CLARICE SMITH PERFORMING ARTS CENTER
& UM SCHOOL OF MUSIC
UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA
John Devlin & Michael Jacko, Music Directors
Noelle Drewes, Oboe Soloist
James Ross, Guest Conductor
Eric Nathan, Commissioned Composer
monday, november 1, 2010 . 8PM
elsie & marvin dekelboum concert hall
CLARICE SMITH PERFORMING ARTS CENTER 7
PROGRAM ABOUT THE ARTISTS
UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA ABOUT THE SOLOIST
Season Opener NOELLE DREWES has performed as a guest oboist with the
Imani Winds and Great Noise Ensemble, and as a member of
John Devlin & Michael Jacko, Music Directors the McLean Orchestra, the Ash Lawn Opera, Tri-Cities Opera
Noelle Drewes, Oboe Soloist Orchestra and the Summer Opera Theater Company. She has
James Ross, Guest Conductor worked under such conductors as Gerard Schwarz, Karel Husa,
Eric Nathan, Commissioned Composer Michael Jinbo, David Effron, José-Luis Novo and Peter Stafford Wilson. Noelle has
appeared in Alice Tully Hall at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New
York City, and in Washington DC at the Smithsonian Institute and the George
Washington Mount Vernon Estate.
ZOLTÁN KODÁLY (1882–1967) Originally from Ohio, Noelle grew up playing in the Columbus Cadet and
Dances of Galanta Youth Symphonies, as well as the Ohio All-State Orchestra, and was a fellowship
student of the Chamber Music Connection. Recipient of the Whalen Scholarship,
Ms. Drewes received her Bachelor’s degree in oboe performance from the Ithaca
BOHUSLAV MARTINU (1890–1959) College School of Music in 2007. Ms. Drewes earned her Master’s degree
Concerto for Oboe from the University of Maryland in 2009, where she is currently pursuing doctoral
Noelle Drewes-Hollister, Soloist studies. She has also studied at the Pierre Monteux School, Brevard Music Center,
the Boston University Tanglewood Institute, Eastern Music Festival and the Royal
College of Music in London. Her main teachers include Jane Marvine, Mark Hill
ERIC NATHAN (b. 1983) and Paige Morgan.
Icarus Dreamt Noelle is an active freelance musician in the DC/Baltimore/Annapolis area,
Composer Eric Nathan will conduct a brief question-and-answer session about his piece. and teaches at DeMatha and Bishop McNamara high schools. She also maintains
a private teaching studio and operates a successful reed-making business. For more
information, visit her website at www.ndrewes.com.
ROBERT SCHUMANN (1810–1856)
Fourth Symphony in D Minor, op. 120
James Ross, Conductor
8 WWW.CLARICESMITHCENTER.UMD.EDU UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 9
ABOUT THE ARTISTS ABOUT THE ARTISTS
ABOUT THE GUEST CONDUCTOR In the field of opera, he has conducted productions of Mozart’s Abduction from
the Seraglio at the Theatre du Rhin in Strasburg, Le nozze di Figaro at the Theatre
JAMES ROSS is a musician of international repute. His musical Champs-Elysees in Paris and Handel’s Rodelinda at the Glyndebourne Festival, as well
activities cover three fields: conducting, horn playing and teaching. as the recent Maryland Opera Studio production of Eugene Onegin. He has prepared
Born in Boston, he grew up studying the horn and earned his concert presentations of Torstensson’s The Expedition and Stravinsky’s Oedipus Rex
Bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in 1981. His first with the Stockholm Philharmonic.
conducting experience came as an undergraduate when he was As a teacher, prior to his appointment at the University of Maryland, Ross
chosen by his peers to lead the Bach Society Orchestra. Upon graduation, he began served on the faculties of Yale University, the Curtis Institute of Music, Haverford
his conducting studies in earnest with Kurt Masur in Leipzig, Germany while and Bryn Mawr colleges and as a guest artist at the Toho School of Music in Tokyo,
simultaneously serving as Solo-Horn of the prestigious Leipzig Gewandhaus Japan. He is a founding director of the Music Masters Course in Kazusa, an
Orchestra, becoming the first American member in the orchestra’s 250-year history. international chamber music festival dedicated to the concept of artistic cross-cultural
Presently, he is the Director of the University of Maryland Symphony Orchestra, exchange which takes place yearly in Chiba, Japan. In his work as Artistic Advisor to
Associate Professor at the University of Maryland and Artistic Director of the the Escuela de Practica Orquestal of the Orquesta Sinfonica of Galicia and
National Orchestral Institute (NOI). Conductor at the International Festival of Lucena, he has played a vital role in the
After two summers of study at the Tanglewood Music Center (1984-85) formation and education of the next generation of Spanish musicians.
Ross was offered the position of interim Assistant Conductor of the Boston
Symphony Orchestra. In June of 1994 he completed a four-year tenure as Music
Director of the Yale Symphony Orchestra. He has also served a three-year term ABOUT THE COMMISSIONED COMPOSER
collaborating with William Christie as Assistant Conductor of the Paris-based period
instrument ensemble Les Arts Florissants. During the last two decades, he has guest Works by ERIC NATHAN (b. 1983) have been performed at music
conducted such diverse orchestras as the Leipzig Gewandhaus, the Utah Symphony, festivals including the Aspen Music Festival, Ravinia Festival,
the Orquesta Ciudad Granada, the Harrisburg Symphony Orchestra, the Orquesta Tanglewood Jazz Festival, Banff Centre, Composers Now Festival
Sinfonica of Galicia, the Neubrandenburger Philharmonie, the Binghamton at Symphony Space and the Spark Festival of Electronic Music
Philharmonic and the National Symphony Orchestra in a side-by-side concert and Arts. His music has been performed by the Aspen Concert
with UMSO. Orchestra, Daejeon Philharmonic Orchestra, Omaha Symphony Chamber Orchestra,
He has worked both joyously and often with youth orchestras, among which are Yale Symphony, Aspen Contemporary Ensemble, Damocles Trio, Society for New
included the Mendelssohn Conservatory Orchestra of Leipzig, the Curtis Institute Music and the Mirari Brass Quintet, among others.
Orchestra of Philadelphia, the Orchestra of the Conservatorio Superior of Salamanca, Nathan’s music has been recognized with awards including a Charles Ives
the McGill Symphony Orchestra, the National Youth Orchestra of Spain and the Scholarship from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Jacob Druckman
Youth Orchestra of Acarigua-Araure in Venezuela, part of the famed “El Sistema.” Prize from the Aspen Music Festival and School, American Composers Orchestra
His principal conducting teachers are Kurt Masur, Otto-Werner Mueller, Seiji Ozawa Underwood New Music Readings, William Schuman Prize in the BMI Student
and Leonard Bernstein. Composers Awards, two ASCAP Morton Gould Young Composer Awards and
As a horn soloist, he has performed with such orchestras as the Boston Symphony, First Prize in the SCI/ASCAP Student Commission Competition.
the Boston Pops, the Bavarian Radio Orchestra, the Leipzig Radio Orchestra and the Nathan is a currently a doctoral student at Cornell University where he studies
Leipzig Gewandhaus. When he was awarded Third Prize in the Munich International with Steven Stucky and Roberto Sierra. He has studied at Indiana University (MM),
Horn Competition in 1978, he became the first American and one of the youngest Yale College (BA) and The Juilliard School Pre-College Division and has received
competitors ever to do so. His performances and recordings as principal horn of the fellowships to the Tanglewood Music Center, Aspen Music Festival and the
Gewandhaus, including the Strauss Four Last Songs with Jessye Norman, have helped Wellesley Composers Conference.
him gain international recognition as an artist.
10 301.405.ARTS (2787) UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 11
ABOUT THE ARTISTS PROGRAM NOTES
ABOUT THE MUSIC DIRECTORS ZOLTÁN KODÁLY
Dances of Galanta
JOHN DEVLIN is Assistant Conductor of the Capital City I had my initial experience with this piece as the principal clarinetist of the youth
Symphony, a music director for the Maryland Opera Studio, orchestra at the music school where Eric Nathan and I studied in high school. I had
Music Director of the University of Maryland Repertoire Orchestra just won the audition and was playing in a symphony for the first time. You can
and Assistant Conductor of the University of Maryland Symphony imagine my fear when I saw the first clarinet part on my stand and withheld the first
Orchestra. Devlin is also a member of the graduate conducting page (you will see what I mean when the piece starts!). The first third of the piece is
program at the University of Maryland School of Music, where he is a student of almost a clarinet concerto!
James Ross. John graduated in 2008, summa cum laude, from Emory University Now, my experience with the piece comes full circle as I get to conduct the work
with degrees in clarinet performance and orchestral conducting. with this fine orchestra. My mother has constantly reminded me of her fondness for
Devlin has studied conducting at Tanglewood and at the Conductors Institute the piece (she still plays an old VHS recording of that first concert at home … all the
at Bard College. At these and other programs he has studied with Marin Alsop, time) and she is in the audience tonight. Hi, Mom!
Leon Botstein, Harold Farberman and Scott Stewart. The piece is, at times, a raucous jaunt through Hungarian folk tunes and dances,
Devlin started his professional conducting in Atlanta, Georgia, where he served while at others, almost overpoweringly romantic. Opening with a Hungarian melody
as Assistant Conductor for the Emory Youth Symphony Orchestra and was the passed between cello, horn and oboe, the piece quickly turns its attention to the solo
music director for several Atlanta-based, world-premiere operatic productions. clarinet. If you are reading this before the concert, pay close attention; clarinetists are
His professional affiliations include Mu Phi Epsilon, The Conductors Guild and sometimes closer than they appear!
the League of American Orchestras. For more information, visit his website at The piece builds from this introduction to a full-orchestra statement of soaring
www.JohnDevlinMusic.com. melody that is then repeated in different forms. We then have playful, contrasting
middle sections before the racing close to the piece, punctuated with great flourishes
from the strings and brass.
MICHAEL JACKO is a first-year student in instrumental conducting I hope you enjoy the folk elements of the piece, as well as the easily accessible
at the University of Maryland, pursuing a Doctor of Musical Arts harmonies and rhythms that Kodály presents to us in such a pleasing way. Although
degree under professors James Ross and Michael Votta Jr. In addition Kodály is often unknown to all but the most serious student of classical music, I hope
to his work with the UM Repertoire Orchestra, Michael is assistant you leave the concert hall interested in hearing more of his work. Might I suggest for
conductor of the UM Symphony Orchestra. your next listening adventure his Hary Janos Suite?
Originally a trumpet player, Michael began his conducting study while pursuing — John Devlin
a degree from the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics at Georgetown University.
While at Georgetown he served as assistant conductor to the University Wind
Ensemble and Symphony Orchestra. Eager to make music on a full-time basis,
Michael completed a Master’s degree at Bard College in upstate New York. At Bard
he conducted the Conservatory Orchestra, the Bard Orchestra and the Chamber
Singers, and he coordinated and conducted a string ensemble for Noemie LaFrance’s
site-specific ballet, Rapture, staged atop the magnificent Frank Gehry-designed
Richard B. Fisher Center. Michael also conducted performances with the Woodstock
Chamber Orchestra. Last year Michael served as Assistant Conductor of the Lamont
Symphony Orchestra and Lamont Wind Ensemble at the University of Denver.
Michael’s previous conducting instructors include Lawrence Golan, Dr. Rufus
Jones Jr. and Harold Farberman.
12 WWW.CLARICESMITHCENTER.UMD.EDU UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 13
PROGRAM NOTES PROGRAM NOTES
Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967) dedicated his life to collecting and championing BOHUSLAV MARTINU
the folk music of Hungary. Together with his countryman Belá Bartók, he collected, Concerto for Oboe
recorded, studied, compiled, edited and published these melodies, as well as
We are performing a new critical edition by Maurice Bourgue and Guy Porat that
composed original works based on this musical tradition. Kodály’s interest in
premiered this July. Before studying the piece I spent several hours familiarizing
Hungarian folklore was more than an academic pursuit or an expression of
myself with the edition’s 115 critical notes so that I could approach the concerto
nationalistic sentiment. Indeed, a significant portion of his passion for the traditional
with a deep understanding of the decisions that Martinu made in his writing,
music of Hungary stemmed from nostalgia for his youth.
revision and collaboration with various soloists. The concerto’s performance tradition
Kodály spent seven years of his early childhood in Galánta (now Galanta,
has swayed back and forth over time, and this edition authoritatively consolidates
Slovakia). His father was a stationmaster for the Hungarian state railway system, and
the markings of the composer with the common practices of the concerto’s first
Galánta was one of the many stations he oversaw. During Zoltán’s formative years,
soloist, Jir í Tancibudek. The new edition includes a second cadenza in the third
the boy was exposed to the traditional songs of the region, which were influenced by
movement, which is often neglected, but clarifies and intensifies the finale’s
the verbunkos style of instrumental music that had been used for military recruiting.
narrative when performed.
The verbunkos music was improvisatory in nature; it was usually accompanied by
The reduced orchestra that we implement here allows for starker colors in the
dancers, whose enthusiasm helped attract prospective recruits. (Think of this
woodwinds and brass, and the piano plays a prominent role in the piece, at times
advertising strategy as an early form of today’s “Army Strong” television
resembling a second soloist. Due to Martinu’s idiosyncratic writing, this concerto
commercials.) Kodály would cherish these traditional melodies for the rest of his life,
presents a different kind of challenge to the orchestra, but it has proven infectious
writing in the dedication to the first volume of a collection of Hungarian folk songs
in a way that I hoped for, though I may not have expected!
he published in 1937: “I wrote these songs in memory of my school friends of
— Michael Jacko
Galánta, whose voices I still hear after the passing of fifty and more years.”
The present work, Dances of Galanta (1933), is yet another reflection of Kodály’s
bond with the music of his youth. Written as a commission for the 80th anniversary
On December 8, 1890, Czech composer Bohuslav Martinu was born in a small
of the Budapest Philharmonic and titled Galántai táncok in Hungarian, this work is
church tower in Policka, Bohemia, where his family lived and worked. Though many
a follow-up to his Dances of Marsszék (1927, orch. 1930). Its thematic material was
of the greatest musicians are introduced to music early in life, Martinu is one of the
inspired by the melodies included in a collection of Hungarian folk music that was
few who was quite literally born into it. The sounds of church bells welcomed him
published in Vienna in 1804, although Kodály uses no direct quotations from that
into this world and were a part of his daily routine for the first 12 years of his life.
book: the score is entirely original.
Growing up in a small town, looking down on the world from atop a bell tower, it
The work is broadly in a rondo form, bracketed by an introduction and coda.
must have been hard for Martinu to imagine that he would enter the world of music
The piece begins with a cello theme that is passed around the orchestra before a
during one of the most vibrant and tumultuous eras in recent history.
clarinet cadenza morphs into the first of five dance tunes. The others are introduced
He began composing seriously after World War I, at a time when tonality was
respectively by a solo flute, solo oboe, the strings and the entire orchestra, increasing
being virtually obliterated by Schoenberg and his disciples. Despite this, Martinu
speed and rhythmic complexity as the piece progresses. Kodály constructs his
managed to emerge as a distinctive and memorable voice in twentieth-century music.
composition by alternating the new dance tunes with interludes that develop
His disdain for artifice and novelty led him to create works that have far outlived
thematic material from the previously heard dances.
those by some of his contemporaries.
Dances of Galanta is brought to a close by a coda that cuts off the final dance,
Early in his composing career Martinu became fascinated with the concerto-
and in which a languorous theme is traded between the solo woodwinds. Another
grosso. He deeply admired Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos and spent countless
clarinet cadenza brings back the orchestra, which recalls the theme of the fifth
hours studying Corelli’s Concerti Grossi and Sonate da Camera. Martinu found that
dance to end the piece.
the form of these works held more potential for him than sonata form. Unlike the
— Robert Lintott
sonata, which is most often structured around two contrasting themes, the concerto
presented itself as a more natural and precise mode of expression. Beginning in
1931, Martinu made widespread use of the solo-ripieno technique inherent in the
14 301.405.ARTS (2787) UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 15
PROGRAM NOTES PROGRAM NOTES
baroque concerto-grosso. Although he resisted being called a “neo-classicist,” his use ERIC NATHAN
of this baroque genre ties him to the neo-classical movement that took hold between Icarus Dreamt
the two world wars.
The initial inspiration of Icarus Dreamt came from the kinetic sculpture of Arthur
Over 20 years after he first experimented with the concerto-grosso, Martinu
Ganson and the artwork of Henri Matisse. Arthur Ganson’s sculpture, “Machine
completed his only concerto to feature solo oboe. Written in Nice during April and
with 23 Scraps of Paper,” consists of a machine, which through the use of electricity
May 1955, the work was composed for Jir í Tancibudek, a Czech oboist who resided
and various levers and gears, animates 23 scraps of paper into flying paper birds.
in Australia where he premiered the work in 1956. The Oboe Concerto is a late
The flapping scraps of paper serve as puppets of the larger churning machine, and
work, completed just four years before Martinu died. Like many late works, this
I could not help but imagine the sculpture as representative of a modern-day
concerto is rather reflective, synthesizing all of the elements that make Martinu’s
Pinocchio story, the paper breaking free of its puppet master, coming to life and
compositional language uniquely his. He combines American jazz, Czech folk music
flying away into the sky.
and classical form to create a sonic landscape that sounds fresh even five decades
Hanging above my desk is a poster of Henri Matisse’s collage “Icarus” (from
after it was first performed.
his Jazz portfolio, 1947). The intensely lyrical gestures of the painting, combined
The first movement begins with a stately orchestral introduction followed by
with allusions to the Greek myth of Icarus and Daedalus, merged in my mind
soaring oboe lines that are backed by animated accompanimental figures. The second
with the gracefully fluttering images of the paper birds and soft clicking sounds
movement makes the most obvious use of concerto-grosso, with the soloist and
of the machines from Ganson’s sculpture to serve as the basis of my own work,
orchestra alternating throughout. Martinu’s fascination with jazz is clearly evidenced
in the final movement, especially in the driving rhythms and woodwind textures.
In the Greek myth, Daedalus, father of Icarus, constructed wings made of
A virtuosic oboe cadenza leads directly into a lively tutti statement that concludes
feather and wax to escape imprisonment by King Minos of Crete. As they escaped,
this charming concerto.
Daedalus warned Icarus not to fly too close to the sun, as the wax fastening the
Although Martinu was hailed as a master of orchestral composition in his
wings to his back would melt. Despite his father’s warning, Icarus flew too close to
lifetime, his works are not as firmly ingrained in the canon as one might think.
the sun, causing his wings to melt and for him to fall to the sea below.
The Oboe Concerto is one of the more rarely performed works, only occasionally
The musical work follows the narrative trajectory of the Greek myth but
making its way to major concert halls. This is hardly due to lack of quality; it
imagines it as Icarus’s dream before taking his fateful flight. The piece depicts his
fuses all of the elements that made his earlier compositions such a success. In this
initial journey toward the sun, a foreshadowing of his own doom, and then a
mature work Martinu fully realizes his lifelong goal of capturing the human
radiantly joyous flight to the sky and beyond. Icarus yearned for the unattainable,
language in music.
but he, like Ganson’s paper birds, never ceased to dream.
— Jenny Houghton
— Eric Nathan
16 WWW.CLARICESMITHCENTER.UMD.EDU UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 17
PROGRAM NOTES PROGRAM NOTES
Eric and I have known each other for over a decade. We both grew up in ROBERT SCHUMANN
Westchester County, New York, and first worked together while studying at the Fourth Symphony in D Minor, op. 120
Hoff-Barthelson Music School in Scarsdale. At that time, Eric was a talented trumpet
We never know what the orchestra’s ability will be until we hear the auditions and get
player and I was studying clarinet. I have followed his career with great interest
everyone in the same room playing together. We had originally selected Schumann’s
and now that he has become one of the most successful young American composers,
Overture, Scherzo and Finale for this spot in the program, but after the first reading
it gives me great pleasure to champion his works. Tonight, we present his
it was clear that the orchestra’s level demanded a more challenging piece. I learned the
Fourth Symphony on short notice to prepare the orchestra for Prof. James Ross, who
Last season, UMRO premiered a new version of Eric’s Dance Suite, which was
began conducting rehearsals in October. Aside from working on notes, rhythms and
well received by our audience. Icarus is written in a much more ethereal style. It has
style, I knew that rubato would play a large part in Prof. Ross’s rendition of the piece,
moments of harsh dissonance that resolve into passages of exquisite beauty.
so a big part of what we worked on together was how to effectively follow our
The piece is challenging in many ways for the players. Each of the wind parts is
musical instincts on the fly.
distinct and usually independent from the other members of its section. Listen
Not only is the Fourth Symphony more challenging than Overture, Scherzo
carefully at the beginning of the work for a difficult piccolo solo and then a texture
and Finale, it is a piece with more depth of sound and covers a wider range of the
of interwoven and complex rhythmic activity from the whole of the woodwind corps,
emotional spectrum. The motives connecting the inner and outer movements create
combined with mallet percussion.
a well-unified sound world, and the transitions in the outer movements are fantastic
The low strings have many interesting effects in this piece, most notably an
as a result of Schumann’s revisions to the Symphony. I have always enjoyed listening
extensive use of “Bartok pizzicato.” When the strings are given this indication, they
to and playing Schumann’s orchestral music, but this experience conducting two of
pluck their string with great force, causing the string to strike the fingerboard and
his well-known works has only increased my appreciation for the composer.
create a “slap” sound, along with the string’s normal tone. You can hear the cellos
— Michael Jacko
and basses do this in the first half of the piece.
The brass, harp and strings add to the texture for the middle section of the work.
In the mid-nineteenth century Beethoven’s shadow loomed large and any
Eric has written some fantastic staggered entries for the brass, layering different
composer attempting to conquer the symphony had to grapple with his legacy.
sounds together to form enormous walls of sound. The effect is heightened when the
Robert Schumann, often considered the poster child of the Romantic era, was in no
players all end their notes together with resounding accents.
way immune from his daunting influence. In his lifetime, Schumann made a name
This is followed by a section of woodwind solos that leads to a beautiful and
for himself as a master of small forms, churning out vast quantities of lieder, piano
haunting passage for the cello section. Eric’s melodic writing has wonderful shape
music, and later, chamber music. However, as his musical language evolved it became
and our enormous cello section plays with great tenderness and direction during this
clear that these small forms could no longer contain all he hoped to communicate
poignant episode. The piece ends, as it began, with a piccolo solo.
to his listeners.
This particular work has won the Druckman Prize at Aspen, the Schuman Prize
An entry from Clara Schumann’s diary, dated 1839, gives us some insight into the
(B.M.I.) and was selected for performance by the American Composers Orchestra.
factors guiding Schumann toward the symphony: “It would be best if he composed
— John Devlin
for orchestra; his imagination cannot find sufficient scope on the piano … His
compositions are all orchestral in feeling … My wish is that he should compose for
the orchestra — that is his field! May I succeed in bringing him to it.” Given Clara’s
enthusiasm about Schumann’s future in orchestral music, it is hardly surprising that
Schumann turned to this genre just one year after marrying her in 1840. He had
been aching to experiment with orchestral writing since the late 1830s and her
encouragement helped lead him there.
Schumann’s Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, originally composed in 1841, teaches
us a great deal about his early experiences with orchestral music. The earliest version
of the symphony was presented to Clara on her birthday in September 1841.
18 301.405.ARTS (2787) UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 19
PROGRAM NOTES UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA
The work was so poorly received at its premiere that Schumann opted to withdraw it UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA
completely from the repertory. To this day, Schumann is criticized for being a poor
orchestrator, and the reasons for this are quite evident in the 1841 version of this now Violin Cello Bassoon
celebrated symphony. In its original manifestation, the work was plagued by errors in Sean Murphy, Micah Goldblum, Michael Goldman
the orchestration. Aside from overlooking issues of balance and range, Schumann concertmaster principal Kristina Shieh
wrote in a way that was not always natural for the players. Mary Natoli, Danielle Bailey
Ten years after it was first premiered, Schumann revised the D-minor symphony principal second Becca Certner Horn
and it reemerged as the Symphony No. 4 we are familiar with today. Bolstered by a Thomas Rimlinger, Chris Perdue
principal second (Martinu) Rachael Plantholt
decade of experience, he remedied the problems that hindered the success of the Nicholas Pozulakis Andrew Rudderow
original version. Although the revised symphony is more “correct,” there were several Adam Kuhn
critics who found the 1841 version to be a more authentic and evocative work. Kara Levin Trumpet
Among them was Schumann’s protégé, Johannes Brahms. Though the debate about Jimmy McConnell Ian Dahlstrom
the two versions raged on during Schumann’s lifetime, the general consensus remains Arash Shahry Michael Jacko
that the 1851 version is a superior work and it is the one heard most often today. Hubert Shiau
Javier del Pilar
This work marks a significant turning point in symphonic composition. Yvonne Shiau Trombone
Although Schumann organized the material into the typical four-movement pattern Crystal Varkalis Casey Jones
— fast-slow-dance-fast — he created a work that depends primarily on thematic Dor Zmora
linkages for unity. He intended the symphony to be played as one continuous whole Tuba
with no pauses between movements. In essence, this is a “symphonic fantasy” in Bass Emily Grossnickle
which thematic material presented in the first movement is not resolved until the Brian Schuler, principal
very end of the fourth. Josh Fogel Timpani
Schumann’s symphonies, though few in number, transformed the way future James Hein Keith Williams
composers approached the genre. He may have struggled with Beethoven’s legacy, Kathryn Juliano
but he emerged as an authentic and pioneering voice in orchestral composition. Amelia Li Percussion
His four symphonies are very much in the repertory today, which is a testament to Kentrell Herres
the universality of his musical language. Flute Michael O’Neill
— Jenny Houghton Liz Desrochers Natalie Hogg
Veronica Son Piano
Hannah Sung Hana Cai
Lydia Waters, principal Harp
Oboe Cara Fleck
David Dickey Graduate Assistants
Sarah Balzer Caitlin McSherry, violin
Valina Yen Cassidy Morgan, bass
20 WWW.CLARICESMITHCENTER.UMD.EDU UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener 21