l3

Document Sample
l3 Powered By Docstoc
					OVERTURE
TO THE “OLDS” IN THE ROOM




  “NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE
  PLASURE WE FEEL WHEN HEARING
  SOMETHING ALREADY KNOWN”

                            Enrico FERMI
HERA HAS BEEN CLOSED,
 LHC IS BEING OPENING
(NEAR PAST AND NEAR FUTURE OF
       PARTICLE PHYSICS)


      Carlos García Canal
    Universidad Nacional de La Plata


                II LAWHEP
           PARTICLE PHYSICS:
       NEAR PAST AND NEAR FUTURE

. GENERAL ACCOUNT ON THE EXPERIMENTAL
RESULTS OF THE RECENTLY CLOSED DESY-
HAMBURG HERA ACCELERATOR.
. PRESENTATION OF THE PHYSICS EXPECTED TO BE
REVEALED BY THE LHC-CERN ACCELERATOR
BEGINNING TO DELIVER DATA IN LESS THAN A YEAR.
. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF THIS INFORMATION ON
THE THEORETICAL DEVELOPMENTS.
PARTICLE PHYSICS       29.300
                   FROM M. MANGANO
ON JUNE 30, 2007, DATA TAKING AT THE ELECTRON-PROTON
STORAGE RING HERA AT DESY WILL COME TO AN END:

FOR 15 YEARS THE PARTICLE PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS AT
HERA HAVE PROVIDED A UNIQUE AND DETAILED PICTURE
OF THE PROTON AND THE INTERACTING FORCES SAID
PROF. ROLF-DIETER HEUER, RESEARCH DIRECTOR AT DESY




GENEVA, 22 JUNE 2007:

SPEAKING AT THE 142nd SESSION OF THE CERN COUNCIL TODAY,
THE ORGANIZATION´S DIRECTOR GENERAL ROBERT AYMAR
ANNOUNCED THAT THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC) WILL
START UP IN MAY 2008, TAKING THE FIRST STEPS TOWARDS
STUDYING PHYSICS AT A NEW HIGH-ENERGY FRONTIER
TODAY – PHYSICS - TODAY




      FUNDAMENTAL

    SYMMETRIES
     EINSTEIN 1905: SPECIAL THEORY OF
                RELATIVITY


WIGNER DIXIT:
EINSTEIN´S WORK MARKS THE INVERSION OF A
TENDENCY, FORMERLY THE INVARIANCE PRINCIPLES
WERE OBTAINED FROM THE LAWS OF MOVEMENT.
NOW IT IS NATURAL FOR US TO OBTAIN THE LAWS OF
NATURE AND PROVE THEIR VALIDITY BY MEANS OF
THE INVARIANCE LAWS.
         GAUGE SYMMETRY


ENGINE OF THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICS




UNIFICATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES
         STANDARD MODEL


´T HOOFT DIXIT:
“TEMPORARY SOLUTION TO NEARLY A CENTURY
 OF QUESTIONS”
         GAUGE FIELD THEORY


             (QCD)               (EW)
                     + MECANISMO DE HIGGS

. ONE OF THE GREATEST SUCCESS OF PHYSICS

. COMPRISES PRACTICALLY ALL THAT IS KNOWN OF
THE SUBATOMIC WORLD IN A CONCISE SET OF
PRINCIPLES AND EQUATIONS.

. EXCEEDED EXPERIMENTAL TESTS IN ENERGY
RANGES VERY DISTANT FROM THE ONES INCLUDED
IN ITS ORIGINAL DESIGN
                  CHARACTERS




1st. GENERATION
COUPLING CONSTANTS
        IS NOT COMPLETE !!!
. AESTHETICAL DEFICIENCIES . PHENOMENA NOT INCLUDED
      CAUSE OF THE SYMMETRY BREAKING ?

      GAUGE INTERACTIONS UNIFY ?

      GRAVITY ?

      DARK MATTER ?

      DARK ENERGY ?

      SOMETHING ELSE ?
      …
             COLLIDERS

 BEAMS OF               ACCELERATED
IN OPPOSITE DIRECTIONS COLLIDE FRONTALLY


   ELECTRONS and / or PROTONS
ELECTRON COLLIDER


ELECTRONS ARE “ELEMENTARY”
              WELL DEFINED INITIAL STATE

     SMALL

     SMALL      SYNCHROTRON RADIATION




    INITIAL BREMSSTRAHLUNG WELL KNOWN
STANDARD MODEL MACHINE

 Zº PHYSICS


MASS
WIDTH
COUPLING Zº TO FERMIONS
ASYMMETRIES
LEPTON UNIVERSALITY
WEIBERG ANGLE
FAMILY PICTURE
CROSS SECTION DIVERGES




 ANOTHER DIAGRAMM




      Zº TO CURE!
 PROTON COLLIDER (TEVATRON)
      SYNCHROTRON RADIATION NOT IMPORTANT


      CROSS SECTION LARGE              MANY EVENTS

       PROTON HAS COMPONENTS
      (COLLISION AMONG COMPONENTS SHARING THE PROTON MOMENTUM)



Ex:



                                              DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION


                                        PARTON-PARTON CROSS SECTION


                                         MOMENTUM FRACTION
              TEVATRON
ACCESS TO THE PHYSICS OF THE STANDARD MODEL

               B PHYSICS
               QCD
               ELECTROWEAK
               HIGGS SEARCH

      W MASS WITH GREATER PRECISION
      PRODUCTION OF WW AND WZ PAIRS
      QCD WITH PHOTONS
      JETS
      PHYSICS OF THE TOP
      CP VIOLATION IN B
      CABBIBO-KOBAYASHI-MASKAWA MATRIX
ELECTRON AND PROTON COLLIDERS
       COMPLEMENTARY

  PROVIDE “CLEAN” EXPERIMENTS (STANDARD MODEL)

              (PRECISION)


   PROVIDE ENOUGH ENERGY FOR DISCOVERIES

            (POTENTIALITY)
ELECTRON - PROTON COLLIDER
           HERA




   ELECTROWEAK PROBE TO ANALYSE
   THE PROTON STRUCTURE
                                  “RESOLVING POWER”
SCATTERING OF A LEPTON BY A
PROTON (AT HIGH ENOUGH    )   (SIZE RESOLVED IN THE PROTON)

  ELASTIC SCATTERING OF THE
LEPTON BY A POINTLIKE
CONSTITUENT (INCOHERENT) OF
THE PROTON (PARTON)
              EMISION AND ABSORTION OF GLUONS




MEASURED AT

                      PROVIDES EVOLUTION IN
  BINDED




SEA
 2
Q LARGER       MORE PARTONS
   INVOLVED WITH LOWER x
FUNCTIONS OF




  VALENCE

  RADIATIVELY CREATED SEA
SLAC 1970
     PROTON
STRUCTURE FUNCTION
                    VALENCE QUARKS

           EXCELENT MEASUREMENTS OF ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS IN DIS




(NEGATIVE CHARGE)            LINEAR GROWING
    DOMINANT


LINEAR GROWING

SLOPE = INTERSECTION




   PROTON [AT LARGE RESOLUTION (   )] HAS

         VALENCE STRUCTURE
WEAKNESS OF WEAK   AND




                   SLOW

                    FASTER
 UNIFICATION




AT A LARGE MOMENTUM TRANSFER, THE CROSS SECTIONS OF
 CHARGED (W) AND NEUTRAL (PHOTON + Z) CURRENTS ARE
                      EQUAL

THE ELECTROMAGNETIC AND WEAK FORCES HAVE THE SAME
                   INTENSITY!!!
         W BOSONS ARE LEFTISTS!!!

CC CROSS SECTION AS A FUNCTION OF   and   POLARIZATION
QUARKS
POINTLIKE
10% OF DIS EVENTS !!!
    IMPACT OF HERA IN LHC


. DISTRIBUTION OF PARTONS MEASURED
IN HERA FUNDAMENTAL FOR EVENT
PREDICTIONS IN LHC

. DIFRACTION IN HERA (GAPS) ALLOW TO
QUANTIFY RESCATTERING IN LHC
EXPLORES AN ENERGY SCALE (and d)

    TOTALLY NEW

             OBJECTIVES
            HIGGS SEARCH

            NEW PHYSICS SEARCH
                           SUPERSYMMETRY
                           EXTRA DIMENSIONS

            “SEARCH” OF WHAT IS NOT SEARCHED !
LHC BUILDING
      ATLAS




CMS
             FIRST STEPS
UNDERSTANDING THE DETECTORS

MEASURING JETS AND COMPARISON WITH QCD

CALIBRATION OF ENERGY

EVENTS WITH W AND Z

PHYSICS OF THE TOP LOST ENERGY

SEARCH FOR THE HIGGS
              HIGGS
(FROM RADIATIVE CORRECTIONS ANALYSIS)
ONE ROAD TO HIGGS:

        ALL

GLUONS IN THE PROTON

QCD COUPLING

HIGGS COUPLING

GAUGE COUPLING


QUANTUM THEORY (LOOPS)

 VIRTUAL PARTICLES
            THEORY
BEYOND THE STANDARD MODEL

ORIGIN OF THE MASSES
(HIGGS + SOMETHING) (CONFINEMENT)

UNIFICATION (?)

QUANTUM THEORY AND GENERAL RELATIVITY
(STRINGS (?))

LARGE EXTRA DIMENSIONS

SUPERSYMMETRY

UNPARTICLES
                     SUSY

PREDICTS THE EXISTENCE OF A NEW WORLD OF
 PARTICLES WITH MASSES IN THE RANK OF TeV
 (SUPERSYMMETRIC MATES OF THE KNOWN PARTICLES)

THEY HAVE:
THE SAME QUANTUM NUMBERS BUT THEIR SPINS DIFFER IN ½

DIFFERENT MASSES (THEY DID NOT APPEAR)


   GAUGINOS (S=1/2) : WINO, ZINO, GLUINO, FOTINO
   SPARTICLES (S=0) : SQUARKS, SLEPTONS
   HIGGSINOS, GRAVITINOS, …
                  R PARITY

              3B+L+2S
   R = (-1)                  NORMAL:
                             SUSY :
                                       R= +1
                                       R= -1

  B: BARYON NUMBER
  L: LEPTON NUMBER
  S: SPIN

B, L, S CONSERVED            R CONSERVED

        LIGHTEST SUSY PARTICLE
              (WITH R = -1)
           SHOULD BE STABLE
      MANIFESTATIONS OF SUSY



  JETS + TME            EQUAL SIGN DILEPTONS + TME
SQUARKS/GLUINOS                          GLUINOS



    t t + TME                       PHOTONS + TME
      STOP                           SUSY BREAKING




       http://mlm.web.cern.ch/mlm/talks/Mangano-Bern.pdf
       SUPERSYMMETRY

STABILIZING THE HIGGS MASS

ENABLING UNIFICATION

PROVIDING DARK MATTER CANDIDATE
UNIFICATION (3 + 2 + 1)
 LSP STABLE AT COSMOLOGICAL SCALES!!!


      THERMAL HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE



    RELIC DENSITY APPROPRIATE TO PROVIDE



            DARK MATTER
CORRECT ABUNDANCE AND VERY WEAK INTERACTION
           HIERARCHY PROBLEM

                           BLACK HOLE MASS




WHY                 IS 16 ORDERS OF MAGNITUDE HIGHER

             THAN                   ?

POSSIBLE ANSWER :

      EXTRA DIMENSIONS IN THE UNIVERSE
   EXTRA DIMENSIONS UP TO

(UP TO WHERE THE BEHAVIOR WAS MEASURED   OF GRAVITY)



     But:

                        FORCES
    ARE SENSITIVE TO THE EXTRA DIMENSIONS!
ORDINARY MATTER LIVES IN    DIMENSIONS

WIDTH OF EXTRA DIMENSIONS

IN EXTRA DIMENSIONS ONLY GRAVITY
       (BULK)
          EFFECTIVE SCALE FROM A FUNDAMENTAL

          IN LARGER DIMENSIONS


     IF         IS LARGE

                (PLANCK MASS IN     )




IF                    CONTACT BETWEEN GRAVITY
                      AND PARTICLE SCALES !
                SPECTACULAR

        BLACK HOLE PRODUCTION
   BASIC IDEA
                 IF
PARTICLE COLLISIONS CAN PRODUCE




                      BUT
      SCENARIOS WITH
      GRAVITATION AT

  LARGE EXTRA DIMENSIONS

  LARGE WARPING

METRIC IN D-DIMENSIONS (WARPED)




EXTRA COORDINATES      WARP FACTOR
                            WARPED VOLUME (WV)


WV LARGE




DILUTION OF FIELD LINES IN THE EXTRA DIMENSIONS

           SCENARIO WITH BRANES NECESSARY

             (BEHAVIOR OF GAUGE FORCES)
     PRODUCTION AND DECAY OF BLACK HOLES
        (PRODUCTION PROLIFIC AND WITH SIGNATURES)


                      CLASSICAL GRAVITY


BLACK HOLE FORMATION IF IMPACT PARAMETER
                                           (SCHWARZSCHILD RADIUS)




             PARTONIC LEVEL

             CONVOLUTION WITH STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS
DECAY   (SEVERAL PHASES)
FORMATION    ASYMMETRIES       MULTIPOLAR MOMENTS

      STATIONARY BLACK HOLE HAS NOT HAIRS

            LOOSE THEM       BALDING



 EMISION OF RADIATION (GRAVITATIONAL AND GAUGE)

            AND EMISION OF CHARGES


      KERR BLACK HOLE (WITHOUT ROTATING CHARGE)
     LOOSING ANGULAR MOMENTUM




HAWKING RADIATION (THERMAL EMISION)


TEMPERATURE:




               QUANTUM GRAVITY
EXPERIMENTAL SIGNALS




SPHERICITY

HIGH MULTIPLICITY

LEPTONS AND JETS WITH HIGH

THERMAL DISTRIBUTION OF SPECIES

ANGULAR DISTRIBUTIONS SPINDOWN
OTHER “EXPERIMENTS”
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
     “RIP”   (?)
  REQUIESCAT IN PACEM
      DATA FROM HUBBLE + CHANDRA + LENSING
                 BULLET CLUSTER




COLISSION OF TWO CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES.
INTERACTING ORDINARY MATTER GENERATED X RAYS.
DARK MATTER GOES THROUGH WITH ALMOST NO INTERACTION
RED: X RAYS X DETECTED BY CHANDRA
BLUE: INVISIBLE MASS INVISIBLE DETECTED BY LENSING
DARK MATTER                25%
DARK ENERGY                70%

WE…                          5%

  THE UNIVERSE TODAY “IS” QUITE
DIFFERENT FROM THE ONE WE HAVE
         10 YEARS AGO !!!
 IT IS DIFFICULT TO MANTAIN ONESELF
               ANTHROPIC
        WHEN OUR COMPONENTS
   ARE ONLY 5% OF THE UNIVERSE…
garcia@fisica.unlp.edu.ar

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:0
posted:9/7/2011
language:English
pages:82