VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 35 POSTED ON: 9/7/2011
Chapter IV Eco-safety Demonstrative Community Evaluation System I. General Rules This evaluation regulation is formulated, in light of UN Urban Sustainable Development Strategy, to further improve the community’s ecological environment, promote its science and technology progress, standardize the Eco-safety community construction and protect the legitimate rights and interests of community consumers. The tenet of design, construction, maintenance and management of Eco-safety community referred in this evaluation system is to save resources, prevent pollution, protect ecology and create healthy and comfortable living environment. This regulation aims to instruct, inspect and evaluate the community’s planning and design, construction and maintenance management. It is also applicable partially or completely in evaluation of the “International Eco-safety demonstrative garden”. This regulation is designed to make overall evaluation of community in the aspects of community environment planning and design, energy and environment, indoor environment quality, community water environment, material and resources. It also takes social and environmental benefits and user's rights and interests into consideration. Existing laws of various nations concerning community construction should be complied with when implementing this regulation. Articles closely related to the fundamental principles of Eco-safety community should be essential conditions of auditing. Evaluation on international Eco-safety demonstrative garden and community shall be conducted upon complying with the auditing standards. II. Ecological Planning and Design of Community The planning of international Eco-safety demonstrative community should conform to the related international standards. Project establishment and declaration should go through the international planning procedure; community’s plot for construction should be selected in a reasonable way so as to prevent the residents from negative impact and disturbance by harmful environment. This chapter aims at setting forth the objective, requirements and improvement measures of the planning and design of international Eco-safety demonstrative community in the eight aspects of community site selecting, transport, construction, greening, air quality, noise, day-lighting, sunlight and micro-environment. ( I ) Site Selecting Objectives: Avoid construction built on inappropriate site, therefore, to reduce the negative impact on environment. Requirements: Further embody the principle of sustainable development and to achieve symbiosis with environment, on the basis of meeting laws, standards, regulations and criterions concerning land exploitation and selection. Measures: When selecting the plot for construction, various factors such as land improvement, exploitation intensity, disaster prevention and reduction, eco-environment protection and healthy living environment building should be comprehensively considered. 1. Advocate the use of Waste Lands for Community Construction Requirements: On the basis of ensuring a safe living environment and improvement of eco-environment, try to turn the waste lands into construction lands so as to effectively utilize and protect land resources. Measures: Screen the alternative lands by professionals in the fields of planning, architecture, ecology, environment, sanitation and epidemic prevention, geology, archeology according to the relevant state standards before purchasing. It is suggested obtaining affirmation from designers at the stage of feasibility study. (1) Illegal occupation and use of arable land, forest land, green land and wetland is prohibited. (2) Make health and safety evaluation on the waste land. (3) Improve and exploit the waste land. 2. Protect the Construction Land and Its Surrounding Natural Environment Requirements: Community construction should steer clear of destruction of the green land, living and natural environment, therefore, to keep its original natural ecological balance. Measures: (1) Commandeer natural reserves and endangered animals habitat are prohibited. (2) Construction land should keep away from urban water resource. (3) Planning and design of community construction should adapt to the local conditions so as to achieve natural symbiosis with the surrounding natural environment, furthermore, greatly boost the biodiversity index on the construction land and its surrounding areas. (4) Keep intact and make use of the origin terrain, physiognomy and water system as much as possible. Make evaluation on ground water system and condition so as to avoid excessive pumping and water level lowering. (5) Reduce the negative impact on environment by restoring the environment of the building plot. 3. Protect Building Plot and Its Surrounding Humanistic Environment Requirements: Community construction should take the sustainable development of humanistic environment into consideration. Protect, inherit and develop the essence of cultural tradition, and highlight the local characteristics. Measures: (1) In the aspect of cultural landscape, efforts should be made to attach importance to space and environment protection of the history and culture preservation areas. Limit the building altitude and density within the regulated range in the countries and cities of the premises. (2) At the aspect of architectural form and modeling, efforts should be made to keep in line with the formed urban space, cultural characteristics and landscape in the neighborhood of community. (3) Determine the protection plan of cultural heritage and relic on the construction land in accordance with regulations on cultural heritages and relic protection. 4. Select Construction Lands that have Redevelopment Potential Requirements: Priority given to used areas and areas with rebuilding potential land. Measures: (1) Attach importance to revamping old urban community and dilapidated buildings. Make use of vacated lands after the removal of factories during the process of industrial adjustment. (2) Make full use of the original infrastructure facilities, therefore, improve their efficiency. 5. Enhance Land Utilization Ratio Requirements: Abide by the general plan of urban construction and land use, make proper use of land resources, select proper floor-area ratio (FAR) and building density, keep land use balanced among construction land, outdoor activity field and green land. Measures: (1) Abide by the regulatory detailed plan on FAR and green space ratio, to determine properly the outdoor activity field ratio and open space ratio. (2) Make full use of under ground space. (3) Select proper parking mode according to practical situation so as to meet the standard of which ground parking area could not exceed 30% of the total parking cars of the residents. 6. Be Conducive to Disaster Reduction and Prevention Requirements: Ensure safe and healthy community environment. Be fully capable of responding to natural disaster and epidemic disease. Measures: (1) Analyze the geological and hydrological condition and fully consider the responding measures against epidemic disease. (2) Analyze the epidemic disease prevention conditions and fully consider the responding measures. (3) Build the natural disaster prevention capacity by implementing new technologies and materials. 7. Keep Away from Pollutant Sources Requirements: Ensure a sanitary and healthy living environment in the community. Measures: Community must not locate in the leeward or downriver direction of pollutant source to ensure safe, healthy and clean air and water. Avoid noise and light pollution. Outdoor air quality, water quality, environmental noise, electromagnetic radiation on construction land and density of Radon must comply with related standards. ( II ) Community’s Transportation Objectives: Reduce the environmental pollution and hidden danger generated by motor vehicles. Enhance the land use ratio by optimizing regional traffic network. Requirements: Ensure convenient transportation leading to the outside and convenient public transportation in the neighbourhood. Transportation planning inside the community should be convenient to foot passengers. Build convenient parking facilities for motor vehicles. Measures: (1) Ensure transportation to outside of community to be convenient; at least one public transportation line is available. Provide parking lots which are up to standards. Reduce the mutual interference between vehicles and pedestrians by well organizing the transportation inside the community. (2) Ensure public transportation facility available within5 minutes’ walking (400meters) distance. (3) Commercial service facilities, recreation centre, primary and middle schools, kindergartens and other public building must closely serve, and be geographically closed to community and be laid out reasonably so as to reduce the vehicle flow inside the community. Build roads especially for pedestrians. (4) Use electric vehicles powered by renewable energy inside the community. (5) To make full use of tree foliage to provide shade for outside parking. Choose pervious materials to floor the ground. (III) Community Planning is Conducive to Building Operation Objectives: Avoid permanently depredating lands and protect natural landscape and biodiversity. Requirements: Community planning and design should be conducive to effective operation of construction. Construction should not cause permanent destruction on environment. Make construction plan according to topographic condition so as to reduce the use of earthwork, therefore, balance the use of earthwork on the construction land. Measures: (1) Construction should not cause permanent destruction on environment. (2) Balance the use of earthwork on the construction land. (3) When building those roads especially for construction use, designer should have eye for the future use of those in the community. (4) To make full use of local materials in order to decrease freight volume. (IV) Community Greening Objectives: Achieve water conservation, climate adjustment, rainwater absorption, pollution reduction, and noise seclusion by making use of green lands in the community so as to meet the residents’ demand of closing to the nature. Community greening can also serve the function of ecological environment, recreation and, landscape and culture. Requirements: Come up to the regulated community forestation ratio. To provide a large expanse of green space and open green space consisted of plants, waters, landform, garden sculpture and rest places. Measures: Strictly stick to the standards of forestation. Specifically, meet the requirements of regulated forestation ratio and collocation of tree species. (1) Green space ratio should account for over 35%, with greening coverage ratio beyond 70%. (2) On-site and off-site protection of the ancient, famous and grown trees on the construction land; in case of impossibility t protect those grown trees on site, they should be removed and replanted elsewhere. (3) Choose easily surviving and growing tree species on the construction land according to the air condition so as to reduce pollution, dust and noise. (4) Proper assortment of tree species. Amount of arbor≥ 3 per m2 of greenbelt, a minimum 20 percent of three-dimensional and compound-layer forest should be ensured in forestation. (5) Promote roof forestation and vertical greening, which should account for 20% of the total green area. (6) Raise survival rate, ensuring a minimum preservation rate of 98% and an excellent and good rate of 90%. (7) Calculate the carbon dioxide fixation of different greening methods and choose the best. (V) Air Quality in the Community Objectives: Improve air quality by reducing pollutants with community planning conducive to improving ventilation. Requirements: Make sure that air dust, pollutant concentration, overall microbial count (below 1500cfu/m3 according to standards for public places) and foreign body emission meet relevant standards. Measures: (1) Reduce the concentrated emission of pollution sources; ensure that harmful substance content not exceed the standard in practical determination. Treat pollutions in communities caused by pollutant sources such as small boilers, waste incinerators, and sewage treatment plants. (2) Avoid arrangements which would result in bad ventilation, to avoid opposite and close narrow channels, notches and inner patios among outer windows of adjacent residents. (3) Reduce dispersive emissions of pollutant sources in communities, emissions of dispersive pollutants such as fumes from kitchen ventilator and car exhaust should also not exceed the standard and should be diffused easily as well. Reduce car exhaust to residents by proper arrangement of parking lots. (4) Treat and control non-combustion waste discharge. (VI) Reduction of Noise Pollution Objectives: Eliminate various kinds of acoustic pollutions. Make sure the noise intensity of communities not exceed the standard so as to reduce the acoustic disturbance to residents. Requirements: A comprehensive treatment project should be launched to lower noise caused by traffic, public appliances in communities, commercial and recreational activities as well as building sites through using a complete of anti-noise techniques such as preventive measures, noise-reducing and eliminating facilities. The noise intensity in communities should keep with the Standard on Noise in Urban Areas. Measures: Take potential sources and locations of noise into account before coming up with adoptable schemes on the precaution and reduction of noise to shield the sources of traffic and construction-related noise off main communities. Reduce the effort of noise caused by equipments inside communities by means of reasonable arrangements. (1) According to Standard on Noise in Urban Areas, there is a maximum level of 55dB (A) during day time and that of 45dB (A) at nights. (2) Anti-noise measures such as isolated grassland and sound shield should be taken to lessen the disturbance of noise that comes from outside the communities; the control of noise level in neighbourhoods facing streets should be stricter than the national standard. (3) Noise sources and buildings prone to be affected by noise inside communities should be reasonably arranged and certain noise-eliminating steps should also be taken. (VII) Sunshine and Lighting Objectives: Correlated establishments of arrangement, designing and construction should ensure that each household has sufficient sunlight exposure to meet their sanitary needs. Make sure that those two are up to national standards. In areas that need heating, sunshine should be maximally used to supplement the regular heating method in winter. Requirements: Regardless of orientation of and ventilation in each apartment or house, sunshine is at least available in one room so as to conform to the national standard. Measures: The orientation and arrangement of a house can affect the lighting and sunshine. As a result, suitable distance between high-rise and multi-story buildings should be maintained and orientation should be taken into account in general planning. To ensure a rational, comprehensive formulation in order to promise a satisfying condition of natural sunlight and necessary sunshine exposure as well as passable landscape. (1) Community planning should conform to the standard on minimum distance for sunlight according to local geographic conditions, i.e. at least one room of each apartment has access to sunlight, the standard of which should also be in line with relevant regulations. Slim margins of implementative concession are permitted for the revamping of the old areas, but a minimum sunshine time of 1 hour on Severe Cold Day has to be available. (2) Community buildings should not be shelters for each other from sunshine with sunlight level being evaluated according to actual illumination as well as average outdoor illumination. (3) Reasonable distance between every two community buildings should be reasonably fixed, with the privacy of residents taken into account. (4) There should be sufficient sunshine in the sitting room and bedroom, and excellent visualization should be ensured to the residents for view-seeing purpose. (VIII) Improvement of Community Microenvironment Objectives: Alleviate heat island effect through landscaping and exterior design of buildings so that its effect on local climate, residents and the environment of habitats for wildlife can be reduced to the minimum. Ensure pleasant outdoor activity space in both summer and winter. Requirements: Enhance the water-retaining ability of the base and make sure that each evaluation index such as that of temperature, humidity, wind velocity and heat island effect are in line with the requirements for comfort, health and energy-saving. Measures: Employ design advisors, material experts and planners to reduce the endotherm of external wall material; mark the reflectivity of materials in the designing paper or detailed specifications; use appropriate trees, bushes, separate vegetation patches or other outdoor structures covered with vegetation to shade sun’s heat; replace hard architectural surfaces or grounds with vegetated surfaces, grounds and non-pitch materials. Last but not least, tint the outer surfaces of the architecture with new-type of paints and colorants. Detailed steps are as follows: (1) Average intensity of heat island effect on typical summer day should be not over 1.5℃. (2) Outdoor thermal comfort index of typical summer day—WBGT: Wet-Bulb-Globe Temperature conform to the standard of WBGT<32℃; (3) Shield at least 30 percent of the hard and watertight ground from sunshine to reduce its absorption of solar radiation. (4) Use ground pavement materials and roofing materials with certain reflectivity or ensure that at least 30 percent of the flat roof is designed as vegetation roof; (5) Improve the water retention ability of the foundation and reduce the proportion of non-waterproof ground. Water permeation bricks can be used to improve the permeability of parking lots, sidewalks and squares. Rainwater retention index of the foundation γ should be a minimum of 0.8(γ=the quotient between water-retention rates after and before the construction of the community); (6) Simulation and prediction of the wind environment under typical climate conditions should be undertaken, basing on local wind rose charts, to optimize design schemes. The following three goals should be attained: ①A maximum wind speed of 5m/s in the pedestrian area, and 1.5m from the building should be ensured; ②A maximum pressure difference between the front and rear of the building of 5Pa should be ensured in winter; ③ There should be a pressure difference of about 1.5pa concerning 75% of the slab-type building in summer to avoid vortices and dead spaces and to ensure effective indoor natural ventilation. III. Energy and Environment The design of community building and its energy system must be done by professional groups with relevant qualifications, abiding by international laws, regulations and standards. Effective energy-saving measures based on a healthy and comfortable indoor heat environment should be taken to better the thermal performance and to reduce the annual energy consumption of the building; Renewable resources that cause less pollution to the environment should be actively introduced and the efficiency of energy-consuming systems such as heating and air-conditioning should also be improved; reduce building’s demand for energy and its negative effect on the environment. ( I ) Energy Saving of Building’s Main Body Objectives: Through design patterns, to maintain and improve the thermal performance of the structure, reduce architectural energy consumption and to ensure a comfortable and healthy indoor heat environment. Requirements: While designing the building, take various steps based on climate features of different regions to enhance its abilities of insulating heat, shading sunlight and ventilation. Measures: According to actual conditions of climate as well as energy consumption of community buildings in different regions, basing on the principles of giving consideration to season diversity and overall optimization, all kinds of effective energy-saving measures such as proper shape coefficient, rational arrangement of indoor space, improvement of the heat isolation ability of building envelops, control over window-wall ratio of different orientations, sunshade equipment and improvement of natural ventilation should be taken, through Analogue Computation Auxiliary Design, cut down the energy consumption of air conditioning and heating. (1) The thermal performance of the building envelop should conform to or refer to related regulations in the following standards: Energy Saving Design Standards for Civil Architecture, Heating Residential Building Energy Saving Test Standards and Residential Building Energy Saving Design Standards for Hot Summer and Cold Winter Area. (2) Both indexes of the heat and cool loss of building should be in line with related regulations in the following standards: Energy Saving Design Standards for Civil Architecture, Heating Residential Building Energy Saving Test Standards and Residential Building Energy Saving Design Standards for Hot Summer and Cold Winter Area. (3) Both the annual index of heat loss and cool loss of building (Qh and Qc) should be below the limit value in corresponding areas. (4) Based on the item above, take effective energy-saving measures to reduce the two indexes mentioned above. ( II ) Optimal Utilization of Conventional Energy System Objectives: Based on the satisfaction of requirements to ensure residents a healthy and comfortable indoor environment with functions available realized, reduce the demand of architecture for regular energies and subsequent environment pollution. Requirements: Conformation to international energy policies; Reasonable adoption of energy supply plan for each equipment system of the building in order to optimize both design and operation of each equipment system. Measures: Improve the efficiency of energy transformation system by means of the optimizations of cold and heat sources that adapt to local conditions; save energy consumption of the transportation and allocation system; optimize illumination control so as to reduce illuminating consumption; choose suitable energy to prepare water for daily use. 1. Cooling and Heating Source & Energy Conversion System Requirements: Choices of cooling and heating source should be optimized according to related elements, such as the local energy situation, energy price, environmental regulations and restrictions, construction scale and characteristics etc., so as to improve power conversion efficiency. Measures: In order to achieve higher energy conversion coefficient (ECC), the energy system should be devised, as possible as it could be, in the following two ways to improve the energy conversion efficiency. (1) Adopt the high energy system as much as possible. Under the pre-condition of economy, when introducing the system with direct burning of primary energy sources, priority should be given to thermoelectricity pump and fuel gas heat pump which recycles waste heat; systems with electricity as input source can be applied with various kinds of motor-driven heat pump. The direct burning of primary energy source, such as fuel gas boiler, coal burning boiler etc., should be avoided. (2) Improve the energy utilization efficiency of energy conversion system. Try to cut down the energy loss of every energy conversion link by recycling energy waste. (3) Calculating ECC of all kinds of cooling and heating source, adopting the one with the highest coefficient. Ps: The formula of energy conversion coefficient (ECC) ECC= Qc×λc+QH×λH+E×λE /∑(WHVACi×λi) in this formula QC—— cold consumption of the building for a whole year, GJ; QH—— heat consumption of the building for a whole year, GJ; E—— electricity output for a whole year, GJ; WHVACi —— the power of the i energy needed by heating and ventilating air-conditioner in the building for a whole year ,GJ; λi —— the corresponding coefficient. λE λC、 QH、 —— the coefficient of cold consumption, heat consumption and the electricity output of the building for the whole year. 1) Cold (heat) consumption of the building for a whole year: cold (heat) consumption (absolute value) caused by heat transmission of building enclosure, indoor heat interference and new wind. Cold (heat) consumption of new wind means cold (heat) consumption (absolute value, regardless of the offset between new wind load cold (heat) consumption and building’s cold consumption) caused by enthalpy difference of air inside and outside the door. In the calculation of new wind load cold (heat) consumption, give no consideration to the use of new wind in transferring seasons and to the change of new wind according to headcount etc. 2) When calculating the actual energy consumption, different kinds of saving measures of new wind, the match of equipment and equipment efficiency under some load should be considered. 3) When calculating the energy consumption of cold and heat source, the energy consumption of water pump’s cooling side and the wind pump should be counted in. For water heat pump, the electricity consumption of water intake and back-pour pump. For wind-cooling heat pump, the electricity consumption of cooling side should be counted in. For water-cooling unit, absorber and direct combustion engine, the electricity of fans of cooling-tower and cooling pump should be counted in. 4) The coefficient is related with the kind and using time of energy, as well as the local weather etc. The corresponding coefficients of different energies are shown in the following charter. Name Coefficient of summer Coefficient of winter Remarks Cold consumption 0.05 — Heat consumption — 0.07 Electricity 1 1 Natural gas 0.51 0.53 Coal 0.34 0.36 Related with the temperature of back-supplied water the coefficient of summer and winter is Municipal hot water 0.1—0.2 0.2—0.3 0.13and0.22 respectively when the temperature of back-supplied water is 90~60℃. Related with the vapor pressure: the coefficient of summer Municipal vapor 0.2—0.35 0.3—0.4 and winter is 0.32and0.39 respectively when the vapor pressure is 8bar. Related with the temperature of back-supplied water: Freezing water 0.07 — 0.07is the coefficient when the temperature of back-supplied water is 7~12℃. 2. Energy Transportation and Distribution System Requirements: According to the load of a building, adopt appropriate monitoring measures to save electricity consumption of fan pump so as to optimize the design of energy transportation and distribution system. Measures: According to the dynamic change (under different load and space) of building load, appropriate monitoring measures (e.g. VAV and VWV system under some load) should be adopted in order to reduce electricity consumption of fans and water pump in transmission and distribution system. In addition, the design of transmission and distribution system should be optimized. Ps :Transportation and Distribution Coefficient( TDC): TDC= cold and heat energy needed by the building and new wind for a whole year/ (∑electricity consumption of all fans+ ∑ electricity consumption of all the water pumps) Explanation: cold and heat energy of the building and new wind means calculated building load And new wind load calculated by new wind enthalpy difference. 3. Lighting System Objectives: On the prerequisite that the number and quality of lightening devises complying with international and national standards, daylight should be fully utilized. Implement green lightening and optimize lightening control so as to cut down lightening consumption and protect the environment. Measures: Utilization of daylight should be taken into full consideration in the planning and designing of a single building (for example, properly use of reflection side and window-less lightening) to meet the lightening standard. Properly set the lightening standard of rooms according to their different functions. Adopt lightening devises with high efficiency. Public places, such as staircase etc, should be devised with automatic lightening system (for example, sound control system and time-set control system). (1) Daylight lightening must be taken into full consideration in the design of a building. (2) Proper electricity-saving measures must be adopted. (3) Public places, such as staircase etc, should be devised with automatic lightening system (for example, sound control system and time-set control system). (4) Public area should be lit by energy-saving light. (5) Energy-saving measures should be taken in road lightening. 4. Hot Water Supply System Requirements: Hot water should be acquired though proper source. Communities are forbidden to establish fuel, gas and coal boiler to mass produce hot water. The whole system is equipped with effective measures, such as heat preservation, to lower energy loss. Advanced and flexible control devises should be adopted. Measures: (1) It is forbidden to establish fuel, gas and coal boiler to mass produce hot water. (2) Hot water is encouraged to be produced by recycled heat released by factories and other resources (e.g. heat pump, afterheat of air conditioner, individual household boiler, etc.) (3) Adopt individual household electric water heater or use other conventional energy to produce hot water. 5. Utilization of Renewable Energy Objectives: Fully use all kinds of renewable energy, cut down the consumption of conventional energy to reduce pollution. Requirements: Take various renewable resources, such as solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy etc, as first choices, adopt advanced water and geothermal pump technology and use lake water, river water, sewage to get warmth and operate air conditioner. Measures: Adopt various renewable energy utilized technology. (1) Solar energy use technology: solar electricity generation, solar energy air conditioner, solar light, solar hot water. (2) Geothermal use technology (must be 100% back-poured): geothermal power generation + terraced utilization, geothermal terraced utilization technology (direct geothermal heating + heating pump heating united technology ), geothermal heating technology. (3) Wind energy use technology: wind power generalization. (4) Biomass energy use technology: biomass energy power generalization, biomass energy conversion heating technology. (5) Other renewable energy use technology: geothermal heat pump, sewage heat pump, lake and river water heat pump, superficial layer water heat pump. (Must be 100% back-poured) 6. Effect of Energy Consumption on Environment Objectives: Control pollutants released by energy consumption to reduce pollution. Requirements: Adopt different kinds of effective energy saving measures to improve energy utilization efficiency and reduce buildings’ energy consumption, so as to reduce its influence on the atmosphere. Control the release of direct-burning and part-burning materials and the heat release of air conditioners. Measures: (1) Pollutants comply with both the international and national standards. (2) Freezing medium with CFC is not used in freezing equipment of air conditioner and fire-control equipment. (3) The exhaust volume of all kinds of pollutants (of CO2, NOx, SO2 and TSP [total suspending particles]) in per construction unit should not higher than the basic index showed in the following table. The appropriate measures should be adopted to decrease the exhaust of pollutants. Pollutants TSP g/ (m2•a) SO2 g/ (m2•a) NOx g/ (m2•a) CO2 g/ (m2•a) Basic index 23 103 64 18 (4) The index of heat exhaust volume of per construction unit in summer should lower than 0.2 GJ/m2. As for the ground or water heat pump system, the heat discharges into the underground in the process of air-conditioning is out of the consideration. IV. Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor environmental quality consists of four aspects: air quality, heat environment, light environment and acoustic environment. The prerequisite of the indoor environment quality is to satisfy the basic need for a hygienic, healthy, and comfortable life of the inhabitants. The indexes of indoor environmental quality should conform to the regulations of current international standard. The technological appraisement of indoor environmental quality adopts the method of combining fixed quality with fixed quantity. ( I ) Indoor Air Quality 1. Building Site Objectives: Ensuring the health of indoor construction personnel and the indoor environment quality when the community construction is delivered. Requirements: Making the construction plan, properly organizing the construction, strengthening the construction management. Adopt available measures of anti-poison, anti-pollution, anti-dust, anti-moisture, ventilating, etc. Measures: (1) No permission for the construction personnel to make any cooking indoor and use the washing-room during the process of construction and indoor decoration. (2) Construction personnel should be armed with protective equipment against the easily inhaled hazardous gas, dust and fiber which apt to be breathed produced in the process of indoor construction. (3) Practical measures to prevent indoor air pollution should be consisted in the construction plan and special person responsible for it should be there. (4) Clearing timely all the garbage produced in the process of construction. (5) In the process of construction, anti-moisture measures should be applied to heat preservation material, carpet, pendant lamp plate, etc. (6) Ensuring a good ventilating condition or establishing temporary indoor ventilating facilities. 2. Ventilating and Air-conditioning System Objectives: Ensuring the top indoor air quality through proper design and operation of natural or mechanic ventilating system. Requirements: Providing enough fresh wind, properly designing fresh wind opening, preventing indoor air pollution due to the improper design of air-conditioning system, avoiding to share the reflux of the vertical exhaust pipe. (1) Ventilating for the Whole Room Measures: ① Each dwelling-unit should be well ventilated naturally or mechanically. The bed-room, living room, study-room and kitchen all have windows linked with the outsides, of which the movable part should account to 25%. The condition for the wind to go through the rooms should be formed and 90% of the space should be naturally ventilated. The quantity of changed fresh wind should be calculated by the following formula: Q=0.18Afloor+12.6(Nbr+1) Here Q—the quantity of fresh wind (m3/h), Afloor—the dimension of the floor (m2) and Nbr—the number of the bed room. ② The air inlet of the mechanical ventilating system should be ensured to link directly with the outsides and keep far and a regulated distance from other exhaust outlet, garage, garbage dumps, chemical and other polluted sources. ③ The sharing ground in the community should be well ventilated. ④ The sharing ground in the community should enjoy the natural wind. ⑤ The underground garage should be well ventilated. ⑥ Analyzing the indoor airflow components during the designing period to improve the efficiency of ventilation and prevent the airflow from short-circuiting. By analysis and comparison, choosing suitable ventilating approach, the inlet and outlet opening locations and sizes. (2) Partial Ventilating System Measures: ① The vertical ventilating pipe and system should be equipped in kitchen and secluded washing room, and they should be started and stopped intermittently according to the inhabitants’ will, or keep on working while the inhabitants remain indoor( This measure can be operated as a part of the whole ventilating system) ② The gas warning device should be linked with the gas cut-off valves. ③ The centralized mechanical ventilating method should be adopted in secluded washing room ④ The anti-reflow measures should be adopted in the kitchen and washing room with sharing vertical ventilating pipe. (3) Air Conditioning System Measures: ① The ventilation system design of the air-conditioning should ensure to meet the “Indoor Air Quality Standard”. ② The air inlet opening in the community with centralized air conditioning (including house and full-air central air-conditioning system with air conditioning unit that can bring the wind back) should have air filter. The installation of the air filter net should be convenient for cleaning and changing. ③ The condensation-water plate for the air-conditioning and other terminated devices should ensure drainage and without socket for water to remain. ④ The available measures of bactericide, antibacterial and mould-proof should be applied to air-conditioning, moistener and condensation-water plate. The antibacterial material should meet the standard. Furthermore, the durability of the antibacterial should conform to that of the air-conditioning part. ⑤ The condensate water collecting and drainage system should be equipped. ⑥ The air-conditioning system can be functional with full fresh wind in emergency. 3. Control of Polluting Source Objectives: To remove or decrease basically all kinds of physical, chemical and biotic pollution which may affect the indoor air quality. Requirements: Appraising the influence of the indoor decoration material on indoor environment, to choose environmental friendly decoration material. Measures: (1) All the indoor decoration material must satisfy the related national standard of product quality. Especially the requirement for harmful substance must not exceed the standard. (2) The effect of the indoor decoration material on the air must not exceed the standard of the indoor air quality. (3) Appraisal of the inspection result of the hazardous emission from the product provided by the suppliers. The effect of the decoration material upon indoor environment should be fully and systematically considered in the process of material choosing and design, and related analysis, calculation and suggestion should be given out. (4) The green material from which the emission below the limitation regulated by the indoor environmental pollution control in civil buildings should be truly applied in the construction. 4. Objective Appraisal of Indoor Air Quality Objectives: Ensure the concentration of the indoor pollutants having no effect on the health of the inhabitants. Requirements: The indoor air quality should meet the standard of the indoor air quality. Measures: (1) Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, oxynitride, ammonia, particles apt to be breathed, colony, formaldehyde, benzopyrene, and annual average of Equivalent Equilibrium Concentrations should not exceed the 1/4 of the quantity specified by the follow table: Hygienic Name of the Hazardous Hygienic Index for Name of the Hazardous Substance Index for Substance indoor Air indoor Air CO2 (%) (Weighted 0.10 Proportion) Colony(per/container)( 5.00 45 by sedimentation) 0.08 CO (mg/m3) 0.15 formaldehyde(mg/m3) 0.20 SO2(mg/m3) 0.10 ammonia(mg/m3) 0.10 NOx(mg/m3) 0.15 Benzopyrene(ug/100m3 100 Superior to Particles apt to be Superior to national annual average of Equivalent national 3 breathed(mg/m3) grade standard Equilibrium Concentrations(Bq/m ) grade standard (2) The objective appraising method for indoor air quality. There are 5 levels of indoor air quality. Notes: objective appraisal of indoor air quality 1) The current environmental quality is expressed by the air quality index, that is, directly measure the concentration of indoor pollutants. The index value of the appraising is sorted out and then generalized from the measured data through analysis. R stands for the levels of pollutants index: the disparities among the concentration of certain pollutants and its limitation. R=Ci/Si (1) P stands for arithmetic superposition index: the summation of all kinds of pollutant indexes, as superposition index for objective appraising. n P=Σ Ci/Si (2) i=1 Q stands for arithmetic average index: the average index of all kinds of pollutant indexes, as average index for objective appraising. n Q=1/n Σ Ci/Si (3) i=1 I stands for composite index: comprise of the highest index level and the average index level, as composite index for objective appraising. n I=[max(C1/S1,C2/S2,…Cn/Sn)*(1/n 1/2 ΣCi/Si] (4) i=1 Here Ci stands for the average index of the actually measured pollutant concentration, as the objective appraising index. Si stands for the indoor standard limitation for certain pollutants; 1/Si is a weighting coefficient 2) Classified standards for indoor air quality Standards Features clean suitable for human to live the pollutants of all kinds of environmental factors do not unpolluted exceed the standard so that human can live normally at least one of the environmental factors is over polluted. slightly polluted Chronic or urgent poisoning is not easily happen except to those allergic. at least 2 ~ 3 environmental factors are over polluted. The polluted residents’ health is obviously affected at least 3 ~ 4 environmental factors are over polluted. The seriously polluted residents’ heath is obviously hurt, the allergic may die. 3) Levels of indoor air quality Objective appraising composite Levels of indoor air quality Comments on the levels index ≤0.49 Ⅰ clean 0.50~0.99 Ⅱ unpolluted 1.0~1.49 Ⅲ slightly polluted 1.50~1.99 Ⅳ polluted ≥2.00 Ⅴ seriously polluted ( II ) Indoor Thermal Environment Objectives: Provide a healthy and comfortable indoor thermal environment for residents. Requirements: The indoor thermal environment should meet the related national standards. 1. Extremely Cold Areas and Cold Areas Measures: (1) The community should set up the heating systems. (2) When a community has its central heating system or air conditioning, every room (house) should have its own thermostat and metering mechanism to indicate heat and cold capacity. (3) The community, equipped with heating system, in the condition that average outdoor daytime temperature is no less than local calculated outdoor temperature, should ensure the actual operating temperature during heating term in various spaces no less than the prescribed index in diagram 4-2 when residents live there. Daily Temperature Average Rooms Hourly Temperature Average (℃) (℃) Bedroom, living room, study, 16 18 wash room Kitchen, heating staircases 12 15 and corridor (4) The community, equipped with air conditioning, in the condition that outdoor wet and dry bulb thermometer is no more than local calculated wet and dry bulb thermometer, should ensure the actual operating temperature in summer no more than the prescribed index in the following diagram. Hourly Temperature Average Rooms Daily Humidity Average (%) (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 28 70 Wash room, kitchen 30 / (5) When the indoor and outdoor temperature reaches the calculated temperature, the inside temperature of heat bridge in enclosure should be no less than dew point temperature of indoor air. And when the dew point temperature of indoor air is certain, indoor air relative humidity should be calculated by 60%. (6) Terminal devices and pipelines of indoor heating system and air conditioning have to be rationally arranged. Condensation pipe, refrigerant pipe and freezer pipe of air conditioners should be properly installed in the wall bushing or holes. (7) If the community equips wash rooms with showers and hot water supply, inner temperature of toilets should reach ideal serving temperature in winter. (8) Terminal devices of heating system and air conditioning should be in line with environmental products standards, and safe and sound. (9) The external and internal shade facilities should be soundproof, warm-keeping and safe. 2. Areas with Hot Summers and Cold Winters Measures: (1) When a community has its central heating system or air conditioning, every room (house) should have its own thermostat and metering mechanism to indicate heat and cold capacity. (2) The community, equipped with heating system, in the condition that average outdoor daytime temperature is no less than local calculated outdoor temperature, should ensure the actual operating temperature during heating term in various spaces no less than the prescribed index in the following diagram when residents live there. Rooms Hourly Temperature Average Daily Temperature Average (℃) (℃) Bedroom, living room, 16 18 study, wash room Kitchen, heating staircases 12 15 and corridor (3) The community, equipped with air conditioning, in the condition that outdoor wet and dry bulb thermometer is no more than local calculated wet and dry bulb thermometer, should ensure the actual operating temperature in summer no more than the prescribed index in the following diagram. Hourly Temperature Average Rooms Daily Humidity Average (%) (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 28 70 Wash room, kitchen 30 / (4) When the indoor and outdoor temperature reaches the calculated temperature, the inside temperature of heat bridge in enclosure should be no less than dew point temperature of indoor air. And when the dew point temperature of indoor air is certain, indoor air relative humidity should be calculated by 60%. (5) Terminal devices and pipelines of indoor heating system and air conditioning have to be rationally arranged. Condensation pipe, refrigerant pipe and freezer pipe of air conditioners should be properly installed in the wall bushing or holes. (6) The heating system must be equipped in areas with hot summers and cold winters. (7) If the community equips wash rooms with showers and hot water supply, inner temperature of toilets should reach ideal serving temperature in winter. (8) Terminal devices of heating system and air conditioning should be in line with environmental products standards, and safe and sound. (9) The external and internal shade facilities should be soundproof, warm-keeping and safe. 3. Areas with Hot Summers and Warm Winters Measures: (1) The community, equipped with central air conditioning, in the condition of outdoor humidity and temperature no more than local calculated humidity and temperature, should ensure the actual operating temperature in related spaces no more than the prescribed index in the following diagram in summer. Hourly Temperature Average Rooms Daily Humidity Average (%) (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 28 70 Wash room, kitchen 30 / (2) The heating design of enclosure structure should meet some related regulations. (3) Terminal devices and pipelines of indoor air conditioning have to be rationally arranged. Condensation pipe, refrigerant pipe and freezer pipe of air conditioners should be properly installed in the wall bushing or holes. (4) The community, without air conditioning, in the condition of outdoor temperature average no more than local summer calculated temperature average, should ensure the actual operating temperature in related spaces no more than the prescribed index in the following diagram in summer. Indoor Rooms Daily Temperature Average (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 29 Wash room, kitchen 30 (5) Terminal devices of air conditioning should be up to environmental products standards, and safe and sound. (6) The external and internal shade facilities should be soundproof, warm-keeping and safe. 4. Warm Areas Measures: (1) The heating design of enclosure structure should meet some related regulations. (2) The community, equipped with heating system, in the condition of outdoor daily temperature average no more than local outdoor calculated temperature, should ensure the actual operating temperature in related spaces no more than the prescribed index in diagram 4-8 during heating term. Hourly Temperature Average Rooms Daily Temperature Average (℃) (℃) Bedroom, living room, 16 18 study, wash room Kitchen, heating staircases 12 15 and corridor (3) The community, without heating system, in the condition of outdoor temperature average no more than local winter outdoor calculated temperature average, should ensure the actual operating temperature in related spaces no less than the prescribed index in the following diagram in winter. Indoor Rooms Hourly Temperature Average (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 18 Wash room, kitchen 15 (4) The community, without air conditioning, in the condition of outdoor temperature average no more than local summer outdoor calculated temperature average, should ensure the actual operating temperature in related spaces no more than the prescribed index in the following diagram in summer. Indoor Rooms Daily Temperature Average (℃) Bedroom, living room, study 29 Wash room, kitchen 30 (III) Indoor Light Environment Objectives: To make full use of the natural light resources; to rationally design the artificial illumination in the community; to save energy and improve community light environment quality; to provide the residents with a materially, psychologically comfortable and healthy living environment. Requirements: The indoor sunshine should conform to Urban Residential Planning and Designing Regulations. The indoor lighting should be up to Building Day lighting Design Standards. And the indoor lighting quality should meet the functional needs in different rooms. Measures: The windows should be designed for making full use of natural light resources. Set the indoor light index and the window-wall ratio according to different light and climate regions and to fix rational design requirements on artificial illumination. 1. Indoor Daylight and Sunshine Measures: (1) At least one room of an apartment has an access to sunshine and two rooms of a 4-room house can get sunshine. (2) The sunshine duration of rooms should meet the standards for buildings in different light and climate areas. (3) The minimum indoor sunshine index should meet the requirements of various light and climate areas. (4) The window-wall ratio of bedrooms, living rooms and study rooms should meet the requirements in various climate areas; the kitchen should meet the requirement of various light and climate areas. (5) Use the window glasses with high light transmittance and energy efficiency. (6) Use sun shield and baffle board to mediate the sunshine. (7) The public area should be exposed to sunshine. 2. Indoor Illumination Requirements: (1) The light source should be rationally located. (2) The light indicator for night should be fixed in the public areas. (3) The illuminance value must be no less than 20 lux in public areas (passageways, stairs, etc.). (4) Non-touch switch should be used in public areas. (5) All illumination devices should be environmental friendly. (IV) Indoor Acoustic Environment Objectives: To solve the popular problems with poor indoor acoustic environment and to create a peaceful, quiet, comfortable and healthy living environment. Requirements: Control the outdoor and indoor noises with effective measures. Pay attention to the design of noise control when building the house. Choose appropriate construction elements and strictly control construction quality. Measures: In the urban comprehensive planning, control the environmental noise as a whole; estimate the community acoustic environment before construction; enforce rigid control in community graphic planning and sound insulation device selection in every procedure to prevent noises. 1. Rational Graphic Planning Measures: (1) Kitchen and washroom, that make the major noises, should be decorated together. (2) Bedrooms must not be linked with elevator hoistway. 2. Construction Elements Selection Measures: (1) Air-borne sound insulating properties weighting of construction elements: Separating wall 45~50 dB (A); Floor slab 45~50 dB (A); Gate 30~35 dB (A); Street window 30~35 dB (A). (2) The floor slab weighting should be designed according to standards. Striking sound pressure level must be no more than 65 dB (A). 3. Machines, Sanitary Equipment and Pipes Measures: (1) The indoor noises created by machines and electrical equipment should be no more than 45dB (A). (2) The indoor noises created by sanitary equipment and pipes should be no more than 45 dB (A). (3) Low-frequency noises should be controlled and prevented. 4. Construction Quality Measures: The sealing quality of the holes in apertures should comfort to the standards. 5. Indoor Noises Measures: (1) Indoor noise level should meet the needs in various rooms: bedroom, study room and living room: daytime ≤50 dB (a); night ≤40 dB (a). (2) The noise level of Bedroom, study room and living room: daytime ≤45 dB (a); night ≤35 dB (a). V. Community Water Environments According to the local condition of water resources and climate features, rationally plan and build community water environment, and create Safeguard Measures on Safe Water and Sanitation to ensure an access to safe and healthy domestic water, greening and scenery water. Draw up a plan for saving water, sewage treatment and rainwater collecting. And the coastal cities that suffer a water shortage should try to make use of sea water. Try to step up water cyclic utilization and water efficiency, reduce sewage discharge, achieve water sustainable development and improve community’s ecological environment. To achieve these goals, the planning and design of community water environment can be divided into the following 6 items: water planning, water supply and sewage system, sewage treatment and reutilization, greening and scenery water, water-saving appliances and facilities. ( I ) Water Planning Objectives: Fully consider the city water resources and water environment planning; rationally plan community water environment; increase water safety and sanitation level; make use of water resources effectively; improve community water and ecological environment. Requirements: Evaluate the quantity and quality of community water. According to some scientific and authentic profiles, ensure water safety and sanitation and provide rational water distribution plan and water quality guarantee. In the community, the drinking water and other waters that contacts human bodies directly should be strictly guaranteed to abide by Sanitary Standard of Drinking Water Quality. Measures: Water should be differently treated according to their qualities. Make full use of water resources beside municipal water supplies, such as the reutilization of rain and domestic sewage. ( II ) Water Balance Requirements: Make full use of water resources and reduce community sewage discharge. The treated sewage can be use for environment and other places. Rain and greening water can permeate the ground. Measures: According to some related rules and regulations on water consumption: (1) In line with the water consumption regulations in national law and some other related standards, rationally plan and design water quantity. Calculate the fixed value of total water resumption, calculation value of total water consumption, reutilization sewage quantity, collected rain water and its volume requested from municipal water supply. (2) The sewage water that was discharged into municipal receiving water should be considered. (3) The local water distribution conditions should be considered. According to the annual precipitation, there are five kinds of areas: abundant water zone (1600mm), wet zone (800 mm~1600 mm), transition zone (400 mm~800 mm), little water zone (200 mm~400 mm), and water deficient zone (﹤200 mm). (III) WCR Index Requirements: Reduce municipal water supply and save water resources. When water-saving technologies and sewage recycle are used together, WCR should be no less than 15%, and no more than 50%. If only water-saving technologies are used, WCR should be no less than 5% and no more than 15%. Measures: According to the different qualities of waters, they should be differently used and paid. The reclaimed water should be used for greening, flushing, road watering, car wash, cleaning, scenery supplement and air conditioning cooling. (1) Priority should be given to water-saving technologies and facilities. (2) Rationally control terminal discharge pressure and optimize water supply network. (3) Sewage should be treated and reclaimed. (4) Rain should be collected and reclaimed. Note: WCR, a general quantitative index that shows how much water resources are saved. WCR(%)=(fixed value of total water resumption - calculation value of tap water resumption)/ fixed value of total water resumption*100% Fixed value of total water resumption is the total community water resumption that is calculated according to the fixed standards. Calculation value of total water resumption is the actual value of tap water in community after water-saving planning is used. (IV) Economic Value of Technologies Requirements: According to the comprehensive community planning, rationally arrange the community water system. Choose the community water system and economically evaluate the different aims and processing program of reclaiming sewage and rain. Ensure a rational reclamation rate and provide a best program. Measures: (1) Given the local conditions, adopt effectively-managed, safely-operated, energy-saved, low-cost water system and processing technology to reduce investment and improve ecoomic benefit. (2) Safely adopt advanced technologies and facilities. (3) The water planning should be of economically rationality, technology advancement and construction practicability. (V) Supply and Drain Water System Objectives: Ensure sufficient water quantity and pressure to continuously provide safe, sanitary and healthy drinking water, fire-fighting water and other domestic needs. Ensure the collection and discharge of community sewage and rain would not affect the community ecological environment. Requirements: Build up rational supply and drain water system to meet the needs in community water environment planning. 1. Supply Water System Requirements: Supply the water according to the different qualities in water system to increase various water use efficiencies. Two health indexes of virus and parasites should be considered when reclaiming water. The details can follow some related sterilization requirements and management measures in California Management Code 22 of the US. Measures: (1) Direct drinking water quality should conform to Water Quality Standards for Drinking Water. Domestic water quality should conform to Hygienic Specifications of Domestic and Drinking Water. Reclaimed water can be used on construction and other urban miscellaneous use water should conform to Water Quality Standard of City Miscellaneous Water. (2) Rational water quantity to meet the fixed water use value. (3) Adopt a multi-index comprehensive evaluation to choose a rational water supply method. (4) The terminal water quality of community water pipe networking should conform to Water Quality Standards for Drinking Water or be deep processed (collectively processed or family processed). (5) Direct drinking water, domestic water and reclaimed water should be used in different areas by their different qualities. (6) The secondary pollution should be considered when choosing pipes and other related devices. (7) The communities in coastal cities can make use of sea water. And the sea water corrosion should be considered when sea water is used as miscellaneous use water. 2. Water Draining System Requirements: The collection and discharge of sewage and rain should conform to related regulations to avoid any possible bad impact to community ecological environment. Collect high quality miscellaneous use drained water and reduce sewage and rain discharge into municipal water system. The flow capacity of rain pipes can be fixed by the rainfall formula in The Standard in Outdoor Drain Design. The community domestic sewage discharge should be about 85%~90% of the local water consumption. Avoid cross infection from the leaking of drainage system and the drainage pipes are commonly used. Sea water should be properly treated as miscellaneous use water. Measures: (1) Rainfall and sewage should be separately discharged. (2) The domestic sewage that can’t be discharged through municipal water draining system should be treated alone and rationally reclaimed to reach some indexes and enter the receiving waterbody. (3) The domestic sewage of a community that is near the city centralized sewage treatment system can be treated together with city wastewater. (4) The collection and reclamation system should be fixed for the discharge water and condenser water of central air conditioning cooling water and condenser water of household air conditioners. (5) Improve community water draining pipe networking. Avoid pipe leaking by taking new technologies and equipments. (6) Guarantee smooth drainage pipes with introduction of new technologies and equipments to avoid cross infection. (VI) Sewage Treatment and Reclamation Objectives: Protect water environment around the community. Sewage treatment should be recycled and safe. Improve community ecological environment. Requirements: The quality of reclaimed water that was treated in the community itself should conform to some related regulations of “Standard of Surface Water Environment Quality” and “Standard of Comprehensive Sewage Discharge”. The treatment level should be fixed upon the environment capacity of receiving waterbody so as to evaluate the water quality. The quality reclaimed domestic water should conform to Code for Design of Sewage Reclamation Engineer. The sludge that was produced in the sewage treatment process should be properly treated and comprehensively used to conform to Standard for Pollutant Discharge of Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants. Measures: In the community where sewage is collectively treated, there should be two programs provided for economical and technological comparison in order to make a more accurate decision. 1. WRR Index Requirements: In line with the local conditions, make a rational planning to reclaimed water. WRR should be between 20% and 40%. Measures: The water use quantity should be rationally fixed. (Scenery water, greening water, car washing, boiled water, firefighting water, ground water supplementand so on). High quality miscellaneous use drained water should be reclaimed. Rainfall can be reclaimed. High quality miscellaneous use drained water and rainfall should be reclaimed. Note: WRR is a quantity index shows how much sewage is reclaimed. WRR (%)= reclaimed water quantity / total sewage quantity×100% Reclaimed water quantity consists of the recycling water and reclaimed rainfall. Total sewage quantity consists of domestic water discharge and collected rainfall. 2. Sewage Treatment System Requirements: The design of community collective sewage treatment plants should confirm to some related regulations and requirements. Priority should be given to the economical treating technology and safe disinfecting technologies. According to the conditions and climate features of the community, make use of the nutrients, energies and resources from the sewage. Given the community greening, properly and comprehensively use the mud. Measures: The quality of output water should meet related regulations in Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water and Comprehensive Discharge Standard of Sewage. The process level of the water should be evaluated by the environmental capacity of the receiving water body. The quality of recycled water should meet the requirements of Code for Design of Sewage Recycling Engineer. The sludge that was produced in the sewage treatment process should be properly treated and comprehensively used to conform to Standard for Pollutant Discharge of Municipal Sewage Treatment Plants. The structures and facilities of sewage treatment system mustn’t make any bad impact on the surrounding environment. According to whether it is a “restrictive public place”, the processing and disinfecting level of recycling water should be fixed by California Management Code 22 of the US. The sewage and wastewater should be treated ecologically (e.g. artificial wetland). Embedded or closed facilities are promoted to reduce bad impact on surrounding environment. Given non-sludge or less-sludge system to reduce sludge production and use as more energy-saving technologies as possible. Link to greening measures, sludge should be treated rationally. 3. Sewage Recycling System Requirements: In line with local conditions, choose proper recycling objects. Replace municipal water supply with community miscellaneous use discharge water. Given the factors such as health and sanitation, gray water is discouraged to enter household directly. The key factors in the process of recycled water replacing municipal water supply are fees, water quality, recycled objects and the safety and convenience of usage. Integrate exact conditions of communities, according to various aims, choose a practical program after economical comparison. Measures: (1) Integrate exact conditions of communities, according to various aims, choose a practical program after economically comparing. (2) When the recycled water has to meet various usages, its quality has to meet the top standard. (3) When the recycled water is used as construction miscellaneous use water and municipal miscellaneous use water, its quality should meet Standard for Municipal Miscellaneous Water. (4) When the recycled water is use as scenery water, its water body should reach Scenery Water Quality for Municipal Reclaimed Sewage Water. (5) According to whether it is a “restrictive public place” or not, the processing and disinfecting level of recycled scenery water should be fixed by California Management Code 22. (6) According to whether it is a “restrictive public place” or not, the processing and disinfecting level of recycled greening water should be fixed by California Management Code 22. And the different usages of the plants should be considered: directly-eaten food (leaf vegetables), edible seeds and root crops (staple food), pasture grass. Quality level of irrigating water can be decreased one by one. (7) The recycling water system should be safe and sanitary. Consult internationally related environmental principals on reclaimed water (e.g. California Management Code 22) and create an effective health management program for water recycling system. (8) Ecologically evaluate the possible harm of recycled water to human health. Recycled water is discouraged to enter the household directly. 4. Supplement the Groundwater Resources Requirement: The quality of reinjection ground water should meet related standards. There mustn’t be any toxic or harmful substances contained in the water. The reinjection water mustn’t pollute ground water. Measures: (1) The quality of water which is going to the ground water directly should meet Environmental Quality Standard for Surface Water. (2) According to the scale of aquifers, fix the quantity and storage cycle of reinjection water. (3) The recycled water, which meets the standard for scenery water body, will indirectly supplement the ground aquifers in watering scenery. (4) The recycled water that is used for supplementing ground water should be strictly and effectively disinfected, following California Management Code 22. (VII) Rainfall Utilization Objectives: Collect rainfall to supplement community water resources to some extend. Improve the design of community roofs and surface runoff. Avoid rain environmental damage from drowning and washing. Requirements: Create a full set of collecting, treating, storage and recycled facilities. Rationally design the discharge lines of rainfall and make sure its smoothness. The rain should be reclaimed after being treated. Measures: (1) In line with the local climate and geographic conditions, create rainfall collection and recycled program. (2) Roof and surface water should be treated to meet quality regulations for the recycled water. (3) The under channel is given priority for collecting rain fall and will be treated by leaking tank system that can be filled with gravels or other filter materials. The open channel is preferred for the community with abundant rainfall. (4) A proper interception ratio should be fixed to ensure a smooth discharge in case of rainstorm. And the surrounding surface runoff rainfall mustn’t make any bad impact on the community. 1. Roof Rainfall Requirements: The roof rainfall of the abundant water zone and wet zone can be effectively used to replace part of municipal water supply. And in the little water zone and water deficient zone, roof rainfall can be treated and used as community miscellaneous use water. Measures: (1) Roof rainfall is collected and enters scenery waterbody. (2) Roof rainfall is collected for greening and naturally sinks into ground water. (3) Pools are to be properly designed to be good for the community waterscape planning. 2. Surface Runoff Rainfall Requirements: Through the green fields and lawns, increase natural rain sink to the maximum to supplement ground water. Measures: (1) To avoid polluting vehicles and ecological environment and greening and further polluting ground water, salt water is forbidden to melt snow in winter within the community. (2) Various sinking facilities are to be equipped to absorb the essence. And the road surface and parking space should be paved with permeable materials. Impermeable pipes should be replaced with permeable and perforated ones to sink and discharge water easily. (3) Public areas, sidewalks and open-air parking lots should be paved with perforated materials to get rainfall sink easily. At least 30% of the road surface should be paved with perforated materials. 3. Rainfall Treatment and Utilization Requirements: Collect roof and surface runoff rainfall, sink and treat them and use them for community miscellaneous use water and scenery water. Measures: (1) Naturally purify the rainfall by green fields and water view to get rain achieve the quality standards for the water-using objects. (2) According to the water-using objects, manually treat the rainfall alone or recover water system for the community and make its quality achieve related standards. (VIII) Greening and Scenery Water Objectives: Ensure community greening and scenery water. Improve community water allocation. Step up the quality and utilization ratio of water for greening and scenery. Requirements: According to whether it is a “restrictive public place” or not, the processing and disinfecting level of recycled greening and scenery water should be fixed by California Management Code 22. Integrate the circulated scenery water system with gray water system to improve the design to ensure water quality and increase water use ratio. Limit or forbid municipal water from irrigation. Measures: Create a water program according to greening needs. Use effective irrigation technologies (including micro-irrigation). Use humidity sensor or other controller in line with the climate changes. Use the collected rain or gray water for irrigation. Grow the water-saving plants which are in line with local climate and soil conditions. Rationally adopt the treatment and disinfection technologies of scenery water. According to the geographic features of the community, design waterscape programs and protect natural wetlands. Set up cleaning facilities for cycle scenery water. 1. Greening Water Requirements: The treatment technology for domestic sewage and rainfall should be rational and safe. Get the output water achieve a safe and sanitary standard. Measures: (1) Water quality should meet Standard for Municipal Miscellaneous Water. (2) According to whether it is a “restrictive public place” or not, the processing and disinfecting level of reclaimed greening water should be fixed by California Management Code and the different usages of the plants should be considered: directly-eaten food (leaf vegetables), edible seeds and root crops (staple food), pasture grass. Quality level of irrigating water can be decreased one by one. (3) Use effective irrigation technologies (including micro-irrigation, dripping irrigation, etc.). Use humidity sensor or other controller in line with the climate changes. Save water over 10% by contrast to traditional ways. Limit or forbid municipal water from irrigation. (4) Ensure safe and sanitary water for greening with rational disinfection technologies. Free residual chlorine in the greening water on the user side should be no less than 0.2mg/L, residual chlorine in the redistribution—water distribution system should be no less than 0.5mg/L to eliminate strong smells, lining and cells. (5) When spray irrigation is used, suspended substances (SS) should be less than 30mg/L to avoid plugging. (6) Effectively collect rainfall for cascade greening and scenery water. 2. Scenery Water Requirements: The treatment crafts for domestic sewage and rainfall should be rational and safe. Get the output water achieve a safe and sanitary standard. Measures: (1) Recycled water quality for scenery should meet Scenery Water Quality for Municipal Recycled Sewage Water. (2) According to whether it is a “restrictive public place” or not, the processing and disinfecting level of recycled scenery water should be fixed by California Management Code 22. (3) Adopt membrane technology to deeply treat recycled water and effectively eliminate carious pollutants and nutriments to avoid water eutrophication. (4) Ensure safe and sanitary water for greening with rational disinfection technologies, and eliminate pathogenic microorganism. Free residual chlorine in the scenery water should be no less than 0.5mg/L. In the places with aquatic animals, dechlorination process should be taken following the standards for fishery water to protect the aquatic animals. (5) Complete the pools, running water, waterfall, spray water and water rushing facilities in waterscape industry. (6) Set the water clean facilities for cycle scenery water. (7) Adopt ecological treatment technologies (e.g. artificial wetland) to clean scenery water. (IX) Wetland Objectives: Adjust the micro-climate by wetland system. Improve regional ecological environment and maintain biodiversity. Requirements: Rationally design wetland types, space, water box, pollutant burden, and species selection. Measures: (1) The artificial wetland of the scenery water areas should reach 10%. (2) The water resources for artificial wetland should be rainfall or recycled water. Running water and groundwater are forbidden to maintain wetland. (3) Recover the original wetland system, and maintain or strengthen biodiversity. (4) Plan to build artificial wetland system and use it as ecological project to deep clean sewage and wastewater. For example, treat the water for scenery. (5) Choose animal and plant species in line with local conditions to build up a harmonious natural environment. (X) Water-saving Facilities and Tools Objectives: Develop and adopt new kinds of sanitation and health products. Adopt water-saving measures and use water-saving facilities and tools to save water. Requirements: Implement the relevant laws. Meet water quality standards for various usages, and save water as well. 1. Facilities Measures: (1) The quality of swimming pools water should reach the regulations in Sanitary Standard of Drinking Water Quality. (2) According to The Sanitary Standard for Swimming Pools, build and use advanced swimming pool water cycling treatment facilities. Some renew water methods that waste water or are not sanitary are forbidden. (3) Direct drinking water quality should conform to Water Quality Standards for Drinking Water. (4) Use the facilities that work effectively and cost little (e.g. frequency conversion water supply, drinking water terminal facility, swimming water cycling treatment facility). Pump rate should reach 85%. Have the valve up to null leak. (5) Effectively prevent pipe leaking with new technologies and facilities. The water loss from leaking should be less than 1% of the highest daily water consumption in the community. (6)The water pipes for each household (reclaimed water included) should be installed with long-distance water meter. 2. Appliances Measures: (1) The obsolete water tank, pipes and other equipment of the closet are forbidden. (2) Use the recommended water-saving water tank. In the water deficient areas, vacuum dry toilet is preferred. (3) Upon the different places, choose one kind from automatic shutoff tap, water power tap, photo-electric sensing tap, condenser shunt tap, hand-press tap, foot-operated tap, elbow tap, ceram leak-proof tap, etc. (4) Install thermostat, electromagnetic shower water-saving devise and water-saving taps. (5) Use highly-effective water-saving washing machine and dishwasher. VI. Materials and Resources Reduce resources consumption in the process of producing materials and transporting and make it sustainable. The less energy is consumed, the less environmental burden will be caused. Make the materials recycled to reduce environmental problems caused by rubbish. Avoid hazardous substances produced as some materials are being used. Reduce the output, exposure and transport of wastes. The rubbish should be classified, treated and recycled to reduce pollution. ( I ) Environment-friendly Building Materials are Preferred. Objectives: Reduce resources and energy consumption in the process of producing building materials. Reduce environmental pollution. Avoid any harm to human health. Requirements: Evaluate the natural resources consumption of building materials (land, farmland, forest, plant, water, etc.), non-renewable energies (coal, oil, gas, etc.), environmental impact (the discharge of carbon dioxide, sewage, solid waste and dust, and desertification) and healthy influence (noxious gas, dust, radioactive and biological pollution, etc.) in a whole cycle of “production—usage—abandon”. Measures: (1) Building materials should reach Indoor Environmental Pollution Control Regulations on Civil Buildings to avoid any harm to human health. (2) Stop using the obsolete products that was listed in Notice on Eliminating Obsolete Products in Building Community. (3) Evaluate the resources consumption of building materials in a whole cycle (including the production, transport, usage, maintain, eliminate, recycle of materials). (4) Conduct technical analysis and evaluation on the energy consumption of all building materials. (5) Conduct technical analysis and evaluation on the environmental impact of all building materials. (6) Over half of the materials should be environment-friendly and renewable materials that achieve related national and local standards. (7) Adopt new architectures. (8) Over half of the decoration materials should be environment-friendly and renewable. ( II ) Obtain Local Materials Objectives: Reduce material transport and environmental impact. Promote local economical development. Requirements: Locally produced building materials and products (within 500 meters from the construction site) are preferred. Measures: (1) Find out some information of local building material production and supplying. Use local materials in construction as more as possible. (2) Work out the quantity of local materials in the whole construction (the raw materials produced in other places are deducted.) (3) Work out the total quantity of building materials. (4) Work out the percentage of item 2 in item 3, and take it as an evaluation index. (III) Resources Recycling Objectives: Extend the service life of building materials and components. Make the materials reutilized, recycled and reclaimed to reduce the output of solid waste, further cut down the consumption of natural resources and energies and minimize the environmental impact. Requirements: Use the existing architectural structure and maintain structure as much as possible. Use the utilizable old building materials as much as possible. Measures: Conduct evaluation on the safety and stability on the existing architectural structure. Classify and treat the re-utilizable materials. Draw up a plan and measures for managing construction obsoletes. 1. Revamping of Old Architecture Requirements: In the process of revamping and reforming the old buildings, use the existing architectural structure and maintain structure as much as possible. Measures: (1) Conduct evaluation on the safety and stability on the existing buildings. (2) Preserve the places and environment that are of historic and cultural values or re-utilizable. (3) According to the existing architectural structure and inner decoration, exquisitely design and meet the needs of clients. (4) Definite the parts that should be preserved or removed in the design profiles. 2. Use the Old Building Materials Requirements: Use the re-utilizable building materials as much as possible in pulling down the old buildings. Measures: Classify and treat the re-utilizable materials (e.g. bricks, building blocks, prefabricated structure, windows, doors, etc.) in pulling down the old buildings, and use them in the new construction or convert them into money to the market. 3. Treat Solid Wastes Requirements: Collect and recycle the re-utilizable material in the solid materials produced in the process of construction, pulling down the old buildings and cleaning the construction sites. Measures: (1) Set up a specific management plan and implementation measures for treating construction wastes and draw up some measures. (2) The transport, storage and terminal treatment of wastes should be classified. (3) The transport program of wastes should be conducted in closed container or under frozen or press conditions. (4) Classify and collect the re-utilizable materials from the construction wastes. (5) Fix the trade-in and marketing treatment policies for collecting materials. (IV) Indoor Decoration Objectives: Avoid wasting or producing construction wastes in damaging or removing existing construction structure and devices of indoor decoration to maintain construction safety. Requirements: Indoor decoration should be in line with the community construction. One-stop community decoration is encouraged. Don’t damage or remove the existing architecture structures and facilities. Measures: (1) Draw up a decoration list. Conduct virtual decoration and sample design. Make the list of decoration materials for commercial apartments. (2) One-stop decoration and personal needs are concerned one time. (3) The design and construction of decoration should be concerned in the process of construction design and construction. (V) Rubbish Treatment Objectives: Rubbish should be classified and treated. Reduce and recycle the rubbish. Requirements: Create the collection-treatment chain of rubbish. Comprehensively design and conduct the procedures of household collection, garbage dump collection and central collection and treatment. Measures: (1) Treat the rubbish by Technology Development Program for Architectural Rubbish Treatment and Policies for Urban Domestic Rubbish Treatment and Pollution Prevention Technology. (2) Rubbish should be classified and collected (labeled rubbish bins). Garbage dump room should be located within the community. (3) A rubbish treatment station can be built after enough evaluation and necessary conditions. (4) Refuse channels in the community staircase should be eliminated. Appendix: Detailed Code Conduct for Eco-safety Hospital Establishing Eco-safety Hospital is, in line with the current trend of city sustainable development and comfortable living environmental construction, is an important measure to create a medical care environment, both inside and outside of it, and the management system which accommodates to it and consequently make the hospital environment natural, harmonious, humane and sustainable. Building Eco-safety Hospital should meet requirement of functional coordination, ecological balance, resources saving, and environment friendly. The prominence should be given to its theme of “Ecology and Life”, and in the process, the efforts should be sticked to the idea of life-caring from good environment, green mountains embracing life, clear stream fertilizing life, green shade protecting life, culture civilizing life, and resources benefiting life. Based on the natural environment, “five combinations” should be made, including ecological feature with hospital function, ecological development with medium and long term program, natural ecology with cultural ecology, pollution control with resource utilization, ecological infrastructure with ecological mechanism perfection. Besides, the soft power of the hospital should be upgraded in order to build a solid foundation for the sustainable development. ( I ) Concept of the Eco-safety Hospital 1. Definition Eco-safety Hospital is a place where human beings live a harmonious life with nature, ecology having a virtuous circle with life system, function of living, medical care and culture being able to coordinate with each other. Its main characters can be seen as being natural, harmonious, human friendly, and sustainable. 2. Guide line for Building the Eco-safety Hospital Hospital building should be based on the requirements of functional coordination, ecological balance, resource saving, and environment friendly. With the theme of “Ecology and Life”, it is based on the natural environment combining the functions between natural environment and human beings such as ecological feature with hospital function, ecological development with medium and long term program, natural ecology with cultural ecology, pollution control with resource utilization, ecological infrastructure with ecological mechanism perfection. Besides, the soft power of the hospital should be upgraded in order to build a solid foundation for the sustainable development. 3. Theme Ecology and Life. 4. Concept It is defined as such life-caring from good environment, green mountains embracing life, clear stream fertilizing life, green shade protecting life, culture civilizing life, and resources benefiting life. 5. Main Goals Adapting to the trend that the whole society pays an attention to Eco-safety issue, building up the inside and the outside of environment and management system which can adjust to the trend, meeting the highest requirement of landscape visible and amiable, nature, resource optimization, benign cycle, and human and nature balance. Efforts are made to achieve realizing naturalization, harmonization, people-oriented, and sustainable development in order to provide a strong security for building the comprehensive hospital which integrates the functions of medical care, health care, recovery, research, and education together. 6. Steps Development steps include combining the construction of the Eco-safety hospital with its medium and long term construction program, using the methods of integrated planning, separated zone designing, and carrying it out step by step. (1) Overall planning. By sticking to the scientific attitude and systems approach, factors in the progress of building Eco-safety hospital should be integrated and perfected in order to be able to coordinate each function. (2) Designing for separate zones. According to guide line for the Eco-safety hospital, the new function zones should be defined clearly. The zone designing contains medical area, which has the main function of offering patients the best human care and building ecological environment comfortable and harmonious, and living community with the main attention to energy-saving, environmental protection, infrastructure perfection, and the fine and convenient habitable environment. (3) Implementation step by step. Building Eco-safety hospital is a long-term systematic project. Along with the construction progress, generally, the construction can be separated into three different periods. During the first period, the rain collecting pool, water diversion, road construction, afforestation, energy saving, reclaimed water collection, dust and noise reduction, should be on the top of the list in order to significantly improve the appearances of the hospital. In the second period, better upgrading the ecological environment, landscape, water system, greening and decorating project, and preparing and maintaining the places of historical interests are the focus of the efforts. On the third period, the harmony between human and nature and the positive eco-circle should be strengthened with the purpose of realizing the benefits of ecology, economy, and society. 7. Construction Standard Persistence in scientific principle; specifications of the development strategy; and creation of taste which includes the comfortable ecological environment, high quality medical care, fine service, and the elegant cultural background. 8. Construction Target The construction targets include controlling all kinds of pollutions, making a full use of the natural resources, optimizing the ecological function in the hospital zone, coordinating the development of medical care quality and benefits of medical care quality, ecology, and economy, achieving the harmony and unity among human beings, nature, hospital, and the surroundings, and meeting the hospital’s standard of sustainable development. 9. Significance According to the needs of ecological safety and environmental harmonious development, Eco-safety hospital should be the model of the hospital development in the future. This kind of hospital can meet the inevitable demand of providing patients with the world-class medical care service, achieving the goal of treating the medical waste in a harmless way, and ensuring the security of the medical workers and the public community. 10. Main Approach As a long-term and difficult task, building up Eco-safety hospital has three main approaches, including education, technology, and management. It is important to foster the awareness of environmental protection among the whole medical workers through education in order to strengthen a sense of calling and responsibility and to mobilize all the medical workers to positively take part in the progress of establishing Eco-safety hospital. Besides, the construction model of the Eco-safety hospital should be actively promoted so that a green medical zone with the features of being environment friendly, healthy and comfortable, and beneficial can be set up. Meanwhile, other approaches include strictly controlling pollution so as to build a clean and graceful living and working environment, upgrade the afforestation level and give the fuller play to the artistic and humanities nature that the modern gardens can embrace mountains, water, grass, trees, wood, human beings, and facilities there, optimize the environmental system and treat the waste from living and medical treatment in a harmless way, in order to realize the benign re-circle of the natural resources, set up comprehensive mechanism among the Eco-safety hospital, overcoming difficulties, transform ideology with the idea of environmental priority, work with great effort and high efficiency, enhance coordination among departments, manage by all the relative staff, and put the strategy of building up Eco-safety hospital into the overall manage system of hospital construction. 11. Main Content The main content contains protecting environment, utilizing the natural resources in a reasonable way, actively preventing environmental pollution, taking great efforts to upgrade green space ecological function, promoting green housing technology, setting up scientific and high efficient ecological management mechanism, and creating a vivid ecological culture. 12. Main Projects Main projects of Eco-safety hospital construction comprise treatment of the water pollution, optimizing and decoration of the green space, utilization of the clean energy, treatment of the medical pollution, treatment of the domestic garbage, management and protection of forest, protection of bird species, establishment of recycled water system, utilization of the rain water, diversion projects, pulling down and repair of the old buildings, building of cultural equipments, and protection of antiquities. ( II ) Environmental Protection Discipline 1. Proud of Saving Water Remember to shut down the water tap after using it and do not let the water keep flowing. Fresh water resources only takes up 3% of the water resources on earth and just 0.5% of the fresh water is drinkable. Water, the source of life, is human beings’ valuable natural resource. 2. Protecting the Water To protect water resource is to protect our own life. Currently, 6000 teenagers die globally every day because of the bad drinkable water condition. Water pollution has turned into one of the urgent health crisis around the world. 3. Using the Water with Different Methods and Using It Repeatedly 70% of the earth surface is covered by water which has the quantity of 138.6 thousand billion cubic meters, among which 96.5% is sea water. Although the remaining part belongs to fresh water, over half of that part is ice. Usable water resource from rivers and lakes takes up 0.03% of the entire quantity. So, taking the reclaimed water for irrigation becomes the common option of counties around the world in order to achieve the target of using the water with different methods and using it repeatedly. 4. Prevention of Leaking and Check of the Water Pipes in Time Drops of water can flow into a river; grains of rice, if accumulated, can fill up a bamboo basket. If the water tap leaks several drops of water in a minute, tons of water will be lost in a year. Check of the water tap and other equipments is a big issue. 5. Be Cautious with Detergent, Choosing Soap in Order to Reduce Water Pollution Most of the detergents are chemical products. Waste water which contains lots of detergent will make the water condition worse when it is drained into rivers and lakes and will turn the soil basified when flowed into the earth. A long-time inappropriate application of detergent will hurt people’s central nervous system, putting off the brains growth, lessening the ability of thought and analysis, and turning into mental disorder when it comes to a severe condition. 6. Cities are Short of Water, Saving the Water should be Started with Me As the climate changes are prevalent, more and more cities have to face the problem of water shortage. Being a citizen, everyone should firmly remember the concept of “saving the water should be started with me”. 7. Concerning Air Quality No one can be Alive without Breathing. Human beings have only one earth and share one atmosphere together. The global air pollution will be a world wide disaster which will threat the survival of every single man on earth. Thus, a comprehensive treatment of air pollution requires coordinated efforts among governments of all countries and the common efforts of the whole mankind. Both developed and developing counties should take efforts on the issue of emission reduction, make their own contributions, and bear their own responsibilities and obligations on a fair and reasonable base. 8. Turning off Lights When Leaving. With Every Kilowatt Hour Energy Saved, Lesser the Pollution We Have Coal, the main energy source currently, is over 70% in the structure of fossil fuel. Huge amount of harmful gas will be released when it is burnt, which is a main source of air pollution such as acid rain and global warming. It is a good thing to save one kilowatt hour power and burn one ton of coal less. 9. Supporting the Use of Green Lighting Facilities, Spreading Energy Saving Lamp “Green Lighting Project” is one of the developing trends in terms of energy saving. Promoting energy-saving high efficient lighting lamp will relevantly reduce the use of coal burnt by the electricity plant and the emission of sulfur dioxide, oxycarbide, dust, ash residue, and carbon dioxide. 10. Taking Advantage of Reproductive Resources and never Leading to Energy Crisis 90% of energies used by human beings come from oil, natural gas, and coal. All these energies, formed in hundreds of million years, are nonrenewable. Energies such as solar, wind, tide, and geothermal heat are called renewable energy. People give the name of “clean energy” to those environment friendly energies. Instead of using coal, the application of natural gas creates convenience for common people. It is right to promote central heating and liquid fuel and to call for the using of energies of solar, geothermal heat. 11. Cherishing Paper is to Protect Forest and Rivers The skyrocketing demand for paper is one of causes of increasing wood consumption. For instance, 10 million cubic meter wood is consumed by producing paper one year in China, besides, with over 1.3million tons of wood pulp and over 4 million papers have to be imparted. Huge consumption of paper leads to forest damage and soil erosion. Besides, sewage water coming out by producing paper heavily pollutes rivers and lakes. Thus, forest and rivers protection should start by saving one piece of paper, envelope, and paper note. 12. Using Reproductive Paper, Decreasing Deforestation For the sake of getting cheep wood, operating farm and pasture, and producing wood pulp, forest has been constantly developed worldwide. According to statistic, about 30 hectares forest is disappearing in every passing minute around the world, which means 140 thousand square kilometers in a year. If the large-scale deforestation can not be stopped, million of human beings, animals, and plants will lose their habitat area. Innumerable plants will disappear and the world climate will be changed dramatically. 13. Saving the Food and be Proud of Thrift At present, world population is over 6 billion people on earth, and among them, nearly 1 billion people, according to the estimation of the United Nations, are suffering from long-time hunger without calculating the number of people who are suffering from vitamin shortage, malnutrition, and other kinds of malnutrition. As a Chinese saying, “When we eat and drink, we should think how hard it is to be got; when we wear the clothes, we should constantly remember how difficult it is to be made.” As cultivated land is being reduced, it is quite tough for agriculture industry. It warns us of preparing for the danger in the time of abundance and of advocating the value of saving. 14. Applying Freon-free Products and Protecting Ozonosphere Ozonosphere has the property of absorbing ultraviolet and getting people and animals free from hurt. Chlorine atom, contained in Freon, can badly damage ozonosphere by breaking down ozone which can absorb ultraviolet causing ozonosphere thin. The strong ultraviolet radiation will hurt the immunologic function of human beings and animals, causing skin cancer and cataract and damaging the global ecological system. In 1994, people have observed the biggest ozone hole in South Pole with an area of 2400 square kilometers. 15. Choosing Phosphate-free Laundry Detergent In some of the developing countries, due to the production of laundry detergent with excessive phosphate, rivers have been badly affected when laundry water is drained directly into the river. After large quantity of phosphate contained water draining into river, eutrophication is formed, causing alga growing fast, reducing the oxygen content of water, and killing living things in the water due to oxygen shortage. Meanwhile, the previous flowing water has been turned into stagnant and disgusting one. So it is to respect nature by using the phosphate-free laundry detergent. 16. Buying Environment Friendly Computer and Preventing the Leak of Mercury and Cadmium The common used battery relies on chemical reaction which means generating electricity by corrosiveness. However, corrodent has to be added by heavy metal such as cadmium, mercury, manganese, and so on. When battery is abandoned outdoors, toxic substance will leak out of it, entering into the soil or source of water and finally into people’s food chain through crops. Besides, the substance is difficult to be removed out of human body with the result of damaging nervous system, hemopoiesis, kidney, and bones, with even leads to cancer sometimes. It can be said that, all the batteries produced will be abandoned after using. So the best solution is to organize production in concentrated area, to diffuse pollution, and to avoid using battery in a short period of time. And some common knowledge will be useful if we can practice it. 17. Choosing Environment Friendly Package and Reducing Waste Disaster Among the source of waste in many Asian countries, a large part of it comes from unnecessary packages. Packing charges of the commodities, especially cosmetics and health care products, have reached 30%~50% of the product cost. Excessive package will not only cause threatening waste, but also give heavy pressure on customers and will, in the meantime, increase the waste volume and pollute the environment. So, picking the environment friendly package is no doubt a scientific policy for the waste disaster reduction. 18. Selling Safe Food and Safeguarding Ecological Environment The source of food pollution includes: harmful substances in the agricultural products coming from industrial abandoned garbage that pollutes farmland, water, and air; chemical fertilizer and pesticide left in the agricultural products; inappropriate usage of chemical dyes and additive during food processing; and microorganism pollution caused by improper step during storing and processing. After years of accumulation in the human body, pesticide on the fruit and vegetable will cause cancer and make the immune system, hormone secretion system, and genital system disordered. Buying the safe food should be based on safeguarding ecological environment. 19. To Use Less Disposable Products and to Save Resources on Earth Since the time of 1950s, under the development of petrochemical industry, disposable products, especially plastics, are getting developed very fast. This kind of product is broadly used in household electrics, automobile, furniture, package, farmland used membrane plastic bag, and so on. Currently, plastic production volume is over 120 million tons. And those “throwing after using” plastic bags not only cause huge waste, but also bring severe pollution to the environment, making the garbage volume increase dramatically. 20. To Use One Pair of Less Disposable Chopsticks and Stop Turning Forest into Wood Shavings Disposable chopstick was invented by Japanese, whose country’s percentage of forest cover reaches 65%. However, they never cut wood from their own land for producing the disposable. Instead, they completely rely on import trade to process chopstick, then for export. Some of the developing countries cut down large number of forest for disposable chopstick export trade in order to get economical benefits. For example, the disposable chopstick industry in north China will export 1.5 million cubic meter chopsticks to Japan and South Korea by reducing 2 million cubic meter forest area. 21. Recycling Plastics and Developing “the Second Oil Field” Lots of abandoned plastic can be turned back into reproductive plastic. Plastic products like waste plastic, waste food box, food bag, woven bag, soft package box, and so on, can be refined back into fuel oil. 1 ton of waste plastic can refine at least 600 kilo gas and diesel oil. 22. Recycling Waste Paper and Replanting Forest Resources Recycling 1 ton of waste paper can produce 800 kilo usable paper, cut 17 trees less, can safe 3 cubic meter area for refuse landfill, can safe over half of paper producing energy, and can reduce 35% pollution. Each piece of paper can be recycled for at lease 2 times. 23. Recycling All Kinds of Garbage and Turning the Garbage into Wealth European Union is leading the industry of garbage recycling. In 1975, garbage treatment provision was launched by EU for the first time. A garbage treatment system, which has the procedures of garbage prevention, recycle and reusing, and garbage treating, followed by issuing a series of law and regulations which establish the principle of garbage treatment responsibility that garbage producers should take. At present, EU has strictly specified the garbage recycle indicator. Until the year of 2020, 50% of the city houses refuse and 70% of the construction garbage has to be recycled in the EU countries. 24. Garbage Classification – the Method Being Easy within Reach for the Garbage Control Garbage classification is to separate recycable garbage from the common garbage. The purpose of doing so is to deal with garbage problem, to recycle renewable sources, to reduce environmental pollution, and to leave the next generation with ecological resources. Garbage classification can take the advantage of the abandoned renewable resource and create renewable resources and wealth. 25. Caring for Trees and Being the Greening Safeguard Paredes, professor of Indian Calcutta Agriculture University, used to calculate the ecological value of a tree: a 50-year-old tree can produce oxygen that is worth of about 31200 dollars; absorbing toxic gas and preventing air pollution which has the value of about 62500 dollars; increasing soil fertility that is worth of about 31200 dollars; conserving water which is worth of 37500 dollars; providing habitat for bird species and other animals that is worth of 31250 dollars; and producing protein which has a value of 2500 dollars. Except for the value of flower, fruit, and wood, the total value is about 196 thousand dollars. What a shocking number! 26. No Burning of the Fallen Leaves and Waste Paper, Giving back the Blue Sky Leaves, with the function of absorbing and accumulating some toxic substances, can store lots of dust. Waste paper contains some printing ink. When burnt, toxic substance in the leaves will be released into the air and form large amount of carbon monoxide and carcinogen like benzene polluting air and damaging people’s health. When waste paper is burnt, except for the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, substance like lead and other harmful metals will be released into the air so that burning fallen leaves and waste paper without consideration should not be recommended. 27. No Pouring Garbage into Seas and Rivers, Protecting the Source of Life Water is the source of life. Pouring garbage into seas and rivers will cause water contamination which has huge bad effect. Firstly, water pollution will directly affect the usage of water from agriculture and industry and has a bad effect on the products. Secondly, it damages ecological environment by cutting down fishing industry and endangering human beings’ health. Thirdly, it further reduces the quantity of the drinkable water. According to research, 1 cubic meter of water will pollute 14 cubic meter clean water. Water pollution derives from many reasons, but we can still achieve the goal of pollution relief by attracting people’s attention, strengthening inspection, and strictly managing. 28. Better No Smoking. Do not Judge People’s Behavior Merely by His Smoking and Drinking Habit and Capacity According to research on smoking side-effect in the year 2005, smokers at the age of 30 will have risk of heart attack morbidity 5.3 times more than non-smoking people with the proportion of 3.7 to 1 among the 40s. Depending on WHO, the average age of the smoking people is less than 70 which is 22 years less than the expected age. 29. Optimizing Environmental Health System, Adopting Garbage Classification Treatment It is right to recommend saving and to against waste resources and to reduce the garbage volume from medical care office and daily life. Only by taking method of garbage classification, can the recycling rate be raised. Based on the city environmental health system, Eco-safety hospital environmental health system should be established by dealing with the garbage with “machine plus biochemistry”, collectively processing garbage in a harmless way, turning the harmful into a benefitial, turning the garbage into wealthy, and realizing positive recycle of ecological resources. 30. Taking Care of Pasture and Creating a Clean Environment for Medical Care and Working Pasture offers people a feeling of fresh, cool, and pleasure. It is good to provide people with a happy, clean, and safe environment for working and living. Well-growing pasture can absorb 1.5 gram carbon dioxide in an hour per square meter. Every person breathes out 38 gram carbon dioxide per hour so that 25 square meter pasture is big enough to absorb all the carbon dioxide breathed out by a single person. Pasture also has the function of noise reduction. One piece of 20 meters wide pasture can reduce about 2 decibel sounds. Besides, pasture can adjust temperature and humility. According to estimation, during the season of summer, pasture can reduce the temperature 3 to 3.5℃ lower, or reduce the temperature 6 to 6.5 ℃ higher during winter. Meanwhile, pasture can increase humidity by evaporating water absorbed from the soil in the air. 31. Collecting Rain Water It is supposed to construct and transform a batch of rain water collecting pools, dams and ponds in the hospital administrating area with different scales and shapes. The collected rain water should be used as the source of irrigation, bathing, and landscape setting. By tailoring the location, it is to fix, supply, and perfect systems of rain collection, release, and percolation channel with the targets of building up a clear channel net which can line up clean water, reclaimed water, and other kinds of water. 32. Preventing or Reducing Environmental Pollution and Damage during the Period of Construction During the period of construction, we should do the best to prevent or reduce environmental pollution and damage caused by dust, noise, and vibration. Before completion of works, natural environment, damaged during construction should be properly rehabilitated. 33. Cherishing Life and Caring Wild Animals Natural environment and resources like earth, waters, forest, mine, pasture, rare wild animals, plants, and so on, should be protected and developed. None of them is allowed to be destroyed. 34. Planting Flowers and Grass, Beautifying the Environment Forestation, flowers and grass planting, and so on, must be part of optimizing the surrounding environment of the hospital. Greening design should be included in the new project and the green cover ratio can be adjusted according to projects. All the construction projects should meet the demand of greening plan. 35. Volunteer to Plant Trees, Education People in Environmental Protection Awareness and Responsibility Qualified hospital should let each people plant 3 to 5 pieces of tree a year or do other greening activities with equivalent amount of labor.
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