Tier 2 to Tier 3 by yaofenji

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 72

									   Tier 3 Behavior
Support Programming
      OrRTI Sustaining Training
      September 25th and 26th
         Eagle Crest Resort


            Cathy Jensen
         School Psychologist
      TTSD Behavior Programs
       cjensen@ttsd.k12.or.us
Tier 2
   Data: Referrals, CI/CO card, Teacher Reports,
    Observations

   FBA:
      May be a short form.
      Target 2-3 behaviors.


   BP: Uses existing Tier 2 supports.
      Friendship Groups
      Check-in / Check-out program
      Referrals to community resources
Tier 3
   Data:
       Individualized Data System


   FBA:
      Complex analysis based on file reviews, observations,
       and assessments
      Targets multiple behaviors


   BP: Highly Individualized Support Strategies.
      Increased supervision throughout the day
      May include safety protocols
      Staff training
Who are Tier 3 Students?
   Top 1-5% of the PBS triangle

   Students usually have significant environmental
    disadvantages
       Poverty
       Poor attendance
       Family trauma
       Frequent moves

   A team has determined that the student has not made
    adequate progress in Tier 2 strategies

   Students may have a disability or may already be identified
    under Section 504 or IDEA
Part 1: Data
               Cat Proximity




                               Yes you are. And
                                 you’re sitting
                                there. Hi Kitty!
xkcd.com/231
Why start with data?
   Data is needed to establish a baseline.

   Data can be used to adjust the plan if needed.

   Data helps us to make objective, informed
    decisions.

   Data is reinforcing. It lets us know when our
    work is effective.

   Data helps us make timely decisions.
Data Collection and Analysis
     Efficient
          The data collection process needs to be time efficient so
           that staff can devote their time to supporting the student
          Avoid re-inventing the wheel – have a go-to system for
           staff to use for Tier 3

     Accurate
          Equal time intervals
          Calibration

     Frequent
          Frequency data taken at least every half hour
          Intensity data / incident reports daily as they occur

     Analysis
          Weekly analysis and review
Data should be used as an
assessment tool, not gate-
keeping or staff evaluation
Who are the consumers of the data?
   Parents: Data can be used to for progress
    reports.

   Students: Many students benefit from
    seeing their own progress results.

   Teachers: Data can be used to assess
    whether the interventions are effective
    and make changes to the program.
Case Study:
   5th Grade boy with Asperger’s Syndrome

   Behaviors:
       Difficulty getting started on assignments
       Needs frequent check-ins and reminders to complete
        work
       Inappropriate noises and comments to gain peer
        attention
       When frustrated or overwhelmed. disrupts property,
        runs away, or hides under his desk
       History of difficulty at the end of the school year.

   The student was managed using Tier 2 supports
    in 5th grade. In April, however, the team decided
    to proactively move him to a Tier 3 program.
                                                 HUG
                (Hello, Update, Goodbye)

                Name: __________________         Date: _________________________




Meets:  (2 points)
So, so  (1 point)
Doesn’t meet:  (0 points)




Goals:
Start working w/ no
more than one                                               
reminder

Complete work                                               




Hug Daily Goal: ____ / ____ pts              HUG Daily Score: ____/ ____
Teacher Comments:
Parent Signature and Comments:
                                               Percentage
       12
         /1
            1
       12 /20



                                                                                   100%




                        0%
                             10%
                                   20%
                                         30%
                                               40%
                                                     50%
                                                           60%
                                                                 70%
                                                                       80%
                                                                             90%
         / 1 06
            4/
               2
          1/ 006
            3/
                2
          1/ 007
            8/
        1/ 200
           18 7
              /
        1/ 200
           24 7
              /
        1/ 200
           30 7
              /2
                 0
          2/ 07
            2/
                2
          2/ 007
            8/
        2/ 200
           14 7
              /
        2/ 200
           19 7
              /
        2/ 200
           22 7
              /
        2/ 200
           28 7
              /2


Date
          3/ 007
                                                                                              06-07 School Year




            6/
                                                                                             __________________




        3/ 200
           20 7
                                                                                          Total Daily Percentage For




              /2
          4/ 007
            2/
                2
          4/ 007
            6/
        4/ 200
           18 7
              /
        4/ 200
           24 7
              /
        4/ 200
           30 7
              /2
                 0
          5/ 07
            7/
        5/ 200
           18 7
              /2
                 00
                    7
HUG
(Hello, Update, Goodbye)
Evan                                           Date: _________________________
Meets:  (2 points)
So, so  (1 point)
Doesn’t meet:  (0 points)


Goals:


Start working w/ no
more than one                                                 
reminder

Complete work                                                 
Respect Personal
Space                                                         

Appropriate area                                              
Respectful Language                                           
Hug Daily Goal: ____ / ____ pts                HUG Daily Score: ____/ ____
Teacher Comments:
Parent Signature and Comments:
                                                            Percentage




                                                                                               100%




                                    0%
                                         10%
                                               20%
                                                     30%
                                                           40%
                                                                 50%
                                                                       60%
                                                                             70%
                                                                                   80%
                                                                                         90%
                         4/1/2008

                         4/3/2008

                         4/7/2008

                        4/10/2008

                        4/15/2008

                        4/21/2008

                        4/30/2008

                         5/7/2008




Total
                         5/9/2008




                 Date
                        5/13/2008
                                                                                                         ______________
                                                                                                        07-08 School Year




                        5/15/2008




Linear (Total)
                                                                                                      Total Daily Percentage




                        5/20/2008

                        5/27/2008

                        5/29/2008

                         6/2/2008

                         6/4/2008

                         6/6/2008
                                                                Daily Percentage
                                 4/
                                    1/




                                              0%
                                                   10%
                                                         20%
                                                               30%
                                                                     40%
                                                                           50%
                                                                                 60%
                                                                                       70%
                                                                                             80%
                                                                                                   90%
                                                                                                         100%
                                      20
                                         08
                                 4/
                                    3/
                                      20
                                         08
                                 4/
                                    7/
                                      20
                                4/       08
                                   10
                                     /2
                                        00
                                4/        8
                                   15
                                     /2
                                        00
                                4/        8
                                   21
                                     /2
                                        00
                                4/        8
                                   30
                                     /2
                                        00
                                 5/       8
                                    7/
                                      20
                                         08
                                 5/




Start Working
                                    9/
                                      20
                                5/       08
                                   13
                                     /2


                         Date
                                        00
                                5/        8
                                   15
                                     /2
                                        00
                                5/        8
                                   20
                                     /2
                                        00
                                5/        8
                                   27
                                     /2
                                                                                                                Start Working with No More Than one Reminder




Linear (Start Working)


                                        00
                                5/        8
                                   29
                                     /2
                                        00
                                 6/       8
                                    2/
                                      20
                                         08
                                 6/
                                    4/
                                      20
                                         08
                                 6/
                                    6/
                                      20
                                         08
                                                              Daily Percentage
                                 4/
                                   1/




                                                  10%
                                                        20%
                                                              30%
                                                                    40%
                                                                          50%
                                                                                60%
                                                                                      70%
                                                                                            80%
                                                                                                  90%
                                                                                                        100%




                                             0%
                                     20
                                       08
                                 4/
                                   3/
                                     20
                                       08
                                 4/
                                   7/
                                     20
                                4/     08
                                  10
                                    /2
                                      00
                                4/       8
                                  15
                                    /2
                                      00
                                4/       8
                                  21
                                    /2
                                      00
                                4/       8
                                  30
                                    /2
                                      00
                                 5/      8
                                   7/
                                     20
                                       08
                                 5/




Complete Work
                                   9/
                                     20
                                5/     0
                                  13 8
                                    /2

                         Date
                                      00
                                                                                                               Complete Work




                                5/       8
                                  15
                                    /2
                                      00
                                5/       8
                                  20
                                    /2
                                      00
                                5/       8
                                  27
                                    /2
                                      00
                                5/       8
                                  29
Linear (Complete Work)




                                    /2
                                      00
                                 6/      8
                                   2/
                                     20
                                       08
                                 6/
                                   4/
                                     20
                                       08
                                 6/
                                   6/
                                     20
                                       08
                                                       Daily Percentage
                         4/
                           1/




                                          10%
                                                20%
                                                      30%
                                                            40%
                                                                  50%
                                                                        60%
                                                                              70%
                                                                                    80%
                                                                                          90%
                                                                                                100%




                                     0%
                             20
                               08
                         4/
                           3/
                             20
                               08
                         4/
                           7/
                             20
                        4/     08
                          10
                            /2
                              00
                        4/       8
                          15
                            /2
                              00
                        4/       8
                          21
                            /2
                              00
                        4/       8
                          30
                            /2
                              00
                         5/      8
                           7/
                             20
                               08
                         5/




Space
                           9/
                             20
                        5/     0
                          13 8
                            /2


                 Date
                              00
                        5/       8
                          15
                            /2
                                                                                                       Respect Personal Space




                              00
                        5/       8
                          20
                            /2
                              00
                                 8
Linear (Space)
                        5/
                          27
                            /2
                              00
                        5/       8
                          29
                            /2
                              00
                         6/      8
                           2/
                             20
                               08
                         6/
                           4/
                             20
                               08
                         6/
                           6/
                             20
                               08
                                                      Daily Percentage




                                                                                              100%




                                   0%
                                        10%
                                              20%
                                                    30%
                                                          40%
                                                                50%
                                                                      60%
                                                                            70%
                                                                                  80%
                                                                                        90%
                        4/1/2008
                        4/2/2008
                        4/3/2008
                        4/4/2008
                        4/7/2008
                        4/9/2008
                       4/10/2008
                       4/14/2008
                       4/15/2008
                       4/16/2008
                       4/21/2008
                       4/22/2008
                       4/30/2008
                        5/1/2008
                        5/7/2008




Area
                                                          3




                        5/8/2008
                        5/9/2008




                Date
                       5/12/2008
                       5/13/2008
                                                                                                     Remain in Appropriate Area




                       5/14/2008


Linear (Area)
                       5/15/2008
                       5/19/2008
                       5/20/2008
                       5/21/2008
                       5/27/2008
                       5/28/2008
                       5/29/2008
                       5/30/2008
                        6/2/2008
                        6/3/2008
                        6/4/2008
                        6/5/2008
                        6/6/2008
                                                                Daily Percentage
                            4/
                               1/




                                         0%
                                              10%
                                                    20%
                                                          30%
                                                                  40%
                                                                        50%
                                                                              60%
                                                                                    70%
                                                                                          80%
                                                                                                90%
                                 20
                                    08                                                                100%
                            4/
                               3/
                                 20
                                    08
                            4/
                               7/
                                 20
                           4/       08
                              10
                                /2
                                   00
                           4/        8
                              15
                                /2
                                   00
                           4/        8
                              21
                                /2
                                   00
                           4/        8
                              30
                                /2
                                   00
                            5/       8
                               7/
                                 20
                                    08
                            5/




Language
                               9/
                                 20
                           5/       08
                              13



                    Date
                                /2
                                   00
                           5/        8
                              15
                                                                                                             Use Respectful Language




                                /2
                                   00
                           5/        8
                              20
                                /2
                                   00
                                     8
Linear (Language)
                           5/
                              27
                                /2
                                   00
                           5/        8
                              29
                                /2
                                   00
                            6/       8
                               2/
                                 20
                                    08
                            6/
                               4/
                                 20
                                    08
                            6/
                               6/
                                 20
                                    08
Some things to consider when analyzing
data:
   Does the trend line show an overall upward trend?

   Does the trend line indicate that the student is making
    adequate progress?

   What is the range (peaks and valleys)? Do the lowest data
    points show an overall upward trend?

   Do we notice any patterns?

   What happens if we take out the outliers?

   How many days are above 80%? How many below 70%?
Some notes:
   Initially, the team was concerned that the
    data would not accurately reflect high
    intensity behaviors.

   Both of the original target behaviors
    showed an upward trend.
Case Study:
   Kindergarten boy eligible as ED

   Behaviors:
       Running away from the classroom
       Aggression toward peers
       Work refusal
       Tantrums
       Few school behavior skills
                                                           Percentage




                                                                                               100%




                                    0%
                                         10%
                                               20%
                                                     30%
                                                           40%
                                                                 50%
                                                                       60%
                                                                             70%
                                                                                   80%
                                                                                         90%
                         1/8/2008
                        1/11/2008
                        1/17/2008
                        1/24/2008
                        1/30/2008
                         2/7/2008
                        2/15/2008
                        2/21/2008
                        2/27/2008
                         3/3/2008
                        3/10/2008
                        3/18/2008




Total
                        3/31/2008
                         4/7/2008




                 Date
                        4/10/2008
                        4/16/2008




Linear (Total)
                        4/21/2008
                                                                                                      Total Daily Percentage




                        4/24/2008
                        4/29/2008
                         5/2/2008
                        5/15/2008
                        5/20/2008
                        5/28/2008
                         6/2/2008
                         6/5/2008
                        6/10/2008
Notes:
   By the end of January, the staff had been
    consistently implementing the behavior plan, but
    the data clearly showed that the student was not
    making adequate progress.

   The staff formed a hypothesis about the lowest
    data points: these were days when the student’s
    morning check-in routine changed. This remained
    consistent.

   The staff analyzed the student’s schedule and
    identified one hour in his day in which he needed
    additional support. The data was used as
    justification for requesting IA time.
Designing a Data System
   The card should focus on systematically reinforcing positive
    behaviors so that the data will demonstrate whether or not
    the student is making progress on his/her goals.

   Use a separate documentation system for high intensity
    behaviors.

   At least 2/3 of the behaviors that are being reinforced
    should be behaviors that the student already performs
    consistently.

   The data system that tracks positive behaviors can also be
    used as a reinforcement system.
Name:                 8:30   9:00   9:30   10:00   10:30   11:00   11:30   12:00   12:30   1:00   1:30   2:00   2:30

Date:


Respect Pers. Space



Respectful Language



In Expected Area



Work / Participate



Follow Directions




Bonus:
Home / School Communication Log

Name:___________________           Date: ________________

Percentage of positive reinforcers given:
Respect for Personal Space and Property      _______%
Used Respectful Language                     _______%
Remained in Assigned Area                    _______%
Met Work Expectations
                                  _______%
Personal Goal: ___________________           _______%
Personal Goal: ___________________           _______%
Bonus Points: ________                       _______%

Total Combined Percentage:                   _______%

Earned access to store today:   _______ Yes       _______
No

Notes / Comments:
  High Intensity Behavior Data
  TIME/       ANTECENDENT             BEHAVIOR            CONSEQUENCE        Comments
   staff
             W C     P   R        H   R C S      K      CHOICE   TOE TOH
                                                                 Duration:

             W C     P   R        H   R   C S    K      CHOICE   TOE TOH
                                                                 Duration:



*Parent notified of restraint via PHONE or in writing

            ____________________ date & initials


CIRCLE each one that applies:
Antecedent: W = work time C = Classroom P = play R = recess
Behavior: H = hit R = run away C = climbing          S=spit   K= Kick
Consequence: C=Offered Choice Wheel TOE = time out easy (flip chart only)
TOH = time out hard (restraint)
Part 2: Functional Behavior
 Assessment for Multiple
     Target Behaviors
                                                         Desired Behavior            Consequence / Function
                                                     Raise hand for help and        Feeling confident in his
                                                     wait patiently.                ability to complete all
                                                     Move on to the next            assigned activities and ask
                                                     problem.                       for help whenever he
                                                     Be comfortable with not        needs it.
                                                     always knowing what to
                                                     do.

      Setting Event                 Antecedent           Problem Behavior            Consequence / Function
Performance anxiety         Frustrating academic     Aggression                     Avoidance of difficult
General stress / anxiety    situations (see above)                                  work
Lower margin
Anger about something                                                               Relief from anxiety and
that happened earlier in                                                            frustration.
the day
External locus of control                                                           Gain processing time
Low self esteem.                                                                    before starting difficult
Less than two staff                                                                 assignments.
members present in
                                                     Alternative Behavior
room.                                                                               Gain assistance with
                                                                                    difficult assignments
                                                     Sit quietly and do nothing,    before becoming so
                                                     put head down on desk,         frustrated and
                                                     and/or go to the other         overwhelmed that he can
                                                     room and still earn all his    no longer remain safe.
                                                     points except in the area of
                                                     working. Another option
                                                     is for Student to pace
                                                     around the room as long
                                                     as he remains safe.
Setting up situations where no    T-chart explaining positive    Teach Student acceptable        Reinforce attempts at using
matter what happens, he will      outcomes for being safe.       strategies for coping with      calming strategies.
earn the reinforcers (to          Grouping with students         frustrating learning
alleviate performance             who work at a slower pace      situations such as: sit         Consequences for not
anxiety.)                         or work individually.          quietly and do nothing, put     finishing work are minimal,
                                                                 head down on desk, and/or       as long as he is using his
Avoid setting expectations for    Preteaching before he is       go to the other room.           calming strategies. (i.e. one
things that are probably          given an activity (i.e.” no                                    X for working, but Student
beyond his control such           one is expected to know        Adults will accept these        earns points in all other
having a 100% day, not            this already”, “if you don’t   behaviors as cues from          areas)
having restraints… but also       know the answer, here’s        Student that he needs to
reinforcing him when he does      what you should do”),          take a break. Student will      Maintain same schedule, no
achieve these things.                                            continue to receive points      matter what the work
Setting up situations where he    Be very explicit about the     on his card. Adults will not    production (goes to recess,
can be the expert or teach        expected response for each     prompt him to continue          lunch, etc.)
someone or be the quick           activity and each situation.   working.
learner.                                                                                         Bonus points for use of
                                  Clear rules and                Assist Student to identify      calming strategies.
Student will have two OIS-        expectations about what is     triggers.                       Give points before the half
trained staff members in the      allowed at school (re                                          hour is up in order to
room with him at all times,       aggressive behavior),          Teach types of calming          remind Student of how well
unless the activity is rated at   including both acts of         strategies that are             he is doing.
a two or below. A third           aggression and threatening     appropriate / available such
OIS-trained staff member          gestures.                      as: working in a quieter        Student avoids
will be available by walkie-                                     location, using clay, sitting   assignments that are just
talkie.                           Procedure for presenting       with head down.                 too overwhelming by
                                  assignments and giving                                         using the SOS strategy.
                                  processing time (see           Encourage Student to            Student avoids needing
                                  below)*                        continue working when it        immediate adult
                                                                 is clear that he is calm        assistance by using
                                                                 enough to do so.                processing time before
                                                                                                 starting a difficult
                                                                 Teach and reinforce an          assignment.
                                                                 SOS strategy when
                                                                 Student needs help with
                                                                 an assignment but
                                                                 doesn’t feel comfortable
                                                                 asking or doesn’t know
                                                                 what he needs help with.
Group Behaviors According to Function
   Use interviews, observations, file reviews,
    and data collection to develop hypotheses
    about functions

   These hypotheses will change as staff
    learn more about the student
Case Study: Henry
   Henry’s early life is marked by severe social and economic deprivation. His mother,
    Esmerelda, was homeless, taking shelter wherever she could find it, including a
    basement, garage, and even a barn. She had multiple sexual partners and does not
    know for certain who Henry’s father is. Although offered assistance, she would accept
    only food, refusing shelter or medical care. She received no prenatal care, but does
    not appear to have used drugs or alcohol.

   Both Henry and his sister were removed from Esmerelda’s care when they were quite
    young. The sister displayed severe aggression. At one point, she bit through the
    thumb of her caregiver. She was eventually returned to the care of her mother.
    Henry proved much more manageable and was soon adopted. Although Henry
    displayed some aggressive behaviors toward his foster sister at first, they soon
    bonded and formed a loving relationship.

   Henry continues to struggle with appropriate social skills. He still sometimes bites or
    scratches when someone gets into his personal space. He plays too rough with his
    foster sister, then is upset when she retaliates by hitting him. Over time, these
    behaviors have decreased significantly in intensity and frequency. Currently, the
    main problem reported is that he does not respect the property of others, often
    breaking or stealing toys and other objects. He has made progress with his behavior
    program, although his caregiver struggles with consistency and follow-through.
Henry
Peyton (Tier 1)
                      Typical Escalation Cycle



                                Unsafe




               Self Indulgent             De-escalating




            Noncompliant                            Calm




Compliant
                                                           Ready to Return
Self Indulgent Behavior
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s13dLaTIHSg
Behavior      Function                           Behaviors
   Category                                      (reference school rules)
Cooperative   For most kids:                     Respecting Personal Space
Behavior      To gain a sense of pride and
              accomplishment about school        Appropriate Language
              skills. Desire to please trusted
              adults.                            Staying in the Expected Area

              To gain access to peer and         Meeting Work Expectations /
              adult attention.                   Participation

              To gain access to tangibles.       Following Directions

              To participate in reinforcing
              activities such as free time,
              computers, and recess
Behavior        Function:                Behaviors
Category
Uncooperative   To avoid work or         Breaking of the classroom
Behavior        less-preferred           guidelines through refusals or
                activities.              other forms of nondestructive
                                         non-compliance.
                To avoid feelings of
                frustration, low self-   Refusals to work
                esteem, anger,
                anxiety,                 Not participating in an activity
                overstimulation.
Behavior          Function:   Behaviors
Category

Self Indulgent    To gain     Tantrums
Behavior          attention   Verbal Diversions
                              Sulking
(a.k.a.                       Emotional Reactions
Attention-                    Blaming others
getting, power-               Strong statements of opinion
struggle, etc.)               Crawling under tables
                              Head down on desk
                              Tapping
                              Obnoxious Noises
                              Property Disruption such as: pushing desks,
                              ripping papers, throwing things, etc.
Behavior   Function:            Behaviors
Category
Unsafe     Escape/Avoidance     Physical Aggression toward others
Behavior
           Attention            Property Destruction that could result
                                in harm to self or others.
           Physical Contact

           Need for External
           Control

           Biochemical Payoff
Case Study
Move-in second grader student from another
 district.

Student is identified as ED.

The student had graduated from a day-treatment
  program. His previous staff had recommended a
  regular ed placement. It is soon clear that this
  student has had little previous experience in a
  structured educational environment. Staff are
  scrambling to update his IEP, FBA, and behavior
  plan.
A Laundry List of Problem Behaviors:
   Puts a pink pearl eraser totally in his mouth

   Lays on the floor with his feet in the air.

   Puts a unifix cube in his mouth and lies down.

   Walks by kids and puts them in head locks.

   Doing math, counts out loud and shows all of the kids..."oh, my middle finger is left!"
    Upset other kids in the group.

   Talks out, non-stop. Interrupting the teacher constantly with inappropriate things.

   Poking other kids in line.

   Makes weapon paper clips (bends)

   Dumps books out of teachers bookshelf and climbs onto shelf.

   Under desks and tables.
1. Cooperative Behavior                          Respecting Personal Space
                                                 Appropriate Language
Function:                                        In Expected Area
To gain access to peer and adult                 Met Work Expectations
   attention.                                    Personal Goals such as “raise hand,” “take
To gain access to tangibles.                     care of yourself,” etc.
To participate in reinforcing
   activities such as freetime,
   computers, and recess.

2. Uncooperative Behavior                        Breaking of the classroom guidelines
Function:                                        through refusals or other forms of
To avoid work or less-preferred                  nondestructive non-compliance.
activities.
                                                 Refusals to work

                                                 Not participating in an activity



 Note: Additional observation and data collection is needed in order to develop this part of the behavior
                                              plan further.
3. Self Indulgent Behavior           Arguing, name-calling
                                     Playing with objects or using then
Function:                            inappropriately
To gain peer and/or adult            Personal space issues – touching other
attention                            kids, tapping, poking, etc.
                                     Banging head (not hard)
                                     Inappropriate stories or comments
                                     Interrupts
                                     Inappropriate gestures
                                     Under desk or table
                                     Property disruption


4. Unsafe Behavior                   Physical Aggression toward others.
                                     Property Destruction that could result in
Function: To escape or avoid less-   harm to self or others.
preferred activities AND to gain     Climbing on high structures
attention                            Runs away
Part 3: Behavior Planning
XKCD.com/365
Behavior             Examples             Procedure
Category

1. Cooperative       Respecting          Students have access to a variety of
   Behavior          Personal Space       reinforcers throughout the environment
                                          including social reinforcers, enriching
Function:            Appropriate         activities, and tangibles.
To gain access to    Language
   peer and adult                         M. earns points on his card throughout
   attention.        In Expected Area    the day. Most of the time, he is in his
To gain access to
                                          appropriate area, respects personal space,
   tangibles.
                     Met Work            and completes work. However, he
To participate in
   reinforcing       Expectations        struggles with swearing, using a mean
   activities such                        tone of voice, and saying unkind things to
   as freetime,      Personal Goals      peers and teachers. His personal goals,
   computers,        such as “raise       therefore are: using school appropriate
   and recess.       hand,” “take care of language (swearing), tone of voice, and
                     yourself,” etc.      using kind words.
2. Uncooperative   Breaking of the        1.Restate the direction.
Behavior           classroom guidelines    2.Wait 30 seconds, then restate the direction in
                   through refusals or     an objective, non-judgmental, non-emotional
Function:          other forms of          fashion.
To avoid work or   nondestructive non-     3.Restate the direction with the positive
less-preferred     compliance.             consequences.
activities.        Refusals to work       4.Wait 1-2 mins., then restate the direction
                   Not participating in   with both the positive and negative
                   an activity             consequences.
                                           5.Wait 2-3 minutes, then begin the sequence
                                           again.
3. Self Indulgent   Arguing, name-         Use planned ignoring strategies:
Behavior            calling
                                           Ignore student statements
Function:           Playing with objects Increase physical distance
To gain peer        or using them          Become preoccupied with another
and/or adult        inappropriately        activity
attention                                  Increase positive interactions with other
                    Personal space issues students.
                    – touching other kids,
                    tapping, poking, etc.  Do not comment on the self-indulgent
                                           behavior.
                    Banging head (not     1.After about 3 minutes or immediately
                    hard)                  upon cessation, restate the expectation,
                                           without mention of the student’s self-
                    Inappropriate stories indulgent behavior.
                    or comments            2.Repeat #1, wait 5 mins., then restate the
                                           original expectation.
                    Interrupts            3.Repeat the steps above until compliance
                                           or unsafe behavior occurs.
                    Inappropriate
                    gestures

                    Under desk or table
4. Unsafe Behavior     Physical Aggression        1.Cue M. to take a time out. He can take his time
                       toward others.              out by sitting quietly at his desk or in a chair in the
Function: To escape    Property Destruction       classroom for two minutes.
or avoid less-         that could result in harm   2.If M. does not take a time out and/or attempts to
preferred activities   to self or others.          leave, remove other students from the area. Staff
AND to gain            Climbing on high           will monitor doorways and windows to ensure that
attention              structures                  M. does not leave until the time out is complete.
                       Runs away                  3.Staff will avoid talking to M. during this period.
                                                   4.De-escalation sequence:
                                                   Begin time out when student is calm and quiet. Set
                                                   the timer if needed.
                                                   Reestablish compliance by giving the student one
                                                   or more neutral tasks.
                                                   Resume verbal reinforcement.
                                                   Student restores the environment (with help if
                                                   needed).
                                                   Give a choice between two tasks, one of which is
                                                   the original task.
                                                   Resume the point system and continue with verbal
                                                   reinforcement.
                                                   Student completes the original task.
                                                   Resume the schedule and access to all reinforcers
                                                   throughout the environment.
Review and Analysis
   Staff will conduct observations, assessments, and
    interviews to further develop the FBA.

   The current plan is diagnostic: that is, if the strategies don’t
    work, it is likely that the team’s hypothesis about the
    function is incorrect.

   Weekly reviews of data graphs will help determine whether
    the student’s positive behaviors are increasing.

   The current plan is weak in the areas of positive
    reinforcement and strategies to address compliant
    behavior.
Troubleshooting Behavior Plans
   Is there a systematic reinforcement system in
    place that targets the development of positive
    school behaviors?
       Respect for personal space and property
       Respectful and appropriate language
       In expected area
       Working / Participation
       Follows directions

   Is the student reinforced for positive behaviors
    that he or she already does well?

   Does the student have access to a variety of
    reinforcing activities throughout the day?
Is there a data system in place, and does
  the team review data regularly to monitor
  progress and make changes to the
  program?
When you observe the student, do you find
 materials organized and ready to go?
     Is the curriculum prepped?
     Is the curriculum meaningful and appropriate?
     Are all adaptive materials present and up-to-
      date?
     Is the student’s work area neat and well-
      organized?
When you ask questions about the plan,
 does everyone involved know what to do
 (classroom teacher, IAs, student, etc.)?

Is it clear to you, when you observe, what
  the plan is meant to be?

Do the IAs receive regular training and
 feedback on the plan?
Do staff use humor to engage kids?
Behavior Teaching
1.   Direct Instruction
2.   Coaching
3.   Practice / Repetition
4.   Feedback
Direct Instruction
Behavior is the only academic skill that we expect
  students to learn without direct instruction.

Where and how does direct instruction occur?
     Social skills groups
     Social stories
     Role Play
     Visual cues
     Counseling

  Note: The student MUST be able to demonstrate
  the skill in a 1:1 or small group setting before he
  or she can be expected to perform it consistently
  in a classroom.
Coaching
In order to generalize behavior skills,
  students need a coach to help them
  practice the skills within the school
  setting.

  Nonverbal cues
  Visuals
  Routines
  Frequent positive reinforcement
  Pre-teaching / debriefing
Practice / Repetition
Tier 3 students will need much more
  practice and repetition in order to
  demonstrate the skill consistently.

The student will need to practice the skill in
  all environments where the skill is needed.

The student will likely experience setbacks
  and regression.
Feedback
Tier 3 students need significantly more feedback than other
   students. (frequency and intensity)

Remember that negative feedback is better than no feedback.

Consequence strategies are an important part of the behavior
  support plan, but they will not be effective unless the
  reinforcement system is very powerful.
       Remember who our Tier 3 kids are…

4:1 positives

The most powerful positive reinforcement tool that we have is
  the relationship.
Another Look: Henry’s FBA and BP
Using a Competing Pathways Format
                                 Functional Behavior Assessment
                                              And
                                     Behavior Support Plan

Routines Analysis:

Activity                       Likelihood of Problem        Specific Behavior
                                      Behavior
                                       1=Low
                                      5=High
Eating                                   1                  Friendly behavior. Rubs on ankles. Meows
                                                            endearingly.
Sleeping                                  1                 Sleeps soundly. When petted, will purr.

Outside                                   1                 Asks permission in a polite manner
                                          3                 Occasionally fights with other cats in the
                                                            neighborhood.
Playing with Peer                         4                 Play usually becomes too rough and results in a
                                                            fight.
Independent Play                          3                 Plays appropriately with toys. Sometimes climbs on
                                                            bookshelves in order to knock things off. Also,
                                                            climbs on counters in order to see what is going on.
Being petted                              3                 Likes to be petted only for a short time, then
                                                            becomes over-stimulated and tries to bite or scratch.
                                                            Tail twitching is a good early warning sign.
Pooping and Peeing                        2                 May look for other options if litter box is full.

Behaviors:
The following problem behaviors are noted:
    Property Disruption (knocking objects off of shelves)
    Out of area (climbing on counters)
    Refuses to follow directions
    Aggression toward peer during play
    Aggression toward adults during physical intervention
    Aggression toward adults while being petted
    Enuresis
                                                        Desired Behavior         Consequence / Function
                                                      Appropriate and            Get/obtain:
                                                      charming kitty             Mental stimulation
                                                      behaviors such as          Attention
                                                      purring, ankle rubbing,
                                                      head-butting, and          Escape / avoid:
                                                      playing with kitty toys.   overstimulation from
                                                                                 being petted too long

     Setting Event              Antecedent              Problem Behavior         Consequence / Function
Unable to go outside      Boredom – leads to          Property destruction       Get/obtain:
because of bad weather.   aggression toward peer      Out of area                Mental stimulation
                          or property destruction     Aggression                 Attention
                                                      Enuresis
                          Curiosity about what is                                Escape / avoid:
                          going on in areas that he                              overstimulation from
                          can’t see                                              being petted tool long

                          Over stimulation –                                     Instinctive need to take
                          when petted too much.                                  care of bodily functions
                                                       Alternative Behavior      hygienically.
                          Full litterbox
                                                      Signal politely when
                                                      he is bored and wants
                                                      to go outside.

                                                      Sit on barstool to see
                                                      over counter.

                                                      Tail twitching to
                                                      signal when he is done
                                                      being petted
                         Henry’s Behavior Plan
 Setting Event Strategies   Manipulate Antecedent            Teach Behavior            Alter Consequences

Access to a variety of      Bring out new toys           Teach alternate             Give attention and
toys.                       from time to time.           strategies for satisfying   praise for sitting on the
                                                         curiosity: climb on         counter stool, climbing
Cat nip administered        Give attention and           counter stools to view      in appropriate areas,
regularly in order to       praise during                counter, sit on             and playing
maintain genial mood.       appropriate behavior –       windowsill, open            appropriately with toys.
                            prior to jumping on the      curtains with paw
Access to outdoors.         counter.                                                 Give attention to peer
                                                                                     for ignoring Henry,
“Kitty proof”               Stop petting as soon as                                  when he starts to
bookshelves.                the tip of the tail starts                               roughhouse.
                            to move.
Provide appropriate areas
for climbing.               Provide appropriate
                            outlets for aggressive
Maintain clean litter box   behavior – squeaky
at all times.               pillow.

                            Separate peer before
                            play gets too rough.
“Good boy, Henry!”

								
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