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					General Certificate of Secondary Education
June 2009


HUMANITIES                                                        3071/1 PM


SOURCES BOOKLET FOR PAPER 1


To be opened and issued to candidates no sooner than Monday 2 February 2009


Half the marks from this paper will be awarded for the source questions. So practice
your technique.

The other half are for recall. So learn your case studies very carefully.



NOTICE TO CANDIDATES


You have been given one copy of this Sources Booklet for use during your preparation for the
examination, which is to be held on Tuesday 12 May 2009. You may annotate this copy as you
wish but you are NOT allowed to take it into the examination.
You will be provided with a clean copy of the Sources Booklet, along with the question paper,
for use in the examination.
You are advised to study this Sources Booklet and the issues raised in it.
Your teacher is encouraged to teach lessons based on the Sources Booklet and to give
assistance and advice as required.
                                                                               You must LEARN
                                                                               your
                                                                               annotations.
                                                 You will be asked
        You will need a                                                        You cannot take
                                                 questions relating
        working                                                                your notes sheet
                                                 to case studies
        knowledge of the                                                       into the exam.
                                                 NOT included in
        theories about                           the source book.
        culture, the
        environment and
        conflict to score
        effectively on the
        source questions


G/K43339/JunO9/307 1/1PM   6/6/6                                              3071/1 PM
                                                   Both creative; but so
            NOTE: Be aware of                      are many people
            discredited research                                                        This helps to explain
            of Tom Bouchard and                                                         similarities
            why it was.                                                3
                                                                                             Depression quite
            So similarities cannot                                                           common. Partly
            have been socialised                      CULTURE AND BELIEFS
                                                                                             explained by trauma
                                                                                             of adoption?
                       Source A: Twins reunited

                       In late 2007 Paula and Elyse celebrated their birthday. They were 39 years old and had been
                       separated shortly after their birth. Their adoption agency was helping with research into nature
                       and nurture. Their families didn‟t know the other twin existed until, in 2004, Elyse was told that
THE CASE FOR NATURE




                       she had an identical twin and contacted Paula.
                       Paula and Elyse were alike in some ways. They both loved reading and films. They even had
                       the same favourite book and film. They both had to combat depression. The two had been
                       brought up in similar households. Today, Paula is a wife, mother and freelance writer, while   Does
                       Elyse is single and works in the film industry. They wrote a book together called Identical    their
                       Strangers, which explains their story and their ideas on nature and nurture.                   type of
                       The Jim twins first met at the age of 39. They had been adopted as infants by two working-     backgr-
                       class families. Both twins had called their childhood pet „Toy‟. They had both married, and    ound
                       divorced, women named Linda. Later they both married women called Betty. One twin called explain
                       his son James Allen and the other James Alan. They had the same hobbies, habits, cars, pets this?
                       and IQ scores.
                                        Many similarities coincidental. Do not tell us
                                        about personalities                                         So similarities cannot
                                                                                                    have been socialised
                       Source B: Influences on socialisation
                                                                    Unconscious, ongoing process of learning culture


                                                                                                             Primary
THE CASE FOR NURTURE




                                                                                                             socialisation;
                                                                                                             especially mother.
                                                                                                             Importance of first
                                                                                                             5 years of life.




                                                                                                             Secondary
                                                                                                             socialising
                                                                                                             agents (all
                                                                                                             others); all of
                       Case studies to                                                                       which give us our
                       support nurture:                                                                      culture. Learn
                       Wolf Children                                                                         examples of each.
                       Feral children
                       Kevin Halfpenny
                       … and others
                       G/K43339/JunO9/307 1/1PM                                                              Turn over

                       FOR POSSIBLE SOURCE AND RECALL QUESTIONS SEE PAGES AFTER SOURCES
   The source seems to                                      4
   associate bullying with
   children. But it exists at
   work, in families, with the      CONFLICT AND CO-OPERATION
   elderly, between sub-groups
   as well.                                                                                       Over all, the
                                                                                                  incidence of bullying
         Source C: Statistics on bullying                                                         declines through
                                                                                                  childhood. This may
                                                                                                  be because empathy
             One in ten primary school children is often bullied.                                 and compassion grow
 People                                                                                           as people mature
 don‟t     One in ten secondary school children is bullied once or twice a term.
 want
 (fear) to One in two school children is sometimes bullied.
 admit it. About 20 children every year commit suicide because of bullying.                       The problem is
 Bullying                                                                                         significant. 10% is
 difficult Three-quarters of all attacks are on boys.                                             a lot. Is bullying
 to                                                                                               inevitable?
 prove.
                                                        Is the way that boys are
 Busy Source D: What is bullying?
                                                        socialised significant?                                Definition:
 people
                                                        (physical, leadership etc.)                            but it
 asked
 to deal                                                                                                       leaves out
 with it. Bullying is when someone or some group deliberately upsets, threatens or harms another the fact
           person. This may take the form of physical violence, name-calling, teasing or intimidating that
           their victim. Most schools have a policy against bullying but, according to some students, bullying is
           this is not always enforced and it is also very difficult to put into practice.                     over time,
                                                                                                               and may
                                                                         Policy (plan) is good „cos at         involve
                                                                         least not ignoring it. BUT,           ostracism
          Source E: Beth’s experience of being bullied                   protection of victims isn‟t           or
                                                                         guaranteed until people carry         exclusion
                                                                         out the policy

 Physical Beth was bullied at school and her life was made a misery. She used to hide in her bedroom,            Psycho-
 / health sobbing as she deliberately cut herself. “I was quiet and didn‟t make friends easily. I wasn‟t         logical
 consequ                                                                                                         consequ-
          too bright and wasn‟t very good at anything. I wasn‟t sporty and didn‟t join in.”
 -ence                                                                                                           ence
           She was taunted: people called her „ugly‟, „geeky‟, „sad‟ and a „loner‟. She was always on
           her own and a gang picked on her. They called her names like „weirdo‟, „saddo‟ and „loser‟,
Social and asking where her friends were.
economic “Spending all your time at school being pointed at and with people laughing at you is hell. If
consequ-
           I tried to join in, the other girls rejected me; I always got the brush off. When I was 14, I
ence
           started to cut myself. I didn‟t want to die, I just wanted the horror to stop. From scissors I
           moved on to razor blades, and the cuts became deeper and deeper. It wasn‟t until I was 15
           that my mother found out what I was doing, but it was difficult to make things better and I
Who did
           dreaded going to school. Although I took my GCSEs, I didn‟t care about the results and had
she tell?
           to move away to start all over again.”
What did
the school
do?                                  For the bullies, it was about power over the victim (Political)
         G/K43339/JunO9/307 111PM
                                                     5

               Source F: A poster used in schools as part of a campaign against bullying          Bullying is
                                                                                                  not just
                                                                                                  about
                                                                                                  schools
 Recognises it‟s
 endemic. But
 even so, aim to
 get rid of it.

                                                                                            Good!
                                                                                            Active
                                                                                            participation to
                                                                                            sort out. Don‟t
 Worldwide                                                                                  be a bystander
 problem. Across
 age, culture
 and
 circumstances.
 A BIG issue
                                                                                   Joining
                                                                                   organisations
                                                                                   and actively
                                                                                   lobbying is a way
                                                                                   forward



 Everyone
 can be
 active if                                                                                        FOR
 they                                                                                          POSSIBLE
 choose to                                                                                      SOURCE
 be.                                                                                              AND
                                                                                                RECALL
                                                                                              QUESTIONS
Plenty of                                                                                     SEE PAGES
people do                                                                                        AFTER
care. It‟s                                                                                     SOURCES
about
being
active.
                   Created by children in Camden Children‟s Fund
                   Bullying Prevention Project run by Young Voice and Kids‟ Clubs Network

                   Childline 08001111, Helpline for parents Parentlineplus 0808 8002222
 Solutions? RRR, peer listening, the law, education, socialisation, not being a bystander, 6
 step problem solving, speaking out, the media etc. How? (PANICC)
        G/K43339/Jun09/3071/PM                                                     Turn over
                                                        6
            The problem‟s too
            big to solve in one.                                                  Public transport
            But we can each do                                                    (shared) reduces
            our little bit.          ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES                         the carbon footprint
                                                                                  and lessens global
                                                                                  warming
        Source G: Think global, act local



                                                       We decided not to buy a car but use
                                                       buses and trains instead.
  This also reduces
  global warming. It
  cuts down on the
  use of finite
  resources

                           I always switch off lights and wear extra
                           clothing indoors to cut down my use of
                           energy and my heating bills.



This also reduces
global warming.
Short haul aircraft
                                                       We don‟t take short holidays abroad any
create massive                                         more because the air flights cause too
amounts of CO2,                                        much damage.
adding to
atmospheric                                                                                  Plastic is slow
pollution                                                                                    to biodegrade
                                                                                             and adds to
                                                                                             waste
Imports‟ “food           I try to buy food grown locally. There is                           mountains /
miles”, although         no need for it to come halfway round the                            landfill.
cheaper, create          world. I also save my plastic bags from
pollution due to
                         shopping and use them again next time.                              Problems are
transport.
                                                                                             reduced if
                                                                                             people
On the other hand,
                                                                                             REDUCE,
buying imported
                                                                                             RE-USE and
food might be
                             As a whole, the sources suggest an environmentally              RECYCLE
helping to address
                             educated public? But does it reflect reality?
global trade
inequalities
                                              END public are responsible, world
                             And even if the generalOF SOURCES
                             governments and industry are missing their environmental
                             goals (Kyoto / MDGs). This is more damaging.


     FOR POSSIBLE SOURCE AND RECALL QUESTIONS SEE PAGES AFTER SOURCES
              POSSIBLE SOURCE AND RECALL QUESTIONS

THESE QUESTIONS MAY BE USED AS EXAMINATION PRACTICE EXERCISES

CULTURE AND BELIEFS
Possible source questions
Revise the nature of culture and how it is acquired, along with the arguments for and
against your nature and nurture case studies. Revise key terminology.
1. Examine Source A. Give 4 examples of evidence that suggests that human
   personalities are due to “nature”.
2. What are the strengths and weaknesses of Source A in asserting that nature is
   predominates over nurture in our socialisation?
3. Explain how Source B appears to contradict Source A.
4. What is socialisation? How does it occur?
5. Is human personality and behaviour due to nature or nurture? Explain with
   reference to Sources A and B.
Revise the following, because they’re possible recall questions
1. What is culture? What are its components? Why do cultures differ? What can
   happen when cultures interact?
2. For a culture you have studied, explain the influences that have shaped its
   behaviour. (Amish / Yanomami)
3. Cultural comparison or cultural interaction case study: the Amish and the UK. What
   are the characteristics of each culture? Why? What beliefs underlie each culture?
   (Monocultural v. multicultural. How to cope with cultural diversity).
4. The contrasting perspectives of at least two groups on a cultural, moral, political,
   religious, spiritual or social issue. Our case study is voluntary euthanasia.


CONFLICT AND CO-OPERATION
Possible source questions
Revise the causes, consequences and possible solutions of bullying.
1. Describe two patterns of behaviour related to bullying suggested in Source C.
2. Examine Source D. Refer to it to suggest two reasons why bullying remains a
   problem.
3. Use Source D and your own knowledge to define bullying. In your response,
   describe where bullying may occur.
4. Examine Source E. Explain both the causes and effects of the bullying.
5. Examine Source F. Use it, and your own studies, to explain how the issues
   described in Sources C, D and E may be resolved.
Revise the following, because they’re possible recall questions
1. For a large scale / international conflict you have studied, explain its:
      causes
                                                          Make sure you use
      consequences                                       SPERM, SPERM and
      resolution                                         PANICC

(Revise either the Jews in Nazi Germany, the Cold War or World War II carefully;
depending upon which case study you have focussed on).
2. Describe how conflicts might be resolved. (PANICC & 6 step problem solving)


ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Revise the causes, consequences and solutions (alternative energy) of atmospheric
pollution.
Possible source questions
1. Examine Source G. Why does it urge human beings to “think global, act local”?
2. How would the suggestions made in Source G help the environment? In your
   response refer to specific environmental issues.
3. Evaluate the environmental impacts of the suggestions made in Source G.
4. Using Source G, and your own studies, explain whether you think the behaviours
   described in the source are sufficient to bring about necessary environmental
   change.
Revise the following , because they’re possible recall questions
1. For an industry (worldwide or British) you have studied, describe its effects on the
   environment and on human beings. (Revise Tourism in Kenya and Tourism in
   Great Britain)
2. For an industry you have studied (tourism) explain how sustainable development
   might be achieved.
3. How do beliefs around the world affect cultures‟ relationships with the
   environment? (Revise the beliefs and behaviours of the Yanomami in
   comparison to those of Great Britain).
4. For an environmental pressure group you have studied, explain its history,
   campaign methods and whether it has been successful. (Revise Greenpeace)

				
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