Document Sample
                                    & UM SCHOOL OF MUSIC

                        UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA
                                                         Season Opener
                                        John Devlin & Michael Jacko, Music Directors

                                                         Noelle Drewes, Oboe Soloist
                                                       James Ross, Guest Conductor
                                               Eric Nathan, Commissioned Composer

monday, november 1, 2010 . 8PM
elsie & marvin dekelboum concert hall

                                            CLARICE SMITH PERFORMING ARTS CENTER   7
PROGRAM                                                                                            ABOUT THE ARTISTS

       UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA                                                                     ABOUT THE SOLOIST
       Season Opener                                                                                                   NOELLE DREWES has performed as a guest oboist with the
                                                                                                                       Imani Winds and Great Noise Ensemble, and as a member of
       John Devlin & Michael Jacko, Music Directors                                                                    the McLean Orchestra, the Ash Lawn Opera, Tri-Cities Opera
       Noelle Drewes, Oboe Soloist                                                                                     Orchestra and the Summer Opera Theater Company. She has
       James Ross, Guest Conductor                                                                                     worked under such conductors as Gerard Schwarz, Karel Husa,
       Eric Nathan, Commissioned Composer                                                          Michael Jinbo, David Effron, José-Luis Novo and Peter Stafford Wilson. Noelle has
                                                                                                   appeared in Alice Tully Hall at the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New
                                                                                                   York City, and in Washington DC at the Smithsonian Institute and the George
                                                                                                   Washington Mount Vernon Estate.
       ZOLTÁN KODÁLY (1882–1967)                                                                      Originally from Ohio, Noelle grew up playing in the Columbus Cadet and
       Dances of Galanta                                                                           Youth Symphonies, as well as the Ohio All-State Orchestra, and was a fellowship
                                                                                                   student of the Chamber Music Connection. Recipient of the Whalen Scholarship,
                                                                                                   Ms. Drewes received her Bachelor’s degree in oboe performance from the Ithaca
       BOHUSLAV MARTINU (1890–1959)                                                                College School of Music in 2007. Ms. Drewes earned her Master’s degree
       Concerto for Oboe                                                                           from the University of Maryland in 2009, where she is currently pursuing doctoral
         Noelle Drewes-Hollister, Soloist                                                          studies. She has also studied at the Pierre Monteux School, Brevard Music Center,
                                                                                                   the Boston University Tanglewood Institute, Eastern Music Festival and the Royal
                                                                                                   College of Music in London. Her main teachers include Jane Marvine, Mark Hill
       ERIC NATHAN (b. 1983)                                                                       and Paige Morgan.
       Icarus Dreamt                                                                                  Noelle is an active freelance musician in the DC/Baltimore/Annapolis area,
          Composer Eric Nathan will conduct a brief question-and-answer session about his piece.   and teaches at DeMatha and Bishop McNamara high schools. She also maintains
                                                                                                   a private teaching studio and operates a successful reed-making business. For more
                                                                                                   information, visit her website at
       ROBERT SCHUMANN (1810–1856)
       Fourth Symphony in D Minor, op. 120
          James Ross, Conductor

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ABOUT THE ARTISTS                                                                                  ABOUT THE ARTISTS

       ABOUT THE GUEST CONDUCTOR                                                                       In the field of opera, he has conducted productions of Mozart’s Abduction from
                                                                                                   the Seraglio at the Theatre du Rhin in Strasburg, Le nozze di Figaro at the Theatre
                           JAMES ROSS is a musician of international repute. His musical           Champs-Elysees in Paris and Handel’s Rodelinda at the Glyndebourne Festival, as well
                           activities cover three fields: conducting, horn playing and teaching.   as the recent Maryland Opera Studio production of Eugene Onegin. He has prepared
                           Born in Boston, he grew up studying the horn and earned his             concert presentations of Torstensson’s The Expedition and Stravinsky’s Oedipus Rex
                           Bachelor’s degree from Harvard University in 1981. His first            with the Stockholm Philharmonic.
                           conducting experience came as an undergraduate when he was                  As a teacher, prior to his appointment at the University of Maryland, Ross
       chosen by his peers to lead the Bach Society Orchestra. Upon graduation, he began           served on the faculties of Yale University, the Curtis Institute of Music, Haverford
       his conducting studies in earnest with Kurt Masur in Leipzig, Germany while                 and Bryn Mawr colleges and as a guest artist at the Toho School of Music in Tokyo,
       simultaneously serving as Solo-Horn of the prestigious Leipzig Gewandhaus                   Japan. He is a founding director of the Music Masters Course in Kazusa, an
       Orchestra, becoming the first American member in the orchestra’s 250-year history.          international chamber music festival dedicated to the concept of artistic cross-cultural
       Presently, he is the Director of the University of Maryland Symphony Orchestra,             exchange which takes place yearly in Chiba, Japan. In his work as Artistic Advisor to
       Associate Professor at the University of Maryland and Artistic Director of the              the Escuela de Practica Orquestal of the Orquesta Sinfonica of Galicia and
       National Orchestral Institute (NOI).                                                        Conductor at the International Festival of Lucena, he has played a vital role in the
           After two summers of study at the Tanglewood Music Center (1984-85)                     formation and education of the next generation of Spanish musicians.
       Ross was offered the position of interim Assistant Conductor of the Boston
       Symphony Orchestra. In June of 1994 he completed a four-year tenure as Music
       Director of the Yale Symphony Orchestra. He has also served a three-year term               ABOUT THE COMMISSIONED COMPOSER
       collaborating with William Christie as Assistant Conductor of the Paris-based period
       instrument ensemble Les Arts Florissants. During the last two decades, he has guest                             Works by ERIC NATHAN (b. 1983) have been performed at music
       conducted such diverse orchestras as the Leipzig Gewandhaus, the Utah Symphony,                                 festivals including the Aspen Music Festival, Ravinia Festival,
       the Orquesta Ciudad Granada, the Harrisburg Symphony Orchestra, the Orquesta                                    Tanglewood Jazz Festival, Banff Centre, Composers Now Festival
       Sinfonica of Galicia, the Neubrandenburger Philharmonie, the Binghamton                                         at Symphony Space and the Spark Festival of Electronic Music
       Philharmonic and the National Symphony Orchestra in a side-by-side concert                                      and Arts. His music has been performed by the Aspen Concert
       with UMSO.                                                                                  Orchestra, Daejeon Philharmonic Orchestra, Omaha Symphony Chamber Orchestra,
           He has worked both joyously and often with youth orchestras, among which are            Yale Symphony, Aspen Contemporary Ensemble, Damocles Trio, Society for New
       included the Mendelssohn Conservatory Orchestra of Leipzig, the Curtis Institute            Music and the Mirari Brass Quintet, among others.
       Orchestra of Philadelphia, the Orchestra of the Conservatorio Superior of Salamanca,            Nathan’s music has been recognized with awards including a Charles Ives
       the McGill Symphony Orchestra, the National Youth Orchestra of Spain and the                Scholarship from the American Academy of Arts and Letters, Jacob Druckman
       Youth Orchestra of Acarigua-Araure in Venezuela, part of the famed “El Sistema.”            Prize from the Aspen Music Festival and School, American Composers Orchestra
       His principal conducting teachers are Kurt Masur, Otto-Werner Mueller, Seiji Ozawa          Underwood New Music Readings, William Schuman Prize in the BMI Student
       and Leonard Bernstein.                                                                      Composers Awards, two ASCAP Morton Gould Young Composer Awards and
           As a horn soloist, he has performed with such orchestras as the Boston Symphony,        First Prize in the SCI/ASCAP Student Commission Competition.
       the Boston Pops, the Bavarian Radio Orchestra, the Leipzig Radio Orchestra and the              Nathan is a currently a doctoral student at Cornell University where he studies
       Leipzig Gewandhaus. When he was awarded Third Prize in the Munich International             with Steven Stucky and Roberto Sierra. He has studied at Indiana University (MM),
       Horn Competition in 1978, he became the first American and one of the youngest              Yale College (BA) and The Juilliard School Pre-College Division and has received
       competitors ever to do so. His performances and recordings as principal horn of the         fellowships to the Tanglewood Music Center, Aspen Music Festival and the
       Gewandhaus, including the Strauss Four Last Songs with Jessye Norman, have helped           Wellesley Composers Conference.
       him gain international recognition as an artist.

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ABOUT THE ARTISTS                                                                                  PROGRAM NOTES

       ABOUT THE MUSIC DIRECTORS                                                                   ZOLTÁN KODÁLY
                                                                                                   Dances of Galanta
                         JOHN DEVLIN is Assistant Conductor of the Capital City                    I had my initial experience with this piece as the principal clarinetist of the youth
                          Symphony, a music director for the Maryland Opera Studio,                orchestra at the music school where Eric Nathan and I studied in high school. I had
                          Music Director of the University of Maryland Repertoire Orchestra        just won the audition and was playing in a symphony for the first time. You can
                          and Assistant Conductor of the University of Maryland Symphony           imagine my fear when I saw the first clarinet part on my stand and withheld the first
                          Orchestra. Devlin is also a member of the graduate conducting            page (you will see what I mean when the piece starts!). The first third of the piece is
       program at the University of Maryland School of Music, where he is a student of             almost a clarinet concerto!
       James Ross. John graduated in 2008, summa cum laude, from Emory University                      Now, my experience with the piece comes full circle as I get to conduct the work
       with degrees in clarinet performance and orchestral conducting.                             with this fine orchestra. My mother has constantly reminded me of her fondness for
           Devlin has studied conducting at Tanglewood and at the Conductors Institute             the piece (she still plays an old VHS recording of that first concert at home … all the
       at Bard College. At these and other programs he has studied with Marin Alsop,               time) and she is in the audience tonight. Hi, Mom!
       Leon Botstein, Harold Farberman and Scott Stewart.                                              The piece is, at times, a raucous jaunt through Hungarian folk tunes and dances,
           Devlin started his professional conducting in Atlanta, Georgia, where he served         while at others, almost overpoweringly romantic. Opening with a Hungarian melody
       as Assistant Conductor for the Emory Youth Symphony Orchestra and was the                   passed between cello, horn and oboe, the piece quickly turns its attention to the solo
       music director for several Atlanta-based, world-premiere operatic productions.              clarinet. If you are reading this before the concert, pay close attention; clarinetists are
       His professional affiliations include Mu Phi Epsilon, The Conductors Guild and              sometimes closer than they appear!
       the League of American Orchestras. For more information, visit his website at                   The piece builds from this introduction to a full-orchestra statement of soaring                                                                    melody that is then repeated in different forms. We then have playful, contrasting
                                                                                                   middle sections before the racing close to the piece, punctuated with great flourishes
                                                                                                   from the strings and brass.
                         MICHAEL JACKO is a first-year student in instrumental conducting              I hope you enjoy the folk elements of the piece, as well as the easily accessible
                            at the University of Maryland, pursuing a Doctor of Musical Arts       harmonies and rhythms that Kodály presents to us in such a pleasing way. Although
                            degree under professors James Ross and Michael Votta Jr. In addition   Kodály is often unknown to all but the most serious student of classical music, I hope
                            to his work with the UM Repertoire Orchestra, Michael is assistant     you leave the concert hall interested in hearing more of his work. Might I suggest for
                            conductor of the UM Symphony Orchestra.                                your next listening adventure his Hary Janos Suite?
           Originally a trumpet player, Michael began his conducting study while pursuing                                                                                    — John Devlin
       a degree from the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics at Georgetown University.
       While at Georgetown he served as assistant conductor to the University Wind
       Ensemble and Symphony Orchestra. Eager to make music on a full-time basis,
       Michael completed a Master’s degree at Bard College in upstate New York. At Bard
       he conducted the Conservatory Orchestra, the Bard Orchestra and the Chamber
       Singers, and he coordinated and conducted a string ensemble for Noemie LaFrance’s
       site-specific ballet, Rapture, staged atop the magnificent Frank Gehry-designed
       Richard B. Fisher Center. Michael also conducted performances with the Woodstock
       Chamber Orchestra. Last year Michael served as Assistant Conductor of the Lamont
       Symphony Orchestra and Lamont Wind Ensemble at the University of Denver.
            Michael’s previous conducting instructors include Lawrence Golan, Dr. Rufus
       Jones Jr. and Harold Farberman.

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PROGRAM NOTES                                                                                      PROGRAM NOTES

           Zoltán Kodály (1882–1967) dedicated his life to collecting and championing              BOHUSLAV MARTINU
       the folk music of Hungary. Together with his countryman Belá Bartók, he collected,          Concerto for Oboe
       recorded, studied, compiled, edited and published these melodies, as well as
                                                                                                   We are performing a new critical edition by Maurice Bourgue and Guy Porat that
       composed original works based on this musical tradition. Kodály’s interest in
                                                                                                   premiered this July. Before studying the piece I spent several hours familiarizing
       Hungarian folklore was more than an academic pursuit or an expression of
                                                                                                   myself with the edition’s 115 critical notes so that I could approach the concerto
       nationalistic sentiment. Indeed, a significant portion of his passion for the traditional
                                                                                                   with a deep understanding of the decisions that Martinu made in his writing,
       music of Hungary stemmed from nostalgia for his youth.
                                                                                                   revision and collaboration with various soloists. The concerto’s performance tradition
           Kodály spent seven years of his early childhood in Galánta (now Galanta,
                                                                                                   has swayed back and forth over time, and this edition authoritatively consolidates
       Slovakia). His father was a stationmaster for the Hungarian state railway system, and
                                                                                                   the markings of the composer with the common practices of the concerto’s first
       Galánta was one of the many stations he oversaw. During Zoltán’s formative years,
                                                                                                   soloist, Jir í Tancibudek. The new edition includes a second cadenza in the third
       the boy was exposed to the traditional songs of the region, which were influenced by
                                                                                                   movement, which is often neglected, but clarifies and intensifies the finale’s
       the verbunkos style of instrumental music that had been used for military recruiting.
                                                                                                   narrative when performed.
       The verbunkos music was improvisatory in nature; it was usually accompanied by
                                                                                                       The reduced orchestra that we implement here allows for starker colors in the
       dancers, whose enthusiasm helped attract prospective recruits. (Think of this
                                                                                                   woodwinds and brass, and the piano plays a prominent role in the piece, at times
       advertising strategy as an early form of today’s “Army Strong” television
                                                                                                   resembling a second soloist. Due to Martinu’s idiosyncratic writing, this concerto
       commercials.) Kodály would cherish these traditional melodies for the rest of his life,
                                                                                                   presents a different kind of challenge to the orchestra, but it has proven infectious
       writing in the dedication to the first volume of a collection of Hungarian folk songs
                                                                                                   in a way that I hoped for, though I may not have expected!
       he published in 1937: “I wrote these songs in memory of my school friends of
                                                                                                                                                                           — Michael Jacko
       Galánta, whose voices I still hear after the passing of fifty and more years.”
           The present work, Dances of Galanta (1933), is yet another reflection of Kodály’s
       bond with the music of his youth. Written as a commission for the 80th anniversary
                                                                                                       On December 8, 1890, Czech composer Bohuslav Martinu was born in a small
       of the Budapest Philharmonic and titled Galántai táncok in Hungarian, this work is
                                                                                                   church tower in Policka, Bohemia, where his family lived and worked. Though many
       a follow-up to his Dances of Marsszék (1927, orch. 1930). Its thematic material was
                                                                                                   of the greatest musicians are introduced to music early in life, Martinu is one of the
       inspired by the melodies included in a collection of Hungarian folk music that was
                                                                                                   few who was quite literally born into it. The sounds of church bells welcomed him
       published in Vienna in 1804, although Kodály uses no direct quotations from that
                                                                                                   into this world and were a part of his daily routine for the first 12 years of his life.
       book: the score is entirely original.
                                                                                                   Growing up in a small town, looking down on the world from atop a bell tower, it
           The work is broadly in a rondo form, bracketed by an introduction and coda.
                                                                                                   must have been hard for Martinu to imagine that he would enter the world of music
       The piece begins with a cello theme that is passed around the orchestra before a
                                                                                                   during one of the most vibrant and tumultuous eras in recent history.
       clarinet cadenza morphs into the first of five dance tunes. The others are introduced
                                                                                                       He began composing seriously after World War I, at a time when tonality was
       respectively by a solo flute, solo oboe, the strings and the entire orchestra, increasing
                                                                                                   being virtually obliterated by Schoenberg and his disciples. Despite this, Martinu
       speed and rhythmic complexity as the piece progresses. Kodály constructs his
                                                                                                   managed to emerge as a distinctive and memorable voice in twentieth-century music.
       composition by alternating the new dance tunes with interludes that develop
                                                                                                   His disdain for artifice and novelty led him to create works that have far outlived
       thematic material from the previously heard dances.
                                                                                                   those by some of his contemporaries.
           Dances of Galanta is brought to a close by a coda that cuts off the final dance,
                                                                                                       Early in his composing career Martinu became fascinated with the concerto-
       and in which a languorous theme is traded between the solo woodwinds. Another
                                                                                                   grosso. He deeply admired Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos and spent countless
       clarinet cadenza brings back the orchestra, which recalls the theme of the fifth
                                                                                                   hours studying Corelli’s Concerti Grossi and Sonate da Camera. Martinu found that
       dance to end the piece.
                                                                                                   the form of these works held more potential for him than sonata form. Unlike the
                                                                               — Robert Lintott
                                                                                                   sonata, which is most often structured around two contrasting themes, the concerto
                                                                                                   presented itself as a more natural and precise mode of expression. Beginning in
                                                                                                   1931, Martinu made widespread use of the solo-ripieno technique inherent in the

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PROGRAM NOTES                                                                                   PROGRAM NOTES

       baroque concerto-grosso. Although he resisted being called a “neo-classicist,” his use   ERIC NATHAN
       of this baroque genre ties him to the neo-classical movement that took hold between      Icarus Dreamt
       the two world wars.
                                                                                                The initial inspiration of Icarus Dreamt came from the kinetic sculpture of Arthur
           Over 20 years after he first experimented with the concerto-grosso, Martinu
                                                                                                Ganson and the artwork of Henri Matisse. Arthur Ganson’s sculpture, “Machine
       completed his only concerto to feature solo oboe. Written in Nice during April and
                                                                                                with 23 Scraps of Paper,” consists of a machine, which through the use of electricity
       May 1955, the work was composed for Jir í Tancibudek, a Czech oboist who resided
                                                                                                and various levers and gears, animates 23 scraps of paper into flying paper birds.
       in Australia where he premiered the work in 1956. The Oboe Concerto is a late
                                                                                                The flapping scraps of paper serve as puppets of the larger churning machine, and
       work, completed just four years before Martinu died. Like many late works, this
                                                                                                I could not help but imagine the sculpture as representative of a modern-day
       concerto is rather reflective, synthesizing all of the elements that make Martinu’s
                                                                                                Pinocchio story, the paper breaking free of its puppet master, coming to life and
       compositional language uniquely his. He combines American jazz, Czech folk music
                                                                                                flying away into the sky.
       and classical form to create a sonic landscape that sounds fresh even five decades
                                                                                                    Hanging above my desk is a poster of Henri Matisse’s collage “Icarus” (from
       after it was first performed.
                                                                                                his Jazz portfolio, 1947). The intensely lyrical gestures of the painting, combined
           The first movement begins with a stately orchestral introduction followed by
                                                                                                with allusions to the Greek myth of Icarus and Daedalus, merged in my mind
       soaring oboe lines that are backed by animated accompanimental figures. The second
                                                                                                with the gracefully fluttering images of the paper birds and soft clicking sounds
       movement makes the most obvious use of concerto-grosso, with the soloist and
                                                                                                of the machines from Ganson’s sculpture to serve as the basis of my own work,
       orchestra alternating throughout. Martinu’s fascination with jazz is clearly evidenced
                                                                                                Icarus Dreamt.
       in the final movement, especially in the driving rhythms and woodwind textures.
                                                                                                    In the Greek myth, Daedalus, father of Icarus, constructed wings made of
       A virtuosic oboe cadenza leads directly into a lively tutti statement that concludes
                                                                                                feather and wax to escape imprisonment by King Minos of Crete. As they escaped,
       this charming concerto.
                                                                                                Daedalus warned Icarus not to fly too close to the sun, as the wax fastening the
           Although Martinu was hailed as a master of orchestral composition in his
                                                                                                wings to his back would melt. Despite his father’s warning, Icarus flew too close to
       lifetime, his works are not as firmly ingrained in the canon as one might think.
                                                                                                the sun, causing his wings to melt and for him to fall to the sea below.
       The Oboe Concerto is one of the more rarely performed works, only occasionally
                                                                                                    The musical work follows the narrative trajectory of the Greek myth but
       making its way to major concert halls. This is hardly due to lack of quality; it
                                                                                                imagines it as Icarus’s dream before taking his fateful flight. The piece depicts his
       fuses all of the elements that made his earlier compositions such a success. In this
                                                                                                initial journey toward the sun, a foreshadowing of his own doom, and then a
       mature work Martinu fully realizes his lifelong goal of capturing the human
                                                                                                radiantly joyous flight to the sky and beyond. Icarus yearned for the unattainable,
       language in music.
                                                                                                but he, like Ganson’s paper birds, never ceased to dream.
                                                                             — Jenny Houghton
                                                                                                                                                                          — Eric Nathan

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PROGRAM NOTES                                                                                     PROGRAM NOTES

           Eric and I have known each other for over a decade. We both grew up in                 ROBERT SCHUMANN
       Westchester County, New York, and first worked together while studying at the              Fourth Symphony in D Minor, op. 120
       Hoff-Barthelson Music School in Scarsdale. At that time, Eric was a talented trumpet
                                                                                                  We never know what the orchestra’s ability will be until we hear the auditions and get
       player and I was studying clarinet. I have followed his career with great interest
                                                                                                  everyone in the same room playing together. We had originally selected Schumann’s
       and now that he has become one of the most successful young American composers,
                                                                                                  Overture, Scherzo and Finale for this spot in the program, but after the first reading
       it gives me great pleasure to champion his works. Tonight, we present his
                                                                                                  it was clear that the orchestra’s level demanded a more challenging piece. I learned the
       Icarus Dreamt.
                                                                                                  Fourth Symphony on short notice to prepare the orchestra for Prof. James Ross, who
           Last season, UMRO premiered a new version of Eric’s Dance Suite, which was
                                                                                                  began conducting rehearsals in October. Aside from working on notes, rhythms and
       well received by our audience. Icarus is written in a much more ethereal style. It has
                                                                                                  style, I knew that rubato would play a large part in Prof. Ross’s rendition of the piece,
       moments of harsh dissonance that resolve into passages of exquisite beauty.
                                                                                                  so a big part of what we worked on together was how to effectively follow our
           The piece is challenging in many ways for the players. Each of the wind parts is
                                                                                                  musical instincts on the fly.
       distinct and usually independent from the other members of its section. Listen
                                                                                                      Not only is the Fourth Symphony more challenging than Overture, Scherzo
       carefully at the beginning of the work for a difficult piccolo solo and then a texture
                                                                                                  and Finale, it is a piece with more depth of sound and covers a wider range of the
       of interwoven and complex rhythmic activity from the whole of the woodwind corps,
                                                                                                  emotional spectrum. The motives connecting the inner and outer movements create
       combined with mallet percussion.
                                                                                                  a well-unified sound world, and the transitions in the outer movements are fantastic
           The low strings have many interesting effects in this piece, most notably an
                                                                                                  as a result of Schumann’s revisions to the Symphony. I have always enjoyed listening
       extensive use of “Bartok pizzicato.” When the strings are given this indication, they
                                                                                                  to and playing Schumann’s orchestral music, but this experience conducting two of
       pluck their string with great force, causing the string to strike the fingerboard and
                                                                                                  his well-known works has only increased my appreciation for the composer.
       create a “slap” sound, along with the string’s normal tone. You can hear the cellos
                                                                                                                                                                         — Michael Jacko
       and basses do this in the first half of the piece.
           The brass, harp and strings add to the texture for the middle section of the work.
                                                                                                      In the mid-nineteenth century Beethoven’s shadow loomed large and any
       Eric has written some fantastic staggered entries for the brass, layering different
                                                                                                  composer attempting to conquer the symphony had to grapple with his legacy.
       sounds together to form enormous walls of sound. The effect is heightened when the
                                                                                                  Robert Schumann, often considered the poster child of the Romantic era, was in no
       players all end their notes together with resounding accents.
                                                                                                  way immune from his daunting influence. In his lifetime, Schumann made a name
           This is followed by a section of woodwind solos that leads to a beautiful and
                                                                                                  for himself as a master of small forms, churning out vast quantities of lieder, piano
       haunting passage for the cello section. Eric’s melodic writing has wonderful shape
                                                                                                  music, and later, chamber music. However, as his musical language evolved it became
       and our enormous cello section plays with great tenderness and direction during this
                                                                                                  clear that these small forms could no longer contain all he hoped to communicate
       poignant episode. The piece ends, as it began, with a piccolo solo.
                                                                                                  to his listeners.
           This particular work has won the Druckman Prize at Aspen, the Schuman Prize
                                                                                                      An entry from Clara Schumann’s diary, dated 1839, gives us some insight into the
       (B.M.I.) and was selected for performance by the American Composers Orchestra.
                                                                                                  factors guiding Schumann toward the symphony: “It would be best if he composed
                                                                                  — John Devlin
                                                                                                  for orchestra; his imagination cannot find sufficient scope on the piano … His
                                                                                                  compositions are all orchestral in feeling … My wish is that he should compose for
                                                                                                  the orchestra — that is his field! May I succeed in bringing him to it.” Given Clara’s
                                                                                                  enthusiasm about Schumann’s future in orchestral music, it is hardly surprising that
                                                                                                  Schumann turned to this genre just one year after marrying her in 1840. He had
                                                                                                  been aching to experiment with orchestral writing since the late 1830s and her
                                                                                                  encouragement helped lead him there.
                                                                                                      Schumann’s Symphony No. 4 in D Minor, originally composed in 1841, teaches
                                                                                                  us a great deal about his early experiences with orchestral music. The earliest version
                                                                                                  of the symphony was presented to Clara on her birthday in September 1841.

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PROGRAM NOTES                                                                                    UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA

      The work was so poorly received at its premiere that Schumann opted to withdraw it         UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA
      completely from the repertory. To this day, Schumann is criticized for being a poor
      orchestrator, and the reasons for this are quite evident in the 1841 version of this now   Violin                       Cello                        Bassoon
      celebrated symphony. In its original manifestation, the work was plagued by errors in      Sean Murphy,                 Micah Goldblum,              Michael Goldman
      the orchestration. Aside from overlooking issues of balance and range, Schumann            concertmaster                principal                    Kristina Shieh
      wrote in a way that was not always natural for the players.                                Mary Natoli,                 Danielle Bailey
          Ten years after it was first premiered, Schumann revised the D-minor symphony          principal second             Becca Certner                Horn
      and it reemerged as the Symphony No. 4 we are familiar with today. Bolstered by a          Thomas Rimlinger,            Chris Perdue
                                                                                                 principal second (Martinu)                                Rachael Plantholt
      decade of experience, he remedied the problems that hindered the success of the                                         Nicholas Pozulakis           Andrew Rudderow
                                                                                                 Brian Barnett
      original version. Although the revised symphony is more “correct,” there were several                                   Adam Kuhn
                                                                                                 Daniel Brennan
      critics who found the 1841 version to be a more authentic and evocative work.                                           Kara Levin                   Trumpet
                                                                                                 Alex Camp
      Among them was Schumann’s protégé, Johannes Brahms. Though the debate about                                             Jimmy McConnell              Ian Dahlstrom
                                                                                                 Stephanie Chow
      the two versions raged on during Schumann’s lifetime, the general consensus remains                                     Arash Shahry                 Michael Jacko
                                                                                                 Matthew Daley
      that the 1851 version is a superior work and it is the one heard most often today.                                      Hubert Shiau
                                                                                                 Javier del Pilar
          This work marks a significant turning point in symphonic composition.                                               Yvonne Shiau                 Trombone
                                                                                                 Melissa Etchison
      Although Schumann organized the material into the typical four-movement pattern                                         Crystal Varkalis             Casey Jones
                                                                                                 Hillary Flowers
      — fast-slow-dance-fast — he created a work that depends primarily on thematic                                           Dor Zmora
                                                                                                 Alvin Hua
      linkages for unity. He intended the symphony to be played as one continuous whole                                                                    Tuba
                                                                                                 Kurosh Jafari
      with no pauses between movements. In essence, this is a “symphonic fantasy” in                                          Bass                         Emily Grossnickle
                                                                                                 Jordan Johnson
      which thematic material presented in the first movement is not resolved until the                                       Brian Schuler, principal
                                                                                                 Kelly Klein
      very end of the fourth.                                                                                                 Josh Fogel                   Timpani
                                                                                                 Jessica Lee
          Schumann’s symphonies, though few in number, transformed the way future                                             James Hein                   Keith Williams
                                                                                                 Morgan Machiorlette
      composers approached the genre. He may have struggled with Beethoven’s legacy,                                          Kathryn Juliano
                                                                                                 Andrea Marci
      but he emerged as an authentic and pioneering voice in orchestral composition.                                          Amelia Li                    Percussion
                                                                                                 Keith Paarporn
      His four symphonies are very much in the repertory today, which is a testament to                                                                    Kentrell Herres
                                                                                                 Kusuma Prabhakara
      the universality of his musical language.                                                                               Flute                        Michael O’Neill
                                                                                                 Chelsea Robinson
                                                                          — Jenny Houghton                                    Liz Desrochers               Natalie Hogg
                                                                                                 Josh Shaw
                                                                                                                              David Pratico
                                                                                                 Joanna Skeath
                                                                                                                              Veronica Son                 Piano
                                                                                                 Laura Weber
                                                                                                                              Hannah Sung                  Hana Cai
                                                                                                                              Katie Whittaker
                                                                                                 Lydia Waters, principal                                   Harp
                                                                                                                              Oboe                         Cara Fleck
                                                                                                 Celie Moniz
                                                                                                                              Sam Crouse
                                                                                                 Troy Pryor
                                                                                                                              David Dickey                 Graduate Assistants
                                                                                                 Mary Sakamoto
                                                                                                                              Sarah Balzer                 Caitlin McSherry, violin
                                                                                                 Samantha Wines
                                                                                                 Valina Yen                                                Cassidy Morgan, bass
                                                                                                                              Glenn Garven
                                                                                                                              Yoon Shin
                                                                                                                              Adam Trinkoff
                                                                                                                              Amanda Weeks

20   WWW.CLARICESMITHCENTER.UMD.EDU                                                                                                             UM REPERTOIRE ORCHESTRA Season Opener   21

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