Musicology_ Music Cognition and Musical Similarity by wuyunqing


									Musicology, Musical Similarity
    and Music Cognition

      ISMIR Graduate School, Barcelona 2004
                    Musicology 1
   Frans Wiering, ICS, Utrecht University

   Introductions
   Musicology and musical similarity
   Music perception and cognition
   Lecture plan
   Assignment(s)
Introducing myself
   Studies:
       biology (1975-79)
       musicology (1978-86)
       PhD musicology (1995)
   Employment
       Musicology (1985-88; 1989-93)
           Polyphonic modality (history of
            music theory)
       Computer and Humanities,
        Utrecht University (1988-89; 1994-
           computing and musicology
           Online Italian treatises (TMI)
       Computing and Information
        Sciences, Utrecht University
           Electronic Document Technology
           Music Retrieval (Orpheus project)
           we have a vacant PhD position
   Amateur musician
       (mainly) singer, conductor
Introducing you (some questions)
   who listens to music?
   who plays a musical instrument?
   who sings (outside the bathroom)?
   who is familiar with basics of music notation?
   who is familiar with advanced music notation?
   who has created new music?
   who is a computer scientist?
   who is a musicologist?
   who is a cognitive scientist?
   who are the others?
   things you want to hear about from me?

   What is musicology?
       scholarly study of music (New Grove)
       science of musical content processing (Leman 2003)
       long history (Greeks) and tradition/bias (focus on classical
        music scores)
   Aim of musicology
       providing reliable answers to questions about music
   Central question here:
       what is musical similarity
       no simple answer, but musicology can help to find partial
Aims of my lectures
1.       introducing the ‘language of musicology’
          can be quite different from the language of end users, fans and even musicians
          As questions of I use expressions you don’t know/understand
2.       practice vocabulary
          assignments
3.       understand relevance of musicology to music retrieval
          knowledge about music
          interesting (complex) retrieval questions
          the bias(ses) of musicology
4.     pointers to literature
        The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
             very good source, but written in the language of musicology
                 trumpet: A lip-vibrated aereophone
             your University may have a subscription
          Marc Leman. Foundations of Musicology as Content Processing
           Science. Journal of Music and Meaning 1 (2003)
What is music?

   some answers
       product
What is music?

   some answers
       product
       music notation
       sound
What is music?

   some answers
       product
       music notation
       sound
       activity
   example of musical
    similarity within one
    piece of music
More examples of musical similarity
   Questions to ask about similarity:
       what is similar
       what is different
       how would you characterise the relationship
   Example 1 (play 2)
       Beethoven 5 and Walter Murphy
       reusing chunks
   Example 2 (5.20)
       Mozart, Ah, vous dirai-je, Maman
       variation on well-known song
   Example 3
       Purcell, Overture Dido and Aeneas
       Bach, Nun komm der Heiden Heiland
       genre similarity
   Example 3a
       Ravel, Le paon
       similarity creates musical meaning
Retrieval tasks
               genre           artist                  work                  instance
                                                           copyright and royalties

                                sounds as


Retrieval tasks
 genre           artist                  work                  instance
                  sounds as
                                             copyright and royalties

   many kinds of musical
   concepts and vocabulary
    needed to describe these
   musicology provides
   returns in assignments
Aside: Ground Truth Experiment

   For Orpheus Project (Utrecht University)
   Why
       have queries evaluated by domain experts
       evaluate performance of different methods
   When
       Tuesday, Friday, 6-8
   Required knowledge
       compare short melodic fragments, in notation
   Many thanks
A closer look at musicology

   scholarly study of music (New Grove)
       traditional components: theory, history
   modern division:
       historical musicology
           masterworks, editions, styles, historical change
           representative research themes: influences, intertextuality
       systematic musicology
           aesthetics, theory, analysis, acoustics, etc.
           representative research themes: basic elements of music
            (MIR: ‘features’), construction of musical works
       ethnomusicology
           world music, music and (traditional) culture
           representative research themes: place of music in ritual,
            transmission and change
The bias of (traditional) musicology
   Western art music
       scores
       works ‘themselves’
       creation and reproduction of these
       things rather than processes (role of time)
   speculative nature of theorizing
       based on personal observation/intuition
       (extreme) elaboration
       no testing
   Example: theories of Heinrich Schenker (1868-1935)
       principle of voice leading (stepwise movement of melody) elaborated to
        its extreme
   Musical grammars
       influence from linguistics: music as language
       inspired by Chomsky and Schenker
       best-known example: Lerdahl and Jackendoff: A Generative Theory of
        Tonal Music (1986)
   Music cognition and perception
       focus on the mind rather than the notes
       experimental approach
       my personal favourite: Bob Snyder: Music and Memory (2000)
   Computing and musicology
       corpus creation
       formalization of analysis methods
       implementation of musical grammars
       example of musical grammar: Kemal Ebcioglu, ‘Bach’ chorales
           two examples
           another kind of musical similarity: style
       Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities
           journal: Computing in Musicology
Music and meaning

   evidently, music gives rise to very specific meanings
       not just the text of the song
       hard to express in language
       similarity=same meaning?
   Theories of meaning
       traditional: related to musical features
       Leonard Meyer, Emotion and Meaning in Music, 1956:
        musical meaning derives from arousing, frustrating and
        fulfilling of expectations. Expectations are culturally
           links to Gestalt theory and cognitive musicology
       Eugene Narmour: Implication-realization model (1977,
           several computational applications
Music perception and cognition
   study of processes that take place
     in the ear during perception

     in the brain after perception

   result: perceptual and mental models of music
   models describe how we react to music, for example:
     how we store music

     what meaning we assign to music

     what it is we reproduce when remembering music or perform
     when we consider music as similar, and when not

   elements of music cognition will occur in most of my lectures
     start here with basic model after Snyder, Music and Memory
   caution: not my expertise
   Source: Snyder (2000)
       (simplified)
       example: melody
   early processing
       event fusion
       boundary creation
   short term memory
       chunking
       time-aware
       rehearsal
   long term memory
       broad categories
       schemas: groups of
        associations that represent
        musical culture
       time-awareness lost,
       order can be reconstructed
        by following association

   Categories are a means of reducing
    information overload
   perceptual categories: arise during
    perception (e.g. pitch discrimination)
       not dependent on culture
       short-lived (STM)
   conceptual categories
       formed by training, dependent on culture
       e.g. scales
       long-lived (LTM)
So what happens when listening to music

   After early processing: pitch events:
     have pitch, duration, loudness, timbre

     grouping

   primary parameters are treated as categories
     e.g. pitch, rhythm, harmony

   secondary parameters are not categories:
     tempo, duration, timbre

   (characteristics of) chunks are remembered, not individual notes
     ‘holistic processing’

     musical meaning not in single notes/intervals
           explains difficulties with reproducing music
      connections between chunks (‘associations’) are easily lost
   music notation can be seen as a way of recording conceptual
    categories + performance instructions

   musicology
       music theory
       music and language, musical grammars
       computing and musicology
       music cognition and perception
   what is music
   different levels of musical similarity
   music and the mind
       categories
       why are notes interesting
Lecture plan
        outline
    1.     [musicology, music cognition and musical similarity]
    2.     music notation and encoding
    3.     melodic feature and retrieval 1
    4.     melodic feature and retrieval 2
    5.     harmony and tonality
    6.     high-level features
        assignments
          develop/help others develop skills in music description
          will be given at the end of the lecture
          2-3 students (volunteers) will give a presentation of max. 5
           minutes at the beginning of next lecture
              hopefully, many other styles than my examples
            others ask questions
An exercise in music description

   Play 2 short fragments you consider similar
   Questions to ask yourself:
       what precisely makes them similar
       what is different
       how would you characterise the relationship of the 2
       5 minutes
   Other assignment:
       make sure you are familiar with basics of music notation

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