Ancient Greece

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					Ancient Greece

    Chp. 1
      Rise of Greek City-States
• City State: political unit made up of the city and
  the surrounding lands. * lack of fertile land
  encouraged expansions overseas, carried their
  ideas with them
   – Small population, shared responsibility
• The Polis- Unique version of city state after 750
  bc built on 2 levels: top = acropolis or “high city”
  with marble buildings dedicated to gods. Down
  below laid a walled city with market, theater,
  public buildings and homes.
         Greek Government
• Monarchy: king or   • Landowners/nobles:
  queen exercises       military defenders
  central power         because they could
                        afford weapons; used
                        to defend king, then
                        won power. As
                        middle class grew,
                        they challenged
           Changes in Warfare
• 650 BC Iron weapons
  and tools replaced bronze
  making them affordable
  to ordinary citizens with
  emerging new fighting
• Phalanx- massive
  formation of heavily
  armed foot soldiers
• Many hours of drills,
  shared training created a
  sense of unity. Reduced
  class differences by
  putting defense of city-
  state in hands of ordinary
•   Lies in Peloponnesus, or
    southern part of Greece.
•   Conquerors turned people into
    state owned slaves (helots).
•    Set up system of strict control
    because they were greatly
•   Government = 2 kings, council
    of elders (advisors), Assembly
    made of citizens (male, native-
    born Spartans, over 30),
    elected 5 officials with real
    power to run city.
•   Children = trained from early
    age to fight. Women =
    expected to produce healthy
    sons. Trained to exercise,
    obey husband and father, and
    inherit property
• North of Peloponnesus.
  Grew from monarchy to
  aristocracy.               Athens
• Working class became
  restless, Foreigners
  could never become
  citizens- moved them to
  democracy (gov’t by the
• Women- No share of
  public life, rich women
  secluded and had to
  manage entire
  household. Slaves and
  children sent to market.
  Boys trained as public
  speakers and taught to
  read/write and received
  military training.
• Solon- reformer gave citizens freehand to
  make added reforms. Outlawed slavery,
  opened high offices to more people,
  increased import of goods, granted some
  foreigners citizenship.
• Democracy: government by the people
• tyrants: leaders who gain power by force,
  won support by helping merchant class
• legislature: lawmaking body, debated
  laws, included all male citizens
• Persian Wars- 490 bc at Marathon,
  Persian outnumbered Athenian forces
  defeated Persians by sheer will. 10 yrs
  later Sparta and others joined to defeat
  Persians. Result- Athens emerged as
  strongest Greek power
• Golden Age of Athens- 460 bc to 429 bc
  ruled by Pericles- Economy thrived and
  government became more democratic
  (direct democracy no representatives).
  Hired architects and sculptors to rebuild
  Athens, made it cultural center of Greece.
• Peloponnesian War- 431 bc 27
  year war, represented a power
  struggle between Athens and Sparta.
  Sparta wanted to end Athenian
  power. 404 bc Sparta captured
  Athens ending their domination of the
  Greek world
•   Sophists- Athenian group of
    thinkers questioned accepted
    ideas about truth and justice.
    Urged “rhetoric” or skillful
•   Socrates and Plato- Socrates –
    famous sophist 469 bc to 399 bc.
    Wrote no books (lounged around
    marketplace questioning others’
    beliefs = Socratic Method).
    Socrates put on trial at age 70 for
    challenging accepted beliefs.
•   Plato = student of Socrates, Plato
    emphasized reason – wrote the
    “Republic”, ideal state ruled by a
    philosopher king suspicious of
•   Aristotle- Plato’s student; also
    disliked democracy found good
    and bad in all forms of
    government. Set up school named
      Phillip- King @ 359
      bc. Dreamed of
      conquering city-states
      of Greece. 338 bc did
      so with foreign trained
      army and alliances
      with some city-states.
      Father of Alexander.
• Alexander the Great- Great soldier- son
  of Phillip crushed Thebes, conquered
  Persia. Beginning in 334 bc took India 324
  bc. Forces desired to turn back and
  Alexander died of fever. Result of his
  conquests = blending of cultures (he
  married a Persian).
• Alexandria- Egypt, on trade route of Nile.
  Boasted wide range of goods. Museum –
  labs, zoo, library. Center of Hellenistic
       Legacy of Alexander
• Founded many new cities
• blending of cultures (Hellenism)
• Hellenistic Civilization– Greek, Persian,
  Egyptian, Indian cultures blended
• Rome emerged as most powerful city-