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					EQ: How do I apply my understanding of a text to
analyze author‟s purpose, theme, characterization and
figurative language on an elevated academic level?
Objectives
1. Develop an understanding of Literary Criticism.
2. Apply knowledge obtained through independent Summer
   Reading to complete an Ethical or Civic Criticism MLA essay
   response.
3. Synthesize your understanding by making authentic
   connections through the completion of a culminating project
   based upon Ethical or Civic Criticism.
What is a literary criticism?
• It is the evaluative or interpretive work written with
  academic and/or professional intent.
• It is "criticism" because it asks analytical, crucial, or
  "critical" questions about the text.
• It analyzes a text to answer a focused critical question.
How do I prepare for its completion?
• As you read a work, take notes
• Decide which interpretive strategies (type of
  criticism) you wish to employ and reread / review
  the work with these tools (questions) in mind.
• Answer questions related to your chosen criticism
  to gather specific textual notes and supporting
  evidence. (provided in guide)
• Review your collected information and organize an
  essay response
Types of Literary Criticism
Reader-Response Criticism
   Formalist Criticism
     Ethical Criticism
      Civic Criticism
    Cultural Criticism
    Feminist Criticism
 Psychological Criticism
Reader-Response Criticism:
• reader’s background / environment are frame of
  reference
• each reader is motivated to better understand
  himself/herself

Formalist Criticism:
• eliminates subjectivity; relies on concrete
examples; “close reading” to identify the text’s
central meaning.
Ethical Criticism - examines man vs. man and
man vs. self conflicts to determine the moral
or ethical dimensions of a text.

Civic Criticism - examines man vs. society
and man vs. technology conflicts to evaluate
the significance of moral values for a given
society.
Cultural Criticism - examines influences from
the author’s life, society and history to
explain their satirical and figurative
representation.

Feminist Criticism - assumes we exist in a
patriarchal society; analyzes the restrictions
and/or benefits of assumed gender roles
Psychological Criticism - examines the
presence the three parts of human
personality play in the human behavior of
fictional characters.
• View your anticipation guide
• Give a title to each column
List #1: Hannibal Lecter   List #2: Frodo
         Freddy Krueger             Captain Kirk
         Voldemort                  Batman
         Darth Vader                Harry Potter
         The Predator               Rambo
   List #1: Hannibal Lecter     List #2: Frodo
            Freddy Krueger               Captain Kirk
            Voldemort                    Batman
            Darth Vader                  Harry Potter
            The Predator                 Rambo

• Now, identify your top villain of all time and make a list
  of four qualities you feel a villain must possess.
• Then, identify their top hero of all time and identify four
  qualities you feel a hero must possess.
Reflection and Categorization
What four unifying qualities do you feel help categorize
„villains‟?
What four unifying qualities do you feel help categorize
„heroes‟?
When characters have a set of unifying qualities
they are said to fit an ARCHETYPE
Archetype - a prototype after which others are
copied (stereotypical character)
Author‟s use archetypes to create fast
connections; identify characterization and
themes
• Villain – craves power; harms others; lacks
  mercy; rejects society‟s morals
• Hero – self-sacrifice; endures hardship;
  embodies society‟s morals; benefits others
Independent Reading and Analysis
Directions: After reading the provided column from
   Entertainment Weekly, provide answers to the following.
1. What situational irony (opposite of what one expects)
   does Jensen identify concerning modern times and the
   portrayal of heroes in fictionalized books, television series,
   movies, etc…
2. Summarize Jensen's explanation of the villain / hero
   archetype over the past 50 years.
3. Do you agree with Jensen‟s analysis of the villain / hero?
   List at least one original example to support and explain
   your evaluation of Jensen‟s analysis.
4. Why do you think the archetypes of “good” vs. “evil”;
   “hero” vs. “villain” are so popular?
             Let’s Review
• What is Literary Criticism?
• Academic analysis of literature focused on
  one critical (important) question.
• What is an archetype?
• a prototype after which others are copied
  (stereotypical character)
• Apply your understanding of yesterday‟s
  new concept (archetype) to play Archetype
  Round-up
• Challenge: Working with your collaborative
  partner, you have five minutes to provide an
  example for each listed archetype. The pair
  with the most listed archetypes after five
  minutes wins!
Due Dates:
Exam: Mon. (9/14)
Prewriting Graphic Organizer: Fri. (9/11)
Essay Construction : Tues. (9/15) to Wed. (9/16)
Final Essay Due: End of Class Wed. (9/16)
PowerPoint Rough Draft: Fri. (9/18)
Power Point Handout: Mon. (9/21)
Power Point Presentation: Tues. (9/22)
Turnitin.com Submissions: Tues. (9/22)
Activating Prior Knowledge:
How do you determine if an individual is „good‟ (ethical /
  moral) or „bad‟ (unethical / amoral)? Make a list of 3
  factors you use to determine a person‟s moral
  standing.
      - reputation              - adherence to laws
      - actions                 - past (motives)
      - treatment of others     - temptations (context)
      - statements (words)
REMEMBER:
• In Feminist Criticism, the goal is to evaluate the
  portrayal of gender roles. (How do characters follow
  or rebel against the gender roles imposed by
  society in Pride & Prejudice?)

• In Cultural Criticism, the goal is to evaluate the
  influence of a time period or genre on a text. (What
  examples of Gothicism are in Frankenstein? or How
  did WWII influence Lord of the Flies?
AKA – Moralist Perspective
• In an Ethical Criticism, the goal is to evaluate character
  motives, actions and relationships for moral lessons.
When analyzing literature from this perspective the reader should
  ask…
• What are each character‟s responsibilities? How does
  each character fulfill or ignore their responsibilities?
• How do the characters interact with one another? What
  do such interactions reveal concerning each
  character‟s motives and values?
• Who or what is most responsible for conflict(s) and/or
  resolution(s)?
When analyzing literature from this perspective the
  reader should ask…
• How could unpleasant events have been avoided?
• What character(s) is best described as evil, unlawful or
  unjust? Provide an example to defend.
• What character(s) is best described as good, innocent
  or justified? Provide an example to defend.
• Ultimately, what is the moral lesson(s) the reader (or
  viewer) can learn from each character?
             Let’s Review
• What is the focus of Ethical Criticism?
  – Analyze the morals within a given story
  – Who is good/bad; just/unjust?
  – What lessons can be learned?
  – What events occurred or STILL need to occur
    for justice to be served?
• Keep an English Notebook
• On your test you will need to know
  information we review in guided notes,
  texts and class notes.
• For example, copy info about various
  author‟s that is highlighted in yellow.
               Let’s Review
• What is situational irony?
  – Opposite of what is expected occurs (against
    the norm)
  – Ex: Rains on the weatherman‟s picnic

• What is dramatic irony?
  – Reader has information the characters do not
  – Ex: Murderer hiding behind the door
                Let’s Review
• Sixth Sense: Bruce Willis is a ghost
• Titanic: We know the boat will sink
• Shrek: Fiona chooses Shrek and turns into an ogre
About the Author: Roald Dahl
• British decent; WWII became “flying ace”
• 1940s became successful author
• His texts are known for unexpected
  endings and the depiction of aspects
  related to human perversity, cruelty, and
  violence.
• Stories often controversial (several
  adapted into Hitchcock films!)
• Shockingly same author of James and
  the Giant Peach and Charlie and the
  Chocolate Factory
Meaning:
• In an unconcerned manner - unaware of
  any impending catastrophe.
Origin:
• From the Bible (King James Version),
• Jeremiah 11:19:
• But I was like a gentle lamb led to the
  slaughter; And I did not know that they had
  devised plots against me
Review:
1. Describe Mary‟s relationship with Patrick.
2. Explain the analogy, “…almost as a
   sunbather feels the sun.”
3. What do you think Patrick told Mary?
4. Why do you think Mary kills Patrick?
5. Why doesn‟t Mary get caught?
6. Is justice served in the end?
About the Author: O. Henry
• Aka = William Sydney Porter
• (1862 –1910)
• stories are known for wit, wordplay,
• warm characterization and clever
• twist endings.
• Mother died (he was 3); raised by Grandmother
• 19 became pharmacist; moves to Texas (ranch-hand)
• draftsman at the Texas General Land Office (GLO) in
  1887 ; bank teller (embezzlement)
• 1902 moves to NY; writes 381 short stories!
Quick Quiz:
• How is Liz treated by her father?
• What does Liz do to Kid?
• Why does Liz do this to Kid?
• As a result of her actions, what happens to Liz?
Step #1: Choose one of the following prompts
• Prompt #1: What character is most responsible for
  conflicts, crimes, and/or tragedy apparent in the text
  through their unethical views, impulses and/or actions?
  (Basically, who is the ‘bad’ guy or ‘evil’ force and why?)

• Prompt #2: What character adheres to ethical
  behavior? What is the impact of their exemplary moral
  views, decisions and standing? (Basically, who is the
  ‘good’ guy or ‘positive’ force and why?)
• Prompt #3: What moral lesson can be derived by the
  reader through the portrayal of ethical and unethical
  behavior, impulses and events in the text? (Basically,
  how does the author believe we should act and why?)

• Prompt #4: How does the portrayal of moral behaviors
  and lesson(s) apply to your life and/or modern religious
  beliefs? (Basically, what can we learn concerning ethics
  from this text and how?)
About the Author: H.G. Wells
• Aka: “The Father of Science Fiction”
• Outspoken socialist and pacifist
• Raised in impoverished lower-middle
  class
• Family „gave him away‟ as an
  apprentice
• "the Father of Miniature War Gaming.“
• His works are politically charged and
  often speak-out against technology.
As you read…
Pay attention to setting and description
What are the main values of society?
How do the characters adhere to those
  values or disrupt them?
Characters:
Horrocks – manager of the iron works
Mrs. Horrocks – having an affair?
Mr. Raut – has a plan (What is it?)
QUIZ:
1. Describe the setting.
2. What is the main focus (goal / interest)
   of this society?
3. What happens to Mr. Raut?
• Ethical Criticism – (individual level) focus on
  individual character‟s morals and the implications
  their moral beliefs have on their fate or that of other
  characters. (Man vs. Man)
• Civic Criticism – (societal level) focus on the big
  picture: How do the characters‟ moral beliefs reflect,
  shape or reshape their society / government. (Man
  vs. Society)
• Both evaluate the ‘right’ and ‘wrong’
• Both reveal moral lessons to the reader
What is Civic Criticism?
Basics: Evaluates literature for moral values that have
  significance for individuals as members of communities.
• Also known as Public Ethical Criticism
• Based in Greek view of literature as a „teaching force‟ for
  society
• Greek literary heroes encompassed the values and morals all
  members of society should strive to achieve and display.
• Such values include: bravery, honor, courage and obligation in
  connection to everything one cherishes – including one‟s
  country.
Think about the need for Civic Criticism.
What books, shows, and/or films can you think of
 that speak out against government or societal
 injustices?
Summer Reading Civic Criticism Prompts (Evaluate
  Man vs. Society Conflict(s))
• Prompt #1: How do a character‟s desires and/or morals
  interfere or adhere to the demands of their government
  and/or society? Through the depiction of the character‟s
  values, what moral code does the text reveal
  concerning the character‟s society? (Basically, what
  values are portrayed as positive and why does the
  author emphasize their importance.)
Summer Reading Civic Criticism Prompts (Evaluate
  Man vs. Society Conflict(s))
• Prompt #2: List points of civic abuse. Does the story
  suggest moral imperatives, specific or otherwise? Why
  is this an important lesson for the author‟s society, as
  well as, the 21st century? (Basically, what societal
  lesson and/or warning is issued through the author’s
  depiction of morals?)
Let’s put it all together….
• Ethical (man vs. man; man vs. self)
• Civic (man vs. society; man vs. technology)
• Ethical‟s Moral Lesson (Why / how do the
  characters make mistakes? or What can we learn?)
• Civic‟s Moral Lesson (How must society change?)
Let’s put it all together….
• Open to Pg. 5 of your Summer Reading Project
  Assignment Packet
• Read all six prompts – CHOOSE ONE
• View Pre-writing activity on Pg.6 (understand each
  major component of an effective essay!)
• Complete Pre-writing activity on Pgs. 7 – 11
• Completed Pre-writing activity due Friday
AGD: Imagine a world with no sunlight or fresh air. A
 place where pollution has become the norm and
 mass production of fuel is king.

Transition: This horrifying nightmare exists as a
 reality in H.G. Wells‟ “The Cone”. In the politically
 charged short story, Wells explores the dangers of
 technology in relationship to industry through the
 depiction of a brutal and seemingly unjustified
 murder.
        Name text; rephrase prompt


Thesis: Overall, “The Cone” suggests an
 important lesson for society concerning the
 need to regulate industry through a vivid
 setting, Mr. Raut‟s struggle and the inclusion
 of a brutal murder.
                                List 3 specific main
 Give direct                       SUPPORTING
  answer                             examples
Now you try…
(1) WITH YOUR PARTNER – CHOOSE ONE OF THE CIVIC
    CRITICISM PROMPTS
(2) THEN, CHOOSE A STORY LISTED BELOW
(3) ON A SEPARATE SHEET OF PAPER DEMONSTRATE
    YOUR UNDERSTANDING BY WRITING AN
    INTRODUCTION FOR YOUR CHOSEN STORY.
CHOICES:
The Crucible       Transformers   The Guilty Party
The Scarlet Letter Matrix         The Execution
Anthem             Romeo & Juliet Original Pick
Now you try…
(1) REVIEW YOUR WORK FROM YESTERDAY
(2) THINK ABOUT YOUR NOVEL
(3) REVISE & COMPLETE THE INTRODUCTION
    PORTION OF YOUR GUIDE
(4) AFTER I HAVE CHECKED IT KEEP GOING –
    ORGANIZE, GATHER & EXPLAIN EVIDENCE
HOMEWORK: BRING SUMMER READING VOCAB TO
  CLASS TOMORROW – YOU WILL BE
  CONSTRUCTING YOUR VOCABULARY ESSAY
EQ: How is the meaning of a word evident in context.
Answers:
• Part of Speech
• Sentence Structure
• Plot
• Description
• Synonyms
What do you think „parapet‟ means?
• The Sniper lay still upon the rooftop. Cautiously, he raised
  himself and peered over the parapet.
About the Author: Liam O'Flaherty
• Irish writer; born into poverty
  (intelligent)
• Priest; joins Irish Guards (part of
  British Army)
• Injured in WWI and suffered from „shell
  shock‟
• Moved to Hollywood after WWI;
  becomes writer
• Texts typically contain settings,
  characters and themes related to
  Ireland and war
• 1933 – declared mentally ill
3-2-1 Partner Response
3 things that happen to the Sniper
2 people the Sniper kills
1 example and explanation of irony
Exam Format
Section #1: Literary Criticism (#‟s 1-10)
Section #2: Short Story Authors (#‟s 11-15)
Section #3: Lamb to the Slaughter (#‟s 16-20)
Section #4: The Guilty Party (#‟s 21-25)
Section #5: The Cone (#‟s 26-30)
Section #6: The Sniper (#‟s 31-35)
Section #7: Memorable Quotes (#‟s 36-40)
Section #8: Independent Ethical or Civic Criticism (#‟s 41-45)
After the exam, read “The Rocking Horse Winner” and answer
  the attached reading guide questions for homework

				
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