HIV AIDS around the Globe

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					HIV/AIDS around the Globe
         The Big Picture

   There over 42 million people living
    with HIV/AIDS today

   Over 19 million of those infected are

   Everyday, there are 14,000 new
                  HIV – A “disease of
                    young people”

 2.5 million of those newly infected each year
  are between the ages of 15-24
 UN estimates 14 million children have been
  orphaned by AIDS
 In just 3 years, that number is estimated to
  reach 25 million
HIV/AIDS in Latin America
   By 2006, 1.6 million people were living with AIDS in Latin

    – While this is lower than Africa or India, these numbers are
      continually increasing and only expected to get worse

   Half of all those infected reside in the 4 largest countries of
    Latin America: Brazil, Argentina, Columbia and Mexico.
     – However – the most severe cases are where there is a
       higher prevalence, in smaller countries such as Belize and

              Living with HIV/AIDS
                                              Deaths due to
Country       All people      Adult (15-49)   AIDS during 2005
                              rate %
Argentina     130,000         0.6             4,300
Belize        3,700           2.5             <500
Bolivia       7,000           0.1             <500
Brazil        620,000         0.5             14,000
Chile         28,000          0.3             <500
Colombia      160,000         0.6             8,200
Costa Rica    7,400           0.3             <100
Ecuador       23,000          0.3             1,600
El Salvador   36,000          0.9             2,500
Guatemala     61,000          0.9             2,700
Guyana        12,000          2.4             1,200
Honduras      63,000          1.5             3,700
Mexico        180,000         0.3             6,200
Nicaragua     7,300           0.2             <500
Panama        17,000          0.9             <1,000
Paraguay      13,000          0.4             <500
Peru          93,000          0.6             5,600
Suriname      5,200           1.9             <500
Uruguay       9,600           0.5             <500
Venezuela     110,000         0.7             6,100
Total         1,600,000       0.5             59,000
   Key Affected Groups:
    – Men who have sex with men (MSM)

    – Sex workers

    – Intravenous Drug Users (IDS)

    – Migrants
Religion and HIV/AIDS
Catholicism Says “NO!” to Condoms

   The Roman Catholic Church has been morally opposed to
    contraception for as far back as one can historically trace.

   Approximately 70% of people living in Latin American
    countries identify themselves as Catholic

   This predominantly Catholic population has remained both
    uninformed on safe sex practices and resistant to the use of
          Homosexuality is a Sin
   Homosexuality is illegal in many Latin American countries

    –   Homosexuals and bisexuals are often “underground”
        activities, increasing their likelihood of participating in
        high risk behaviors.

    –   Bisexuality among married men is common, and studies
        have shown that while wives may be aware of their
        husbands’ other partners, they are generally not
        comfortable asking their husbands to wear condoms.
      Social and Political Stigma
   Colombia
    – Ongoing war between left-wing guerrilla groups and
      right-wing paramilitaries
    – FARC (the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia)
      is known to have forced residents of areas they
      control to take HIV tests
    – Gay men forced to wear signs around neck
    – Displacement and migration to other countries may
      have impact on epidemic
    – 86% infected are men….leaving little access to
      healthcare for women infected
      Social and Political Stigma
   Guatemala
    – Mayans may be 3x more likely to develop HIV
    – Stigmatized population with less access to healthcare
   Nicaragua
    – Stigma around using condoms
    – One study showed that of adolescents who had been
      sexually active in past 3 months, only 21% used
    – Insufficient HIV Testing available
 Barriers to Overcoming the Crisis
Regardless of differences in how each
country handles this issue, there is
consistent evidence of structural violence
across the board:
 Poverty
 Migration
 Homophobia
 HIV-related discrimination

“Eradicating Poverty One Bead At a Time”
                  Beads for Life

   Ugandan – North American partnership to eradicate
   Sustainable income generation as the core of its mission
     – 501c3 organization. Over 75% of the proceeds go
       directly to supporting their mission.
   “4 pillars” of community development- Health, Education
    and Vocational Training, Life Skills and Affordable
Beads for Health…
            Impoverished people
             often the victims of
             poor health.
             43% of the BFL’s are
            Beads for Life provides:
             – access to diagnosis and
               treatment services
             – HIV testing for BFL’s
             – reproductive health
             – health education
             – critical health products
Meet Alice Aduna
 “Time for Hope for
   Young People”
A social mobilization program for and by
   youth to promote healthy lifestyles

 Program implemented in the Dominican Republic
   Target:
     – Adolescents and young people between 10 to 19 years old, living in 10
        communities, including poor communities of sugar cane cutters

   Objective:
     – Promote safe and healthy practices based upon values such as
       abstinence, delay of first sexual intercourse, sexual fidelity, and the
       correct use of condom.

   . Methodology
      – Forty-five young leaders were trained as peer-educators in sexual and
        reproductive health (SRH), gender, effective communication, and self-
        esteem issues. Each one trained15 other youth, who in turn trained 10
        others until more than 10 thousand young people involved.
Main Concepts and Components
   Demystification of local taboos about sexuality and SRH

   Increased amounts of adolescents and young people who realize the risk of HIV/STI

   Adolescents and young people receive systematic information through a quarterly
    bulletin de-signed and produced by community reporters, who have been trained by
    the project

   Forty teachers have graduated from a qualified course called “diplomado.” They are
    now giving information on SRH in schools.

   A total of 6,750 trained young people currently promote healthy SRH practices

   Fifty thousand youths and adults have been informed through information campaign
    using multi-media, e.g., bulletins, brochures, etc.

   A Youth-Friendly Care Center directed and conducted by young people was
    established.- Ten thousand adolescents and youths using at least two AIDS
    prevention measures
   What they have learned from organizing
    this project is:

   Youth-friendly communication requires broad-based consultation
    with the community, e.g. church leaders, teachers and parents.

    With minimal inputs, thousands of youth could be reached through
    a “ladder strategy”.

    Training programs with professional credits are attractive incentives
    to involve teachers.

   Youth must plan and design youth-targeted programs, so that they
    act as owners and protagonists and process builders
        Proteja Conclusion
     The PROTEJA project, with a minimum
 investment of about US $50,000, has positively
     impacted more than 10,000 adolescents.
  Youth are a window of opportunity for HIV
   prevention. They must not only be targeted,
    they must own programs that affect them.
Creative activities and value-centered education
are major points of attraction to youth programs
    European Community Project
 1997-1999 Educational Program in the
  Colombian cities of Bogotá, Cali, and
 School-based peer education program
 Main goals
    – HIV/STI-related education for adolescents and young
    – promote risk awareness and safer sexual behavior
    – build the capacity of local nongovernmental
      organizations responding to HIV/AIDS and improve
      national networks of HIV/AIDS NGOs.
    European Community Project
 Information and education sessions for teachers
  (focused on classroom communication skills
  relevant to reproductive health and using
  information/education/communication training
 Training of teachers, students, and peer
  educators on HIV/STI prevention, reproductive
  health and the importance of safer sex.
 Peer educator-led campaigns among community
                Lessons Learned
   There is a need to develop and conduct widespread
    school-based programs for sexual and reproductive
    health, including HIV/AIDS prevention.
   Trained teachers and peer educators can achieve high
    coverage in implementing HIV/AIDS prevention
   Enhanced project success is associated with participant
    involvement in project design.
   Activities should be culturally sensitive and relevant to
    the needs of intended beneficiaries.
   The participation of national health authorities is
    important for the sustainability of HIV/AIDS education
    and prevention activities.
                 AID for AIDS
   Aid for AIDS
   New York City Medicine Recycling Program
   Donating to Latin America since 1996
   Drug donations from HIV/AIDS patients in
    United States who don't need them anymore
    for various reasons
   Partners with activists/organizations in countries
    to help lobby government for AIDS awareness-
    Brazil has developed national drug program
   Conferences in Latin America
                       Our Plan
   Comprehensive approach to tackle all angles of
    the epidemic
    – Education, Education, Education
    – Removing the stigma
    – Help create sustainable income
    – Utilize local resources
    – Lobby for financial and legislative government
      support and funding
    – Utilize the crafts and talents of the people to foster
      motivation and empowerment
      References and Resources
AmfAR, The Foundation for Aids Research:
Beads for Life:
European Community Project
Proteja: A Time for Hope for Young People:
Until There’s a Cure:
UN Aids:

In the Baltic states, as in another
East European countries, the
spread features of the HIV/AIDS
pandemic are quite similar, but
the spread of HIV in Lithuania
has some peculiarities.
 HIV/AIDS Epidemiological situation in

 In 1988 – 2007 1213 HIV infection cases
  and 126 AIDS cases were reported.
 Lithuania is surrounded by countries
  where HIV is widely spread.
  Nevertheless, Lithuania is still a country
  with a low HIV prevalence.
   HIV prevalence according to the
        way of transmission

  The main ways of HIV/AIDS transmission
  in Lithuania are:
 intravenous drug using (933 persons);
 heterosexual intercourses (136 persons);
 homosexual intercourses (79 persons);
 unknown (65 persons).
HIV prevalence according to the age
           and gender

 HIV  has been mostly reported in the
  age groups of 25 – 29 and 30 – 34.
 Up to the 1st of January in 2007,
  1052 male and 161 female HIV cases
  were reported. It is important to
  notice that number of female cases is
  The prevention of HIV/AIDS in

The prevalence of HIV
depends on human
interrelationships and
their behaviour. So the
main tool which can
stop it is prevention.
 Systematic and methodical prevention of
 HIV infection and AIDS in Lithuania
 started in 1989, when Lithuanian AIDS
 Center was established. The main
 functions of the Center are:
 thedevelopment and promotion of
  HIV/AIDS prevention and control;
 performance and monitoring of testing
  and treatment in Lithuania;
 implementation   of the national AIDS
  prevention programmes;
 cooperation with institutions
  involved in HIV/AIDS prevention;
 coordination of efforts with other
  related programmes;
 advocacy and lobbying, including
  legislative framework.
The key strategical document on
HIV/AIDS prevention and
control in Lithuania is the
National AIDS Prevention and
Control Programme. This
program has set the target to
keep the country of a low HIV
prevalence up to 2010.
Key objectives of this programme are:

 1. To reduce transmission of HIV/AIDS
and related infections in Lithuania.
 2. To mitigate negative consequences of
HIV and related infections to an
individual and society.
 3. To provide appropriate health care
services to people with HIV and AIDS.
 4. To improve HIV/AIDS surveillance
Decentralized actions – from the
national level to the district and
community levels are characteristics of
the Lithuanian HIV/AIDS programme.
The role of the municipal health
programmes is very important to
stimulate health promotion and local
participation in design of the health
     Other ways of HIV/AIDS
     prevention in Lithuania

 Issues on HIV/AIDS are integrated
  into various school curricula topics.
 Youth Health Centres take care of
  informal sexual education of young
 Non-governmental sector has been
 actively taking part:
 in organising of commemoration of
  the World AIDS Day;
 in actions “Get tested on HIV for
 in implementation of the “Peer
  education” programmes;
 in organizing national contest for the
  schoolchildren on knowledge about
 in organizing international
  Schoolchildren Drawing Competition
  “School Children Against AIDS”;
 in organising of debates of youth and
  policy makers in the municipalities;
 in organizing of a club “Journalists
  against AIDS”.
Organisations trying to help people
     living with HIV/AIDS
 “PositiveLife” – an independent,
 non-governmental organization
 founded by HIV positive people, their
 family members and other
 individuals that deal with the
 problems encountered by people
 living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in
 DrugUsers’ Social Rehabilitation
 Community where people dependent
 on drugs and psychotropic
 substances can get the Community’s
 support. The priority is given to
 drug users infected with HIV.
 Stigmatized HIV infected people

Pervasive stigma has
surrounded HIV/AIDS
since the beginning of
the pandemic. HIV
infected people in
Lithuania are not an
exception too.
 In 2003 there the research was
  performed which examined the HIV
  related stigma among HIV infected
  prisoners. Research has shown that
  respondents feel personalized stigma.
 Another survey of the public opinion
  about vulnerable groups in 2003 has
  proved significant increase in
  tolerance towards the people with
  HIV in the last 13 years.
 Negative attitude of the society towards
 HIV infected people is determined by:

 the lack of information on HIV infection;
 preconcepion and stereotypes;
 fear of the desease which is incurable;
 irresponsibility of mass media;
 the attitudes about sexual life.
The only way to overcome HIV/AIDS
pandemic is to change the shame
into solidarity and the fear into
hope. This is what I wish for all of
   Čaplinskas, S. (2004) HIV/AIDS policy of Lithuania. 6-
    th Nordic-Baltic Congress on Infectious Diseases.
    Abstract, p. 61.
   Čaplinskienė, I. (2004) Lithuanian population’s
    tolerance towards vulnerable groups. Abstract book,
    Vol. 1, p. 522,
   Čaplinskas, S., Stonienė, S. (2004) Schoolchildren
    against AIDS – a national contest in Lithuania. Sexual
    health exchange, No. 4, p. 7 – 8.
   Čaplinskas, S., Stonienė, L. (2004) Self-government and
    HIV/AIDS prevention in Lithuania. 6-th Nordic-Baltic
    Congress on Infectious Diseases. Abstract, p. 72.
   The Zontian. (2007, January) Volume 87, Number 4.