Chapter 16

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					                                  Chapter 16
                            Respiratory System
This Study Guide Key has additional answers to questions that you did not have
              to complete but all you answer are available here.

 I.       Aids to Understanding Words
        alveoli – small cavity
        bronchi –windpipe
        cric – ring
        epi – upon
        hemo – blood

 II.     Introduction
         1. Ventilation –movement of air in and out of the lungs.
         2. Gas Exchange – the exchange of gases between the blood and the
             air in the lungs.
         3. Gas Transport – the process of transporting blood to and from the
             lungs to and from body cells.
         4. Cellular respiration – the process of oxygen utilization and carbon
             dioxide production at the cellular level.

 III.     Organs of the Respiratory System
        A. Drawing to label.
        B. Mucus entraps dust
            The sinuses lighten the skull and provide vocal resonance.
            The mucous membrane warms and humidifies air entering the nose.
            The cilia provide movement to the mucus layer.
        C. The sinuses are air filled cavities located within the maxillary, frontal,
            ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
        D. The pharynx is behind the oral cavity. It links the nasal cavity and the
            larynx.
        E. 1. Drawing to label.
             2. The structure of the larynx that helps close the glottis during
                swallowing is the epiglottis.
             3. The structures of the larynx that produce sound are the vocal
                cords.
        F. The trachea is a hollow tube that is flexible and extends downward in
            front of the esophagus into the thoracic cavity. The inner wall of the
            trachea is composed of ciliated mucous membrane whose function is
            to move entrapped particles upward to the pharynx.
        G. 1. Drawing to label.
            2. The alveoli of the lung increase the surface area available for gas
                exchange and present a surface across which gas can diffuse.
        H. 1. The right lung has three lobes; the left lung has two lobes.
            2. The pleural cavity is formed when the parietal pleura folds back




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              over the visceral pleura that cover the surface of the lung. This
              creates a potential space which is filled with pleural fluid.

IV.     Breathing Mechanisms
      A. 1. During inspiration, it is the atmospheric pressure that moves air into
             the lungs. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 760 millimeters of
             pressure. If the pressure in the lungs is reduced below 760 mm of
             mercury, air will be forced into the lungs. A number of events
             create just this situation.
             Pressure and volume are inversely related; as one increases the
             other decreases. When the diaphragm contracts, it moves
             downward. When the intercostals muscle contract, they pull the
             ribs up. These actions increase the anterior/posterior size as well
             as the superior/inferior size of the chest. These actions decrease
             the pressure in the thoracic cavity allowing atmospheric pressure to
             push air into the lungs.
         2. The fluid in the pleural cavity creates surface tension between the
             two pleural membranes. The effect of this is to pull the visceral
             pleura along with the parietal pleural as the chest wall expands and
             contracts. Surface tension in the alveoli is the result of moisture in
             the small sacs which can create a force to pull the walls of the
             alveoli together. This would not support gas exchange.
         3. Surfactant is a fluid synthesized by the alveoli which overcomes the
             attraction created by surface tension.
      B. Expiration is essentially a passive process. As the diaphragm and
         intercostal muscles relax, the size of the chest cavity, increasing the
         pressure, and forcing air out of the lungs.
      C. 1-h; 2-d; 3-e; 4-f; 5-g; 6-b; 7-c; 8-a
      D. A neonate’s first breath is his most difficult one because this breath
         must overcome the force of surface tension in opening alveoli that
         have never been filled with air. Without sufficient surfactant, the
         neonate may not be able to overcome surface tension and inflate the
         lungs.

V.      Control of Breathing
      A. Neural – the respiratory center in the brain stem control both
         inspiration and expiration.
         Muscular – The muscles of respiration are the intercostals muscles and
         the diaphragm, and the muscles of the abdominal wall. These muscles
         contract with varying degrees of strength and with various degrees of
         efficacy.
         Skeletal – Normal respiration depends upon an intact rib cage upon
         which the muscles of respiration can act.
         Pulmonary – the pulmonary structures involved in breathing are the
         structures of the bronchial tree, the bronchioles, and the alveoli.




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     B. The respiratory center of the central nervous system is a complex
        network of neurons located in the brain stem, primarily in the medulla
        and the pons. There are two centers of special interest: the
        rhythmicity center in the medulla and the pneumotaxic center of the
        pons. The medullary rhythmicity center includes two groups of
        neurons that extend the length of the medulla oblongata. These
        groups are the dorsal respiratory group and the ventral respiratory
        group. The dorsal group controls the basic rhythm of inspiration
        sending motor impulses to the diaphragm and other respiratory
        muscles to contract. These impulses are not sent during expiration.
        The ventral group is active only when more forceful respiratory activity
        is needed. These neurons generate impulses that result in both
        forceful inspiration and expiration.
        The neurons in the pneumotaxic group control the rate of respiration by
        inhibiting the impulses of the dorsal respiratory group.
     C. Various chemical factors influence the rate and depth of respiration.
        There are chemoreceptors in the medulla oblongata that respond to
        changes in the cerebrospinal fluid concentration of carbon dioxide and
        hydrogen ions. Low oxygen content in the blood is detected by
        sensors in the walls of the carotid arteries and the aorta. Oxygen
        concentration must be extremely low to stimulate these receptors.
        Oxygen plays a very small role in the regulation of respiration.
        An inflation reflex senses the pressure within the lung tissue and
        prevents over inflation by regulation of the depth of respiration.

VI. Alveolar Gas Exchange
    A. The wall of an alveolus consists of an inner lining of simple squamous
       epithelium and a dense network of capillaries. These capillaries are
       also lined with simple squamous epithelium. Thin, fused basement
       membranes separate the two layers and make up the respiratory
       membrane. Gas exchange is accomplished across this membrane.
    B. 1. The pressure of gas determines the direction in which it will move
           and the rate at which it will move. Since the concentration of
           oxygen (or its partial pressure) is greatest in the alveoli, oxygen will
           move out of the alveoli and into the capillary.
       2. In a mixture of gases, each gas contributes to the total pressure of
           the gases and is known as its partial pressure. For instance, the
           air of the atmosphere is a mixture of gases: oxygen is 21% of the
           mixture. Its partial pressure is calculated by multiplying 0.21 and
           760 mm Hg (atmospheric pressure at sea level) to find its partial
           pressure of 160 mm of Hg.
       3. The mixture of gases returning to the alveoli of the lungs has lost
           some of its oxygen to the cells of the body and has therefore a
           lower partial pressure of oxygen than the air in the lungs. Oxygen
           will therefore move into the capillary blood in the lungs.




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VII. Gas Transport
     A. 1. Gases dissolve in the plasma of blood and oxygen then combines
           with the hemoglobin of red blood cells for transportation to cells of
           the body.
        2. Oxygen is released at the cell because the partial pressure of
           oxygen in the cells is less than that in the blood. Oxygen
           dissociates from the hemoglobin molecule and crosses the cell
           membrane. Carbon dioxide, obeying the law of partial pressure,
           moves out of the cell land into the plasma of the capillary blood.
     B. carbon monoxide
     C. 1. A variety of mechanisms are used to carry carbon dioxide away
           from cells. Up to 7% of carbon dioxide can be transported
           dissolved in plasma. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide
           determines the amount of carbon dioxide that is carried in this
           manner. Carbon dioxide can bind to the amino groups of the globin
           portion of hemoglobin. It does not compete with the oxygen for
           binding sites. The most important mechanism of carbon dioxide is
           in the formation of bicarbonate ions. The gas reacts with water to
           carbonic acid catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. This molecule
           dissociates to form hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions.
        2. Carbon dioxide is lost in the lung because its concentration or
           partial pressure is greater than its concentration or partial pressure
           in the air in the alveoli.




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