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AP Biology Test Study Guid

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					                                 AP Biology Test Study Guide
Science as a Process
     Understand how to design a scientific experiment (variables, controls, hypotheses, etc.)
     How scientists share data, and use one another’s data

Evolution
    Evidence for evolution: fossil record, biogeography, comparative embryology, comparative
       anatomy, DNA
    Darwin’s Theory
    Natural Selection: Disruptive, Stabilizing, Directional;
    Genetic Variation and its role in evolution.
    Genetic Equilibrium and the Hardy-Weinberg formula (p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1)
    Phylogenetic Trees, common ancestry
    Causes of Mircoevolution and sources of genetic variation, genetic drift (founders effect,
       bottleneck), natural selection, gene flow, mutation, sexual selection (inter/intra), outpreeding,
       diploidy, heterozygote advantage,
    Patterns of evolution: coevolution, convergent, divergent, parallel
    Reproductive isolation: prezygotic vs. postzygotic barriers (habitat, mechanical, behavioral, etc.)
    Speciation: Allopatric vs Sympatric
    The origin of life on Earth

Ecology
    Population Density/Distribution: Types of dispersion, survivorship curves
    Carrying capacity, limiting factors (density dependent vs. independent)
    Population growth formula and patterns
    Ecological niche, resource partitioning, character displacement, realized vs fundamental niche
    Competitive Exclusion Principle
    Energy flow: food chains vs. webs, producers, consumers, decomposers, scavengers, ecological
      pyramids, 10% law
    Symbiosis: Commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
    Mimicry: Batesian vs. Mullerian
    Ecological Succession (Review in Text Book)
    Ecosystems
    Biogeochemical Cycles Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus,

Chemistry
   Types of macromolecules, their structures, and functions: lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids,
     proteins
   Water and its unique properties
   Types of bonds
   Enzyme structure and function; different types of enzymes, factors that affect enzyme function
   Metabolism: catabolic vs. anabolic
   Atomic structure
   Exergonic vs. endergonic reactions
   ATP structure and function
   Functional groups; where they are found, what properties do they have


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Cells
    Cellular theory
    Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
    Cell membrane structure: phospholipid bilayer, active transport vs. passive transport, channel
      proteins, ion channels, porins, aquaporins, carrier proteins, transport proteins, recognition proteins,
      adhesion proteins, receptor proteins, cholesterol, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, exocytosis
    Diffusion vs. Osmosis, water potential
    Organelles (know the structure and function of the following): cytosol, nucleus, ribosomes, ER,
      golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, choloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton,
      flagella/cilia, centrioles, cell wals
    Cellular communication: gap junctions, plasmodesmata
    Cellular Division - Mitosis vs. Meiosis, Regulation of the cell cycle, cancer

Energy
    Photosynthesis
        o Key molecules (structure and function) - ADP, ATP, NADP+, NADPH, all vital pigments,
            balanced equation, where it takes place
        o Cyclical vs. Non-Cyclical
        o Light-Dependent Reactions: Photpsystems II vs. I, electron transport, electron acceptors,
            ETC, Enzymes involved, role of sunlight, What goes in, what comes out?
        o Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle): Know all steps, molecules that go in and come
            out, intermediate molecules, molecules involved
        o C3 vs C4 photosynthesis; CAM plants, what types of plants use these processes
        o Photorespiration
    Cellular Respiration
        o Redox reactions: oxidation vs. reduction, phosphorylation
        o Glycolysis - what goes in/comes out, where does it occur, what are the steps involved
        o Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle - where does it take place, what goes in/comes out, key
            molecules (pyruvate, acetyl CoA, Oxaloacetate, NADH, FADH2, ATP
        o Aerobic vs. Anaerobic environments: fermentations (alcoholic, lactic acid),

Genetics
    Mendels laws (law of segregation, law of independent assortment)
    Incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, epistasis, pleiotropy, polygenic traits, genes
      influenced by the environment
    Probability calculations, Punnett Squares (monohybrid, dihybrid),
    Gene linkage/sex linkage, linkage maps (know how to determine where genes are on a
      chromosome), crossing over, crossing over frequencies, X inactivation and Barr Bodies, Non-
      disjunction, chromosomal mutations (deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation,
    Review of human genetic defects: Down syndrome, Turners, Kleinfelters Syndrome
    Pedigrees: be able to read them

DNA/RNA
   DNA vs. RNA structure - Phosphate, sugar, bases, base pairing rules, types of bonds between
     molecules, Purines vs. Pyrimidines, differences between DNA and RNA, Types of RNA (t,m,r)
   DNA organization: Chromatin, Histones, etc.
   Genetics of Bacteria and Viruses
   DNA Replication


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            o 5’ vs. 3’, directionality, anti-parallel, conservative vs. semi-conservative vs. dispersive,
                Okazaki fragments
            o Enzymes involved in DNA Replication: helicase, DNA polymerase (particularly
                directionality), replication forks, primase, primers, DNA Ligase, telomerase/telomers
        Protein Synthesis
            o Transcription - Initiation, Elongations, Termination (differences in Pro and Eukaryotes),
                codons, RNA modification, splicing, Introns, Exons, Poly A tail, 5’ cap, snRNP’s, structure
                of tRNA, Aminoacyl-tRNA
            o Translation - Initiation, Elongation, Termination, start codon (AUG), ribosomal subunits and
                their functions, different sites of tRNA and what occurs there, release factor protein
        Gene expression - Operons, repressors, operator, promoter, regulatory genes
        DNA Technology: PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Cloning, Recombinant DNA, Genetic engineering

Plants
        Different Phyla of plants - Bryophytes, Pteridiophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms
        Adaptations for life on land,
        Alternation of generation - dominant spoorphyte or gametophyte of different phylums, life cycles
        Structure: Roots, stems, leaves/stomata, vascular tissues, dermal tissues, ground tissues,
         perenchyme, collenchyme, sclerenchyme, apical meristems, lateral meristems
        Transport- process of water and sugar transport, capillary action, transpiration, bulk flow,
        Response to stimuli - Phototropism: hormones involved, processes, cell elongation
        Primary vs. Secondary growth, germination, seed structure
        Monocots vs. Dicots

Animals
    Familiarity of various animal phyla -
    Tissue types - Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscle
    Thermoregulation - Ectotherms vs. Endotherms
    Feedback loops - Negative vs. Positive
    Reproduction - Fertilization, Embryonic development (cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, etc),
     Reproductive anatomy, Gametogenesis, Hormones
    Body systems structure and function - Respiratory, Circulatory, Excretory, Digestive System,
     Nervous, Muscular System, Immune System (Refer to you text book), Endocrine System

Labs
    Refer to Lab Study Guide to review all 12 labs we have covered this year




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