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1 TOEFL Structure Test Answers Lesson 1 Answers

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					                     TOEFL Structure Test: Answers


Lesson 1 Answers


        1. Popular belief in the United States is that an early life of hardship and
        poverty made Abraham Lincoln to be the great leader he was.

            an early

            made

             to be ==> to be (get rid of it!)
        Pattern: make + noun + complement
        In this case, we have:
        made + Abraham Lincoln + leader
        and leader modifies Abraham Lincoln

            he was



        2. According to the scientific method, a scientist must consider ______
        outcome.

            any outcome and to be a possible

            any outcome and the possible

            any outcome a possibility

             any outcome a possible
        Pattern: consider + noun + (to be) + complement
        This one is similar to #1. This particular type of question is one of the most
        commonly missed ones, and will get you high points on the CBT!! So
        remember this one!



        3. After her death in 1986 many documentaries ______ Georgia O'Keeffe were
        produced.

            related the life and work of

            to relate life and work

            life and working to relate

             relating the life and work of
        relating modifies documentaries; we can also call this a reduced adjective
        clause.


        4. ______ the passage of light, many new plastics are processed using
        technologies rivaling those used in the manufacture of computer chips.

             To better permit
        Infinitive of purpose. We are explaining why plastics are processed in this way,
        so we should use the infinitive of purpose.

            Permitting better

            For the better of




                                            1
    It is better for


5. The architecture exhibited in the Empire State Building and conveyed us an
idea of the prevailing attitudes of the day is important for the historical and
cultural value it represents.

     conveyed ==> conveying
The perennial problem: Do I use -ing or -ed? Here we need the -ing form
because architecture is the subject of the verbal conveying.
I (Erin Billy) wrote this problem this way because I noticed that many of my
students were missing real TOEFL questions (just like this one) because they
were simply matching the Ed form in conveyed with the Ed form in exhibited
and assuming it was correct that way.
Nope! Not a good strategy--you'll miss the harder questions if you do that!!

    prevailing

    is

    it represents


6. In 2001 George W. Bush, Jr., entered his first year office
as President of the United States.

    In 2001

    entered

    office ==> of office
Gotta have this preposition!

    as President


7. Similar in climate and geography many northeastern cities is Portland, the
largest city in Oregon.

    in

     many ==> to many
Preposition combination: similar + to
This one's a little bit tricky because the similar and the to are separated by in
climate and geography, but the rule is the same.

    is

    largest


8. Uranium, ______ , is an exceedingly rare and potentially dangerous
element.

    to found in trace quantities

    found in trace quantities
Same problem again. -ing or Ed? -ing or Ed? -ing or Ed? It never ends...
Anyway, Erin Billy says that we need the Ed form here because uranium is the
object of the verbal found.

    finding in trace quantities

    to be found in trace quantities




                                      2
9. The Flower Market in San Francisco is ______, and was established in the
1930's.

   home to the country's second largest flower market
home to is a fixed phrase and means something like "the location of."

     Home of the second largest flower market in the country
This one's almost correct, but we'd have to use the with home since home of is
NOT a fixed phrase.

    the second flower market in the country's home of

    the home to the second country's large flower market


10. Because of extensive research in the field of genetic engineers, scientists
can now create plants that farmers can grow in harsh climates.

    research

   engineers ==> engineering
Word form. We're talking about the subject, not the people.

    farmers

    harsh




                                   3
Lesson 2 Answers

        1. It is the lack of gravity on the moon that makes ______ leaps of 30 feet or
        more.

             possible
        We need to understand a few things to answer this question correctly.
        First, TOEFL likes to test these grammar patterns:

                make it possible (for somebody/something) TO DO something
                make something possible

        In this question, we have the second pattern. Of course, TOEFL will typically
        mix up the two patterns in the incorrect answer choices, so we have to make
        sure we follow the pattern exactly.
        Second, this question is a little trickier because the adjective possible comes
        before the noun leaps instead of after it, which we sometimes do in English.
        Want to know why we put the noun after the adjective here? Yeah, of course
        you do. It's really quite simple. In English, we generally put the shorter part
        FIRST. In class, TestMagic calls this the "Short One First" rule. So, possible is
        shorter than leaps of thirty feet or more, so possible comes first. Got it??

            it possible

            to be possible

            it to be possible


         2. Money [donated] by [philanthropist] H. R. Brandenberg [was earmark] for
        AIDS research in [developing countries].

            donated

            philanthropist

            was earmark
        Correction: was earmarked
        We need a past participle here since earmark is a verb. to earmark means to
        designate for a specific use.

            developing countries

        3. In ancient [times] banking transactions often [were taken] place in
        [common areas], for example, a [town square].

            times

            were taken
        Correction: took place
        take place is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the
        passive voice; we need active voice here.

            common areas

            town square

         4. From the beginning of the twentieth century to the present, technology
        ______ people are beginning to imagine there are no limits to what we can
        achieve.

            progressed to the point that

            has to progress to a point



                                            4
     has progressed to the point that
This one's tricky. First, we should notice that we need a main verb, right? The
main subject of this sentence is technology, but we don't have a verb for it.
The second thing is that we need to think about the verb tense. Since the
sentence says From the beginning of the twentieth century (a point in the
past) to the present (now), we MUST use the present perfect. In fact,
TestMagic wrote this question to fit the definition of the present perfect
tense.
If you missed it, you probably chose (A). This is wrong because progressed is
in the simple past, not the present perfect.

    progressed a point that

5. It is believed that the modern bird ______ the pterodactyls that existed
millions of years ago.

    was evolved from
evolve is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive
voice; we need active voice here.

    evolved from
We need to memorize this preposition combination:
                            x evolved from y

    evolved

    was evolving from

6. A trap ______ disguise is what has come to be called a Trojan Horse, from
the ancient story of the gift of the wooden horse from the Greeks.

     offered a gift of
This answer would give us a double verb: offered and is. Furthermore, this
answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was offering
the gift.

     offers a gift in
This answer would give us a double verb: offers and is. Furthermore, this
answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was offering
the gift.

     offering a gift to
This answer choice would result in an illogical meaning--that the trap was
offering the gift.

     offered as a gift in
First, we should notice that we have a reduced adjective clause here. In other
words:
       offered as a gift in disguise = which is offered as a gift in disguise


7. The log cabin, [among others], was a commonplace [dwelling] for the
early settlers in North because of the ease [which] it was able to be
constructed and the [relatively ready] availability of its building material,
wood.

    among others

    dwelling

     which
Corrction: with which
This one's tricky! A lot of people miss this question.
First, we need to realize that we have an adjective clause here. Next, we



                                    5
need to understand that the word which is a pronoun and replaces ease.
Finally, we should remember that we say with ease (which means easily),
and we can answer the question!
Here's a trick that TestMagic teaches:
                      PREPOSITION + which + SENTENCE
In adjective clauses, if you see a sentence after which or that, then you need
a preposition.

    relatively ready

8. The Great Fire of 1906 in San Francisco [was happened] [primarily] as [a
result of] the great earthquake preceding [it].

    was happened
Correction: happened
happen is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the
passive voice; we need active voice here.

    primarily

    a result of

    it

9. The development of the light bulb ______ partly as a result of the
widespread availability of electricity and the need for cheap, clean light.

     occurring
This is not a verb.

     was occurring
We need simple past here; we cannot use the past progressive when we are
talking about development.

    was occurred
occur is an intransitive verb and therefore can NEVER be used in the passive
voice; we need active voice here.

    occurred
Yep! This is the one--it's in the simple past and active voice.

10. Telecommuting is a new form of work ______ to work, such as fathers
with children, the chance to work while remaining at home.

     affording those previously unable
First, we should notice that we have a reduced adjective clause here:
   affording those previously unable to work = that affords those previously
                                 unable to work
Second, if we understand the meaning, this question is probably easier to
answer correctly. affording basically means giving. those essentially means
people. previously unable to work is also a reduced adjective clause.
So, to simplify this sentence so that we can more easily understand the
meaning, we would have:
Telecommuting is a new form work work that gives people (who were
previously unable to work) the chance to work at home.

     affords those who were previously unable
This would give us a double verb, is and affords.

    that affording those unable previously
We are missing a verb.

    afforded those previously unable
We need a present participle here, not a past participle.




                                    6
Lesson 3 Answers

 1.      When iron is exposed to water, oxidizes, a process commonly known as
         rusting.

             exposed

             to

             oxidizes
                  Correction: it oxidizes
                  Level of Difficulty: Medium
                  Magic explanation: This one is easy to explain and to
                  understand. We simply need a main subject here. If
                  you missed this one, it was probably a careless
                  mistake. Remember, we can raise our TOEFL scores
                  more quickly if we don't miss the easy questions!!
             known as


 2.      Somewhat analogous to the Chinese system of writing in difficulty for non-
         native speakers to learn and loosely based on the Chinese system of writing
         the Japanese system of writing known as Kanji.

             to

             difficulty

             loosely based

             the
                   Correction: is the
                   Level of Difficulty: HARD!!
                   Magic explanation: Whew! This is a hard question for a
                  couple of reasons. First, the sentence is long and has a
                  lot of extra phrases. Second, we have inversion here.
                  The main subject is "the Japanese system of writing,"
                  so, we need a main verb, "is."

 3.       ______ big cats, housecats have polyphasic sleeping patterns; that, is they
         take several naps a day.

             They are like
                   Magic explanation: If we choose this answer, we will
                  have two main sentences with no conjunction between
                  them. Be careful of this mistake--it is one of the most
                  common ones on the TOEFL!!
             Like
                  Level of Difficulty: Easy
                  Magic explanation: First, we should notice here that we
                  have a complete main sentence already. The only thing
                  we have to worry about is using another word or phrase
                  with "big cats." If we use the preposition "like," then
                  "big cats" becomes the object of the preposition.
             It is the




                                         7
             Magic explanation: If we choose this answer, we will
            have two main sentences with no conjunction between
            them. Be careful of this mistake--it is one of the most
            common ones on the TOEFL!!
         The
            Magic explanation: If we choose this answer, we will
            essentially have two main subjects here, or what we
            often call a "double subject."

4.   It was as a direct result of the widespread implementation electricity that
     the US had a source of light other than gas lights.

         It was

         result of

         implementation
            Correction: implementation of
            Level of Difficulty: medium
            Magic explanation: First, we should notice that we have
            a preposition here, "of." "implementation" is the object
            of this preposition. A preposition can NEVER have two
            objects, so we should use another preposition with the
            noun "electricity."
         a source of

5.    ______ many communications companies are now able to offer radio and
     television broadcasts over the Internet.

         Advanced technology has enabled
             Magic explanation: This answer choice is wrong for two
            reasons. First, "enabled" needs an object. Second, even
            if we have an object for "enabled," we would end up
            with two complete sentences with no conjunction
            between them. As I stated above, this is a big no-no
            and is a very common mistake.
         Introducing advanced technology and
            Magic explanation: This answer choice is wrong
            because we need another noun to be parallel with
            "technology." If we had another noun, for example
            "new methods of storing data," then this answer choice
            would be correct.
         Because the introduction of advanced technology
            Magic explanation: This answer choice is wrong
            because we need a subordinate verb after the
            subordinating conjunction "because."
         With the introduction of advanced technology
            Level of Difficulty: Medium
            Magic explanation: First, we should notice that we have
            a complete main sentence here and that nothing is
            missing from the sentence as it is written. When
            nothing is missing from the sentence, we should add


                                      8
            something that is both optional and complete. This
            answer choice is the only one that meets these criteria-
            -it is a prepositional phrase, and prepositional phrases
            are almost always optional in the sentence.

6.   While it is actually a planet, Venus is often mistaken a star in the night sky.

         While it

         a planet

         mistaken
             Correction: mistaken for
             Level of Difficulty: Medium
             Magic explanation: The correct idiom to use here is "to
            mistake x for y" (in the active voice), or "x is mistaken
            for y" (in the passive voice).
         the night

7.   ______ its area of defense, a fort should be built on an elevation and with
     some sort of natural feature of the landscape to obstruct direct access to the
     fort.

         To better protect
            Level of Difficulty: Hard
            Magic explanation: We should use the infinitive of
            purpose here to explain how or why something is done.
         Protecting better
             Magic explanation: If you missed this question, you
            probably chose this answer. We cannot choose this
            answer choice because "protecting" modifies "fort" in
            this sentence either as an adjective phrase or an
            adverbial phrase (we have some ambiguity in this
            construction). Since the main sentence is making
            recommendations about how to build a fort, we should
            use the infinitive of purpose, not the participial form.
         For the better of
             Magic explanation: The easiest way to explain this one
            is simply to point out that "better" cannot be a noun.
         It is better for
             Magic explanation: Again, this answer choice would
            give us two main clauses with no conjunction between
            them.

8.   In 2000 William Jefferson Clinton entered his last year office as President of
     the United States.

         In 2000

         entered

         office
             Correction: of office
             Level of Difficulty: Medium



                                       9
             Magic explanation: The verb "entered" can have only
             one object. In this case, the object of "entered" is
             "year," leaving us with an extra noun, "office." Since
             "entered" cannot have two objects, we should use a
             preposition to make "office" the object of the
             preposition.
          as President

9.    It was ______ the Industrial Revolution that the United States was able to
      increase productivity through mechanization.

          when
             Magic explanation: If we choose this answer choice, we
             would be missing a subordinate verb. In other words,
             we would have to have a complete subordinate clause,
             something like this: …when the Industrial Revolution…
             DID something.
          at the time
              Magic explanation: The easiest way to explain this one
             is to point out that we would need to say "at the time
             of."
          during
             Level of Difficulty: Medium
             Magic explanation: We essentially need a preposition
             (or some other word) here for the noun phrase
             Industrial Revolution.
          because
             Magic explanation: If we choose this answer choice, we
             would be missing a subordinate verb. In other words,
             we would have to have a complete subordinate clause,
             something like this: …because the Industrial
             Revolution… DID something.

10.   ______ Einstein was able to come up with a theory that has yet to be
      disproved.

          Other scientists
             Magic explanation: This answer choice would give us a
             double subject, a big no-no on the TOEFL.
          Similar to other scientists
              Level of Difficulty: Medium
              Magic explanation: This is a typical TOEFL question.
             First, we should notice that we have a complete main
             sentence here and that nothing is missing from the
             sentence as it is written. When nothing is missing from
             the sentence, we should add something that is both
             optional and complete. This answer choice, and the last
             one, are the only ones that meet these criteria.
          Just as other scientists
             Magic explanation: Since "as" is a subordinating



                                        10
   conjunction, we would need a subordinate verb here.
To be a scientist
   Magic explanation: This choice is wrong because we
   should not use the infinitive of purpose here; i.e., the
   main clause does not explain HOW or WHY Einstein was
   a scientist.




                       11
Lesson 4 Answers

1.   Engraving is a process [which] the surface of metal is [first
     covered] with [an acid] and then inscribed with some sharp
     [instrument].

         which

     Correction: in which

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation: We need a preposition here. Remember this tip: In
     an adjective clause, if we have a complete sentence after which
     or whom, then we probably need a preposition.

     Here's another way to understand this question:

     The noun that is modified by the adjective clause is process.
     The word process is part of the adjective clause. If we change
     the adjective clause to a sentence, we would have this
     sentence:

     The surface of metal is first covered with an acid and then
     inscribed with some sharp instrument in this process.

     You can see from this sentence that we must use a preposition.


         first covered

         an acid

         instrument




2.   For many [years ago], [much of] what was possible to know
     was derived [from] inspiration or divination and did not
     involve the rational process of reasoning in [wide use] today.

         years ago

     Correction: years

     Difficulty level: Medium.

     Explanation: ago is an adverb. For many years is an adverb
     phrase. We must choose one of these; we cannot use both of
     them together. In other words, we could say:




                                        12
     For many years,...

     or

     Many years ago,...

     but not both.


          much of

          from

          wide use



3.   Ayn Rand, ______ novels deal with the nature of capitalism
     in a democracy, is often taught in introductory courses in
     economics.

          of many whose
          whose many of

          whose of many

          many of whose

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation: The pattern we need to use is this:

     quantifier + of + subordinating conjunction

     If we make a sentence from the adjective clause, we would
     have this sentence:

     Many of Ayn Rand's novels deal with the nature of capitalism in
     a democracy.



4.   The formation of a rainbow [occurs] a process in which light
     is diffused at [varying] rates by the surrounding atmosphere,
     [resulting in] the reflection of different [wavelengths] of
     light.

          occurs

     Correction: occurs in

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation: occur is an intransitive verb and can never have a



                                       13
     noun as its object.


         varying

         resulting in

         wavelengths



5.   [Though] difficult, it [possible] for an adult learner of a new
     language [to master] the subtleties of the grammar and
     syntax of [the new] language.

         Though

         possible

     Correction: it is possible

     Difficulty level: Medium.

     Explanation: We have no main verb in this sentence. Every
     sentence in English must have a main verb.


         to master

          the new



6.   When a bird molts, ______ loses its feathers, it is actually
     preparing itself for the regeneration of the lost feathers.

         so its
         as if

         as when it

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation: In this sentence, as is a preposition. All
     prepositions need an object. In this case, when it loses its
     feathers is a noun clause and can be the object of the
     preposition as.


         so that



7.   The scientific method is a system [which] a problem or
     challenge [is] identified and possible solutions are created
     and tested, [with] the final results evaluated to determine


                                         14
     the best approach to the [resulting] theory.

         which

     Correction: in which

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation:

     We need a preposition here. Remember this tip: In an adjective
     clause, if we have a complete sentence after which or whom,
     then we probably need a preposition.

     Here's another way to understand this question:

     The noun that is modified by the adjective clause is system. The
     word system is part of the adjective clause. If we change the
     adjective clause to a sentence, we would have this sentence:

     A problem or challenge is identified and possible solutions are
     created and tested in this system.

     You can see from this sentence that we must use a preposition.


         is

         with

         resulting



8.   The Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C. is [home to]
     the largest [collecting] of Native American artifacts in the
     United States, most [of which] remain [uncatalogued] and
     hidden from public view.

         home to

         collecting

     Correction: collection

     Difficulty level: Medium.

     Explanation: The noun collection refers to a group of things; the
     noun collecting refers the action of collecting.


         of which

         uncatalogued




                                        15
9.   Many modern critics of American literature have called Mark
     Twain, born Samuel Clemens, ______ .

         as America's greatest writer

         was America's greatest writer

         America's greatest writer

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Explanation: call is a transitive verb and can have one object
     and one complement, usually a noun, but sometimes an
     adjective. In this case, Mark Twain is the object and America's
     greatest writer, a noun, is the complement.


         to have been America's greatest writer



10. In the modern [era], face-to-face communication is
    becoming [near] [as uncommon as] [hand-written] letters.

         era

         near

     Difficulty level: Hard.

     Correction: nearly

     Explanation: near is a preposition; nearly is an adverb. We need
     an adverb here to modify the comparison as uncommon as.


         as uncommon as
         hand-written




                                         16
Lesson 5 Answers

1. C    Ellis Island ______ in 1892.

             opening

             opens

            opened
        We need a verb in the past tense since 1892 is in the past.

             was opening


2. A    Bill Clinton received his [former] education [at] Georgetown and Yale Universities, from the
        latter [of which] he received a degree [in law].

            former
        Correction: formal
        former is an adjective, but its meaning is illogical if it is used to describe
        education; we should use the word formal instead, which means structured.

             at

             of which

             in law

3. C    [Businesses] are responsible [to] the Internal Revenue Service [to keep] accurate [financial]
        records.

             Businesses

             to

             to keep
        Correction: for keeping
        We need to use this pattern here:
        responsible to x for y
        For example, we can say I am responsible to my boss for my work.

             financial

4. B    John Hancock's signature on the Declaration of Independence is known for ______.

             large size
        This answer choice is almost correct, but we need a determiner since size is a
        singular count noun.

             its large size
        size is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner.

             being large size
        If we want to use this choice, we would have to say being large in size.

             to be large size
        If we want to use this choice, we would have to say to be large in size.

5. D    [The] human body is composed [largely of] water and needs a [steady] supply of water to
        remain [healthily].

             The

             largely of

             steady



                                                 17
            healthily
        remain is a linking verb and cannot be followed by an adverb; we must use
        an adjective to describe the noun supply.
6. D    Martha Graham was [an] excellent dancer; her body was strong and [flexible], [her
        movements] graceful and [power].

             an

             flexible

             her movements

             power
        Correction: powerful
        powerful is parallel with graceful (an adjective). Therefore, power, which is a
        noun or a verb, is incorrect. Both of these adjectives modify movements.
        This question is hard because we have omitted some words. The original
        sentence would be much easier to understand. Here's the original sentence:
        Martha Graham was an excellent dancer; her body was strong and flexible,
        and her movements were graceful and power.
7. A    The 1984 Democratic Convention ______ in San Francisco.

             was held
        First, we need to use past tense here since 1984 is in the past. Second, we
        need passive voice, was held, since the Convention is the object of the verb
        to hold.

             holds

             held

             is holding

8. A    Montana is the [four] largest state in the United States but [it is] one of [the] most
        [sparsely] populated.

             four
        Correction: fourth
        We need to use the ordinal form (e.g., first, second, third, etc.) here. If we
        wanted to use the regular counting form, we would have an illogical meaning:
        Montana is the four largest states. Besides, state would have to be plural with
        four.

             it is

             the

             sparsely

9. B    The Procrastinators Club of America, founded in 1956, has ______ some 10,000.

            members
        We need a preposition for the pronoun 10,000.

             a membership of
        First, we need an object for has. Second, we need to use a preposition with
        the pronoun 10,000. By the way, some means approximately.

             members of
        This meaning is illogical.

            the membership
        We need a preposition for the pronoun 10,000.
10. D   Mosquitoes are [easily] [found] wherever there is [standing] water and [temperate] climate.




                                                  18
    easily

    found

    standing

    temperate
Correction: a temperate
climate is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner.




                                 19
Lesson 6 Answers

1. C    The bonds holding protons neutrons and electrons [together] [in orbit] around an
        [atom] nucleus [are] among the strongest known to scientists.

             together

             in orbit

            atom
        Correction: atom's.
        nucleus is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner. 's is a
        determiner.

             are



2. D    Sufficient gravitational force is ______ atmosphere; otherwise the atmosphere will drift
        off into space.

            necessary for retaining planet
        planet and atmosphere are singular count nouns and therefore need
        determiners.

            retaining necessary planet
        planet and atmosphere are singular count nouns and therefore need
        determiners.

            retained by necessary planet
        planet and atmosphere are singular count nouns and therefore need
        determiners.

             necessary to retain a planet's
         planet is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner. a is a
        determiner.
3. D    While oxygen is readily available in isolated form, ______ .

            hydrogen does not
        We use do to replace all verbs except be-verbs and modals.

            no hydrogen
        We have no main verb here.

            not any hydrogen
        We have no main verb here.

           hydrogen is not
        We need to use a be-verb to replace the first be-verb.

4. C    The [varying] orbit [of] Pluto means that [ambient] temperatures also [vary] greatly.

             varying

             of

            ambient
        Correction: its ambient.
        We need to use a determiner with temperatures to show that the
        temperatures belong to Pluto and are not general temperatures. its is a
        determiner.

             vary

5. A    Along [northernmost] edge [of] the United States [runs] the US/Canada [border].




                                                 20
            northernmost
        Correction: the northernmost.
        edge is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner. the is a
        determiner.

             of

             runs

             border

6. A    In most states a sales tax ranging from two per cent to ten per cent ______ on most
        purchases of luxury items.

            is levied
        We simply need a singular verb for the singular subject tax.

             are levied

             to levy

             levying

7. A    An iron smelting forge ______ ore into usable metals.

            melts
        We simply need a singular verb to agree with the singular subject forge.
        We need to use the simple present tense for facts that are generally true.

            is melting
        We cannot use the progressive since we are stating a fact.

             melting

             should melting

8. B    Only after [losing] its skin does [snake] begin [to grow] [another].

             losing

            snake
        Correction: a snake.
        snake is a singular count noun and therefore needs a determiner. a is a
        determiner.

             to grow

             another

9. C    [Lost among] the [devastation] of the tornado [was] the remains of the houses and
        [buildings].

             Lost among

             devastation

            was
        Correction: were.
        The main subject of this sentence is remains, which is a plural noun. We
        therefore need to have a plural verb. This question is hard because the
        subject and verb are inverted.

             buildings

10. D   The one in charge of a meeting ______ toward the end of the meeting.




                                                 21
    table general important topics

    tables generally the important topics

    generally the topic of the table

     generally tables important topics
The main verb of this sentence is tables, which means postpones. We
need to have the adverb generally before tables since generally modifies
tables. This question is hard because tables is usually a noun, so when
we see it as a verb, we can become confused very easily.




                                   22
Lesson 7 Answers

        1. A lunar eclipse is a phenomenon occurring when the Earth blocks Sun's light
        from the Moon.

            A

            occurring when

            Sun's ==> the Sun's
        We should memorize this one--use the with Sun.

            from the


        2. ______ are most mammals able to receive the most information about what
        is happening in their immediate environment.

            Because they use sight

             By means of sight
        This one's tricky! We need to notice that we have subject-verb inversion, so
        we must use a structure that requires inversion.

            With the sights

            Using sight

        3. The Consumer Price Index in the United States ______ the inflation rate.

            as the primary indicates

            is the indication primarily

            primarily indicates of

            is a primary indicator of
        We need a few things: A main verb, correct word order, and correct word
        form.


        4. Some of the most influential works in twentieth-century American classical
        music were composed in the period between the first and the fifth decade.

            works

            were

            and

             decade ==> decades
        We are talking about two different decades here, the first one and the fifth
        one.
        5. Although the grammar of the English language is chiefly derived ______
        Germanic languages, some 80% of its vocabulary comes from Latin.

            for

           from
        Memorize this! derive + from

            with

            of

        6. On the land or in the sea, carrion creatures have adapted to feed by any




                                          23
type of food that is available in their habitat.

    On

    have adapted

    by
Memorize: feed + on. We should also know the meaning of this word since it
appears fairly frequently on the TOEFL: feed on = eat

    is available

7. The brightest point seen in the night sky is typically not a star but Venus, it
is the second planet from the Sun.

    seen in

    typically

    it is ==> it is (get rid of it!) or which is
Two main sentences with no conjunction to join them.

    the Sun

8. Information technology is quickly becoming the most important economic
export ______.

    in certain geographical areas
Two things: Correct preposition and word order.

    for area that are geographic

    in certain areas geographical

    of certain geographical area

9. Although originated in tropical Africa, watermelon is now cultivated all over
the world.

    Although

     originated ==> originating
The perennial problem: -ing or -ed form??? In this case, we need the -ing form
since watermelon is the subject of the verbal originating.

    is now

    all over

10. In 1995, Newt Gingrich was sworn ______ Speaker of the House, the first
Republican Speaker in more than 40 years.

     in as
More than 90% of all people who have tried this question have answered it
incorrectly, so I'd say this one's pretty darned tricky.
To choose the right answer, we should know the expression to swear
somebody in, which refers to the ceremony in which a person (for example, a
new president) gives an oath promising that s/he will do a great job! Then, we
need to know that we should use the preposition as if we want to mention the
position the person is taking. Finally, we need to know how to chance this to
passive voice.

    to be

    to

    in



                                    24
Lesson 8 Answers

1.      [Born] Marguerite Johnson in 1928, [author and poet] Maya
        Angelou has received [awards numerous] for her [works],
        including Grammy Awards in 1994 and 1996.

           Born

           author and poet

           awards numerous

           •     Level of Difficulty: Easy
           •     Correction: numerous awards
           •     Magic Explanation: This one is simple to explain--we need the
                 adjective before the noun. This one is tricky because in some
                 languages the adjective comes after the noun. In this case,
                 numerous is an adjective and awards is a noun. A simple
                 example of this rule is the phrase little house.


           works




2.      Modern psychological theory allows [for] the concept of [free will],
        a [recent relatively] development [in] this field.

           for
           free will

           recent relatively

           •     Level of Difficulty: Easy
           •     Correction: relatively recent
           •     Magic Explanation: In English, when an adverb modifies an
                 adjective, the adverb must come before the adjective. A
                 simple example of this rule is the phrase very delicious. In
                 this case, relatively is an adverb, and it modifies the adjective
                 recent.


           in



3.      One of ______ smallest particles thought to exist, the quark is
        believed to exist in pairs, together forming a hadron.

           what was the
           what the




                                         25
         those of the

         the

        •   Level of Difficulty: Medium
        •   Magic Explanation: This sentence already has a main subject
            and main verb, so we don't need to look at that part of the
            sentence. We need only look at the first part:

     One of ______ smallest particles thought to exist

     In this case, we are only missing the determiner the; we cannot add
     anything else. We can see a simple example of this pattern in the
     phrase One of the best ways...



4.   The first [years] of one's education are thought [to provide] the
     [basic] of one's ability [to learn] in later years.

         years

        •   Some people think years is wrong because they learn that the
            word first must modify a singular noun. This is not true. It is
            very easy to use first to describe a group. For example, we
            could say The first people I met in the United States were very
            friendly. When we have first + plural noun, it means the first
            ones.
                 to provide

                basic
        •   Level of Difficulty: Medium
        •   Correction: basis
        •   Magic Explanation: Here, we need a noun, basis. basic is an
            adjective, so it is wrong. This one is tricky because in some
            languages (like Portuguese) the word for the noun basis is
            very similar to the English adjective basic.


         to learn



5.   Most wood will float in water, but if it is ______ , it will sink.

         dense enough

        •   Level of Difficulty: Medium
        •   Magic Explanation: The general rule is:

                               adjective + enough

                                         or




                                    26
                                 enough + noun

     In this case, dense is an adjective.


         so dense that

         enough dense

         density



6.   Nationwide elections are [held] in the United States every four
     years, [primarily] [choosing] public officials for the [offices] of
     president and vice-president.

         held

         primarily

         choosing

        •   Level of Difficulty: Difficult
        •   Correction: to choose
        •   Magic Explanation: In this case, we need to use the infinitive
            to explain why the nationwide elections are held. A simple
            example of this pattern would be the sentence: Music is played
            in stores to make people happy.


         offices



7.    ______ are contained in DNA, the complex chemical mixture that
     determines the hereditary characteristics of an organism.

         The genes

        •   Level of Difficulty: Medium
        •   Magic Explanation: We are missing a main subject in this
            sentence, nothing more. The second part of the sentence, the
            complex chemical mixture... is a reduced adjective clause that
            modifies DNA.


         The genes that

        •   If we choose this answer, we have no main verb.

                Although the genes
        •   If we choose this answer, we have no main verb.

                There are genes
        •   This answer is almost correct, but we would have to say There
            are genes that



                                    27
8.    Although some species are among [the smallest] of all mammals,
      the shrew is known [as preying] [on] other animals [twice] its
      size.

          the smallest

          as preying

         •     Level of Difficulty: Difficult
         •     Correction: to prey
         •     Magic Explanation: To answer this question correctly, we need
               to understand the difference between known as, known for,
               and known to do something. Click here to learn more!


          on

          twice



9.    Born in 1924, Shirley Chisholm became ______ elected to the
      Congress of the United States.

          the first African-American woman who

          the first African-American woman to be

         •     Level of Difficulty: Difficult
         •     Magic Explanation: This is a very common pattern on the
               TOEFL; you should memorize it. Here's the pattern:

                         the first + NOUN + to do something

      Here's a simple sentence to help you remember the pattern:

      You are the first person to tell me that I am funny.


          first African-American woman who was

          the first African-American woman to



10.   The three-toed sloth [moves] so slowly [that] its movements from
      one place [to] another are [imperceptible practically].

          moves
          that

          to



                                     28
imperceptible practically

•   Level of Difficulty: Medium
•   Correction: practically imperceptible
•   Magic Explanation: In English, when an adverb modifies an
    adjective, the adverb must come before the adjective. A
    simple example of this rule is the phrase very delicious. In this
    case, practically is an adverb, and it modifies the adjective
    imperceptible.




                            29
Lesson 9 Answers

1.   Located in the upper part of the hind shanks of the greyhound [are]
     the overdeveloped and powerful thigh muscles [enabling] it to make
     short, [yet] powerful sprints [in race].

         are

         enabling

         yet

         in race

     Correction: in a race or in races

     Difficulty level: Medium




        •   TestMagic Explanation: A singular count noun with no determiner
            is WRONG, WRONG, WRONG.




2.   ______ second in size to Jupiter, Saturn has a mass much smaller
     than that of Jupiter.

         When

         While

     Difficulty level: Medium




        •   TestMagic Explanation: First, we have a reduced adverb clause
            here. The original clause would be While it is second in size to
            Jupiter. Second, we need to show contrast between being second
            in size (which sounds like it is close in size) and having a much
            smaller mass. In other words, from the sentence, it sounds like
            Saturn is similar in size (even though it is not in reality) but much
            smaller in mass.


         Despite

         Nevertheless



3.   [Given] the difficulty [of mastering] the subtleties of the violin, there
     is [not] difficulty understanding why there are few children proficient



                                         30
     [in] playing it.

         Given

         of mastering

         not

     Correction: no or not any

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •     TestMagic Explanation: This is a hard one! Basically, since
              difficulty is a noun, we can only use a determiner with it, or we
              can change the sentence to not any difficulty. Remember, no =
              not any. Are you starting to see how important determiners are?




         in



4.   What is known as the Homestead Act of 1862 granted those who
     ventured westward ______ .

         to receive needed and desired land

         the land they both needed and desired

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •     TestMagic Explanation: Essentially, granted is a transitive verb
              that needs to objects (a direct object and an indirect object), just
              like the verb gave. In this case, the two objects are those and the
              land.




         needing and desiring land

         where they most needed and desired land



5.   Almost ninety per cent of [American] high school [students] claim
     they know [how to read], yet this figure is probably [somewhat
     lower].




                                         31
         American

     Correction: all American

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •   TestMagic Explanation: This is a tough one! I bet if you show it to
            a native speaker of English, she might not be able to notice that
            there's anything wrong. And, in fact, maybe this question would
            be too hard for the real TOEFL, but I thought it would be good to
            put it on here, at least to teach you the rule.

     So, here's the rule:

     quantifier + of + determiner + NOUN

     If we look at these examples, we can see the grammar rule very clearly:

     most of the people, NOT X most of people X

     half of my money, NOT X half of money X




         students

         how to read

         somewhat lower



6.   From the simplest single-cell organism floating in prehistoric oceans
     ______ all forms of life now inhabiting the earth.

         evolved

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •   TestMagic Explanation: We have inversion in this sentence. Click
            the link to see why this sentence has inversion and what other
            types of inversion are possible. Here's what the original sentence
            would look like:

     All forms of life now inhabiting the earth evolved from the simplest
     single-cell organism floating in prehistoric oceans .




                                       32
         had evolved

         evolve

         evolving



7.   Zirconium is [a] [metallic element] with a high [melting] point that is
     widely [used] alloys.

         a

         metallic element

         melting

         used

     Correction: used in

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •     TestMagic Explanation: If you study at TestMagic, you will learn
              why we need a preposition after used, but it takes a little while to
              explain. I think this one is easier to understand just by seeing the
              correction.



8.   ______ is the earthquake that is most widely remembered, it was
     actually the fire that ensued that caused the most damage in San
     Francisco in 1906.


         It

         Being that

         Although

         Whereas it

     Difficulty level: Hard




        •     TestMagic Explanation: This one is hard not because of the
              grammar but because of the vocabulary. Whereas means
              although, both of which are adverb clause subordinating
              conjunctions.




                                         33
9.    After the Gold Rush in California in 1849 came [dramatically] higher
      number of [immigrants] than [had been] [seen in] the previous year.

          dramatically

      Correction: a dramatically

      Difficulty level: Hard




         •   TestMagic Explanation: Remember, if you see a singular count
             noun with no determiner, it is WRONG, WRONG, WRONG. In this
             case, number is the singular count noun with no determiner. Why
             is this one so hard? Simple--the underline is so far from the
             singular count noun; by the time we get to the singular count
             noun, we've already forgotten!




          immigrants

          had been

          seen in



10.   [Architect and founder] of the University of Virginia, Thomas
      Jefferson [built] his house Monticello [overlooking] the campus [in]
      Charlottesville, Virginia.

          Architect and founder

          built

          overlooking

      Correction: to overlook

      Difficulty level: Hard




         •   TestMagic Explanation: In this case, we need to use the infinitive
             of purpose to explain why Thomas Jefferson built his house.
             Some TestMagic students have pointed out that overlooking is
             grammatically correct. Yes, this is true; it is grammatically
             correct, but the meaning is completely wrong. If we say
             overlooking, then it means that the house was already
             overlooking the campus of the University of Virginia, which is



                                       34
         impossible since the house didn't exist before it was built!

Are you wondering why Architect and founder don't need determiners?
They are, after all, singular count nouns, right? Yes, in fact, they are,
but determiners are optional with certain job titles.




    in




                                    35
Lesson 10 Answers

 1. Because of the enormous pull gravitational of the Moon, the shape of the Earth actually
 changes as the largest oceans are "pulled" toward the Moon.

      Because of

      pull gravitational
 Correction: gravitational pull.
 In this case, pull is a noun (it means attraction) even though we usually use
 pull as a verb. gravitational is an adjective. Therefore, we need this pattern:
 adjective + noun.

      as

      toward


 2. Only with the advent of refrigerator were most Americans able to begin to consume fresh
 meat.

      refrigerator
 Correction: refrigeration.
 First, we need a noun here because of is a preposition. refrigerator is a noun,
 but it is the wrong form of the noun. A refrigerator is the machine that we
 have in our kitchens to keep food cold. In this case, we should use the noun
 that refers to the technology.

      were

      to begin

      meat

 3. Although ______ a successful film, none of her other works have to date been adapted to
 the film format.

      The Joy Luck Club is best known novel by Amy Tan was made into

      The Joy Luck Club was made into a film by Amy Tan’s best known

      Amy Tan’s best known novel, The Joy Luck Club, was made into
 In this case, we need a sentence after the subordinating conjunction Although.
 In this case, the sentence is novel was made.

      Amy Tan’s best known novel, The Joy Luck Club, made

 4. The gross domestic product of a country is a figure expressed in monetary terms that
 represents the entire economy value of the goods and services produced in that country.

      a figure

      expressed

     economy
 Correction: economic
 We need the adjective form here to modify the noun value. economy is a noun.

      goods

 5. In addition to the more traditional simple oven many ______ either by circulating heated air
 around the food or by heating the moisture contained in the food with microwaves, and a few
 do both.

      functioning modern ovens




                                                   36
     modern ovens that function

    modern ovens function
We need a main subject and a main verb in this sentence.

     the function of modern ovens

6. One of the first state of the United States, Rhode Island is the smallest of all the states and
is located north of the largest city in the United States, New York City.

    state
Correction: states
We need the plural form of state here because we are talking about more than
one state.

     the smallest

     is located

     north

7. Critical to understand the phenomenon of human intelligence is the notion that not all
human thought patterns are either predictable or rational.

     understand
Correction: understanding
This is a tricky one! In this case to is a preposition, it is not part of the
infinitive. Therefore, we should have a noun after to. Here's a similar example:
dedicated to. to is a preposition, so we should have a noun after to. For
example, we can say: I am dedicated to my family. Right? Now, what if I want
to use the idea of a verb after dedicated to? For example, what if I want to say
that I like to help my family? Then I would say I am dedicated to helping my
family. I cannot say I am dedicated to XhelpX my family since to needs a noun
after it and help is not a noun. Many of my students think this is one of the
hardest grammar points to remember, so I have a sentence for them to
memorize to help them remember this grammar pattern:
Mother Theresa dedicated her life to helping the poor.

     not all

     are

     or

8. The advent of the personal computer and easy access to information via the Internet has
allowed many more entrepreneurs ______ than ever before.

     to open home-based businesses
After the verb allow we should use the infinitive form. For example, she
allowed me to use her car.

     who open home-based businesses

     opening businesses home-based

     base at home their business

9. Deciduous trees are those who have leaves that fall off once a year, typically before the
advent of winter.

    who
Correction: that
We should only use who for people, or sometimes, for such animals as pets.

     once a year




                                                     37
     typically

     winter

10. ______ "orca" means whale, the orca is actually a member of the dolphin family, the
delphinids.

     That

     Why

    While
We need a subordinating conjunction to show contrast here. In other words,
we need to use a word that means even though or despite the fact that.

     It is




                                                 38
Lesson 11 Answers


              1. C is the best answer. Correction: a single
              tusk.

              tusk is a singular count noun and it does not
              have a determiner (a, the, my, some, John's, 1,
              2, 3, 4, etc.).

              We need a determiner for every singular count
              noun. This is one of the most common mistakes--
              we need to look at every underlined noun and
              figure out whether it is a count or non-count
              noun. If it is a count noun, is singular and does
              not have a determiner, then it is wrong. You have
              a big clue here because of the word single which
              means that tusk is singular and countable. Did
              you choose having tusks? This is correct because
              it is reduced from that have tusks.




              2. B is the best answer. Correction: implies.

              This is a word form question. This is one of the
              top five problem areas! implication is a noun; we
              need a verb, implies. If you were confused by
              While their, you should remember that while =
              although.




              3. B is the best answer.

              Many people forget this rule. We need a
              possessive subordinating conjunction, whose
              here. Here's a simple test: can we say sperm
              whale's name? If we can use the 's form here
              (the possessive form), then we should use whose
              and not which.

              Finally, we need to say that the name comes
              from something, not comes something since
              come cannot be used with another noun after it,
              i.e., come is intransitive and cannot take an
              object.


              4. D is the best answer.

              First of all, we need a determiner for the singular



                                      39
count noun cavity. We need a determiner for
every countable noun. This is one of the most
common mistakes--we need to look at every
underlined noun and figure out whether it is a
count or non-count noun. If it is a count noun, is
singular and does not have a determiner, then it
is wrong. That means we should choose C or D.
Remember, TOEFL doesn't test the difference
between a and the, so we don't have to worry
about whether a or the is better. Finally, D is
better because we should use an adjective clause
here, that contains. We should use for containing
to explain a purpose, for example Copper is one
of the best metals for cooking.




5. A is the best answer.

This is basically another word form question and
a meaning question together. All of the answers
fit into certain grammar patterns, but only A has
the correct meaning. This question is difficult also
because cosmetic can be both a noun and an
adjective. For example, in B, cosmetic is a noun
and in C cosmetic is an adjective. We want to say
that the solid is used in cosmetics, as in A. B says
that the solid is the cosmetic (noun). C says that
the solid is cosmetic (adjective). Finally, we
should remember that chief means main and
chiefly means mainly. If this question was hard
for you, don't worry--most TOEFL questions
depend on grammar and not on meaning!




6. D is the best answer. Correction: as.

This is a preposition question. This is one of the
top five problem areas! We need to say that the
liquid is used as a lubricant. used for can be used
when we want to tell the purpose; for example,
We should not use a computer for a simple task.




7. B is the best answer.

We need a main subject and a main verb here.
This sentence actually has two sentences--
Canaries used to be used in mines to detect
odorless, colorless, and poisonous gas is the first



                        40
sentence and when the canary died, it meant that
poisonous gas was present is the second
sentence, so we need to choose B. If we choose
D, we don't know what it refers to--? We have no
referent for the pronoun: the poisonous gas
meant what was present??




8. D is the best answer.

We have a reduced adjective clause here--that
were once thought to be indicative of larynxes is
reduced to once thought to be indicative of
larynxes. We should remember that when we
reduce an adjective clause, we keep the adverb.
This question is hard because the grammar and
vocabulary is pretty advanced.




9. B is the best answer. Correction: bulbous
heads.

head is a singular count noun. We need a
determiner for every singular count noun or we
need to make the singular count noun a plural
noun. This is one of the most common mistakes--
we need to look at every underlined noun and
figure out whether it is a count or non-count
noun. If it is a count noun, is singular and does
not have a determiner, then it is wrong. In this
case, we need to change head to heads. We have
some other clues here as well--whales, are, and
members all tell you that we are talking about
many whales and we should also use the plural
form of head.




10. A is the best answer.

Correction: known as. We need to say known as.
In general, known as should be used to show
that we can use a different name for something,
for example, Matsuda, the giant Japanese
automaker is known as Mazda in the United
States. We should use known for when we want
to talk about the reputation that something has,
for example, The state of Bahia in Brazil is known
for its delicious fish stews and beautiful music.




                       41
11. C is the best answer.

We can use an adjective clause here: a cavity
that holds sperm oil. Each of the other answers
contains a mistake. In A, to holding is incorrect;
we should say to hold. In B, held is wrong; we
should use present tense and we also need to
use that. Finally, D is wrong because we should
not say a sperm oil since oil in a non-count noun
and should not be used with a.




12. D is the best answer.

First of all, we need a main verb since the main
subject is progress and there is no verb in the
sentence. That leaves us with A and D. A is
wrong for two reasons. First, the easiest thing to
explain, is that we should use the present
perfect, has been, for progress here because we
can infer from this sentence that this progress is
something that has been occurring for a long
time and is still occurring in the present.

The second reason A is wrong is the placement of
the adverb largely. Rules for adverbs are difficult
in English! In this case, we need the adverb of
frequency between the auxiliary verb has and the
past participle been. One way to help we can
remember this is to remember a simple sentence
with an adverb of frequency, for example, My
mother has always told me to work hard. If we
can remember this sentence, we can remember
the rule for adverbs of frequency.

You need an article for every countable noun.


13. B is the best answer. Correction:
common areas.

area is a singular count noun and it does not
have a determiner (a, the, my, some, John's, 1,
2, 3, 4, etc.).

We need a determiner for every singular count
noun or we need to make it plural. This is one of
the most common mistakes--we need to look at
every underlined noun and figure out whether it
is a count or non-count noun. If it is a count



                        42
noun, is singular and does not have a
determiner, then it is wrong.




14. A is the best answer. Correction: The
price.

Price is a singular count noun and it does not
have a determiner (a, the, my, some, John's, 1,
2, 3, 4, etc.).

We need a determiner for every singular count
noun or we need to make it plural. This is one of
the most common mistakes--we need to look at
every underlined noun and figure out whether it
is a count or non-count noun. If it is a count
noun, is singular and does not have a
determiner, then it is wrong.




15. C is the best answer.

This is another top five problem area! Here we
have a reduced adjective clause: hooves that are
more developed reduces to hooves more
developed. Also, we can't say more developing
because it would mean hooves that are more
developing. We should use more with the
adjective developed to show the degree. If we
wanted to use a comparative with developing, we
would have to use a sentence like this: Many
businesses in Asia and Latin America are
developing more quickly than those in Europe
and North America.




16. B is the best answer.

In this sentence, we need a subordinate subject
for the verb starts. Also, we have a reduced
adjective clause: the water that is contained
inside reduces to the water contained inside.




17. A is the best answer. Correction: its
nickname.



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nickname is a singular count noun and it does not
have a determiner (a, the, my, some, John's, 1,
2, 3, 4, etc.).

We need a determiner for every singular count
noun or we need to make it plural. This is one of
the most common mistakes--we need to look at
every underlined noun and figure out whether it
is a count or non-count noun. If it is a count
noun, is singular and does not have a
determiner, then it is wrong.




18. B is the best answer.

earn takes two objects--a direct object and an
indirect object. In this sentence, the main subject
is loyalty, the direct object is the nickname, and
the indirect object is them.




19. C is the best answer.

Essentially, this is a reduced adjective clause: the
homing pigeon, which was once abundant, is now
extinct reduces to the homing pigeon, once
abundant, is now extinct which, in turn, can be
changed to once abundant, the homing pigeon is
now extinct. Remember, when we reduce an
adjective clause, we keep the adverb.




20. A is the best answer. Correction:
Composing.

Essentially, this is a reduced adjective clause:
hydrogen, which composes over 99% of the
studied universe, is by far the most abundant
element in the known universe reduces to
hydrogen, composing over 99% of the studied
universe, is by far the most abundant element in
the known universe which, in turn, can be
changed to Composing over 99% of the studied
universe, hydrogen is by far the most abundant
element in the known universe.




                        44
Lesson 12 Answers



Answers:

START

1. Bacteria commonly inhabit food preparation surfaces and they therefore
often being unsanitary in kitchens.

2.   The smaller of all nine planets in the solar system is Pluto.

3. Anthropology is necessity concerned with the human development,
specifically in those areas relating to social customs and beliefs and biology.

4. Cotton was one of the first major agricultural industries establishment in
North America after the arrival of the Europeans.

5. Without the development of a calendar predicting onset of the seasons would
not be possible.

6. The common strawberry propagates not with the seeds it has on its skin
instead by sending out slender growths called runners into the soil.

7. The primary function of any business is to generate a profit, motivating
managers running their operations as efficiently as possible.

8. During working as a scientist and chemist, George Washington Carver
discovered over 450 uses for the peanut and other agricultural products.

9. While both are members of the citrus family, the lemon is different from the
grapefruit in that it is smaller and bitter.

10. The notion that an infant’s brain is a tabula rasa or “blank slate” is one that
has been expressed by many developmental psychologies for decades.

11. Consisting almost entirely of organic material, coal results from the
compaction of decayed plants over million of years.

12. In 1843 Norbert Rillieux patented a vacuum sugar evaporation system that
removed the liquid from sugar cane juice more efficiency that the open-kettle
systems then in use.

13. Like cabbage, kale is a leafy vegetable, but its leaves are loose rather than
formed in compact head.

14. Weighing less than gram at birth, infant kangaroos are reared in their
mothers’ pouches from birth to roughly seven to ten months.

15. The term "ground" refers to an electrical conductor that completes an
electrical circuit by connection to earth.




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16. Among the largest and most distant from the 48 lower states are Alaska,
more than ten degrees north of the northernmost state in the Continental United
States.

17. Martha Graham started dance career when she founded the Modern Dance
Company in Chicago in the latter part of the 20th century.

18. No machine that claims to defy the laws of physics by running forever
without source of energy has ever been patented at the United States Patent
Office.

19. Poet and novelist Maya Angelou’s fascinating with language began when she
was still her childhood.

20. Although it is commonly believed that sharks do not sleep, they have been
observed to experience period of activity and inactivity that would roughly
correspond to the human notion of periods of sleep and waking.

21. More than just lodgings for travelers, colonial inns and taverns also served as
social gathering place for people who had little means of communication with
surrounding areas.

22. While more easily digested by those weak digestive systems, goat’s milk is
surpassed in popularity in the United States by cow’s milk.

23. Jazz singer Lena Horne made one of her earliest film appearances in 1938 in
The Duke is Tops, playing lead role of Ethel Andrews.

24. Some colonial mills have weathered the elements well specifically because
they were constructed from substances durable than wood.

25. So-called “Silicon Valley,” home to Stanford University and to some of the
United States’ foremost high technology corporations, is a loosely defined area in
the Santa Clara Valley in Northern California.




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