-0962
Environment Canada

Canadian National Focal Point to
the UNCCD                            (819) 953-2216
Canadian International
development Agency
                                   COOPERATION
            BRANCH                     PHONE                       FAX




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                               251
Americas Directorate,
International Affairs Branch,            (819) 953-6905
Environment Canada
Bilateral     Affairs      Division,
                                         (819) 994-0989
Environment Canada
Canadian Environmental
                                         (613) 957-0700       (613) 948-1354
Assessment Agency
Climate Change International,
                                         (819) 953-9483       (819) 997-0962
Environment Canada
Environmental Emergencies,
                                         (514) 283-1141       (514) 496-1157
Environment Canada
Global Issues, Environment
                                         (819) 997-3844
Canada
Innovative Solutions,
                                         (819) 953-0226
Environment Canada
International   Affairs Branch,
                                         (819) 953-6905
Environment Canada
National Services Operation
Division, Weather and
Environmental Prediction and             (418) 722-1491
Services Directorate,
Environment Canada
New Substances Division,
                                         (819) 997-4336
Environment Canada
Pacific and Yukon Region,
                                         (604) 664-9119
Environment Canada
Population Conservation and
Management, Environment                  (819) 953-1422
Canada
Preparedness and Response,
Environmental Stewardship                (819) 997-3053       (819) 953-5361
Branch, Environment Canada
Safety and Environmental
Response, Canadian Coast
                                         (613) 990-3115       (613) 996-8902
Guard, Fisheries and Oceans
Canada
Science and Technology Branch,
                                         (905) 336-4625       (905) 336-6444
Environment Canada
Transport Canada                         (613) 990-5913
                                       FRESHWATER
            BRANCH                          PHONE                  FAX
Canada-US Transboundary
                                         (819) 994-1655
Issues, Environment Canada



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                               252
Foreign Affairs and International
                                       (613) 944-6912         (613) 943-2423
Trade Canada
International Niagara Committee
                                       (905) 336-4580
Burlington, Ontario
REED, Electricity Resources
Branch, Natural Resources              (613) 996-3027
Canada

US Relations Division, Foreign
Affairs and International Trade        (613) 944-6911         (613) 943-2423
Canada
Water Issues, Environment
                                       (604) 664-9345         (604) 664-9126
Canada
Environment Canada’s Great Lakes       (416) 739-4936
Environmental Office
                                    METEOROLOGY
           BRANCH                        PHONE                     FAX
Meteorological Service of
                                       (819) 997-3844
Canada, Environment Canada
Meteorological Service of              (613) 943-5776
Canada, Environment Canada
Weather and Environmental
Prediction and Services                (819) 947-9178
Directorate, Environment Canada
                                    OCEANS/MARINE
           BRANCH                        PHONE                     FAX
Coastal and Marine Compliance,
                                       (819) 953-6949         (819) 953-0913
Environment Canada
Conservation Priorities,
                                       (819) 953-9428
Environment Canada
Environmental Emergencies,
                                       (514) 283-1141         (514) 496-1157
Environment Canada
Environmental Stewardship
                                       (819) 953-4341         (819) 997-5029
Branch, Environment Canada
Fish, Seafood and Production
Division, Canadian Food                (613) 221-7028
Inspection Agency
Marine Environmental Protection,
Environmental Stewardship              (819) 953-4341         (819) 953-0913
Branch, Environment Canada
National Marine Water Quality
Monitoring Office, Environment         (514) 283-5869
Canada



Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                               253
National Services Operation
Division, Weather and
Environmental Prediction and        (418) 722-1491
Services Directorate,
Environment Canada
Preparedness and Response,
Environmental Stewardship           (819) 997-3053            (819) 953-5361
Branch, Environment Canada
Safety and Environmental
Response, Canadian Coast
                                    (613) 990-3115            (613) 996-8902
Guard, Fisheries and Oceans
Canada
Transport Canada                    (613) 998-0708            (613) 998-1845
                                    WASTE
           BRANCH                     PHONE                        FAX
Coastal and Marine Compliance,
                                    (819) 953-6949
Environment Canada
Conservation Priorities,
                                    (819) 953-9428
Environment Canada
Environmental Stewardship
                                    (819) 953-4341            (819) 953-0913
Branch, Environment Canada
Waste Management,
                                    (819) 997-3377            (819) 997-3068
Environment Canada




Compendium of International Environmental Agreements – 2008
                                                                               254

				
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