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					Mrs.Sandra Molina Castillo.
          UBB
 There are many silent letters in the English
  language, and they can cause difficulties for
  people learning English as a second language.
  Silent letters can also cause problems for native
  children learning to read, spell and speak.
 Silent letters are the letters in words that make no
  difference to the sound. So, to put it simply, the
  letter or letters in a particular word that are silent,
  do not appear in the pronunciation of the word.
  But, they do however, appear in the spelling.
 Silent letters make it very difficult for English
  learners as they give no clue as to how to
  correctly spell out and pronounce the word. In
  fact, most of the common spelling mistakes seen
  in English writing will be words which feature one
  or more silent letters.
Many English words contain silent consonants. The
 words may be difficult to spell because they cannot
 be sounded out, and there are no general guidelines
 for spelling them. Study the words so that you can
 visualize them as you write.
Each of the words in the Word Bank contain silent
 consonants.
silent n: column
 silent s: island
 silent b: doubt
 silent k: knack
 silent gh: drought
silent p: psalm, psychology
 silent h: ghetto
 silent g: gnarled
 silent w: wrath
      Reasons For Silent Letters
◙ Sometimes, there is an exact reason as to why a
  word will have silent letters.

◙ To be able to distinguish the words which sound
  similar - For example: ‘Plum – Plumb’, ‘Hole –
  Whole’ or ‘Our – Hour’.

◙ We sometimes use silent letters in the English
  language to show long vowels or hard consonants.
  Silent letters show the long vowels in rid/ride; the
  silent letters show the hard consonants in
  gest/guest.
       Causes Of Silent Letters
 There are a few reasons why we may have
  words that feature silent letters.
 Historical Change – The sound may have
  dropped out of the word over a certain length of
  time, but the spelling of that word will have
  stayed the same: hope, knot, light.
 New Letter Added – Silent letters may have
  been added to make the spelling appear more
  ‘Latin’ or ‘French’: Island, debt, victual.
 Borrowing From Another Language – Some
  English words originate from other foreign
  languages, which is why we may see silent
  letters: Myrrh, champagne, khaki.
◙ Silent letters are sometimes used when
  connecting root words with prefixes and suffixes.

◙ There are no rules where silent letters are
  concerned and unfortunately, you will just have to
  learn to remember them. However, you may
  notice that some particular letters in the English
  alphabet tend to be silent, whereas others will
  always be heard. The letters N, D, W, G, U, H, T,
  K, B and L are often found to be silent in many
  English words.

◙ Here are some examples of silent letters in
  English words:
Silent consonants - Pronunciation
1) Cupboard, pub, pupil - cupboard
2) Bird, tiger, snake - bird
3) Wall, science, cave - science
4) Tall, desk, half - half
5) Wednesday, Monday, Sunday - Wednesday
6) Country, child, knife - knife
7) Island, address, some - island
8) Window, paint, pencil - window
9) Hundred, green, white - white
10) Lamp, autumn, bath - autumn
  Consonants that are never
     spoken in English
1) Island
2) Climb
3) Knife
4) Talk
5) Castle
6) Night
7) Wednesday
8) Write
9) Listen
10) Know
         Silent consonants

• Write the word into the gap where you do
  not pronounce one or more consonants.

 Example: pencil, hour, cousin - ____

 Answer: pencil, hour, cousin – hour.
1) Maths, clothes, law:
2) Skirt, memory, woman:
3) Pound, bus, whole:
4) Tin, sign, dish:
5) Duty, scissors, gun:
6) Doubt, music, step:
7) Major, salary, know:
8) Fight, tree, write:
9) Peanut, dumb, disguise:
10) Honour, brilliant, competence:
           Silent consonants
1) Maths, clothes, law - law
2) Skirt, memory, woman - skirt
3) Pound, bus, whole - whole
4) Tin, sign, dish - sign
5) Duty, scissors, gun - scissors
6) Doubt, music, step - doubt
7) Major, salary, know - know
8) Fight, tree, write - write
9) Peanut, dumb, disguise - dumb
10) Honour, brilliant, competence - honour
       Silent Consonants
• Word Bank
• column
  island
  doubt
  knack
  drought
• psalm
  psychology
  ghetto
  gnarled
  wrath
• Key Concepts
Silent N   Silent D        Silent G
☻Damn      ☻Wednesday      ☻Sign
☻Hymn      ☻Handsome       ☻Resign
☻Autumn    ☻Badge
                           ☻Gnarl
☻Column    ☻Handkerchief
           ☻Edge           ☻Design
           ☻Hedge          ☻Foreigner
                           ☻Gnome
Silent U     Silent H    Silent T
♦ Guard      ♦ Why       ♦ Soften
♦ Guess      ♦ When      ♦ Listen
♦ Guitar     ♦ Which     ♦ Match
♦ Building   ♦ What      ♦ Butcher
♦ Rogue      ♦ Whether   ♦ Castle
♦ Guest      ♦ Ghost     ♦ Christmas
♦ Biscuit    ♦ White
♦ Tongue     ♦ While
             ♦ Honest
Silent L   Silent W      Silent K     Silent B
■ Palm     ■ Wreck       ■ Knot       ■ Crumb
■ Yolk     ■ Wrestling   ■ Knitting   ■ Climbing
■ Almond   ■ Whole       ■ Know       ■ Thumb
■ Salmon   ■ Sword       ■ Knee       ■ Lamb
■ Talk     ■ Two         ■ Knock      ■ Doubt
■ Walk     ■ Wrong       ■ Knight     ■ Limb
■ Half     ■ Writing     ■ Knuckle    ■ Plumber
           ■ Wrist       ■ Knickers   ■ Bomb
           ■ Wrinkle
Taking the time to study English
 silent letters will help any student in
 the long run. They can cause
 confusion amongst learners of the
 language, but with persistence and
 constant practice, silent letters should
 be a breeze.
Silent letters factsheet
Silent letters are letters that you can't hear
  when       you       say       the     word,
  but that are there when you write the word.
  There are no rules, you just have to learn
  them.
Silent N   Silent D    Silent G    Silent U
Autumn     Edge        Gnome       Guest
Damn       Hedge       Gnarl       Guess
Hymn       Wednesday   Sign        Guitar
Column     Handsome    Resign      Guard
           Handkerchief Design     Building
           Badge       Foreigner   Guilty
           Wedge                   Rogue
                                   Vogue
                                   Biscuit
Silent H Silent T Silent K Silent B Silent L Silent
                                             W
What     Witch    Knife      Lamb    Almond   Wren




When     Fasten   Knee       Thumb   Palm     Wrote


Why      Castle   Knot       Numb    Yolk     Wrestling


Which    Watch    Knitting   Crumb   Calm     Sword
French Words and Expressions
         in English
Learn the true meanings of French words and
  expressions commonly used in English
 Over the years, the English language has borrowed
  a great number of French words and expressions.
  Some of this vocabulary has been so completely
  absorbed by English that speakers might not realize
  its origins. Other words and expressions have
  retained their "Frenchness" - a certain je ne sais
  quoi which speakers tend to be much more aware of
  (although this awareness does not usually extend to
  actually pronouncing the word in French). The
  following is a list of French words and expressions
  which are commonly used in English.
► Art déco: decorative art Short for art décoratif.
► Attaché: attached A person assigned to a diplomatic
  post.
► Au pair: at par A person who works for a family.
  (cleaning and/or teaching the children) in exchange for
  room and board.
► Avant-garde: before guard Innovative, especially in the
  arts.
                         ► Blond
  Blonde: fair-haired This is the only adjective in English
  which agrees in gender with the person it modifies: blond
  is for a man and blonde for a woman. Note that these
  can also be nouns.
► Bon appétit: good appetite The closest English
  equivalent is "Enjoy your meal."
► Bon vivant: good "liver" Someone who lives well, who
  knows how to enjoy life.
► Bon voyage: good trip English has "Have a good trip,"
  but Bon voyage is more elegant.
► Brunette: small, dark-haired female The French word
  brun, dark-haired, is what English really means by
  "brunette." The -ette suffix indicates that the subject is
  small and female.
► Café au lait: coffee with milk Same thing as the Spanish
  term café con leche.
► C'est la vie: that's life Same meaning and usage in both
  languages.
► Chic: stylish Chic sounds more chic than "stylish."
► Déjà vu: already seen This is a grammatical structure in
  French, as in Je l'ai déjà vu=> I've already seen it. It can
  also disparage a style or technique that has already
  been done, as in Son style est déjà vu=> His style is not
                             original.
  In English, déjà vu refers to the scientific phenomenon of
  feeling like you have already seen or done something
  when you're sure that you haven't: a feeling of déjà vu =
  une impression de déjà vu.
► Eau de Cologne: water from Cologne This is often cut
  down to simply "cologne" in English. Cologne is the
  French and English name for the German city Köln.
► Eau de toilette: toilet water Toilet here does not refer to
  a commode - see toilette, below. Eau de toilette is a very
  weak perfume.
                          ► Fiancé
  Fiancée: engaged person, betrothed Note that fiancé
  refers to a man and fiancée to a woman.
► Genre: type Used mostly in art and film - "I really like this
  genre..."
► Je ne sais quoi: I don't know what Used to indicate a
  "certain something," as in "I really like Ann. She has a
  certain je ne sais quoi that I find very appealing."
► Laissez-faire: let it be A policy of non-interference. Note
  the expression in French is laisser-faire.
► Matinée: morning In English, refers to the day's first
  showing of a movie or play. Can also refer to a midday
  romp with one's lover.
► Rouge: red The English refers to a reddish cosmetic or
  metal/glass-polishing powder, and can be a noun or a
  verb.
► RSVP: respond please This abbreviation stands for
  Répondez, s'il vous plaît, which means that "Please
  RSVP" is redundant.
► Tête-à-tête: head to head A private talk or visit with
  another person.
► Toilette: toilet In French, this refers both to the toilet
  itself and anything related to toiletries; thus the
  expression "to do one's toilette" - brush hair, do makeup,
  etc. See eau de toilette, above.
► Touché: touched Originally used in fencing, now
  equivalent to "you got me."
► Voilà !: There it is! Nearly every time I see this in
  English, it is misspelled as "voilá" or "violà."

				
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