Musicology_ Music Cognition and Musical Similarity by wuyunqing

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									Musicology, Musical Similarity
    and Music Cognition

      ISMIR Graduate School, Barcelona 2004
                    Musicology 1
   Frans Wiering, ICS, Utrecht University
Outline

   Introductions
   Musicology and musical similarity
   Music perception and cognition
   Lecture plan
   Assignment(s)
Introducing myself
   Studies:
       biology (1975-79)
       musicology (1978-86)
       PhD musicology (1995)
   Employment
       Musicology (1985-88; 1989-93)
           Polyphonic modality (history of
            music theory)
       Computer and Humanities,
        Utrecht University (1988-89; 1994-
        1998)
           computing and musicology
           Online Italian treatises (TMI)
       Computing and Information
        Sciences, Utrecht University
        (1999-)
           Electronic Document Technology
           Music Retrieval (Orpheus project)
           we have a vacant PhD position
   Amateur musician
       (mainly) singer, conductor
Introducing you (some questions)
   who listens to music?
   who plays a musical instrument?
   who sings (outside the bathroom)?
   who is familiar with basics of music notation?
   who is familiar with advanced music notation?
   who has created new music?
   who is a computer scientist?
   who is a musicologist?
   who is a cognitive scientist?
   who are the others?
   things you want to hear about from me?
Musicology

   What is musicology?
       scholarly study of music (New Grove)
       science of musical content processing (Leman 2003)
       long history (Greeks) and tradition/bias (focus on classical
        music scores)
   Aim of musicology
       providing reliable answers to questions about music
   Central question here:
       what is musical similarity
       no simple answer, but musicology can help to find partial
        answers
Aims of my lectures
1.       introducing the ‘language of musicology’
          can be quite different from the language of end users, fans and even musicians
          As questions of I use expressions you don’t know/understand
2.       practice vocabulary
          assignments
3.       understand relevance of musicology to music retrieval
          knowledge about music
          interesting (complex) retrieval questions
          the bias(ses) of musicology
4.     pointers to literature
        The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians,
         (www.grovemusic.com)
             very good source, but written in the language of musicology
                 trumpet: A lip-vibrated aereophone
             your University may have a subscription
          Marc Leman. Foundations of Musicology as Content Processing
           Science. Journal of Music and Meaning 1 (2003)
           (www.musicandmeaning.net)
What is music?

   some answers
       product
What is music?

   some answers
       product
       music notation
       sound
What is music?

   some answers
       product
       music notation
       sound
       activity
   example of musical
    similarity within one
    piece of music
More examples of musical similarity
   Questions to ask about similarity:
       what is similar
       what is different
       how would you characterise the relationship
   Example 1 (play 2)
       Beethoven 5 and Walter Murphy
       reusing chunks
   Example 2 (5.20)
       Mozart, Ah, vous dirai-je, Maman
       variation on well-known song
   Example 3
       Purcell, Overture Dido and Aeneas
       Bach, Nun komm der Heiden Heiland
       genre similarity
   Example 3a
       Ravel, Le paon
       similarity creates musical meaning
Retrieval tasks
               genre           artist                  work                  instance
                                                           copyright and royalties
industry




                                               plagiarism
                                    recommendation
                                sounds as
consumer




                           mood
                                                emotion
                       style
                               performer
                                  feature
professional




                                            composer
                                    intertextuality
                                                      identification
                                                                   source
Retrieval tasks
 genre           artist                  work                  instance
             mood
                  sounds as
         style
                    feature
                      recommendation
                      intertextuality
                                  emotion
                                              notation
                 performer
                              composer
                                        identification
                                                                  audio
                                 plagiarism
                                             copyright and royalties
                                                     source
Remarks

   many kinds of musical
    similarity
   concepts and vocabulary
    needed to describe these
   musicology provides
    these
   returns in assignments
Aside: Ground Truth Experiment

   For Orpheus Project (Utrecht University)
   Why
       have queries evaluated by domain experts
       evaluate performance of different methods
   When
       Tuesday, Friday, 6-8
   Required knowledge
       compare short melodic fragments, in notation
   Many thanks
A closer look at musicology

   scholarly study of music (New Grove)
       traditional components: theory, history
   modern division:
       historical musicology
           masterworks, editions, styles, historical change
           representative research themes: influences, intertextuality
       systematic musicology
           aesthetics, theory, analysis, acoustics, etc.
           representative research themes: basic elements of music
            (MIR: ‘features’), construction of musical works
       ethnomusicology
           world music, music and (traditional) culture
           representative research themes: place of music in ritual,
            transmission and change
The bias of (traditional) musicology
   Western art music
       scores
       works ‘themselves’
       creation and reproduction of these
       things rather than processes (role of time)
   speculative nature of theorizing
       based on personal observation/intuition
       (extreme) elaboration
       no testing
   Example: theories of Heinrich Schenker (1868-1935)
       principle of voice leading (stepwise movement of melody) elaborated to
        its extreme
Reactions
   Musical grammars
       influence from linguistics: music as language
       inspired by Chomsky and Schenker
       best-known example: Lerdahl and Jackendoff: A Generative Theory of
        Tonal Music (1986)
   Music cognition and perception
       focus on the mind rather than the notes
       experimental approach
       my personal favourite: Bob Snyder: Music and Memory (2000)
   Computing and musicology
       corpus creation
       formalization of analysis methods
       implementation of musical grammars
       example of musical grammar: Kemal Ebcioglu, ‘Bach’ chorales
           two examples
           another kind of musical similarity: style
       Center for Computer Assisted Research in the Humanities
           www.ccarh.org
           journal: Computing in Musicology
Music and meaning

   evidently, music gives rise to very specific meanings
       not just the text of the song
       hard to express in language
       similarity=same meaning?
   Theories of meaning
       traditional: related to musical features
       Leonard Meyer, Emotion and Meaning in Music, 1956:
        musical meaning derives from arousing, frustrating and
        fulfilling of expectations. Expectations are culturally
        conditioned.
           links to Gestalt theory and cognitive musicology
       Eugene Narmour: Implication-realization model (1977,
        1991)
           several computational applications
Music perception and cognition
   study of processes that take place
     in the ear during perception

     in the brain after perception

   result: perceptual and mental models of music
   models describe how we react to music, for example:
     how we store music

     what meaning we assign to music

     what it is we reproduce when remembering music or perform
       music
     when we consider music as similar, and when not

   elements of music cognition will occur in most of my lectures
     start here with basic model after Snyder, Music and Memory
       (2000)
   caution: not my expertise
Memory
   Source: Snyder (2000)
       (simplified)
       example: melody
   early processing
       event fusion
       boundary creation
   short term memory
       chunking
       time-aware
       rehearsal
   long term memory
       broad categories
       schemas: groups of
        associations that represent
        musical culture
       time-awareness lost,
       order can be reconstructed
        by following association
Categorisation

   Categories are a means of reducing
    information overload
   perceptual categories: arise during
    perception (e.g. pitch discrimination)
       not dependent on culture
       short-lived (STM)
   conceptual categories
       formed by training, dependent on culture
       e.g. scales
       long-lived (LTM)
So what happens when listening to music

   After early processing: pitch events:
     have pitch, duration, loudness, timbre

     grouping

   primary parameters are treated as categories
     e.g. pitch, rhythm, harmony

   secondary parameters are not categories:
     tempo, duration, timbre

   (characteristics of) chunks are remembered, not individual notes
     ‘holistic processing’

     musical meaning not in single notes/intervals
           explains difficulties with reproducing music
      connections between chunks (‘associations’) are easily lost
   music notation can be seen as a way of recording conceptual
    categories + performance instructions
Summary

   musicology
       music theory
       music and language, musical grammars
       computing and musicology
       music cognition and perception
   what is music
   different levels of musical similarity
   music and the mind
       categories
       why are notes interesting
Lecture plan
        outline
    1.     [musicology, music cognition and musical similarity]
    2.     music notation and encoding
    3.     melodic feature and retrieval 1
    4.     melodic feature and retrieval 2
    5.     harmony and tonality
    6.     high-level features
        assignments
          develop/help others develop skills in music description
          will be given at the end of the lecture
          2-3 students (volunteers) will give a presentation of max. 5
           minutes at the beginning of next lecture
              hopefully, many other styles than my examples
            others ask questions
An exercise in music description

   Play 2 short fragments you consider similar
   Questions to ask yourself:
       what precisely makes them similar
       what is different
       how would you characterise the relationship of the 2
        fragments
       5 minutes
   Other assignment:
       make sure you are familiar with basics of music notation
           http://datadragon.com/education/reading/
           http://library.thinkquest.org/15413/theory/theory.htm

								
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