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Reading Unit

Classroom Description Demographics:

This classroom consists of eight second and third grade students whose ages range from 7 to 10 years.
Six of the students are male. Of these six male students, one is African-American while the others are
Caucasian. Of the two female students, one student is Caucasian and the other is African-American.
With the exception of one student, all students participate in the free lunch program.



Student Characteristics

The students in this classroom are 7- 10 years of age. Four students participate in the FCAT assessment
while two are alternately assessed. The two second graders will be assessed using the Stanford 10. The
classroom serves as a self-contained room for two of the ten students and as a resource room for the
remaining six students. The resource students come for math and for reading instruction which is
delivered on three levels. The students are divided between levels rather than grade. This group of
students has varying exceptionalities. Their classifications and services received are as follows:
Intellectual disabilities - 1 female, one male-no services Autism – two males (one with Aspergers)-one
student receives both occupational therapy and speech therapy; one student receives speech therapy
only Speech and Language Impaired-one male-speech and language therapy Selective mute-one female-
speech and language therapy Specific Learning Disabilities-two males-one receives speech therapy All of
the students require frequent supervision to remain on task. Transitions are sometimes a problem for
the students with autism, but are effectively managed through a behavior plan.



Students’ Learning Preferences

All eight students are primarily kinesthetic learners who also need many visual supports to understand
instruction.



Students’ Skill Levels

The students are placed at 3 different skills levels for reading. All levels participate together in a whole
group instruction phase of the reading block. The three groups rotate between the computers (SME
Reading, Earobics and Simon), the teacher, and the paraprofessional for sight word instruction and
guided reading, respectively.



Quality of Home, School, and Community Setting
½ of the students come from stable homes in which they are supported academically. The school is a
Title One school and most of the students participate in after- school tutoring. Most of the students
participate in various activities in the community. New to the classroom is a foster grandparent who will
assist with one-on-one reading.



Quality of Learning Environment

The teacher estimates that 1/3 of the children in the class have grown up in a print-rich environment.



Specific student learning outcomes for unit that align with national and state standards

LA.2.1.4.1 The student will use knowledge of spelling patterns (e.g., vowel diphthongs, difficult word
families)

LA.2.1.5.1 The student will apply letter-sound knowledge to decode phonetically regular words quickly
and accurately in isolation and in context.

LA.3.1.6.1: The student will use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly. Objectives:
Students will double the words read independently from the knowledge rating scale assessment with no
teacher support, spending no more than 2 seconds per word. Students will read selected sentences from
the text with no errors on 8 of 13 trials. Standards:

LA.2.2.2.1 The student will recognize and understand the purpose of text features (table of contents,
glossary, charts, graphs, diagrams, illustrations)

LA.2.3.2.1: The student will draft writing by maintaining focus on a single idea and developing
supporting details.

LA2.1.7.1 and LA.3.1.7.1 The student will identify a text’s features (e.g. title subheading, captions,
illustrations), use them to make and confirm predictions, and establish a purpose for reading.

LA.2.3.1.1 and LA.3.3.1.1: The student will pre-write by generating ideas from multiple sources (e.g.,
text, brainstorming, webbing, drawing, writer’s notebook, group discussion, other activities)

LA.2.3.2.1: The student will draft writing by maintaining focus on a single idea and developing
supporting details.

LA.3.3.2.1: The student will draft writing by using a prewriting plan to develop the main idea with
supporting details that describe or provide facts and/or opinions. Objectives: Students will identify the
distinguishing features of literary texts with 80% accuracy. Students will explain the purpose of
nonfiction text with 100% accuracy. Students will answer comprehension questions from the text with
75% accuracy. LA.2.1.4.5: The student will recognize high frequency words.
LA.2.1.5.2: The student will identify high frequency phonetically irregular words in context.

LA.2.1.6.1 and LA.3.1.6.1: The student will use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly.
(This happens within the scripted lessons.) Objectives: Objectives: Students will pronounce high-
frequency words within lesson-provided text with no hesitation on 8 of 9 trials. Students will increase
the number of sentences that they are willing to read by three from the time of pre-assessment to post-
assessment.

Assessment Plan

Screening

Assessments were designed for the three lessons. These pre-assessments also served as post-
assessments. Pre-assessment 1-Students identified a series of books as fiction or non-fiction, identified
clues that helped them recognize non-fiction, and answered comprehension questions based on a non-
fiction text about eagles from Harcourt. Pre-assessment 2-Students read sentences from PCI sight word
curriculum assessment. Also assessed was the students willingness to read beyond what was required
pre-and post-instruction. Pre-assessment 3-words and sentences from guided reading text were read by
the students and results were recorded on a check-off sheet. Students were assessed on reading the
word in isolation and in context.

Progress Monitoring

Expectation grid graphic organizer to assess students' understanding of what information they would be
looking for in informational text. Students answer questions after reading based on predictions made
before reading informational text. Vocabulary organizer in which student recorded new word, picture,
example, and non-example of word from guided reading text. Sentence strips and repeated readings for
growth in fluency. Word sorts of words from the story that end in "ed" for "t" sounds and "d" sounds.
Matching game using sight words and repeated readings of sentences from the sight word curriculum.

Outcome-based Assessment

The same assessments that served as pre-tests served as post-tests. Assessments were designed for the
three lessons. These pre-assessments also served as post-assessments. Pre-assessment 1-Students
identified a series of books as fiction or non-fiction, identified clues that helped them recognize non-
fiction, and answered comprehension questions based on a non-fiction text about eagles from Harcourt.
Pre-assessment 2-Students read sentences from PCI sight word curriculum assessment. Also assessed
was the students willingness to read beyond what was required pre-and post-instruction. Pre-
assessment 3-words and sentences from guided reading text were read by the students and results were
recorded on a check-off sheet. Students were assessed on reading the word in isolation and in context.

Instructional Plan
Addresses all 5 areas of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, comprehension.
OR Skill based unit (dependent on topic) addresses concept building, mechanics, and knowledge
application; (real-world problems, dependent on topic, etc.)

Whole Group

Day 1-Pretest Explain to the students the meanings of fiction and non-fiction. Fiction- (fake ) invented or
made up story created from someone’s imagination Non- fiction-( not fake) gives information and ideas
about a real subject Show children a variety of books one at a time. Have the group vote on whether
each book is fiction or nonfiction. Give students the opportunity to explain why they believe the book is
fiction or nonfiction. Discuss titles, captions, pictures, and table of contents and how they help us to
understand what kind of information we will gain from our reading. Real world application: Ask the
student why we would want to read non-fiction text? What information may we be looking for?
Possibilities: taking care of pets, fixing a car or something that is broken, learning how to take care of
our health, learning about places we would like to visit, etc....

Day 2 Formative assessment: Orally quiz the children on the differences between fiction and non-fiction
using assorted books. Question them on the purpose for reading non-fiction. Display the text example
from the pretest on the overhead. Ask the students what they think this text is about. What gave them
the clues? (title, headings, pictures, map) Circle the clues on the text example that help us to know what
this text is about. Model for them how to fill out the grid by looking at the pictures, captions, and titles.
Review the grid and what we can expect to find in the text reading tomorrow. Review what clues we
used to make our predictions.

Day 3 Pass out blank expectation grid to the students to fill out using captions and pictures from the
text. Read the text aloud to the students having them follow along. Leave out keywords for them to
read. Question the students from the text according to the categories written on the expectation grid.
Have them write any information (in word or picture form) that were found from the categories on the
expectation grid. Check to make sure students have filled out grid properly.

Day 4 Distribute the students’ expectation grids from the day before. Using the grids, have the students
generate sentences using the information or “clues” from the grid. Students generate sentences that are
written by the teacher using the overhead and copy onto notebook paper. As the slower students are
finishing, read through the sentences they have formed from the information on the grid. Remind
students that they must have a capital letter and a period in their sentences. *Formative assessment-
This exercise will assess how much the children have comprehended the information from the text as
well as their ability to use the grid as a pre-writing tool.

Day 5 Post test Review growth of knowledge with each child from pretest to post- test. As a reward for
hard work, read a short high-interest non-fiction book to the students.

Adrenaline Rush by Greta Mackie PCI-Sight word Curriculum-Small Group
Day One: Administer the assessment to each student. Have the students help think up sentences that
use those words. Using a fresh copy of the assessment, point out the words in bold type and tell the
students that these are the new words for the week that we want to get quicker at reading. Chorally
read the sentences together. Make flashcards with several of each of the new words. Tell the students
that we are going to play a game. Students will take turns. If the student gets the word in three seconds,
he “wins” the card. The cards from the program will be worth two points and the flash cards will be
worth one point. Mix in the program cards with the flash cards. After each round, cards are counted and
the teacher records the scores. Save the score sheets from each day to use as a formative assessment
on how the students’ targeted word recognition is improving. Use the game as a motivator for working
hard each day and not wasting time so that the game can be played. Place the cards in a jean pocket
that can be easily accessed for student practice. (Depending on how well the students are doing, mix in
a few of the three words from the week before: does, about, room)

Day Two: Proceed with the lesson as written in the program for the word “know”. Use multiple repeated
reading of the sentences in the lesson. Look again at a fresh copy of the assessment and read several
times the sentences under the word “know”.

Day Three: Proceed with the lesson as written in the program for the word “let”. Use multiple repeated
reading of the sentences in the lesson. Look again at a fresh copy of the assessment and read several
times the sentences under the word “let”. Review the sentences under “know” and read the sentences
under “let” again. If time permits, play the flashcard game.

Day Four: Proceed with the lesson as written in the program for the word “think”. Use multiple repeated
reading of the sentences in the lesson. Look again at a fresh copy of the assessment and read several
times the sentences under the word “think”. Review the sentences under “know” and “let” again.
Reread the sentences under think. If time permits, play the flashcard game.

Day Five: Play the flashcard game for about five minutes. Read through the assessment sentences
chorally. Administer post-assessment in same way as pre-assessment.

The Elves and the Shoemaker by Nancy Leber-Small Group Real-world connection: Explain that the sheet
that “we are getting ready to mark helps us to know what is easy for each of us, what is hard for each of
us, and the progress we are making toward our goals of being able to quickly recognize the words so
that we can easily read them in the story.

Day 1-Assessment –Knowledge Rating Scale- Administer to each of the 3 students separately. The two
students not being assessed look through book together and take turns writing down any words they
think look difficult.

Day 2 Picture walk through book. Look at the pictures with the students and let them make predictions
about what the story might be about. Students listen as the teacher reads the story. Formative
assessment: Question the students on their predictions versus what the story was about.
Day 3 Review story. Read selected sentences from the text with the following vocabulary: fierce,
howled, and leather. Discuss. To demonstrate their understanding students will fill in a graphic
organizer. (attached) Read through the story again so students can listen for the words. The graphic
organizer will formatively assess the students’ understanding of the vocabulary.

Day 4 Tell the students you have pulled some words from the story that end with “ed”. Read and show
the first group of words on cards laid on the table and ask the students what is the same about the
words? Do the same with the second group of words and finish with the Group 3 word “howled.”

        Group 1 words-skipped, clapped, dressed, danced, talked

        Group 2 words- pounded, shouted

        Group 3 words- howled, smiled Ask the students the difference between the first two groups of
        words. How is the word “howled” different? Read through the words several times. Read
        through the sentence strips from the text with these words.

Day 5-Flashcard practice-allow students to sort words in to “ed” with “d” sound and “ed” with “t” sound
categories. Read through flashcards with them. After practicing flashcards, re-introduce sentence strips
from the text that contain the targeted words for repeated readings for fluency. *Students’ ability to
read the targeted words fluently within sentences that have been isolated from the text will serve as
formative assessment.

Day 6-Flash cards/Sentence strips. Read story omitting the sentences that the students have been
working on. Allow the students, using a team-reading approach to read those sentences.

Day 7-Flash cards/vocabulary review/ sentence strip practice

Day 8-Read the story through with students following along. On the sentences they know, work on
prosody.

Day 9-Post-assessment.

Differentiated Instruction: List specific activities, strategies or techniques used to provide instruction
for diverse students, including ESOL students. Please list this information here even if you wrote it
into the plans above.

To accomodate students with high activity levels and narrow attention spans, I made large sentence
strips from the guided reading text and taped them to the ground. I chose sentences that were
rhythmic. The students walked (or hopped) from strip to strip as they were able to read it fluently.
Students of higher ability in reading were selected to go first so that the lower students could hear and
improve on their turn to walk through the strips. Graphic organizers were used to help students predict
and comprehend what they were learning as well as demonstrate their understanding of new
vocabulary. Since the guided reading text was at the level of the higher readers, the lower readers were
only expected to read certain sentences from the text. I read the sentences that were beyond their
ability. Word sorts and matching games made the reading time productive and motivating. Students
were given the opportunity to see their scores pre and post test scores individually so they could view
the results of their personal growth without being compared to another student. All of the techniques I
used for the ESE students would be appropriate and effective for ESOL students as well. For ESOL
students, however, I may be more diligent at pointing to pictures in the text as it was being read and
checking for comprehension more often.

Reflection

The goal of instruction was for the students to recognize the distinguishing features of non-fiction texts
compared to fiction texts. The blue bars of the graph represent what the students knew pre-instruction
while the mauve bars represent their knowledge of the subject post-instruction. Four of seven students
reached the targeted goal of 80% of distinguishing features identiftied. Three students did not achieve
the goal. However, the graph shows that all children did make an improvement from the pre-instruction
to post-instruction period. My instruction was effective in helping each child to grow in their knowledge.
The majority of students reached or exceeded the goal of 80% mastery as taught. This portion of
instruction took place in a whole-group setting.The students who did not achieve the goal likely needed
more repetition and direct instruction in a smaller group setting.
My plan was effective in the aspect that every student demonstrated growth. I tried to make even the
assessments engaging. I used several different formats for assessment. There were multiple choice,
check-off charts, assessments using pictures, and self-determination assessments. I shared the results of
the assessments with the students so that they could see their progress. They found this motivating. My
plan was effective because I used concrete materials such as actual fiction and non-fiction books for
comparison. I worked with the students' wiggles" instead of against them. For example, some of the
students already have a negative feeling toward reading because it is hard for them. After some small
group activites, when it came to reading the sentences, I taped sentences from the text to the floor in
large strips and allowed the students to hop or walk between strips and progress through them in a
large motor activity. Even when they had to "go back" because they missed a word, they didn't mind.
This gave them multiple rereadings and students grew stronger as they watched their fellow students
take their turns. After they had gained the necessary confidence in their reading abilities, we returned to
the table and the text. The students were no longer afraid of reading and were excited that they could
recognize the words.

My teaching strengths are that I am creative and willing to do whatever it takes for students to learn. I
can usually find something that the students already know in which to relate new learning. I find ways to
reinforce what they have learned in a lesson throughout the day. For example, I try to reinforce or
increase vocabulary by using the new words throughout the day. I reward students who make the same
effort. I can enhance student learning by checking students for understanding of the whole group
instruction when moving to small group instruction. The students who did not meet the goals may have
lost focus during whole group instruction and needed a little more personalized attention. I can also
help students increase their ownership of learning by providing notebooks for their pre and post
assessments to allow them to see their progress and the areas in which they need work. I would bring
students closer to me during whole group instruction to help them maintain focus and to help me see
when they are zoning out. I would provide more concentrated repetition and practice for targeted goals.

				
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