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Cubism_ Dada_ Surrealism

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					Cubism, Dada, Surrealism
Pablo Picasso (Spanish,
1881-1973) Self Portrait,
         1906
Pablo Picasso, (left) Portrait of the Artist's Mother, 1896, pastel on paper,
Museo Picasso, Barcelona, Spain; (right) First Communion, 1895/6. The
artist was 14 to 15 years old
Picasso, La Vie, 1903, 6’5” x 4’2” “Blue Period” Symbolism
(right) Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are
We Going? 1897-98 Symbolism
Pablo Picasso, Portrait of Gertrude Stein, 1906 (“Proto-Cubist”)
Picasso, Les
Demoiselles
D’Avignon, 1907,
8’/7’8” (proto-
Cubism, Primitivism,
Expressionism)
Picasso, studies for Les Demoiselles D’Avignon, 1906-7
Influence of African tribal sculpture
(left) Georges Braque (French, 1882-1963) in his Paris studio, early 1912
(right) Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881-1973) in his Paris studio, late 1911




In spite of out very different temperaments, we were guided by a common idea
. . . .the differences didn’t count. . . . We lived in Montmartre, we saw each other
every day, we talked. . . . It was a little like being roped together on a mountain.

                                Georges Braque on his friendship with Picasso
                                 and the formulation of Cubism, 1908-1914
  (left) Pablo Picasso, Ma Jolie (Woman with a Guitar), 1911
(right) Georges Braque, The Portuguese (The Emigrant), 1911
                         Analytic Cubism
Georges Braque, Bottle, Newspaper, Pipe and Glass, 1913, charcoal and
various papers pasted on paper, collage (papier collé), 1’7”x 2’1”
                 Picasso, Still life With Chair Caning, 1912,
collage of oil, oilcloth, pasted paper on oval canvas surrounded by rope.
                               Synthetic Cubism
Picasso, Maquette for Guitar, 1912, cardboard, string and wire
           (right) Grebo mask owned by Picasso
  Dada rejects rational thought
       "Dada" arrived in almost all major Western cities
                  between 1916 and 1922/3
     5 main sites: Zurich, Paris, New York, Berlin, Cologne




“Revolted by the butchery of the 1914 World War, we in Zurich
devoted ourselves to the arts.

While the guns rumbled in the distance, we sang, painted, made
collages and wrote poems with all our might. We were seeking an
art based on fundamentals, to cure the madness of the age, and a
new order of things that would restore the balance between
heaven and hell.”

                                              - Jean (Hans) Arp
Hugo Ball (German,1886 -1927) performing Dada phonetic poem
                         "karawane"
           on stage at Cabaret Voltaire, Zurich 1916

      "Art for us is an occasion for social criticism, and for
           a real understanding of the age we lived in"
Jean (Hans) Arp, Collage Arranged According to the Laws of Chance, 1916-
17, torn and pasted paper, 19 x 13”

"Art is a fruit that grows in man, like a fruit on a plant, or a child in its
mother's womb."
                                                                   - Jean Arp
 Marcel Duchamp (French-
 American, 1887-1968) Nude
Descending a Staircase, No.2,
1912, oil on canvas, 58 x 35”
   Futurist style painting
Marcel Duchamp. Bottle Rack, 1914/64, bottle rack made of galvanized iron
  Bicycle Wheel, 1913, “Readymade”: bicycle wheel, mounted on a stool
                   First “readymade” Originals are lost
Marcel Duchamp (A.K.A. R. Mutt), Fountain, 1917, New York DADA
  Duchamp chose his objects on the basis of "visual indifference…
         as well as a total absence of taste, good or bad."
Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitsky, American, 1890-1976) Gift, 1921
  Duchampian "ready-made assisted" & Surrealist "uncanny" object
(left) Man Ray, Érotique voilée (1934-35) Meret
Oppenheim behind printing press
(right) Meret Oppenheim (German, 1913-1985), Object
(Luncheon in Fur) 1936, fur covered cup, saucer, spoon,
two views, Surrealism




                          1936 photo of Object by Dora Maar
Giorgio de Chirico,
(Greek-Italian,1888-1978),
The Melancholy and Mystery
of a Street, 1914, oil on
canvas, 34 x 28,”
Metaphysical School,
precursor of Surrealism
        “Naturalist” or “Hand Painted Dream” Surrealism
René Magritte (Belgian, 1898-1967) The Treachery of Images, 1928-29, oil
            on canvas, 23 x 31”, LACMA, Deconstruction
René Magritte, Les Valeurs personnelles (Personal Values), 1952, 31 x 39”
oil on canvas, SFMOMA, Surrealism




                                               John Baldessari at 2007 exhibition
                                               he designed: Treachery of Images:
                                               René Magritte and Contemporary
                                               Art. LACMA
AUTOMATONS and mannequins: “Dolls” are made of wood, metal, papier-
mâché and dressed with wigs, clothing, etc. or not

Hans Bellmer (Polish, 1902-75), La Poupée (Doll), 1935-49, hand colored
gelatin silver print.
(right) Bellmer, La Poupée, 1935-36: (center) La Poupée), 1934; gelatin
silver prints. Surrealist photography




 The art object is the photograph, not the sculpture.
Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali, frames from Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian
Dog), Surrealist film, France, 1928.
Eyes, insects, metamorphosis, erotics, madness of the dream & subconscious
                        METAMOPHOSIS OF FORM
                    Salvador Dali (Spanish, 1904-89)
(left) interpreted photograph, Paranoic Face, 1931 from Le Surrealisme
    au Service de la Revolution, no.3. “voluntary hallucination" = the
                        "critical paranoic method"
 (right) Dali, Apparition of a face and a Fruit Dish, oil on canvas, 1930




                                    I think the time is rapidly coming
                                    when it will be possible…to
                                    systematize confusion thanks to a
                                    paranoiac and active process of
                                    thought, and so assist in
                                    discrediting completely the world of
                                    reality.”
                                                             - Dali
Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Memory, 1931
      oil on canvas, 9 x 13,” MoMA NYC




“The transcription of reveries.” Hand-painted
dream photographs. Dali’s morphological aesthetics of
the soft and hard and the search for form: “un-form”
(Informe)                                               Cape Creus, Catalonia
Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937, oil on canvas, 11’6” x 25’8”, Madrid
                   BIOMORPHISM + POPULAR CULTURE
Joan Mirò (Spanish), Painting, 1933, oil on canvas, 5’8” x 6’5” MoMA, NYC
      (right) source collage of clippings from equipment catalogues
Frida Kahlo (Mexican) What the Water Yields Me, oil on canvas,1938




   Imogen Cunningham, Frida
   Kahlo in San Francisco, 1931
  Alberto Giacometti (Swiss), The Palace at 4 a.m., 1932-3, 2 views,
construction in wood, glass, wire, and string, 25 x 28 x 16”, MoMA NYC.
                    Surrealist constructed sculpture




                                                  1932 sketch indicates
                                                  pre-conception
                  THE END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE
               AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL
              (left) Hitler occupies Paris, 1940
 Artists in the Artists in Exile show at the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York,
March, 1942. Left to right, first row: Matta, Ossip Zadkine, Yves Tanguy, Max
    Ernst, Marc Chagall, Fernand Léger; second row: André Breton, Piet
    Mondrian, André Masson, Amédée Ozenfant, Jacques Lipchitz, Pavel
                 Tchelitchew, Kurt Seligmann, Eugene Berman
The German
occupation of
France in World
War II occurred
between May 1940
and December
1944. German-
occupied France is
in red; so-called
"Free zone" in blue
(also occupied from
November 1942).
Regions of Alsace
and Lorraine,
annexed by the
Third Reich, in
deep red.
  END OF THE AGE OF EUROPE AND EMERGENCE OF NEW YORK SCHOOL


    Max Ernst, Europe After the Rain, 1940-42, oil on canvas, 21 x 58,”
automatist technique of decalcomania, which involves pressing paint between
                               two surfaces

				
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posted:9/7/2011
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