MMS_WIM

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					MMS and WIM Technology and Business

      T-109.551, Telecommunications Business II




           Qinghai Li, qli@cc.hut.fi, 52735M
          Department of Computer Science
           Helsinki University of Technology
1. Introduction ............................................................................................................3
  1.1 Background ....................................................................................................... 3
  1.2 Purpose and Problem .................................................................................... 3
  1.3 Scope of This Research ................................................................................ 3
2. Context of Mobile Messaging .......................................................................................3
  2.1 General description ................................................................................................. 4
  2.2 Introduction to WIM ............................................................................................... 5
  2.3 Introduction to MMS .............................................................................................. 7
   2.3.1 MMS Content..................................................................................................... 7
   2.3.2 How MMS Works? ............................................................................................ 8
  2.4 Comparison of MMS and SMS.................................................................... 9
   2.4.1 Content, Size and Features ................................................................................. 9
   2.4.2 Environment ....................................................................................................... 9
3. MMS Messaging Architecture ...............................................................................10
  3.1 MMS Terminal to MMS Terminal Messaging ..................................................... 11
  3.2 Communication among MMS Terminal, Email Server, Legacy Wireless System
    13
  3.3 Interfaces between MMS Client and MMS Proxy Replay ................................... 15
  3.4 Communication between different MMS Proxy Relays ....................................... 16
  3.5 MMS Presentation ................................................................................................ 16
  3.6 Content Adaptation ............................................................................................... 17
4. WIM System Architecture ............................................................................17
  4.1 Big Picture of IMPS System ................................................................................. 18
  4.2 Service Elements ................................................................................................... 20
   4.2.1 Presence Service Element ................................................................................ 20
   4.2.2 Instant Messaging Service Element ................................................................. 20
   4.2.3 Group Service Element .................................................................................... 20
   4.2.4 Content Service Element.................................................................................. 20
  4.3 Service Access Point ............................................................................................. 20
   4.3.1 Authentication and Authorization .................................................................... 21
   4.3.2 Service Discovery and Service Agreement...................................................... 21
   4.3.3 User Profile Management ................................................................................ 21
   4.3.4 Service Relay ................................................................................................... 21
5. MMS Value Chain and Pricing ..................................................................................21
  5.1 MMS Value Chain and Players............................................................................. 21
  5.2 Pricing ................................................................................................................... 23
6. MMS Market Expectation...........................................................................................24
7. Conclusion ..................................................................................................................28
8. Reference ....................................................................................................................29
1. Introduction
1.1 Background

MMS has evolved from SMS (Short Message Service) and EMS (Enhanced Messaging
Service. SMS has gained great success even though it provides quite limited wireless
messaging services. EMS comes after SMS in order to improve the capability of
wireless messaging service. EMS can provide relatively richer messaging content like
simple picture, audio or video, but it is not an ultimate solution. Due to the
introduction of GPRS, EDGE, 3G networks and more capable mobile handset, it is
possible to re-construct wireless messaging technology from its infrastructure. Under
this context, Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS) comes out to suit the needs.


Wireless Instant Messaging (WIM) is getting to be a hot point. Typically, Instant
Messaging (IM) is used quite common on desktop PC for instant chatting. However,
IM on desktop has its limitations for roaming, and IM is suffered with the lack of
standards.   The   instant   messengers   of   Different   IM   vendors   normally   can‟t
communicate with each other. In order to solve this problem, two main WIM
standards were established. One is IMPS of Wireless Village; another is WIM
standard of Jabber.


1.2 Purpose and Problem

In this research paper, we will look through the history of wireless messaging
services; analyze the standard, structure, features, and functionalities. Finally MMS
value chain, pricing and market expectation are figured out.


1.3 Scope of This Research

The scope is tracking the wireless messaging services, studying the general structure
of MMS and WIM technologies. In addition, this paper will also present the value
chain, pricing and market expectation of wireless messaging services.


2. Context of Mobile Messaging
In this chapter, we first present the general information of mobile messaging; briefly
introduce the history trace and their relationship with each other. After that, SMS,
EMS and MMS technologies and business models will be analyzed.


2.1 General description

Let‟s have a look at the evolution of wireless network. Mobile messaging is closely
related with this evolution process of wireless network. In the late 80s and early 90s,
the first generation wireless network emerges in America, Nordic countries (i.e.
Finland and Sweden) and Asia (Japan). 1G (first generation in short) is analog
network with pure voice communication. At this stage, there is no mobile messaging
at all.


The second generation is digital network and still voice-based communication. In this
phase, the first short message is believed to have been sent in December 1992 from
a Personal Computer (PC) to a mobile phone on the Vodafone GSM network in the
UK [15]. Each SMS can have at most 160 characters. SMS has three major
elements: mobile terminal, wireless network(since 2G), and Short Message Service
Center (SMSC). SMS is „store and forward‟ mechanism which means if the receiver is
not available at the moment; the SMS will be stored into SMSC and then deliver it
once possible.


Due to the limitation of SMS, Enhanced Messaging Service (EMS) comes out as the
complement to SMS. EMS provides the ability to deliver the combination of simple
melodies, pictures, sounds, animations, modified text and pure text. However, EMS
is not running as popular as expected. One reason is the main mobile manufacturer,
Nokia, ignores EMS and go directly to MMS. Another reason is that MMS is getting to
be the hot point.


MMS, as its name suggests, is able to send and receive the combination of text,
sounds, images, and video to MMS capable handsets. Multimedia messages could be
postcards, pictures, screensavers, greeting cards, business cards and animated
cartoons etc. MMS features can be fully realized within the coming 3G (3 generation)
wireless network. However, you don‟t need to wait to use MMS because of 3G
network, since most of MMS features are enabled in 2.5G (also called GPRS) and
EDGE which are available nowadays.
2.2 Introduction to WIM

Research Portal.com reports the instant messaging is the Number Two requested
application after voice [18]. According to Jupiter Media Metrix, the adoption rate of
desktop instant messaging (IM) is over 100 million registered users and over 50
million regular users. Therefore, there will be huge potential user group for WIM
market.


There are many desktop IM vendors, competing hotly very each other. However, the
lack of standard between those vendors Instant Messenger blocks the convenience of
usages. For example, Figure 1 shows the four most popular instant messenger: AOL
messenger, MSN messenger, Yahoo! messenger, and ICQ. These four instant
messengers have no standard interface to communicate with each other.




                            Figure 1: Four main desktop IM


Wireless Instant Messaging (WIM) has very similar functionalities as desktop-based
Instant Messaging services. WIM system is composed of the client and server side
software. The client is connected with WIM server and two clients can talk with each
other via server.
        Figure 2: Wireless Instant Messenger example (Source: wireless-village.org)


Not only mobile terminal is able to talk with each other, talking with desktop-based
instant messenger is also possible, as Figure 2 shown. Each client side can maintain
the buddy list, know the presence status, chatting instantly with each other, and
search friends etc. In addition, WIM will also enable the rich messaging like pictures
and audio. File sharing and Group features are promised by Wireless Village IMPS
specification (Wireless Village System Architecture Model v 1.1 2002).


As mentioned above, there exists problem of communication between different
instant messengers, but standardization works have been started both in desktop
and wireless fields. Currently there are two major standards which are under
developing currently:


   Wireless   Village   initiative   (http://www.wireless-village.org),    a   community
established by Nokia, Ericsson, Motorola in April, 2001.
   Jabber (http://www.jabber.org), an open XML          protocol standard for the real-
time exchange of messages and presence information.


Both standards are basically ready and they offer the same interoperability. Wireless
Village is more competing compared with Jabber because Wireless Village is founded
by Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola which are the leader of wireless worlds. In addition,
Wireless Village provides the more features than Jabber, for example, group chatting
and file sharing (Jabber Technology Overview 2001; Wireless Village System
Architecture Model v 1.1 2002).
There are two kinds of WIM clients. One is the built-in software in mobile terminal.
Another is downloadable software for mobile terminal. For downloadable WIM clients,
mostly mobile terminal need support java and Jabber under J2ME platform. The
downloadable WIM clients have worse usability than the built-in ones since they can‟t
access the mobile handset‟s profile information (i.e. on call, available etc).
Furthermore, the downloadable WIM client has to be launched separately and can‟t
be running under background.


2.3 Introduction to MMS

2.3.1 MMS Content


The Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is as its name suggests the ability to send
and received messages comprising a combination of text, sounds, images and video
to MMS capable handsets. [14]


MMS can be understood as “multimedia PowerPoint slide presentation” based on a
common timeline [12]. Once the receiver gets the multimedia message, the
presentation starts to run with possible text, images, video or audio. The content
types that MMS supports:


   Text. Unlimited text which can be formatted. Text with images, video, audio etc.
   Graphic. Graphs, tables, charts, animated GIF etc.
   Audio. Music, speech, streaming sound.
   Video. A segment of video clips, or streaming video.


Based on the rich contents, MMS can be used for greet cards, weather report, stock
quotes, and so on.
                           Figure 3: Example of Using MMS


2.3.2 How MMS Works?


As Figure 4 shown, two MMS capable terminal can send and receive MM with each
other, which is the common way of MMS terminal working with each other. MMS
terminal can also get MM from Internet, for example, from email which contains
Multimedia Message. For mobile devices which don‟t support MMS, the user will get
an SMS message pointing to an URL where the message is stored.




                                                                    Internet
    MMS Terminal A             Multimedia
                               Messaging
                                 Center
                                (MMSC)


     MMS Terminal B                                             Old Mobile Handset

                       Figure 4: The way of MMS communication


MMS is not delivered in real time as SMS. Both MMS and SMS follow the “store and
forward” method. For MMS delivery, firstly, the sender sends a message to the
MMSC. When MMSC gets the message, it sends confirmations to the sender the
information “message sent”. MMSC then notifies the recipient that a message is
waiting. If the recipient is not available at the moment, the message will be stored in
MMSC. Otherwise, the recipient can download the message immediately or download
it later. As long as the receiver downloads the message, the sender will get a
“message delivered” notification.


2.4 Comparison of MMS and SMS

SMS and MMS can be compared with many aspects. Surely they all belong to the
mobile messages, providing the information communication between different
parties. In addition, both SMS and MMS are “store and forward” systems and are not
real time. However, they also differ from many fields like content, storage, terminal
device, and size etc.


2.4.1 Content, Size and Features


MMS is not theoretically limited by its size. Certainly some networks probably restrict
the MM size based on the consideration of bandwidth, storage and efficiency factors,
but compared with SMS which is usually limited to 160 characters (some special
character like Chinese and Arabic, only 70 – 80 characters), MMS is much more size
flexible. SMS content is pure text message, MMS could contain not only text, but also
audio, video, picture, animated cartoon etc. In future, even real-time video stream
could be supported.


MMS can be personalized according to the user‟s profile stored in WAP gateway.
Based on the user‟s profile, MMS system can decide when to send Multimedia
messages and how to present them. This kind of feature is not supported by SMS.


2.4.2 Environment


SMS appears in 2G environment and is still available in 2.5G (GPRS) and will exist in
3G networks (Mainly UMTS). MMS is not binded with 3G. MMS emerges in two
phases. First phase is based on GPRS (2.5G) [12], rather than 3G. Under 2.5G
environments, initial MMS is similar to slide presentation on your mobile phone with
graphic and sound. Once 3G comes to reality, more complicated features will be
introduced, for example streaming video [12].
In the SMS environment, storage is never a problem because the size of SMS is fairly
small and SMS is stored only when the receiver is not available at that time. On the
contrary, MMS is larger and it is stored in MMSC (Multimedia Message Service
Center) for downloading. In addition, the user may like to store his/her MM
somewhere for long time, which is a business opportunity for the storage companies.


MMS digital rights management is more significant than SMS‟s [12]. For SMS, digital
right is not easy to be handled.


MMSC is composed of many elements, which can come from different vendors. SMSC
is monolithic.




          Figure 5: Table comparison of SMS & MMS (Source: Mobile Stream) [14]


3. MMS Messaging Architecture

In this Chapter, the structure of MMS Messaging is presented and analysized. Before
we go through this chapter, the following concepts need to be classified:


   MMS terminal – MMS client side device used to create, manage, send, receive
and render the Multimedia Messaging Service. MMS terminal is different from each
other due to the different manufactory, but they all have to follow the interface
between MMS client and MMS proxy relay.
   MMS proxy relay – System element mainly responsible for interacting with MMS
terminal. It receives the MMS message, rout it to the destination home system, and
send the notification to the target MMS terminal (receiver). Meanwhile, MMS proxy
relay also stores the MMS to the MMS server. In some cases, MMS proxy relay will be
combined with MMS server.
   MMS Server – System element which provides the storage services for MM
messages. It can be combined with MMS proxy relay.
   Email Server – Standard Internet email services, supporting SMTP protocol to
send and receive messages via POP/IMAP. Under this context, it handles the MM
messages send to or receive from MMS terminal.
   Legacy Wireless Messaging Systems – The current and previous Wireless
Messaging services like SMS and paging.
   MMSM – Interface between MMS Client and MMS Proxy Relay. See section 3.3.
   MMSR – Interface between MMS Proxy Relays of different MMS systems.
Currently there is no standard specification defined for it. See section 3.4.
   MMSs – Interface between MMS Server and MMS Proxy Relay. It is not defined
as standard yet. If MMS Server and MMS Proxy Relay are combined together, this
interface needn‟t exist.


MMS standards are created by 3GPP and the WAP forum as open standards. The
3GPP defines the network architecture and general functions. The WAP forum defines
the message encapsulation and application protocols.


3.1 MMS Terminal to MMS Terminal Messaging

Figure 6 illustrates the components and communication channel within one home
system from terminal to terminal.


                                                  MMS
                                                  Server




                                     MMSS
          MMS
          Terminal A                                                 MMS
                                                                     Terminal B


                                                           MMSM
                             MMSM
                                                  MMS
                                                  Proxy
                                                  Relay



                Figure 6: Terminal to Terminal within one home system [17]
This is the simplest case of Multimedia Messaging Service. Two subscribers are in the
same home network (i.e., ISP network), communicating with each other through the
same network.


MMS terminal A is going to send Multimedia Message to terminal B. First, the user
activates his MMS client program which is available on terminal A. Then, he/she
enter the target address (the recipient mobile number, for example). After that,
compose or/and edit Multimedia message which could be some kinds of photograph
taken by mobile phone. Once the user asks the MMS client program to send this MM
out, MMS client will handle the MM and submit it to its related MMS Proxy Relay
through MMSM interface. MMS Proxy Relay receives the Multimedia Message, resolves
the target address from MM and finds it is in the same network as itself. MMS Proxy
Relay contacts with MMS server via MMSS interface and stores the MM in MMS
server. MMS Proxy Replay, then sends the notification to the MMS terminal B that
there is one Multimedia Message for it. MMS terminal B retrieves MM from MMS
Server and notifies the its owner (It could be the reverse order : first notify the
owner, then fetches the MM from MMS Server, depending on the manufactory of
different MMS terminal). Finally, Terminal B displays the received MM to its owner.


Let‟s have a look at another situation with terminal to terminal communication
between different home networks, as shown in Figure 7.
         Network 1
                                               MMSS
                                                                 MMS
                                                                 Server



                                 MMSM
                                                MMS
     MMS                                        Proxy
     Terminal A                                 Relay


                                                      MMSR



                     Network 2                                             MMS
                                                                 MMSM      Terminal B
                                        MMSS
                          MMS
                          Server
                                                         MMS
                                                         Proxy
                                                         Relay



             Figure 7: Terminal to Terminal between different home system [17]


Terminal A and terminal B are sitting in different network. Terminal A is going to
send MM to terminal B. As Figure 1, MMS Proxy Replay gets MM from terminal A,
resolves the target address, but it won‟t save MM into MMS Server in network 1, it
routes the MM to the target MMS proxy Replay in network 2 through MMSR interface.
MMS Proxy Relay in network 2 then contacts with its MMS Server (in network 2 in
this case) which saves MM into its storage. After that, MMS Proxy Relay sends the
notification to MMS terminal B. The left process is just same as mentioned in Figure
1.


3.2 Communication among MMS Terminal, Email Server, Legacy
Wireless System

In Multimedia Messaging System, it is important to have compatibility with the early
Wireless Messaging systems like SMS plain text messaging. As there are many
different early wireless messaging systems, a set of interfaces between MMS Proxy
Relay and Legacy Wireless Messaging systems need to be defined. MMS device is
able to handle the old style wireless messaging like SMS, but not in reverse way.
Due to the limitation of a certain GSM handsets, MM from the sender can‟t be
correctly processed. Under this situation, MM, for example, from a MMS terminal, will
be filtered out by the receiver‟s home server.



                                                  MMSS
                                                                  MMS
                                                                  Server



                              MMSM
                                                   MMS
        MMS                                        Proxy
        Terminal                                   Relay




                                     L
                                                           E




                                                   Internet
                                                                       Email
                                                                       Server

                   Legacy Wireless
                   Messaging
                   Systems




          Figure 8: MMS Terminal, Email Server and Legacy Wireless System [17]


Another important aspect is the communication between MMS Internet Email
Interworking. As Figure 8 shown, the connection between MMS Proxy Relay and
Email Server should work in both directions:


   Sending MM to Email Server via Internet. By using SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol), the MMS Proxy Relay submits the message to the destination host. In
order to pass by the specific MM format message through Internet, the message
traffic needs to be converted into standard MIME format (Multipurpose Internet Mail
Extensions); hence the various media like video, audio and picture could be smoothly
flowing through Internet. In particular, the MMS special headers will be converted
into the proper headers with prefix of “X-Mms-“. The prefix of “X-Mms-“ will identify
the message is “MMS” instead of others to the recipient, so the recipient can properly
render this Multimedia Message.
   Receiving messages from Internet Email System. Just like sending MM to Internet
Email Server, but in reverse way, the MIME message from email system will be
converted into MMS format. Any headers with “X-Mms-“ are also converted back into
MMS headers. In this case, the end user is able to send MMS message from Internet
as Email to the MMS handsets.
   Fetching messages from Internet Email System. MMS client can retrieve
messages from Internet Email Server via MMS Proxy Relay by using POP or IMAP
protocols. Messages can be stored in the related Internet Email Server. MMS Proxy
Relay request Internet Email Server to send the desired MM to it, then convert it into
MMS format so that MMS client is able to render it.


3.3 Interfaces between MMS Client and MMS Proxy Replay




    Figure 9: Logical Architecture of MMS Client to MMS Proxy Relay Link (source: WAP MMS
                            Architecture 2001, WAP Forum) [17]


The relationship between the MMS client and MMS Proxy-Relay is shown as figure 9.
MMS Client is acting as the MM sender/receiver. MMS Proxy-Relay is acting as an
Origin Server(Pull operation) or a Push Initiator(Push operation). The traffic between
MMS Client and WAP Gateway is transferred using Wireless Transport Protocol – WSP
(Wireless Service Protocol). Using of WAP WSP for transport doesn‟t mean the use of
WAP browser; instead, SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) is used
as the method of MMS presentation layer. WAP Gateway provides the standard WAP
services including HTTP methods and PUSH services. WAP Gateway encapsulates the
messages as HTTP and transfers them to MMS Proxy-Relay.
Similarly, the traffic from MMS Proxy-Relay to MMS client is in reverse way: WAP
Gateway de-capsulate the HTTP traffic from MMS Proxy-Relay and transfer it to MMS
Client over Wireless Network.


3.4 Communication between different MMS Proxy Relays

When MMS system is communicating with other MMS system, MMS Proxy Relays
sitting in different MMS system are responsible for negotiating with each other.
Currently there is no standard defined for this interface. If MMS Proxy Relay to MMS
Proxy   Relay   can     use   the   suitable   communication   protocols,   for   example,
SMTP/ESMTP. One peer needs to know it is talking with another MMS Proxy Relay
instead of others, then if SMTP used, change MM into MIME format and send it out to
the destination peer.


3.5 MMS Presentation

The concept of MMS presentation means the ordering, layout, sequencing and timing
of multimedia objects on the terminal screen and other devices such as a speaker.
With MMS presentation, the sender of the multimedia message has the possibility to
organize the multimedia content to a meaningful order and to instruct how the
multimedia objects are rendered at the receiving terminal. [17]


Nowadays, mobile terminal has quite limited capabilities like poor audio, small screen
etc, but it is expected to have big improvement in near future. Therefore, MMS
presentation won‟t be restricted by hardware anymore as before. Due to the variety
of mobile terminal, it is quite important to have a consistent way to handle the MMS
presentation. In addition to the consistency, we must also consider the current and
future terminal capabilities and their inter-operation. Some terminals have very
limited presentation capabilities, but they are still able to render the messages if the
media type in the message is supported by those terminals.


Currently there exists many solutions for MMS presentation, but the most two
important are WML (Wireless Markup Language) and SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia
Integration Language, XML based language).


WML support the layout and sequencing capabilities as with browsing. Compared
with WML, SMIL provides the extended functions for presentation like timing and
animation. SMIL is similar with HTML in syntax and structure. It is an essential way
of presenting rich, interactive multimedia content based on common timeline.


In current phase, SMIL based MMS applications is a style of “slide show”, having one
or more slides, displaying based on order and time. Each slide is treated as a frame
which has two sections: one for text and the other for images. One multimedia
message is packaged by all of its text and images.


3.6 Content Adaptation

The content adaptation means the possibility to convert, replace and delete a certain
data elements from a multimedia message in prior to delivering to the MMS client.


There exist the needs for content adaptation:


   Device Capability. Some devices, for example, don‟t support a certain media type
like image, or the MM size exceeds the mobile terminal storage [17].
   Bandwidth limitation. Some operators may set the restrictions for message
bandwidth [17].
   Roaming consideration. When MM is roaming over different network, there may
be a service restriction or pricing restriction, affecting the MM delivery [17].


The WAP UAProf [UAPROF] provides a detail specification related with Content
Adaptation.


4. WIM System Architecture

Wireless Village and Jabber provide the similar wireless instant messaging standards.
In this chapter, we will concentrate on the architecture of Wireless Village WIM
system instead of Jabber because the standard provided by Wireless Village seems to
be more promising.


Before go through this chapter, let‟s get familiar with the following terminologies:


   CSP – Client Server Protocol. It provides the access for Embedded Client
within mobile terminal and desktop clients to communicate with Wireless Village
Server.
   CLP – Command Line Protocol. It provides the access for an Old Mobile
Terminal to communicate with Wireless Village Server. A command line client needs
to sit in the mobile terminal.
   SSP – The Server to Server Protocol. It provides the access between different
servers which are in same domain or different domains. Therefore, the user in one
domain can communicate with the user in another domain.
   SMCNP – Server Mobile Core Network Protocol. It gives the access to the Mobile
Core Network so that Wireless Village server can get presence information and
service capability information from network.
   CLI Client – Command Line Interface Client. It uses text message to
communicate with Wireless Village server.
   WV Embedded Client – Wireless Village Embedded Client. It is an embedded
client inside a mobile terminal. Different vendors could have different embedded
client with different functions and appearance. Generally, WC Embedded Client not
only provides the text message, also picture, audio and video are possible.


4.1 Big Picture of IMPS System

Wireless Village, founded by Nokia, Ericsson and Motorola, produced “IMPS, Instant
Messaging and Presence Services” specifying a set of universal specifications for
mobile instant messaging and presence services among mobile devices, mobile
services and Internet-based instant messaging services.
                          Figure 10: IMPS System Architecture [18]


Wireless Village Server is the center point of IMPS system. All of clients of Wireless
Village must talk with each other through the server. Therefore, IMPS is client-server
scheme.


As Figure 10 shown, if a client (either CLI Client or Embedded Client) is going to talk
with Wireless Village Server via CSP or CLP protocols, it can‟t access the Service
Elements directly. Service Access Point handles the request from the client side.
Service Access Point firstly authenticates the client, then, it uses Service Discovery
mechanism to find out what services are available for the client. After that, Service
Access Point will read the User Profile to decide, for example, what services are
allowed to be used by the client, terminal capability (i.e., support audio or video),
client interface and so on. The most important aspect is Presence Service. Service
Access Point will read the presence information in user profile if the user sets it
explicitly. If not found, then Service Access Point will access the Mobile Core Network
to get the terminal presence status (powered off, on call, available…). If the user is
going to talk with another user, Service Access Point will start Instant Messaging
Service with that user.
From Figure 10, if two users located in different domains would like to talk with each
other, Wireless Village Servers in different domains need to communicate with SSP
(Server to Server Protocol) first.


4.2 Service Elements

In IMPS system, there are four Service Elements which are accessible through
Service Access Point. They are: Presence Service Element; Instant Messaging
Service Element; Group Service Element; Content Service Element.


4.2.1 Presence Service Element


The Presence Service Element provides functionality for presence information
Management [18]. The functions includes modify, set and get presence information.
A user can receive the presence information of other users. Presence Service can be
read through User Profile Management of Service Access Point. How to determine the
status of a mobile terminal? Through Service Access Point, Presence Service Element
is connected with the Mobile Core Network which can detect the status of the mobile
terminal like powered off, or on a call, or available etc.


4.2.2 Instant Messaging Service Element


It provides the features of sending and receiving instant messages. The message
could be from the user in the same domain or from other instant messaging
systems. Sending messages to a group of user is also supported.


4.2.3 Group Service Element


This element is used to manage the user group. The group can be private or public.
Group chatting is working mostly like a chatting room in current Internet.


4.2.4 Content Service Element


Content Service Element provides the feature to share the content like files with
other users.


4.3 Service Access Point
Service Access Point provides the interacting interface between WV Server and its
environment. It contains the interface to the clients, interface to other WV servers,
interface to Mobile Core Network, and Interface to other non-WV servers.


Service Access Point mainly provides four functionalities: Authentication and
Authorization; Service Discovery and Service Agreement; User Profile Management;
Service Relay.


4.3.1 Authentication and Authorization


Authentication is used to verify the identity of an entity, i.e. user, network or
application. Authorization is aimed at checking what an authenticated entity is
allowed to do.


4.3.2 Service Discovery and Service Agreement


Service Discovery allows the applications to identify what service features it can use.
It happens between client-server and server-server. Service Agreement needs
establishing before using any services.


4.3.3 User Profile Management


It describes how the user wishes to manage and interact with their communication
services [18]. User Profile contains the user interface, service information which is
registered by the user, service status, terminal capabilities and interface, and so on.


4.3.4 Service Relay


Service Relay is the function provided by Service Access Point. Service Relay is used
when server-server communication happens. It routes all of requests and response
among servers through the Server-Server Protocol (SSP).


5. MMS Value Chain and Pricing

5.1 MMS Value Chain and Players
There are five players in MMS value chain. Each player can be divided into more
detail, but we won‟t go that further. Basically, the roles in the value chain stand for
the group of players.




            Figure 11: MMS Value Chain (Source: Siemens Mobile Acceleration 2002)


    MMS Infrastructure Provider: providing basic messaging infrastructure. For
example, SMS, EMS or/and MMS center providers. The Infrastructure Provider mainly
provides MMS infrastructure to network provider.
    Middleware Provider: the provider for application and content adaption platforms
& gateways. I.e. the companies providing gateway between mobile network and
Internet.
    Application Provider: end user messaging applications, like MMS composer,
editor, etc. Application can be provided by mobile terminal vendor or other
companies.
    Content & Service Provider: content and messaging value-added services like
text, picture, audio and video etc. It is the essential part of MMS system and the
main drive to meet the mass market.
    Operator: providing mobile network, MMS transport, and billing services.


Another important role in MMS value chain is the end customer using MMS service,
but end customer is not specified here since they don‟t get income from MMS
services.


        Infrastructure      Middleware         Application         Content &       Operator
                                                                    Service
                                                                    Provider
             15%             about 5%           about 1%         about 0-35%       79–44%


    Figure 12: value percentage of roles (source: Siemens Mobile Acceleration, Nov, 6th 2002)


As Figure 12 shown, the biggest benefit is from Operator side. Content & service
provider shares 0 – 35% benefit value, depending on the attractiveness of content
and how MMS content is charged.
5.2 Pricing

Clearly, „Pricing‟ is critical for all of the roles in MMS value chain. Higher price will
benefit to the MMS service providers but harm the end customer, which will block the
purpose of mass market. The lower price will benefit to the end customer but the
MMS service providers will get less income. The reasonable pricing level is not clear
yet, but a generic model suggests that a MMS must not cost more than a regular
postcard, about Euro 1 (postcard incl. stamp) [4]. One strategy is lower price for
entry and tries to increase the price for high value content.


There are two most probable pricing models, as following:




                  Figure 13: pricing models (source: following ICM NMA)


The idea here is to keep pricing strategy as simple as possible. Complicated pricing
only makes the customer confused and blocks the customer‟s motivation for using
MMS.


The following table shows the practical pricing in real life from different companies of
different countries. For Price per Message model, the price range is from 0.26 Euro
to 1.35 Euro. The most expensive price for each MM is 1.35 Euro from Telenor of
Norway. The cheapest price for each MM is 0.26 Euro from PTC Company of Poland.
      Figure 14: Pricing example (Source: Siemens Mobile Acceleration, Nov, 6th 2002)


Price per Message has the limitation of traffic volume. The price is different within
different range of traffic. Same as Flat Fee per Month, the traffic per month is
restricted to a certain level.


6. MMS Market Expectation

Operators, especially in Europe and Asia, are starting to deploy commercial MMS
with a view to secure growth. As these initial services are launched, companies from
all parts of the mobile value chain are betting that MMS will revitalize their service
offerings and enable the much-anticipated next-generation of growth. MMS is the
first service for 2.5 and 3G data networks to be aimed at the mass market, Mobile
operators especially are hoping that their considerable investments in packet-based
network infrastructure and third-generation licences will be justified by MMS.
   Figure 15: Percentage of Mobile Traffic Volumes (Source: ARC Group Mobile Services &
                           Applications Industry Survey 2002)


In order to make MMS successful, there should be enough subscribers registered to
MMS services. According to the big success of SMS which is much less features less
than MMS, MMS is obviously more attractive to the user. According to Frost &
Sullivan investigation, MMS subscriber will be continuously growing, as Figure 16
shown.
                 Figure 16: MMS Subscribers in Europe, 2001 – 2006 [2]


However, any surveys don‟t mean any reality in future. The success of MMS is not
independent from other factors. It heavily depends on the roles of its value chain.
Any unexpected problems in its value chain will cause the failure of MMS.


First, Mobile handset is one key of MMS system. Currently MMS capable phone
doesn‟t reach large number of users. MMS features can be fully functioning in MMS
capable phones instead of legacy ones, so the popularity of MMS depends on MMS
capable phones. However, people are also expecting MMS can drive MMS capable
phones to reach the mass market. This is a chicken-egg problem, as we see.
               Figure 17: MMS Handset Penetration (Source: Mobilestreams)


According to Mobilestreams, the market of MMS handset will smoothly grow up, but
the mass market won‟t be reached before 2004.


In addition, the quality of service and content, pricing, and billing all affects the
popularity of MMS service. End user requires MMS should be:


   Very easy to get started
   A lot of contents and applications.
   Be fun
   Fast response and reliability
   Reasonable price level
   Support legacy phones


In spite of its challenge, no one doubts the large profit potential of MMS. More and
more operators started or are starting MMS service, as shown in Figure 18:
          Figure 18: MMS operators (Source: ICM NMA and Global Mobile/GSMA)


7. Conclusion

Multimedia Media Messaging and Wireless Instant Messaging are just in startup
phase. There are still many limitations of reaching mass market. Currently MMS and
WIM content are not rich enough; mostly text and simple audio and video are
supported. Therefore, we need more MMS and WIM content generators and
applications. The MMS infrastructure is not complete ready and popular in operator
sides, i.e. MMSC. Some standards and interfaces need to be settled down, for
example, interfaces with Internet and legacy mobile messaging systems. Wireless
Instant Messaging standards are established mainly by Wireless Village and Jabber,
but it is not clear which will win finally. For mobile terminals, there exist a few MMS
and WIM capable devices, but not enough yet. For mobile terminals, more MMS and
WIM capable functions need to be added in. For network, 3G is not ready yet, so
bandwidth and some features of WIM and MMS can‟t be realized though GPRS and
EDGE are available to support most functions of MMS and WIM.


In spite of words above, MMS and WIM will succeed in future step by step, maybe in
2-4 years to reach the popularity of market.
8. Reference

[1]   Arcgroup.com,   Multimedia  Messaging   Services,            December       2002,
<http://www.arcgroup.com/homepage.nsf/tag/mms>

[2] Eduardo Gonzalez, European Multimedia Messaging Services Market (MMS),
2001,<http://www.frost.com/prod/brochures.nsf/474fdcdb0941e35080256b770074c
3e4/4e03aa6229a4c10c86256c5d0059cfef/$FILE/MMS%20Virtual%20Brochure.pps>

[3]    iBilt  Technologies     Ltd.,  GPRS         A     NEW      HORIZON,        2002,
<http://www.ibilttechnologies.com/mms.pdf>

[4] Ingo Potthof, Multimedia Messaging Service(MMS) – New Business Opportunities
for       the        Mobile       Industry,      November       6 th      2002,
<http://www.telecom2002.co.il/presentations/Ingo%20Potthof.ppt>

[5] Kimmo Kullervo Pekkola, “Market Introduction of A Mobile Data Service:
Description of The Value Network”, May 24, 2002.

[6] Kobi Marenko, Partnership as a key success factor in the MMS market, 2002,
<http://www.telecom2002.co.il/presentations/Kobi%20Marenko.ppt>

[7] LogicaCMG, LogicaCMG powers KPN Mobile‟s provision of multimedia messaging services
(MMS), March 24, 2003,
<http://www.logica.com/company_info/news/press_releases/press_releases.asp?display=deta
il&id=658>

[8]    Logica,    The    essential   guide     to          Multimedia      Messaging,
<http://www.logica.com/pdf/telecom/Mmsguide.pdf>

[9]         MessageVine,          MessageVine            IM                      Server,
<http://www.messagevine.com/products/instant_messaging.htm>

[10] Mobileinfo, Technology Logica and Mapflow Demo First Wireless MMS Location
Services,                             Feburary                           2002,
<http://www.mobileinfo.com/News_2002/Issue08/Logica_Mapflow.htm>

[11] MobileMMS.com, MMS Devices, <http://www.mobilemms.com/devices.asp>

[12] MobileMMS.com, MMS FAQ, <http://www.mobilemms.com/mmsfaq.asp>

[13]   MobileMMS.com,    MMS    Applications : Content                Sample,      April
2003,<http://www.mobilemms.com/sample_mmsapps.asp>

[14] Mobile Streams Ltd, NEXT MESSAGING An introduction to SMS, EMS and MMS.
September 13, 2001. <http://www.mobilewhitepapers.com/pdf/messaging.pdf>

[15] Mobile Streams Ltd, “Success 4 SMS” White               Paper,   February    2001,
<http://www.mobilewhitepapers.com/pdf/SMS.PDF>
[16] Roman Vichr, Tips&tricks : Multimedia Messaging Service, September 2002,
<http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/library/wi-tip25.html?dwzone=wireless>

[17] WAP Forum. Wireless Application Protocol Multimedia Messaging Service
Architecture    Overview        Specification.   April     25,      2001,
<http://www1.wapforum.org/tech/documents/WAP-205-MMSArchOverview-
20010425-a.pdf>

[18] Wireless Village, “Wireless Village The Mobile IMPS Initiative, System
Architecture          Model             Version            1.1”,           2001,
<http://www.openmobilealliance.org/wirelessvillage/docs/WV_Architecture_v1.1.pdf
>
9. Appendance

MMS Capable Mobile Phones:



 Nokia 7210
                             Nokia 3530


 Nokia 3510
                             Ericsson T68/ie


 Nokia 7650
                             Sony Ericsson
                             P800
 Nokia 3315



 Nokia 6610
                             Motorola A820

 Nokia 6100



 Nokia 5100

                             Sony Ericsson
                             T300
 Nokia 3650




                             Sony
                             EricssonP802

				
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