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					Reaching the Girls Left Behind:
Investing in Adolescent Girls in
            Uganda


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Who are the most vulnerable girls?
• Girls (10-14) who are not in school and not living with either
  parent
• Girls (10-14) living with neither parent or living with only one
  parent (usually with their mother)
• Girls who are not in school, not at grade for age, or otherwise at
  risk for leaving school
• Married girls (10-19)
• Girls living in districts where a significant proportion of girls are
  married as children (e.g. 10% under 15; 40% under 18)
• Girls living in districts where a high proportion of first sex is forced
  or tricked (e.g. over 10%)
• Girls living in districts with high rates of HIV or other serious
  illness—putting them at risk of disease; having to cope with social
  and economic stressors of disease
• Girls in domestic service or in other potentially exploitative work
          Policy Context and Legal
                 Framework
• Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) signatory
• Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination
  against Women (CEDAW) signatory
• Uganda Poverty Reduction Strategy
  • Addresses youth as cross-cutting issue; yet girls are not
     specifically addressed
• Education policy aims at increasing girls enrolment in primary,
  secondary and at the university levels
Who are the most vulnerable girls?
• Girls (10-14) who are not in school and not living with either
  parent
• Girls (10-14) living with neither parent or living with only one
  parent (usually with their mother)
• Girls who are not in school, not at grade for age, or otherwise at
  risk for leaving school
• Married girls (10-19)
• Girls living in districts where a significant proportion of girls are
  married as children (e.g. 10% under 15; 40% under 18)
• Girls living in districts where a high proportion of first sex is forced
  or tricked (e.g. over 10%)
• Girls living in districts with high rates of HIV or other serious
  illness—putting them at risk of disease; having to cope with social
  and economic stressors of disease
• Girls in domestic service or in other potentially exploitative work
       PHOTO of beneficiaries or
             program…




• All data, graphs and maps are drawn from the 2006
  Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, unless
  otherwise noted
  Where are the girls living, and with
        whom do they live?
• In Uganda, most 10-19            • 30% of girls, and 26% of
  year olds live in rural            boys 10-14 live apart
  areas                              from both their parents
   – Girls 10-14:
                                   • 28% of both girls and
       • 89% live in rural areas
   – Boys 10-14:                     boys 10-14 live with
       • 91% live in rural areas     only one parent (usually
   – Girls 15-19:                    with their mother)
       • 83% live in rural areas
   – Boys 15-19:
       • 86% live in rural areas
    Social isolation among young girls greatly increases
              their vulnerability to exploitation
                  (Percent of 10-14 year olds not in school and not living with either parent )


                                                                                • i




•     In Uganda, 3% of all girls 10-14 are not in school and not living with either parent; in some
      regions up to 7% are socially isolated
•     In general, social isolation increases the vulnerability to exploitation
•     Girls who are not in school and not living with either parent are at exceptionally high risk of
      poor health and social outcomes and have less access to social and youth¹
¹ Bruce, Judith and Kelly Hallman. 2008. "Reaching the girls left behind," Gender and Development 16(2): 227–245
    In addition to the educational experience, out-of-school girls lose out on
        critical social opportunities and friendships with same sex peers
                    (Percent of School Age Girls (6-18) Who are Not in School)
    25



    20



    15



    10



     5



     0
                   Urban                             Rural                  National

                                             Girls      Boys


•   In Uganda, 19% of all school-aged girls are not in school
•   In both urban and rural regions, girls are more likely than boys to be out of school
•   Being out of school at 10-14 is a risk factor for child marriage in some settings
    School enrollment differs—often drastically—by
           gender, age and area of residence
                           (Percent enrolled in school)




• In Uganda, girls have the lowest school enrollment overall
• School drop-out increases among both rural and urban girls around age
  12
 School Enrollment among 15-19 Year Olds

          Urban females                                   Rural females
         2%
                                                         1%


                                                   18%
                            Not in school
                                                                          Not in school
  40%          44%
                            Attending primary                  46%        Attending primary
                            Attending secondary
                                                                          Attending secondary
                            Attanding higher
                                                                          Attanding higher
                                                  35%
        14%




• In Uganda, only 19% of girls 15-19 are attending secondary school or
  higher
• 46% of all girls 15-19 are not in school; girls are more likely than boys to
  be out of school
           Percent of 15 Year Old Girls In Grade 6 or Below




•     In Uganda, 65% of 15 year old girls are in grade 6 or below
•     In general, girls who are significantly behind are more likely to be married and have children,
      engage in sexual activity and less likely to access basic health and other services²
²Lloyd, Cynthia B. 2004. “Schooling and Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in Developing Countries,” paper commissioned for the United Nations
       Millennium Project. New York: Population Council. http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/CBLloyd-final.pdf
        Child Marriage among 20-24 Year Olds




•     Marriage under age 18 is considered illegal child marriage according to CRC and CEDAW
•     In Uganda, 12% of girls are married by 15; 52% of rural and 27% of urban girls are married by 18
•     In general, child marriage is often justified by gender norms and economic conditions
•     What investment there is in girls usually stops at marriage
•     Married girls are rarely in school and the youngest first time mothers and their children are at particularly
      high risk of poor outcomes³

³Haberland, Nicole. 2007. “Supporting Married Girls, Calling Attention to a Neglected Group” Transitions to Adulthood, Brief 3. Population Council
      Females 15-24 that have Experienced Forced
                       First Sex
 35


 30


 25


 20


 15


 10


  5


  0
                  Urban                             Rural                      National
                                     Spouse forced sex      First sex forced



• In Uganda, 25% of all 15-24 year old females‘ first sexual experience was forced or tricked; in some
regions 37% of girls report experiencing forced sex
• Among married 15-24 year olds 30% have experienced forced sex by their spouses
• In general, gender based and sexual violence is justified by cultural norms
     Illiteracy among Girls (15-24) Married by 15




•   In Uganda, illiteracy rates among girls married by 15 are as high as 74%; nationally,
    37% of 20-24 year old girls are illiterate
•   Policy has often given more attention to unmarried girls than to the rights of
    schooling for married girls
HIV Prevalence and Testing among Females
             15-24 Years Old
                   (Percent of females 15-24 who have had an HIV test in the past year)




•     In general the HIV epidemic is increasingly affecting young, poorer women
•     In Uganda, HIV prevalence among 15-24 year old females is 3.9% while for men it is 1.3%
      (3:1 ratio)´
•     Only 11% of 15-19 year olds and 19% of 20-24 year olds had an HIV test in the past year
´Epidemiological Fact Sheet on HIV and AIDS: 2008 Uganda http://mail.google.com/mail/?zx=1oxl0a8wtyuy6&shva=1#inbox
   Delivery Assistance among 20-24 Year Olds:
    Assistance Varies by Mother’s Residence
      90

      80

      70

      60

      50

      40

      30

      20

      10

       0
                  Urban 20-24 y/o                                                Rural 20-24 y/o

                                    Delivery Assistnace by Health Professional



• In Uganda 85% of urban 20-24 year olds and only 41% of rural 20-24 year
  olds received assistance from a health professional at last birth
Our Mission
 The Girls We Are Most Interested In, and
                  Why:
• Who are they?

• What are the conditions and status that most
  concern the organization?
The Specific Conditions our Program
 Addresses at the Level of the Girl:
      Our Interventions Include:
• Input:
• Intensity: (How often, how many)
  At the Level of Girls We Hope to:
• Expected Results at the level of the girls
Resources Needed to Do Our Work
Additional Resources:

Bruce, Judith and Erica Chong. 2006. "The diverse universe of adolescents, and the girls and boys left
behind: A note on research, program and policy priorities," background paper to the report Public Choices,
Private Decisions: Sexual and Reproductive Health and the Millennium Development Goals. New York: UN
Millennium Project. offsite PDF: www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/Bruce_and_Chong-final.pdf

Chong, Erica, Kelly Hallman, and Martha Brady. 2006. Investing When it Counts Generating the evidence
base for policies and programmes for very young adolescents. New York : UNFPA and Population Council.
http://www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/InvestingWhenItCounts.pdf

Lloyd, Cynthia B. 2004. “Schooling and Adolescent Reproductive Behavior in Developing Countries,” paper
commissioned for the United Nations Millennium Project. New York: Population Council.
http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/documents/CBLloyd-final.pdf

Meyers, Carey. 2000. Adolescent Girls' Livelihoods. Essential Questions, Essential Tools: A Report on a
Workshop. New York and Washington, DC: Population Council and the International Center for Research on
Women. www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/adoles.pdf

Building Assets for Safe, Productive Lives: A Report on a Workshop on Adolescent Girls'
Livelihoods. www.popcouncil.org/pdfs/BuildingAssets_Oct05.pdf

Promoting Healthy, Safe, and Productive Transitions to Adulthood, series of briefs all available at
www.popcouncil.org/gfd/TA_Briefs_List.html

				
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posted:9/8/2011
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