Docstoc

Creativity

Document Sample
Creativity Powered By Docstoc
					Creativity
          What is creativity?
• The problem with creativity is that we know
  it when we see it, but it is hard to define.



                                              Picasso
                   QuickTime™ and a
              Photo - JPEG decompressor
            are needed to see this picture.   “Les Demoiselles
                                              D’Avignon
                     Creative stuff

                                                                  QuickTime™ and a
                                                                  GIF decompressor
                                                           are needed to see this picture.




Frank Lloyd Wright

                                                              Charles Darwin
                              QuickTime™ and a
                              GIF decompressor
                       are needed to see this picture.




                                                         Michael Jordan
      Creativity and Cognition
• Creativity involves generation of new ideas
• Boden
  – p-creativity: A new idea for a person
     • A person may come to a new realization
  – h-creativity: A new idea historically
     • Novel inventions are h-creative
• Most of what we think of as creative is an
  example of h-creativity.
  – h-creativity can be studied historically
     • You do not know when a creative event will happen
  – p-creativity can be studied
                     H-creativity
• We saw the dangers of looking at h-
  creativity when we talked about insight.
  – There are many myths that grow up around
    great inventions.
  – The significance of inventions is not realized
    until much later
     • Stories must be told in retrospect.
     • People tend to dramatize the story.
• Most creative acts are rather mundane
                                                      QuickTime™ and a
  – Invention is 99% perspiration and            Photo - JPEG decompressor
                                               are needed to see this picture.


    1% inspiration.
       -Thomas Alva Edison
                                   Incremental invention
       • Sewing machines
                                                                                        QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                        GIF decompressor
                                                                                 are needed to see this picture.


        QuickTime™ and a                    QuickTime™ and a
   Photo - JPEG decompressor                 GIF decompressor
 are needed to see this picture.      are needed to see this picture.




Invented in 1848
                                                                                                      QuickTime™ and a
                                                                                                 Photo - JPEG decompressor
                                                                                               are needed to see this picture.




                                                      QuickTime™ and a
                                                 Photo - JPEG decompressor
                                               are needed to see this picture.
    Why is invention incremental?
• How can a creative idea come about?
• It must be related to existing ideas
  – Otherwise, how would people think it up?
  – How could it be implemented?
     • What does it mean for an idea to be ahead of its time?
  – A creative idea must be comprehensible to others
     • What good is an invention that nobody wants?
• Suggests that existing ideas may constrain
  creativity.
                   New inventions
   • Innovative inventions are often based on
     known products.




Early railroad cars were designed like stagecoaches on tracks.
   •Engineer and brakeman were not moved inside until later.
   •Stagecoaches were a good solution to initial problems
   •Other problems were not discovered until later.
                  P-creativity
• In order to understand creative invention better,
  use college students.
• The ideas may not be h-creative
  – The same processes may be at work.
• Questions:
  – Are creative ideas influenced by existing concepts?
  – What will make people more creative?
  – How should creativity be judged?
  Creativity and
    Concepts
• Draw an animal that
  does not exist.
   – Ward
   – Karmiloff-Smith                 QuickTime™ and a
                                Photo - JPEG decompressor
                              are needed to see this picture.




Novel animals have many
properties of real animals
   •Often have bilateral
   symmery
   •Sense organs on head
   •Similar sense organs to
   humans.
  Where do examples come from?
• People select common concepts as examples
  – They seem to use specific items
  – When asked to create novel intelligent beings
     • Animals typically walk upright
     • Animals typically have two arms and two legs
     • People seem to be using humans as a basis.
• Effect not limited to college students.

                                             Even sci-fi authors
                                             and movies seem
                                             to have the same
                                             constraints.
What makes people more creative?
 • A paradox
   – People access categories when being creative
   – Categories are retrieved on the basis of cues
     during the creative process
   – The more cues available, the more access
   – More specific situations lead to less creativity.
   – Forcing people into strange situations can lead
     to higher levels of creativity
                     An example
• Four conditions.
  – Pick a category of
    invention and pick parts
  – Parts assigned; pick
    category
  – Category assigned; pick           QuickTime™ and a
                                 Photo - JPEG decompressor
    parts                      are needed to see this picture.



  – Both category and parts
    assigned
• Creativity of inventions
  increases as you move
  down this list
               Social Factors
• Creativity is fostered by an environment
  – Creativity must be valued by a community
  – Creativity is shaped by those who evaluate it
     • Creator (the individual)
        – Individuals must be experts
     • Domain (what is being worked on)
     • Field (the collaborators, colleagues, and audience)
             Group creativity
• Brainstorming
  – Are N minds better than one?
  – Often not
     • Groups often come up with a smaller number of
       possible solutions than the individuals would alone
     • One person’s output interferes with other people’s
       memories
     • Growing conformity within a group
        – Sherif studies of the autokinetic effect

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:7
posted:9/7/2011
language:English
pages:16