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					                   Green Housing Block
                            NNE5/1999/669

Solar Low Energy Concrete Housing Block Renovation in Grenoble and Portsmouth
              as Part of European Green Solar Cities Co-operation




                     FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT
                                 Feb. 2004




                       Cenergia Energy Consultants
Final Report                                                                                                                 Green Housing Block




Table of Contents:

PROJECT DETAILS .............................................................................................................................. 3
   INNOVATION IN PORTSMOUTH AND GRENOBLE ...................................................................................... 6
     Further information on the Grenoble project .................................................................................... 7
   MANAGEMENT ........................................................................................................................................ 8
AIM AND GENERAL DESCRIPTION .............................................................................................. 11
   HILLSLEY ROAD, UNITED KINGDOM: SUSTAINABLE HOUSING SOLUTIONS IN DIFFICULT AND
   CHALLENGING URBAN AREAS ............................................................................................................... 11
     Site ................................................................................................................................................... 12
     Installation ....................................................................................................................................... 15
     Performance Monitoring System...................................................................................................... 24
     Initial monitoring results / commissioning....................................................................................... 25
   GRENOBLE, FRANCE: L'ISLE D'ABEAU - REDUCTION OF RUNNING COSTS IN SOCIAL HOUSING THROUGH
   ENERGY AND WATER SAVING ................................................................................................................ 29
     Site ................................................................................................................................................... 31
     Installation ....................................................................................................................................... 31
     Performance Monitoring System...................................................................................................... 36
CONSTRUCTION, INSTALLATION AND COMMISSIONING ................................................... 37
   HILLSLEY ROAD ................................................................................................................................... 37
     Project Management ........................................................................................................................ 38
     Problems, Solutions and Successes.................................................................................................. 38
     Modifications and Over-runs ........................................................................................................... 39
     Costs ................................................................................................................................................ 40
     Suppliers .......................................................................................................................................... 42
   GRENOBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 42
     Project Management ........................................................................................................................ 44
     Problems, Solutions and Successes.................................................................................................. 44
     Modifications and Over-runs ........................................................................................................... 44
     Time Schedule .................................................................................................................................. 44
     Costs ................................................................................................................................................ 45
OPERATION AND RESULTS............................................................................................................. 46
   HILLSLEY ROAD ................................................................................................................................... 46
     Operating History ............................................................................................................................ 47
     Performance..................................................................................................................................... 47
     Successes of the Project ................................................................................................................... 47
     Operating Costs ............................................................................................................................... 47
     Future of the Installation ................................................................................................................. 47
     Economic Viability........................................................................................................................... 48
     Environmental Impact...................................................................................................................... 48
   GRENOBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 48
     Operating History ............................................................................................................................ 48
     Performance..................................................................................................................................... 48
     Successes of the Project ................................................................................................................... 49
     Operating Costs ............................................................................................................................... 49
     Future of the Installation ................................................................................................................. 49
     Economic Viability........................................................................................................................... 50
     Environmental Impact...................................................................................................................... 50
   ENERGY QUALITY VERIFICATION .......................................................................................................... 50
   GENERAL HORIZONTAL WORK ON ENERGY EFFICIENT VENTILATION .................................................... 51
PUBLICITY, COMMERCIALISATION AND OTHER DEVELOPMENTS ................................ 55
Final Report                                                                                                            Green Housing Block




   HILLSLEY ROAD ................................................................................................................................... 55
   GRENOBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 55
     Outlook............................................................................................................................................. 55
LESSONS LEARNED/CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................. 59
   HILLSLEY ROAD ................................................................................................................................... 59
   GRENOBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 59
     Commercialisation........................................................................................................................... 60
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................... 61

PHOTOGRAPHS .................................................................................................................................. 62
   HILLSLEY ROAD ................................................................................................................................... 62
   GRENOBLE ............................................................................................................................................ 64
ANNEX ................................................................................................................................................... 66




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Project Details
The ”Green Solar Housing Block” project is linked to the ”European Green Cities” co-
operation of the European Green Cities Network and includes practical demonstration
projects in Portsmouth in the UK and in l’Isle de Arbeau near Grenoble in France.

In the Green Housing Block project it is aimed to demonstrate how to optimise use of
innovative solar energy technologies together with energy savings and an optimised
energy supply for different types of buildings.

Together with a collaborative effort in connection to another European project, Green
Solar Regions, it has been the aim is to start an urban ecology management process as
part of the European Green Cities co-operation. Here a co-operation between builders,
cities, contractors, suppliers/producers and utilities is aimed at.

The project in Hillside Road, Portsmouth (UK) is a redeveloping project for an
existing redundant urban site to provide 8 new houses, 1 apartments and a retail shop
to serve the local community. The site is located within a large housing estate, on a
south-facing hillside overlooking the city and harbour occupying land immediately at
the edge of a motorway. The project seeks to respond to the challenge of providing a
housing solution in difficult and challenging urban areas. The proximity of the
motorway to the site raises a number of issues that need to be dealt with in the design
of the project. These include overcoming the problems of noise and air pollution,
whilst maximising the benefits of the orientation of the site in terms of thermal
performance and views to Portsmouth Harbour.

The scheme is intended to be an exemplary project for Portsmouth City Council. This
has been the first opportunity for the Local Authority to build houses under their newly
formed status as Unitary Authority. The objective of the project is to show that
sustainable social housing can not only perform well in terms of energy consumption
but can also environmentally responsive against a background of difficult conditions.
The overriding objective of the Authority is to achieve these aims alongside the
requirement to provide homes that are not only comfortable but are also adaptable to
changing needs and accessible to all regardless of age or degree of mobility.

The objective of the project are to use the following items in an architectural and
environmental optimal way:

•   A general passive design for the houses so you can avoid nearly all heating demand
•   Solar generated heat for DHW and conservatory
•   Demonstration of energy efficient heat recovery ventilation systems with
•   Ventilation air heated by solar gains and demonstration of fans driven by PV
    generated electricity
•   Recycled rainwater/grey waste water
•   Buffer zone integrated as part of house plan to address noise generated from
    motorway


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The project in L’Isle d’Abeau (France) is a retrofit programme of 110 social dwellings
with a very important action about energy saving and water saving. The project site is
in the city of L’Isle d’Abeau which is a new town 30 km from Lyon in the Rhone Alpe
region of France.

The main objective has been to demonstrate the possibilities to retrofit dwellings with
renewable energies like photovoltaic panels and solar collectors for domestic hot
water. The architectural integration of solar energy was an important aspect because
there’s a lot of criticisms about that.

It is so aimed to demonstrate the possibilities to reduce maintenance costs in social
housing with renewable energies, energy saving and water saving and to improve the
situation of inhabitants. Most of them have economic difficulties. The aim is to reach
affordable costs.

This project concerns a building which is a part of a new town built during the
seventies and eighties. It is at the same time a good example for a lot of European
cities which have social and ecological problems.

This project is so a mean to improve guidelines and education process for builders and
consultants and to develop external and internal knowledge about environmental
technologies. An other aim is also to develop renewable energies which generate more
work places than the other energy sources. The dissemination will be done with local
actors dealing with environmental and energy improvements, and partners who are
member of the OPET network.

The first aim has been to develop use of solar energy in housing, faced to the European
objectives to have 50 % renewable energy contribution to energy needs in the longer
term. So 150 m² solar panels have been fitted for domestic hot water. The intention is
also to develop photovoltaic modules for ventilation and lighting. It is important to
demonstrate that there are not only niche application for photovoltaic energy, but
other applications available in the future. 50 m² of PV modules are to be used.

So a total energy approach was aimed: replacement of electricity for heating with
natural gas with high efficient and low NOX emissions collective boiler; efficient
pumps; action about insulation and shutters; optimisation of lighting in common areas;
action with end users about fluocompact lamps and specific electricity consumption
behaviour. The total will contribute to reach the EU objective to reduce the greenhouse
gas emissions from 25 %.

So a total environment approach is aimed with water saving measures, action about life
comfort and communication towards inhabitants about wastes.




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The partnership between the members of the « Green Housing Block » team aimed to
demonstrate that energy saving and renewable energies could be a good mean to
reduce maintenance costs in social housing. That is the condition to have a constant or
lower combined «rent + maintenance costs » after the retrofit programme to reach the
affordable cost.

So it is important to demonstrate a good solar design in retrofit with good architectural
integration of solar panels in the façades.

Trough a partnership with other « European Green Solar Cities » proposers, an aim is
to develop common guidelines for residential sector regarding renewable energies,
energy efficiency, and sustainable building with good integration of solar design.

As described the use of an optimised solar low-energy design has been demonstrated
with a large concrete housing block retrofit project in France and a small but very
ambitious new build passive solar housing design in the UK.

In the Green Housing Block project it was also intended to develop guidelines
presenting best available European practices for retrofit and new-built city areas
concerning energy efficient, sustainable building with integration of solar energy
design. A working group was initiated, defining targets and recommendations. In
addition to this there has been realised work on environmental assessment with the
BREEAM/Beeam tool, total economic optimisation with the Optibuild tool and ”green
account” calculations with a tool developed by the Danish Building Research Institute.

The Green Housing Block project is referring to the theme “Energy, environment and
sustainable development” under part B - energy. The key action is key action 6 –
“Economic and efficient energy for a competitive Europe”.

Thematic priorities are 6.1.1 – Spatial integration, 6.1.2 – Building sustainability and
6.1.3 Efficient heating, cooling, ventilation, lighting systems and domestic appliances
and integration of renewables into buildings.

This project includes several energy saving technologies in two countries. The main
contribution to the programme is the innovative developments in the proposed
technologies and the cross European dissemination of innovative solutions.

Before the project started constructive discussions/exchange of experiences within
European Green Cities Network comprising representatives from 9 European countries
- have clearly shown the importance of strengthening the “cross-European” dialogue
on both technology/innovation and market development aspects, which is a crucial
objective for the present project.




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Innovation in Portsmouth and Grenoble
The design in Portsmouth uses several different methods of reducing energy
consumption and environmental impact and is combining them to optimise energy
performance of the houses within reasonable cost parameters. These methods include
using high levels of insulation in conjunction with passive solar design, solar panels
for hot water, under floor heating of ventilation air, water saving measures, low energy
lighting and internal shutters. The houses will be built primarily of thick masonry
construction to overcome the problems of noise generated by the motorway and to
increase thermal capacity to minimise overheating. Triple glazed acoustic windows
will also be used to reduce noise with the added benefit that they greatly reduce heat
loss. The houses are very advanced compared to normal UK housing standard and they
will try to meet the ideas of a “passive solar housing” design.

Consulting Engineers, Arup Environmental, have carried out an air quality survey on
the site and predicted the future levels of pollution using computer modelling. The
results helped to generate the site ‘contouring’ which enables the houses to be located
on the least affected parts of the site and leaving the most affected spaces for access
roads and parking etc.

In order to provide a clean and comfortable built environment, mechanical ventilation
with heat recovery and filters have been incorporated and large internal recreation
spaces are provided to compensate for the lack of usable external space. Here the
project has utilised experience from the Eu-Joule project “PV-VENT” and experience
from this project has been incorporated in some of the used technical solutions.

The environmental aspects of this project are particularly relevant as Portsmouth City
Council is one of 12 U.K. councils who are partners in a programme monitoring
pollution levels aimed at achieving compliance with standards set out in the European
Clean Air Act which comes into force in 2005.

The project in L’Isle d’Abeau near Lyon deals with 110 dwellings in 3 social housing
buildings in a new town 30 kilometres of a regional capital. In these buildings there
were a lot of turn-over and an high rate of vacancies because of the high level of
maintenance costs for heat (actually an electric heating) and for domestic hot water.
So, through the retrofit programme, the intention was to reduce maintenance costs
with an improvement of quality of life and treatment of all environmental aspects.

Through the programme, the objective was to reduce common areas electricity
consumption from 8 % with photovoltaic panels. The solar collectors for domestic hot
water is used to reduce the consumption of energy for DHW around 45 %. By a total
energy approach (PV, solar thermal panels, insulation, optimisation of efficiency of
pumps, commons areas electricity uses, ventilation), the aim was to reduce the total
energy consumption around 40 %.



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The total maintenance costs were aimed to be decreased by 35 %. This is a very
important demonstration because a lot of old buildings in Europe, notably social
housing buildings have high maintenance costs linked with social problems..

The following innovative measures have been included in the “L’Isle d’Abeau”
project.


Further information on the Grenoble project

Solar energy

Photovoltaic modules are generally used in country sites which have no electricity net
or for street furniture. The innovative is to use PV technology for urban area electricity
uses. The payback time is very long but the project anticipate the future improvement
of PV technology. This contribute to the development of the photovoltaic market.

A very innovative system of monitoring for the solar domestic hot water has also been
introduced with a continuous tele maintenance and a with a performances garanty
contract which assure the performances of the installation with a garanty. The system
name is GRS, (Garantie de Résultats Solaires).

Total environmental approach

The realised actions about systems for heating, electricity in commons areas,
renewable energies, water saving systems, wastes, and reduction of work nuisances, is
in total seen as a very innovative total environmental approach.

Innovative retrofit programme

The global method of this programme is innovative.
Usually, the retrofit programmes concern only the improvement of comfort. The users
have to support an increase of their rent linked with bad social effects. In this project,
with the co-operation with the « Green Housing Block » partners, OPAC 38 has been
allowed to show that a retrofit programme with energy and water saving actions insure
to reach a lower cupple « rent – maintenance » costs after in term of a mean to reduce
turn – over and vacancies. This approach is aimed to be an example for other housing
associations trough the dissemination.

Education of end users

After the project was realised the most important part of maintenance costs are the
specific electricity uses. So, an action has taken place with visits to all end users to
explain them the works, to explain the possibilities to reduce their consumption, to
describe the means to do that, and to sensibilise them about energy saving, water
saving, wastes treatment. The aim was here to move their environment and energy
consumption behaviour.

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Management

According to what is said in the EU-contract the project has been managed by a
management team consisting of Green City Denmark, Cenergia and Metec, with
Cenergia as responsible for the overall technical management and Green City Denmark
as the administrative organisation making financial reports as in the European Green
Cities target project from 1996-2000.

Metec’s role as co-ordinator has been devoted to a role as the head of a working group
in the beginning of the project where targets and general recommendations were
agreed with the main work already at the time up to the common workshop in
Denmark in March 2001. Besides support was given from Metec to OPAC38 in
Grenoble, and Metec has been active in the general Green Cities work in the project.

The following project meetings have been held in the project:

July 2000         Meeting on targets and recommendations in Torino (Cenergia and
                  Metec).

March 2001        Partner meeting and workshop in Roskilde DK. Site visits.
                  Management team meeting

February 2002     Management team meeting and partner meeting in Salzburg.

October 2002      Management team meeting and partner meeting in Kempen.

February 2003     Partner meeting in Torino, IT, management team meeting.

June 2003         Partner meeting in Grenoble, site visit, management team meeting.

October 2003      Partner meeting in Torino, IT, management team meeting.

December 2003     Meeting in Portsmouth, Cenergia and PCC.

February 2004     Partner meeting in Portsmouth, site visit, management team
                  meeting.




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The following photos are from the meting in Roskilde.




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                                                 Green Housing Block (NNE5/1999/669)

                                                             Project Participants

                           Name               Address                                 Phone            Fax              E-mail
Company
OPAC38                     Laurent Bogiraud   47 Avenue Marie Reynoard, BP 2549,      +33-476205140    +33-476205147    laurant.bogiraud@opac38
                                              F-38035 Grenoble                                                          .fr
Portsmouth City Council    John Wellington    Civic Offices, Guildhall Square, UK-    +44-2392834257   +44-2392834855   jwellington@portsmouth
                                              PO1 2AX Portsmouth                                                        cc.gov.uk
Portsmouth City Council    Karl Allen         Civic Offices, Guildhall Square, UK-    +44-2392834257   +44-2392834855   karl.allen@portsmouthcc.
                                              PO1 2AX Portsmouth                                                        gov.uk
                       Mr. Salvatore Cali
Metec Engineering S.r.l.                      Corso Quintino Sella, 20, I-10131       +39-118195761    +39-118196007    meteceng@tiscalinet.it
                       Quaglia                Torino
Green City Denmark A/S Mr. Jens Frendrup      Gl. Kongevej, DK-1610 Copenhagen V      +45-33268981     +45-33268980     JF@greencity.dk
Green City Denmark A/S Ms. Lone Nielsen       Merkurvej910, DK-7400 Herning           +45-97216400     +45-97217421     LN@greencity.dk
Cenergia Energy        Mr. Peder Vejsig       Sct. Jacobs Vej 4, DK-2750 Ballerup     +45-44660099     +45-44660136     pvp@cenergia.dk
Consultants            Pedersen




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Aim and General Description
Hillsley Road, United Kingdom: Sustainable housing solutions in
difficult and challenging urban areas

The Hillsley Road demonstration project in Portsmouth,
UK, seeks to redevelop an existing redundant building site
situated in a difficult urban area in the immediate proximity
of a major motorway. Ten new houses, two apartments, and
a retail shop was planned. However due to much higher
costs the project was reduced to eight new houses, one flat
and the shop.
These were constructed in a manner that not only performs
well in terms of energy consumption and environmental
impact but also provides comfortable dwellings that
overcome the problems of noise and air pollution.
Moreover the Portsmouth municipality has an overriding
objective to provide homes with an adaptability that
complies with changing needs of inhabitants, regardless of
age or degree of mobility.

The demonstration project is monitored and evaluated, i.e.
by a survey of the tenants’ satisfaction, and will hopefully
serve as inspiration to other densely populated urban areas,
which seek to redevelop polluted and problematic building
sites. Redevelopment of such sites can serve economic and
social purposes as well as environmental.

The construction utilises sustainable housing technologies
in an architectural, environmental and economic optimal
way, which includes energy measures such as solar
collection, renewable electricity sources and heat recovery
ventilation systems. The technologies are implemented in
conjunction with more “passive” low energy measures,
such as extensive insulation, passive solar design, low
energy lightning, and internal shutters.

Hillsley Road has been realised as a small new-built
housing scheme near the M27 motorway in Portsmouth,
where a low energy design is combined with an attempt to
avoid noise and pollution. This is seen as a very interesting
concept since the UK is a heavily populated island.
Sustainable development depends on the utilisation of “brown field” and imperfect
sites.




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Minimal spaces in Portsmouth, which is an island, means that “polluted areas” must be
considered for development.

Main criteria outlined for the project were in brief:

    •   Have minimal environmental impact
    •   Provide flexible accommodation
    •   Achieve low energy and low maintenance costs
    •   Regenerate a disused “brown field” site
    •   Serve the needs of the residents and the local community
    •   Provide “life time” homes
    •   Contribute a secure and healthy living environment

The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption and environmental
impact by optimising energy performance within reasonable cost parameters.

The computer modelling has been made by consulting engineers, Arup Environmental,
who have predicted future levels of pollution for the site.
The site was contoured to locate least affected areas of the site.
Mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and filters has here been used to create
internal recreational spaces to compensate for the lack of useable external space.

Site
The proposed scheme lies adjacent to the M27 motorway, which feeds both
Portsmouth, London and the Midlands.

The ambient air temperature in Portsmouth is 29 °C as maximum and -3 °C is
minimum, the average is around 12 °C.

Arup Environmental has prepared a separate report regarding air pollution from the
M27 motorway that passes by the site. The study concludes that all of the dwellings
will fall within the relevant UK and European air quality standards.

To reduce the noise level from the motorway the buildings have been sealed as tightly
as possible, and this has been commissioned by blower door tests. Furthermore the
heavy construction materials like bricks and concrete together with triple glazed
windows have increased the sound protection.

The Existing Site:
               •   The previous shops and flats were largely empty and in a poor
                   condition
               •   Most suffered from vandalism and neglect
               •   Garages adjacent to the motorway had previously been demolished




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Noise:
               •   Noise from the motorway is significant despite thick embankment
                   tree planting
               •   Prevailing winds carry sound from motorway

Solution:
               •   Locate the homes at greatest distance from the motorway
               •   Construct houses with buffer spaces between them and the
                   motorway
               •   Triple glaze windows and use acoustically insulating construction


Aspect:
               •   The site is on a south facing slope which gradually gets steeper
                   towards the north of the site
               •   Views from the southern end of the site are across open fields
               •   Distant views of the sea are possible from the higher northern end of
                   the site
Solution:
               •   Utilise the southern aspect for views from back gardens and living
                   rooms
               •   Orient housing to Hillsley Road frontage to gain distant views to the
                   sea
               •   Locate accessible unit at southern edge to enjoy favourable low
                   level views


Massing:
               •   The corner of Hillsley Road and Beverston Road is visually
                   prominent
               •   The surrounding houses are 2 storey with pitched roofs
Solution:
               •   Locate the shop unit on the corner and emphasise its importance by
                   design
               •   Keep new buildings to a domestic scale incorporating roof spaces
                   to gain additional floor area
               •   Utilise the gradient of the site to provide rooms which open onto the
                   rear gardens which occur at a lower level



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Access and Parking:
               •   Hillsley Road serves as a main distributor road but is not busy
               •   Beverston Road is quiet with rural characteristics
               •   The motorway acts as a physical barrier to the south and east
               •   Access to motorway embankment has to be maintained
Solution:
               •   Access to the motorway is reinstated to the south but is softened
                   with planting
               •   Courtyard parking is located on the most noisy part of the site
               •   Access is provided off Beverston Road
Landscape:
               •   The site was developed but had reasonably mature planting to the
                   southern side of the boundary
               •   Beverston Road is lined with mature trees which pass the south east
                   corner of the site
Solution:
               •   Housing is designed to have front and rear gardens to reinforce the
                   grain of the locality
               •   New soft landscaping to parking court to reinforce embankment
                   planting
               •   Existing mature trees to be retained as far as possible


Orientation to the sun
The House Type A units are terraced along the east-west axis, with the unit entrances
to the north and south aligned for maximum solar exposure.

The House Type B units are positioned along a north-west/ south-east axis, with unit
plans turned 45 degrees so that entrances are to the north-east and the conservatories
are facing south-west.

Wind
Positioning the conservatories to the south- west effectively shields the dwellings
against the prevailing cold strong wind from that direction. As this wind passes over
the M27 motorway before reaching the site, it will increase the effects of noise and air
pollution.




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Air Pollution
The close proximity of the M27 Motorway poses potential problems for maintaining
air quality standards in the dwellings.
A number of measures are proposed to mitigate the effects of poor site air quality:
        •      Sealed and pressure tested construction
        •      Mechanical ventilation with filtration
        •      Air inlets sited on leeward side of dwellings

Noise Pollution
The adjoining motorway results in background noise levels at the Hillsley Road Site.
Locating the buildings as far from the motorway as possible, along the north and east
side.
Additionally reducing motorway noise by sealing the buildings as tightly as possible
and by using heavy masonry construction to further dampen noise intrusion.

Installation
The project includes BAT technologies including pressure testing to ensure air
tightness and use of heat recovery ventilation systems.
The windows are of U value 0,78-1,4 W/m2K in glazing.

The project includes the following key-technologies:

    •   Heat recovery ventilation
    •   Air tightness / blower door test
    •   Solar heating
    •   Condensing boiler
    •   3 layers of glass in all windows towards the motorway, to decrease the noise
        level
    •   Low energy windows
    •   High insulation
    •   Water/electricity savings

Heating
Space heating to each dwelling is provided by individual central heating.

The design criteria for the heating systems are based on:

    External Design Temperature                - 4°


    Internal Design Temperature
      Living Rooms                             21° C
      Bedrooms                                 19° C
      Hall and Stair                           18° C
      Bathrooms                                22° C
      WC Rooms                                 20° C




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The heat source is a wall mounted gas fired condensing boiler. Low temperature hot
water (LTHW) from the boiler is distributed to radiators to provide space heating and
to a calorifier for heating domestic hot water. The boiler flue terminates above roof
level; for House Type B it terminates on the south-west facing kitchen wall.

LTHW distribution pipe work runs in a ring system to each radiator position concealed
under the floor construction. The LTHW pipe work is copper.

Each radiator is fitted with a thermostatic radiator valve (TRV) to provide individual
temperature control to each room. The boiler is controlled from a space temperature
thermostat located within the living room.

There is no solar collectors serving the flat.

For the wheelchair accessible house the heating system is as described above but
utilises low surface temperature (LST) radiators.

A programmable timer allows for separate time clock control of both domestic hot
water and heating systems. A summer/winter valve is fitted to allow the heating circuit
to be isolated from the domestic hot water heating for summer operation.

The building fabric has been designed to exceed the minimum requirements of the
Building Regulations, which implies U-Values as follows:

        • Roof              0.25 W/m2K
        • Walls             0.45 W/m2K
        • Glazing           3.3 W/m2K (for a maximum area equivalent to 22.5 % of
          the floor area)
        • Floor             0.45 W/m2K

Air tightness
More than 50 % of the heat loss of standard buildings in the UK is caused by
infiltration. The following elements were therefor carefully installed and specially
sealed. Window frames were made with very small tolerances. Wood was utilised
which doesn’t crack and open air gaps. Sealants such as butyl layers were used to
ensure sealing between inner and outer frames.

Direct wood-brick contacts in the building shell will also be avoided. If the wall was
not air tight itself, sealant layers such as foils were used.

Around the external doors the gap was sealed. lock mechanism with small holes, and
insulated and double letter slots were used here.

All penetrations through walls and ceilings were dense filled with insulation material
such as mineral wool.




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To ensure that the buildings are very air tight they were pressure tested on completion.
In this process, the front door was replaced with a test fan that blows air into the
building. The air flow was adjusted to achieve a positive pressurisation of 50 Pa within
the dwelling. The lower the air flow necessary to maintain that pressure the tighter the
building.
Pressure testing the buildings was a substantial part of the SAP ratings calculation for
the buildings.




To achieve a low energy standard the hourly natural air change should be less than
0.1/hour.

To assure the air tightness pressure testing with blower door has been made after
construction completion.
Insulation
In this project also efforts on good insulation of the houses have been made.

The table below shows U-values for the different construction elements.

                               U-value [W/m2K]             Description
Roof                                 0,21                  150 mm insulation
Wall                                 0,24                  130 mm insulation
Windows                            0,78-1,4                Double low-e glazing. Triple
                                                           glazing at south top floor against
                                                           motorway.
Floor                                0,51                  Building regulation



Also special efforts have been made to avoid cold bridge effects.
The triple glazed windows against the motorway have a noise protection of 34 dB.




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Two of the most often used and most suitable for this project are mineral wool and
EPS-expanded polystyrene.
Mineral wool is fire protective, environmentally friendly, easy to cut and attach and
has a good conductivity of 0,035 loose and 0,04-0,05 pressed.
There are two main versions of EPS. The one is PS15 with conductivity of 0,04, and
the second is PS20 with conductivity of 0,035. The EPS is expanded with
environmentally friendly gas (no CFC/HCFC)
Polyurethane was avoided as an alternative on the project as it requires harmful gases
to extrude.

Ventilation System
The ventilation strategy is for controlled ventilation using a mechanical plant with
extract and supply systems. The building envelope has been constructed with the
objective of minimising infiltration, thus reducing the heating required. Heat recovery
is used to transfer heat energy from the extracted air to the supply air, thus minimising
the energy consumption of the heating system.
Effective filters will clean the supplied air from pollutants and contaminants of the
nearby motorway.

Under summer conditions, the conservatories is naturally cooled by supplying fresh,
filtered air through an earth duct buried underneath the slab, to avoid overheating of
the conservatories and adjacent internal rooms. The fresh air intake is placed on the
opposite side of the house, to cut out noise and pollution of the motorway.

The whole year round, both extract and supply systems operate to remove odours and
moisture from bathroom and kitchen areas and to provide fresh, filtered air to
occupants.

Each house has a separate system consisting of a heat recovery unit, providing supply
air to all bedroom and living room spaces and extract from the kitchen and all
bathrooms. The heat recovery unit includes separate supply and extract fans and a
plate heat exchanger to recover waste heat from the extract air.

Design criteria for the ventilation systems were based on:


Extract Systems:

WC Rooms                                     4 Air changes/hour

Bathrooms                                    15 l/s or minimum of 4 AC/h

Kitchen                                      30 l/s or minimum of 1 AC/h


Supply Systems:
The supply air volume is designed to be 95 % of the extracted air volume.



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Noise Levels:

Living Room                                   NR 30

Bedrooms                                      NR 25

Bathrooms                                     NR 40




For the kitchens of house types A and B, a domestic type range hood is fitted over the
cooker. This is independent of the rest of the ventilation system. The range hood will
capture grease and moisture from the cooking surface more effectively than a single
extract grille and will include a washable grease filter.

Seven heat recovery ventilation systems have been realised according to normal UK
standard using ABB technologies. And for comparison two of the heat recovery
ventilation systems have been delivered from the Danish EcoVent company. These
have been installed in A-type houses. The EcoVent HRV systems are developed with a
low electricity consumption and also low noise level.

The HRV unit from EcoVent is a LS 400 model, which was specially developed for
the purpose and is installed by clicking three parts together so it was very easy to fit
into the closet in Portsmouth.




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                                                                 1                                                   3




                                              525 mm
                                       Left                                                                              Right
                                                                    10                    9                       11


                                                                                  Seen from the Front
                                                               300 mm                    1100 mm             300 mm
                                                                3                                                1

                                                                 11                                             10

                                          Right                                                                      2
                                                                                          9                              Left
                                                                4
                     inlet                                                    7                         8
                                                                                  Seen from back side
                                                                                        1700 mm
                                                                2                                                    4
               extract                                                        8                         7
               air
                                       Left      475 mm          1                                          6            Right
                                                                         5                9                          3

                                                                10                                                11
               Fresh air                                                          Seen from the top
                                                                         1                                   3



                                                          2              10                                  11
                                                                                                                         4
                                                          8

                                                                     Left                                   Right
                                                          1:   Extract air, Ø 100 mm            9: Part with counter flow
                                                          2:   Inlet air, Ø 160 mm                  heat exchanger
                                                          3:   Fresh air, Ø 160 mm              10: Part with Inlet fan and
                                                          4:   Exhaust air, Ø 160 mm                Extractfilter
                                                          5:   Filter, Extract air              11: Part with Exhaust fan
                                                          6:   Filter, Fresh air                    and freshair filter
                                                          7:   Condensation connection
                                                          8:   Disp.

                     Ecomaster LS400 – Heat recovery ventilation unit.


Solar water heating
The solar energy at the site is between 1.150 and 1.250 kWhr/m2/yr. To reduce the
energy used water heating solar panels have been installed for domestic hot water. All
A and B type houses have solar water heating installed.

The solar heating for the whole development will, according to calculations, save on
the order of 30.000 kWh of gas or 6,3 tonnes of CO2 per annum.

Daylighting
A special design for the houses which optimises daylight use has been introduced.

Thermal modelling
Thermal modelling has been made for the project. Computer software used for this is
BREEAM and SAP.




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Conservatory and PV operated ventilation
In winter times a well-built
conservatory can contribute to a net
energy gain as it provides a warm
buffer zone between the house
interior and the cold outdoor
conditions. However a poorly built
conservatory contributes to a net
energy loss as it leaks heat from the
warm house interior to the cold
outdoor conditions.

In summer times the conservatories
can cause over heating problems if
no shading or ventilation is
provided.

With either external or internal solar
shading, not all solar gain can be
eliminated and some interior
ventilation will be necessary on
warm days. The conservatories,
which are located against south, are
being cooled down in summer time
by letting in fresh, non polluted,
cold air from the north side of the
houses. The air is provided by help
of 250 mm ducts which are located
under the house.

It is aimed that the cool air from under the house prevents the temperature in the
conservatory from rising higher than 23 °C, which is a comfortable condition.

The fan has been placed under the basement, and for 4 housing units it is operated
directly by PV modules with a normal grid electricity back up by help of a so-called
PV-mixer. And for comparison the 4 other housing units have a normal fan for this
operation.

Two of the conservatories, have also a PV operated exhaust fan as a supplement.




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Photos from conservatories




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               Cenergia Energy Consultants                     23
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Performance Monitoring System
It has been agreed by Portsmouth City Council and the other Green Housing Block
partners to realise the here listed monitoring programme for a period of at least one
year (February 2004 – March 2005):

    1. Monitoring of electricity use, air flow and efficiency (using indoor, outdoor
       and inlet temperatures) should be made for at least two types of HRV systems.
       E.g. by help of Squirrel-Grant data loggers.

    2. Monitoring of at least two sun spaces should be made for both winter and
       summer periods with respect to temperatures in the sun space, outdoor
       temperature and temperature of air entering the sun space from the earth
       channel (e.g. by 4 tiny tags data loggers).

    3. Registration of monthly output from two of the solar DHW systems as
       described by Cenergia.

    4. Registration of monthly gas and electricity consumption for all housing units as
       basis of green accounting.

    5. Investigation of tenants satisfaction after December 2004.


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Initial monitoring results / commissioning

Due to the late realisation it is not possible to present a whole year of monitoring
results. In spring 2005 this will be presented as a revised report which will be possible
to download from the europeangreencities.com website.

However, some initial results can be shown already now. In fig. (1) is shown a
comparison of relevant monitored temperatures of the two types of heat recovery
ventilation systems in the apartments. A1 and A3 with respectively the EcoVent L400
counter flow HRV unit and the ABB cross flow heat recovery unit.

                                     House A1

                       20
                       15
           Temp.




                       10
                       5
                       0
                            0   10         20            30       40

                                Outlet     Fresh air      Inlet




                                     House A3

                       25
                       20
               Temp.




                       15
                       10
                        5
                        0
                            0        100           200            300

                                Outlet     Fresh air      Inlet

Fig. 1
Monitored data concerning relevant temperatures for the two types of HRV units, inlet
temperatures, fresh air and indoor / outlet temperatures.
House A1 (EcoVent L400). House A3 (ABB).




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From there it is possible to calculate the heat recovery efficiency of the two units as
follows.

GREEN HOUSING BLOCK – Portsmouth City Council – Hillsley Road

Heat recovery efficiency:


                   Fresh air inlet temperature – Outdoor temperature
                      Indoor temperature – Outdoor temperature


House A1          15,4 – 9,4          =   0,85                  (EcoVent L400)
                  16,5 – 9,4

House A3          15,2 – 10,6         =   0,53                  (AAB)
                  19,2 – 10,6

The monitoring of the HRV unit efficiencies was made just after installation before the
housing units were inhabited, but this should not affect the results.
With a thermal efficiency of 0.85 the EcoVent L400 HRV unit performs very well,
while the cross flow ABB HRV unit with an efficiency of 0.53 is not as good, but still
quite typical for a cross flow HRV unit.

The electricity use for the two units was monitored as:

         21,6 W for EcoVent unit at 136 m³/h
        172,8 W for ABB unit, with electrical after heating

It can be seen here that the electricity use for the ABB unit was very high. It is partly
due to not so efficient fans, but the main part is believed to be connected to the
electrical after heating which works as frost protection. Since the outdoor temperature
was at least 5-6°C this should not be in operation.

As illustrated on page 52 this design can lead to quite a high yearly electricity use.
To be able to document the problem better it is the idea to place an electricity meter for
the next heating season. PCC has contacted ABB on the problems but until now only
with limited effect. The electricity use of the EcoVent system is very low, and frost
protection is made by down regulating the inlet air volume when there is frost.

In relation to the final partner meeting in February 2004 also monitoring of the
underfloor ventilation duct was made from 5 p.m. to 12 a.m. the next day, with “tiny
tags” temperature and humidity sensors. In fig. (2) the lowest graph is the air
temperature leaving the underfloor duct while the number two graph is the temperature
inside the sunspace.




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It is seen that during the night the two temperatures are quite equal, but during the
morning where there was sun there is a clear cooling effect of the underfloor duct
which maintains around 5°C while the sunspace temperature is rising to 15°C.

Also in late afternoon some cooling effect can be seen, but since there was not clear
sun the result is not so clear here as it can be expected. Outdoor temperature is 6°C at
10 a.m., airflow rate is 225 m³/h, so the cooling effect is up to 750 W.
Compared to the solar insulation this effect is not very high but a real evaluation will
have to wait for monitoring results during more hot periods when people have moved
in.

Also a tenants satisfactory assessment will be made after the first summer and winter
operation of the houses.




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Fig. 2




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               Placing of tiny tags: 1) In sunspace 2 m above floor
                                     2) In air channel just after it leaves the underfloor duct




                Inlet air to sun space




                      2) Tiny tag
                                                                                                  Fresh air




Grenoble, France: L'isle d'Abeau - Reduction of running costs in
social housing through energy and water saving

The extensive retrofit programme of 110 social dwellings in
Grenoble, France aimed to demonstrate the possibilities of
renewable energies and water saving measures.

The buildings were erected in the seventies and eighties, and
can thus represent a good example to many other European
cities with similar buildings together with social and
ecological problems.

The dwellings had high running costs, so the retrofit
programme would beside the elevated level of comfort
generate decreased expenses on water and energy, which is an important beneficial
side effect in social housing.

The combination of both environmental and social benefits from the project is in
particular of interest, as many housing projects tend to focus merely on improvement
of comfort and less on societal impact.

The retrofit programme was made with a total environmental approach, which aimed
to lower the energy consumption by some 40 % through enhanced heating systems and
education of end users.




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Firstly electricity for heating is replaced with two combustion optimised central boilers
that are regulated according to heat demand. The boilers are supplemented by 150 m2
of solar water collection panels mounted on the roof and high performance heat
exchangers, and the entire system, including pipe structure and pumps, is optimised by
a total energy approach. 50 m2 of photovoltaic modules for ventilation and low energy
lighting in common areas are integrated in the facade of the buildings.
Communication with end users about possibilities of energy saving is highlighted as
crucial to the success of the project, since user behaviour has high impact on energy
consumption.

It is the intention that the programme will serve as an educational process for builders
and consultants, which can facilitate the dissemination of knowledge on environmental
technologies.

The L’isle d’Arbeau consists of 6 buildings with 100 dwellings, which were created
during the 1970-1980’ies.
The reason for the retrofit programme has been ventilation problems, electrical
heating, big windows, high maintenance costs, overheating in summer due to large
glazing areas etc.
The heating will be replaced with natural gas, 150 m2 solar collector for DHW and 5
kW PV.

The final aim of this project is to implement a demonstrative approach in a social
housing retrofit program regarding energy consumption and maintenance costs
reductions. The project concerns 110 existing flats in 4 buildings from 1988. By now,
the heating and the Domestic Hot Water (DHW) are produced with electricity and lead
to high maintenance costs.
For this project, there was a total energy and environmental approach with
optimisation of all energy systems for heating, domestic hot water, electricity in
common areas and in the dwellings.
The aim is also to demonstrate the possibilities of solar energy for heating and
domestic hot water with thermal solar collectors and PV panels, to decrease energy
consumption, maintenance costs and greenhouse effect gases, like CO2.

The OPAC 38 is a social housing company who works in Isère Department (French
territorial Division) where it is the first Housing Company. The OPAC 38 is a public
establishment with an industrial and commercial character. OPAC 38 has a social
mission: to provide accommodations for people with low incomes. That’s why, one of
its goals, is to reduce the couple “rent + maintenance charges”. This project also aims
to demonstrate the benefits of renewable energies and energy management regarding
the maintenance costs reduction.




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Site
 L’Isle d’Abeau is a town located about 40 km south-east of Lyon. The weather
specifications are:

Latitude                                          45.6° N
Longitude                                          5.3° E
Altitude                                           244 m
Average mean temperature                          11.5 °C
Average horizontal global irradiation        1.37 kWh/m2
Average degree days                                 2.417
Design heating temperature                         -10 °C



The project is carried out on 6 existing buildings (A, B, C+D and E+F on the map)
with 5 floors and the ground floor. 4 of them are south oriented, and the 2 others are
oriented to the west.

The layout of the existing buildings is represented on the following map:




                                                               N




Installation
The project was managed through a total energy approach. Thus all the aspects
regarding energy savings were considered. It led to the following choices:
- Connection of the all dwellings to a collective gas boiler with low NOx emissions;
- Installation of solar collectors for domestic hot water with a good architectural
    integration;
- Installation of PV panels for common spaces electricity;
- Measures to reduce energy consumption in common areas;


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-   Insulation improvements
-   Optimisation of electricity use in common areas and in the dwellings.


Central boilers regulated by heat demand
The boiler room is located in the basement of the building B, at the northern edge. The
boiler’s brand is SECACCIER and is a low NOx emission boiler. The burners’ brand is
CUENOD. These burners allow a power modulation through a change in their
geometry.
The regulation is based on the outdoor temperature and the return temperature from the
apartments. That means that the outgoing temperature depends on the needs of the
inhabitants. Two SIEMENS regulators calculate the outgoing temperature.


Solar water panels with telemonitoring and "solar guarantee"
The solar installation data is:

Size                                                165 m²
Orientation                                         South
Inclination/horizontal                              30°
Storage volume                                      8 000 litres
Estimated annual solar production                   92 475 kWh
Estimated annual energy economy                     102 979 kWh
Total needs solar part                              42 %
Productivity                                        560 kWh/m²
Yearly CO2 emission saving (estimation)             18,8 tonnes
Yearly greenhouse effects saving (estimation)       21,8 tonnes

The solar panels lie on a metallic framework put on two buildings’ terrace roof
(buildings C and D). The 8000 litres water storage for solar energy is also connected to
the natural gas heating boiler and is located in the boiler room.

PV-modules for ventilation and lighting
A lot of solutions have been simulated for the integration of the modules on the
building. Finally, it was decided to install them in the common areas glass roof on
building B, which caused overheating in this building.

This solution is an optimisation between photovoltaic production, natural lightning in
common parts and reduction of overheating. The PV panels’ situation is actually a
compromise between the better production (5.000 kWh yearly) and the overheating
trough a partial occultation of the sunlight.




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The data are:

Size                                            48 m²
Number of modules                               108
Total power                                     5,4 kWc
Orientation                                     West and east
Inclination/horizontal                          29°
Estimated yearly production                     4 200 kWh



Insulation improvement
The existing joineries were replaced by PVC joineries.

Electricity demand reduction
The lightning was changed for low consumption bulbs (LCB) for the corridors and
garages. The ventilation and the heating distribution system were optimised.
In order to increase the renters’ awareness, a LCB was distributed to each household
and a visit of AGEDEN, a French association for the promotion of renewable energies,
gave them individual advises to reduce their electric bills.

Water savings
The toilets were equipped with a double flush (3L/6L) and the existing plumbing was
changed for water saving equipment (such as low flow taps).

Condensing Gas Boiler
A condensing boiler is a high efficiency modern boiler that incorporates
an extra heat exchanger so that the hot exhaust gases lose much of their
energy to pre-heat the water in the boiler system. When working at peak
efficiency, the water vapour produced in the combustion process
condenses back into liquid form releasing the latent heat of vaporisation.
A side effect is that this water, known as condense, which is usually
acidic, has to be piped away to a drain or soak away.

The photo (to the right) shows a cutaway combination condensing boiler.
It is mounted on a wall and the exhaust gases will rise through the plastic
flue in the top left corner. Hot water is provided by a small storage tank on the right:
the tank (which is covered by insulating foam) has been cut open to show the tightly
wound quick refresh coil inside it. At the bottom of the photo are a number of pipes
going into the boiler. One carries the gas for the burner and there are two (in and out)
for the central heating system. The plastic pipe on the right carries the condensed water
vapour produced by burning the gas. This water contains dissolved oxides of sulphur
and nitrogen, making it slightly acidic.
Condensing boilers can be used with gas or oil fuels.




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Solar Collector Water Systems
There generally two kinds of collectors, the flat-plate and the evacuated tubes. Flat-
Plate systems comprise an insulated, weatherproofed box containing a dark absorber
plate under one or more transparent or translucent covers. Heat transfer fluids pass
through pipes located below the absorber plate. This collector, although inferior in
many ways to evacuated tube collectors, is still the most common
type of collector in many countries.

Evacuated-tube collectors are made up of rows of parallel,
transparent glass tubes. Each tube consists of a glass outer and glass
inner tube. The inner tube is covered with a selective coating that
absorbs solar energy well but inhibits radiative heat loss. The air is
withdrawn ("evacuated") from the space between the two glass tubes
to form a vacuum, which eliminates conductive and convective heat
loss. Evacuated tube collectors are the most efficient, reliable and
cost effective collectors commercially available today.

The heated fluid is then stored in a tank similar to a conventional gas
or electric water tank, and an electric pump is used to circulate the
fluid through the collectors. Sensors in the tank and in the collector measure the
temperature in order to suspend the circulation if the water in the collector drops below
the temperature in the tank. If the solar radiation is not sufficient, the system is
supplemented with other heat sources such as oil furnaces, natural gas, electrical
heating, or bio fuel.

There are two main distribution systems, the open loop system and the closed loop
system.

Open-Loop Active Systems
Open-loop active systems are inexpensive, efficient, and simple options that circulate
household water through the collectors. They are primarily used in regions that do not
experience subzero temperatures, but are not appropriate if the water is hard or acidic
due to scale and corrosion quickly disables the system. They may also be installed in
mild climates that experience occasion subzero temperatures, but freeze protection
must be implemented.
Re-circulation systems are a specific type of open-loop system used with flat plate
collectors that do provide freeze protection. They use the system pump to circulate
warm water from storage tanks through collectors and exposed piping when
temperatures approach freezing. Re-circulation systems are suitable where mild
subzero temperatures occur no more than once or twice a year.


Closed-Loop Active Systems
These systems pump heat-transfer fluids (usually a glycol-water antifreeze mixture)
through the collector in a closed-loop system without connection to household water.
Heat exchangers transfer the heat from the fluid to the household water that is stored in
tanks. Double-walled heat exchangers prevent contamination of household water.

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Closed-loop systems are popular in areas subject to extended subzero temperatures
because they offer good freeze protection. However, the systems are more expensive to
purchase and install and the glycol-water antifreeze mixture must be checked each year
and changed every 3 to 10 years, depending on glycol quality and system
temperatures.

Photovoltaic Modules (PV) for Power Generation
PV-modules function by converting the solar radiation into electricity. The process
transpires as the semiconductor layer in the module adsorbs the light particles, the
protons, which transfers the energy to the electrons in the semiconductor. This energy
sets the electrons in motion, the electric current, in a fixed direction that is controlled
by the uniform crystalline structure, often silicon materials, of the semiconductor. The
process is driven by an electrical field, which is generated using two semiconductor
layers, the n-type and the p-type. In addition to the semi
conducting layer, solar cells consist of a top metallic grid or
other electrical contact in order to collect electrons from the
semiconductor for consumption purposes as well as a back
contact layer to complete the electrical circuit. Then, on top
is typically a glass cover or other type of transparent
encapsulant to seal the PV-module and to keep weather out,
and an antireflective coating to prevent the light from
reflecting back from the cell.

Solar power generation is available in multiple scales, from independent one-house
systems up to centralised photovoltaic power plants. Basically stand-alone systems are
self-sustaining systems that need sufficient battery capacity as well as supplementary
power sources, such as a conventional generator or a windmill, in order to deliver
continuous supply. However, as most buildings are connected to an existing power
network, PV-modules can be installed as ancillary power sources that supply
electricity according to the incoming solar radiation quantities. If the solar power
generation exceeds the consumption, the surplus can be sold to whatever company that
runs the utility grid. Modules can be installed either as part of the building design or as
separate racks.

Ventilation Systems and Heat Exchange
Ventilation is either a question of natural or
mechanical air exchange. It is often feasible
minimise air leakage as it increases transmission
losses, however less natural air exchange result in
higher demand for mechanical ventilation in order
to sustain good indoor air quality. Therefore it is
feasible to combine ventilation and heating/cooling
in an integrated ventilation system in order to utilise
the energy in the air streams.




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An integrated ventilation system is a combination of fans, controls, and heat
recovering elements used to exhaust stale air from inside the building, bring fresh air in
from outdoors, and transfer heat energy from one air stream to the other. The system
assures a continuous supply of fresh air to the building while regaining energy
normally lost through natural ventilation. In the winter months, heat from stale exhaust
air is captured by the heat recovery element and transferred to the cold incoming air.
Conversely in the summer, the outgoing air-conditioned exhaust air cools incoming
air. Heat recovery ventilators are available as central units for large residential or
commercial buildings, or as window or wall inserts suitable for small homes,
apartments, and individual rooms.

Moreover an integrated ventilation system specifically designed for a building can
cope with the diverse demands in air quality, for example pollutants associated with
human occupancy such as CO2, bio contaminants, tobacco smoke, radon and
formaldehyde. Ventilation should occur only during occupancy and the rate should
increase depending on the number of people present.

Performance Monitoring System
All systems are monitored, in order to follow up the energetic consumption and ensure
the lowest maintenance charges for the renters. Every month, a report gives the PV
panels, the solar panels and the gas boiler productions. This data are compared to
theoretical expectations.
The solar performances will be monitored with a “Solar Guarantee Result” (GRS)
system. It is a very innovative system of monitoring for the solar domestic hot water. It
is based on a continuous telemaintenance and a performance guarantee contract. The
contract’s name is GRS (Garantie de Résultats Solaires). The solar panels supplier, the
design team, and the company in charge of the maintenance must pay if the solar
installation production is lower than estimated at the beginning of the project. The
estimations are based on the sun got by the panels and a theoretical heat absorption.




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Construction, Installation and commissioning
Hillsley Road

Suppliers of Equipment and Services
The architect is Robert Benn & Associates while Arup Environmental has made the
environmental design.

Hillsley Road team:

Contact person / Builder:
             Portsmouth City Council
             Housing Services
             Head of Housing Services, Mr. Jeff Wellings
             Civil Offices, Guildhall Square
             Portsmouth PO1 2AX
             United Kingdom
             Tel: +44 2392 8349 09
             Fax: +44 2392 8348 55
             E-mail: jwellings@portsmouthcc.gov.uk

working with the following organisations:

    •   Robert Benn & Associates, Architect and Planning Supervisors
    •   Atelier 10, Consulting Environmental Engineers and Thermal modelling
    •   P.H.Warr and Partners, Quantity Surveyor
    •   Arup Environmental, Consulting Environmental Engineers
    •   Hamble Construction Limited, Contractors

Timeschedule

Work commenced:                             August 2001

Work suspended on site:                     March 2003

Contract re-tendered:                       May/June 2003

Work recommenced on site:                   September 2003

Completion due:                             March 2004

Residents occupancy due:                    April 2004


Dissemination activities to be made by Portsmouth City Council:


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Project Management
Portsmouth City Council Housing Services

Problems, Solutions and Successes
As it can be seen from the time schedule the project at Hillsley Road has not
progresses as expected.

First there was a delay because it was very difficult to find a contractor who would
build the housing project according to the budget which had to be changed so it had
approximately 20% less housing units to be able to realise the project with the same
total budget and eligible costs. The first tender figures were in excess of the allocated
budget of 1,2 Mio. GBP (tender figures were 1,598 Mio. GBP – 2,471 Mio. GBP).

And a few months before realisation unfortunately, the contractor went bankrupt in
March 2003, so work had to wait until September 2003 before it was started again.
This led to problems of realising the project and starting monitoring before the EU-
contract ended by 31st December 2003. As can be seen from the costs breakdown in
table 1. most work and costs were finalised before the end of 2003. But due to a
problem of a fault in relation to the used underroof by the bankrupt contractor, all roofs
had to be replaced by the end of 2003. The result was that the tenants could not move
into the apartments before April 2004.
Total costs ended up in approximately 1,6 Mio. GBP.


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At the final partner meeting in February 2004 in Portsmouth it was concluded that
despite all the mentioned problems, the project had been worthwhile to realise because
it showed an example of energy efficient building of the future, e.g. illustrating the
prospects of using solar heating technologies as well as heat recovery ventilation.

The project has clearly illustrated the problems of realising building projects with high
quality details which are necessary if real solar low energy designs in the housing area
shall be achieved.

Based on this it was concluded that Portsmouth City Council was very eager to follow-
up with a new demonstration of energy efficient new build where all the aimed at
qualities were secured. It was here concluded that this could be done most efficiently
by help of prefabricated building which e.g. is used quite often in the Scandinavian
countries.

Although only very limited monitoring can be presented in the final report, it was
agreed by the whole team that monitoring would continue for a whole year and results
in a revised report would be presented in the European Green Cities website by Green
City Denmark.

The project has not progressed as it was hoped. The progress on site has been slow and
although both the architect (Robert Benn & Associates) and client (Portsmouth City
Council) have attempted to ensure and assist the contractor to complete the works
within the contract period. This has not been achieved.

PCC were in dispute with the contractor and attempted to resolve the situation in order
that the works were completed.

PCC found numerous defects built into the works by the contractor as they progressed
and awaited for these works to be rectified. As the buildings have a high specification
standard and are required to function within a pre-defined performance criteria it was
essential that all defects were identified and dealt with as soon as they become
apparent.


Modifications and Over-runs
The original project was for the construction of:
4 Nr 3-storey houses, 6Nr 4-storey houses 2Nr flats and 1Nr shop unit, 2047 m², (13
units).
The complete project consist of:
4Nr 3-storey houses, 4Nr 4-storey houses 1Nr flat and 1Nr shop unit.
1585 m² (10 units) 77% of original size.

The total extra investment costs of the reduced size scheme was 307,029 GBP (approx.
450.309 Euro), and was thus somewhat higher than the anticipated extra costs for the



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larger original scheme size which was 373.000 Euro. So the eligible costs have been
considerable higher than foreseen.
Although the scheme was scaled down the original thinking and ethos behind the
building was seen as being paramount to the overall success of the project. The
buildings have therefore retained the original environmental features for the project.


Costs
Even though the total number of units were reduced from 13 to 10 (a 23% reduction),
the total extra costs for the 10 units ( 307,029 GBP : 450.309 Euro) were much higher
than the original anticipated extra costs which were 373.000 Euro.

Total building costs were 1,550,000 GBP which means that with 1585 m² building area
realised the costs are approximately 1000 GBP/m², where total costs of 743 GBP/m²
were expected in 1999.

One reason for this is of course the long time before realisation, and the problems
connected to the bankruptcy of the contractor and that a new contractor had to be used.

But it is also concluded by the Portsmouth City Council that new technologies and a
new approach in housing projects seems to cost a lot extra alone because it is
something different to normal practice. Besides there is also an experience about the
quality of the work, that since this is much more important in low energy housing
projects, it is important with a new approach to new build housing in the UK, if quality
shall be secured. Here the use of prefabricated housing seems to be an interesting
option.

In table (1) is shown a breakdown of extra costs for the Hillsley Road project.




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       Table 1: Reported extra costs for the Hillsley Road demonstration project in Portsmouth.

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Suppliers

Hillsley Road

Suppliers of equipment and services:

- Solar DHW:                   A. E.S.        Type A: 3 panels, 4.83 m² for one unit
                                              Type B: 1 panel, 4.61 m² for one unit

- Heat recovery ventilation:   ABB:           Cross flow HRV system with electrical
                                              after heating for frost protection.

                               EcoVent:       EcoVent LS 400 counter flow HRV
                                              system with frost protection by reduction
                                              of inlet air flow rate.

- PV assisted ventilation:     EcoVent:       VMU 300. PV both for underfloor
                                              ventilation of sunspaces and exhaust
                                              ventilation of sunspaces (300-400 m³/h.
                               EcoVent

- Condensing gas boiler:       Vaillant       Vaillant Ecomax VU 186 E

- EMS system:                  Danfoss        Danfoss system integrated in boiler

- Low energy windows.          Rational       Rational windows


.

Grenoble

Suppliers of Equipment and Services
The work contractor is OPAC 38. The design team is composed of an architect and technical
consultants:
   Architect:
   DUO, Mr. Giacometti
   Centr’alp, 137 rue Mayoussard
   F-38430 Moirans
   Phone : +33 4 76 35 19 19;
   Fax: +33 4 76 35 19 18

    ENERPOL:
    149 rue Alexandre Bérard
    F-01500 Ambérieu en Bugey
    Phone: +33-4 74 34 59 59
    Fax: +33-4 74 38 29 78

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    GIRUS:
    21 avenue du Granier
    F-38240 Meylan
    Phone: +33-437452910

The solar collectors supplier is Clipsol, a French company that manufactures and supplies thermal
solar systems for single houses as well as larger residential complexes:
Address:     Parc d'Activités Économiques
             Les Combaruches
               F-73100 Aix-les-Bains
   Phone: +33 4 79 34 35 36.
   Fax: +33 4 79 34 35 30.
Internet: www.clipsol.com
E-mail: info@clipsol.com

The supplier of the PV modules is Photowatt. Photowatt International manufactures custom-
designed PV-systems, both with and without grid connection.
Address: 35 rue Saint Honoré
           ZI Champ Fleuri
           F-38300 Bourgoin-Jallieu
Phone: + 33 4 74 93 80 20.
Fax: + 33 4 74 93 80 40.
Internet: www.photowatt.com
E-mail: marketing@photowatt.com


The monitoring on the thermal solar panels is provided by ASDER:
Address: 562 Avenue du Grand Ariétaz
           BP 99499
           F-73 094 Chambéry Cedex
Phone: + 33 4 79 85 88 50.
Fax: + 33 4 79 33 24 64.
Internet: www.asder.asso.fr
E-mail: info@asder.asso.fr

The monitoring on the PV panels is provided by HESPUL:
Address: 114 Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918
           F-69100 Villeurbanne
Phone: + 33 4 37 47 80 90.
Fax: + 33 4 37 47 80 99.
Internet: www.hespul.org
E-mail: info@hespul.org




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Project Management
The persons responsible for the French project are Michel Gibert and Laurent Bogiraud (see above
for their address and phone number).

Problems, Solutions and Successes
The main problem was the selection of an appropriate integration for the PV panels. After many
simulations the chosen solution was the integration of the PV panels on the common area glass roof.
This was not the best place regarding the performance but it solved an existing problem of the
buildings, which was the overheating due to the glass roof.
Another problem was the long distance between the thermal solar panels and the boiler room. It was
impossible to have the pipes, connecting the solar panels and the storage cylinder located in this
room, always inside the building. That’s why a specific attention had to be given to the insulation of
these pipes in order to reduce the losses.
Finally the creation of a collective heating system on an existing building was not that easy. It
caused some problems of accessibility to the dwellings and acceptance by the renters during work.

Modifications and Over-runs
The problems mentioned above caused a delay in the work programme and a few over-costs due to
technical solutions.
Furthermore, some financial supports from local partners were only obtained lately so the work
phase was delayed.

Time Schedule
Preliminary project: March 2001
Final project: August 2001
Call for tenders: September 2001
Work’s start: June 2002
Work’s end: June 2003
Monitoring’s start: July 2003
Monitoring’s end: July 2004


Original construction period: 01.03.2002 – 01.02.2003
It was the idea that the project in France should have been completed on February 1, 2003.

The time schedule where construction will start in March 2002 and finish February 1, 2002, will
only leave seven months of monitoring until the draft final report have to be presented, but the
accepted final report will have the possibility of including monitoring results for at least one year.
So, some delay of the French project is expected.




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Costs
The total cost of this programme was 971.755 Euro, that includes:
              PV installation: 116.772 Euro.
              Thermal solar installation: 182.947 Euro.
              Creation of the central gas heating: 533.516 Euro.

This project is partly financed by local communities, both for the active solar installation and the
improvement of the thermal properties of the buildings:
              Isère Department (French district): 25.879 Euro
              Rhône-Alpes Region: 148.150 Euro
              ADEME (French Agency for the promotion of renewable energies): 90.840 Euro.




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Operation and Results
Hillsley Road
Unfortunately, there has been some quite large unexpected delays of the Hillsley Road project in
Portsmouth, first due to over-costs for the complete development which had to be settled, and later
there was a bankruptcy of the main contractor. The result was that were it was originally expected
to finalise the project by the end of 2001 it was instead only finalised by the end of 2003, and
actually another problem also occurred at a late stage. It was found out that the first main contractor
had used a wrong type of under roof for the housing units so all the roofs had to be changed. This
did not affect the energy project but it led to a later date for the tenants to take over their
apartments. As a consequence of the mentioned delays the monitoring programme was obviously
also delayed. But it is however, possible to report the results of the commissioning and short term
monitoring in relation to the present version of the final report. And this e.g. includes the
comparison of the different types of heat recovery systems and the underfloor ventilation of the
sunspace conservatory used in the project.

For the other parts of the monitoring programme, e.g. focussing at the yearly gas and electricity
consumption, it is needed to have one year monitoring results, and agreements concerning this have
been made with Portsmouth City Council so the final reporting will be made after one year of
operation, where it will be presented at the European Green Cities web site including a download
possibility.

At Hillsley Road a very interesting, overall solar low energy design concept concerning innovative
technical solutions has been realised.
Concerning the heat recovery ventilation technology the best available UK products from ABB
have been introduced for 7 housing units. For two of the housing units it were decided to utilise best
available systems from the Danish company EcoVent for comparison with respect to electricity use
and heat recovery efficiency.

This proved to be a wise decision because the commissioning monitoring showed some unexpected
problems with the ABB unit especially with respect to the electricity use and connected to the frost
protection system. PCC will try to solve the problem, but it is very important that it can be
concluded that the EcoVent system worked very well using only 22 W at 136 m³/h airflow rate.

Besides for the conservatories best practice UK fans have been utilised for the under floor
ventilation system for 4 of the housing units, while for another 4 housing units a very innovative
technical solution, developed in Denmark, with PV operated fans have been utilised, and for two of
the conservatories another innovative feature with PV operated exhaust fans as a supplemental
ventilation solution were introduced. In connection to the monitoring it is e.g. aimed to make a
comparison of conservatory temperatures to be able to conclude which solutions are the most
efficient.




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Operating History
Due to the late realisation there is not a long operating experience to report yet, but during
commissioning initial monitoring was made to evaluate e.g. the used ventilation designs.


Performance
The performance based on a one year monitoring will be presented in the European Green Cities
web site, www.europeangreencities.com, and in a revised final report which will be possible to
download from here.


Successes of the Project
The reason that the demonstration project in Hillsley Road is actually very interesting is partly due
to the very interesting urban approach to the project, it is not only dealing with a building project
but tries to optimise a housing project in relation to some quite difficult problems concerning noise
and pollution, and aims at integrating this together with a sustainable and energy efficient building
approach.

It has also been possible to have introduced new interesting RES technologies like a passive solar
design, solar DHW heating and use of PV panels together with RUE technologies like heat recovery
ventilation, condensing boilers and pre heating of ventilation air in the ground.
And here an approach of practical comparison of best practice UK ventilation technologies with
new innovative solutions from Denmark are really interesting and can help on setting new standards
for low energy housing projects in the UK. Recommendations of Portsmouth City Council are:

               •   Maximise passive and active solar gains by careful site planning
               •   Utilise materials with minimal environmental impact
               •   Use efficient heating and lighting systems
               •   Optimise constructions with low losses.


Operating Costs
Calculations show that operating costs should be reduced by approximately 50% compared to
normal housing schemes when the best combination of innovative technologies is used.
In connection to the final monitoring report details on operation costs will be shown.

Future of the Installation
During 2004 a detailed monitoring programme will be realised, and based on this information will
be distributed to the users and Portsmouth City Council. A way to realise new projects of this kind
is use of manufactured building which can ensure the right costs and quality. An initiative in this
area has been initiated. See also under “outlook” page 55.




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Economic Viability
The experience has been that building costs were higher than expected due to the uncertainty of
using new technology. The used approach is however important for CO2 emission reduction, and as
mentioned use of prefabricated building could lead to better quality and to lower costs.
The economic viability of the realised project will be presented in the final version of this report.


Environmental Impact
Will be calculated based on energy savings results.

Grenoble

Operating History
The installation was started up in March 2003 for some of the dwellings. All the installation was
running for the dwellings from June 2003.
A first problem occurred in August 2003 on the DHW network. Thanks to the monitoring a loss of
productivity for the thermal solar panels was detected and solved. Some fur had appeared on the
heat exchanger and reduced the efficiency of the solar production.
A balancing problem of the heating network was discovered when the heating for the all installation
was turned on in October 2003. This could be solved immediately.

Performance
The performance based on a one year monitoring will be presented in the European Green Cities
web site, www.europeangreencities.com.

The gas consumption for heating since the heating period started (1st of October) till the end of the
year 2003 was 401 MWh for the 8396 m2. This gives a ratio of 51.9 Wh/m2/DJU that has to be
compared to an average of 60 Wh/m2/DJU in the OPAC 38’s other buildings.
Over the same period, the DHW consumption was 3350 m3. This is 30.5 m3/dwelling, compared to
an average of 39 m3: the DHW consumption is 25 % lower than in the other OPAC 38’s buildings.
The solar panels produced 30.6 MWh from June to December. It is a bit less than the expected
production for this period. This is partly due to fur on the heat exchanger that affected the
production during August and the beginning of September, and partly due to a wrong balancing of
the network. The fur problem was solved by the addition of a stronger softener and the balancing
problem was solved as soon as It was detected. That’s why a higher production is expected now, as
it can be already seen during the end of the year. The first results give the following chart:




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                                                               La Dentellière


             12000
                                                                                                                          Theoretical production
                                                                                                                          GRS (80% from theoritacal))
                                                                                                                          Measured production

             10000




             8000
       kWh




             6000




             4000




             2000




                0
                               Février




                                         Mars
                     Janvier




                                                Avril




                                                         Mai




                                                                                                                                  Novembre
                                                                    Juin




                                                                                                                Octobre




                                                                                                                                                   Décembre
                                                                                Juillet




                                                                                          Août




                                                                                                    Septembre
Successes of the Project
Also there were some problems when the installation was started up, it is now running efficiently.
The acceptance by the renters is obtained. They fill an improvement of their comfort, especially for
heating, and they are much satisfied with the maintenance costs reduction.
The overheating due to the former glass roof is also often mentioned. The inside hall is now a
comfortable place for the renters to meet.
In order to ensure a good working of the installation, a brief meeting was organised in September
2003 in order to give some specific information to the renters. A French association for the
promotion of renewable energies (AGEDEN) organised also individual meetings with the renters, to
explain them how they can reduce their energetic bill.

Operating Costs
The heating and the DHW are produced with gas bought at 25.96 €/MWh. The maintenance for the
heating costs 6536 Euro/year and for the DHW 4228 Euro/year. Finally the renting of the individual
DHW meters costs 21 Euro/dwelling.
Thanks to the solar production, the DHW production only costs 2.97 Euro/m3 while it is
5.23 Euro/m3 in average in OPAC 38’s other dwellings.

Future of the Installation
It is now planned to change the Controlled Mechanical Ventilation, in order to increase a little bit
more the indoor comfort and follow up the functioning of the installations.




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Economic Viability
It is difficult to evaluate the real cost decrease. Actually, when they had electric heating, the renters
were dealing directly with the electricity company EDF, so we don’t know their exact former costs.
However, regarding the noted costs after works and an estimation of the costs before works, we
estimate the gain at about 68 000 Euro for all the dwellings every year, that is 618 Euro per
dwelling and per year.
The estimation is based on the same consumption for heating and DHW as noted today. The
difference is due to the solar production of the DHW (78 MWh every year) and the price of the
energy: 85 Euro/MWh for electricity and 26 Euro/MWh for gas:

                                               Before work After work
                                energy costs         109482       31382
                                maintenance             3410      13074
                                Total                112892       44456
                                               Costs in Euro

This analysis will be improved when monitoring data for one year exist.

Environmental Impact
The first environmental impact is obtained by the replacement of the electric heating with gas.
During the second semester of the year 2003, 116 tons of CO2 were avoided and it is expected to
avoid 270 tons every year, compared to the previous heating installation.
The production of the thermal solar panels has avoided 6.4 tons of CO2 since the production started
and will avoid 16 tons/year when working normally.

Introduction of solar energy technology in housing projects together with energy efficiency and an
optimised energy supply will have a very positive effect on the environment and CO2 emission
reduction.


Energy quality verification

The Green Housing Block project as well as the general European Green Cities co-operation have
illustrated the general need for energy quality verification principles.
This will be even more important in connection to the EU-Energy Performance Directive for
Buildings implementation with energy labelling as a new feature.

In the annex is shown a proposal for a Green Quality Standards activity. And here it should just be
noted that it is important to have defined packages of follow-up indicators and methods for low
energy housing projects as e.g.:




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                            Indicators                           Documentation
                                                                 methods

1.    For insulation and    -Total U-value incl. cold
      tightness:              bridges:                           Thermo photography
                            - Air leakage:                       Blower door test

2.    For windows:          - Total U-value:                     Documented tested
                                                                 value

3.    For ventilation and   -Air change rates:                   Blower door test +
      indoor climate:                                            isotope measurement
                            -Humidity, temperatures:             Tiny tags (T, RH)
                                                                 dataloggers
                            - Noise level:                       dBA measurement

4.    Heat recovery
      ventilation:          -Thermal efficiency in %             Check of temperatures
                                                                 (inlet, outlet and out
                                                                 door)
                            - Electricity use W and SEL
                              value (J/m³) for fans:             Electricity use
                                                                 measurement as check

5.    Gas boiler:           -Installed efficiency:               Check energy meter in
                                                                 one apartment

6.    Heat distribution and -Heat use measured at central Energy meter in heating
      e.g. district heating: point e.g. at heating plant  plant and energy meter
                             and heat entering directly:  in housing unit.
                                                          Assesment of pipe
                                                          insulation.


General horizontal work on energy efficient ventilation
As part of the horizontal work in the Green Housing Block and the Green Solar Regions projects an
effort to define the need for energy efficient ventilation designs has been made, and in Portsmouth
different heat recovery ventilation designs were demonstrated as well as PV assisted ventilation
designs.

Below is shown the situation in Denmark:




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                Fan type              Electricity use           Heat            CO2 emission
                                       MJ/m², year           consumption         Kg/m², year
                                                             MJ/m², year

       1. Natural ventilation                                           162                 7.3

       2. Only mechanical
          exhaust                                       5               164                 8.2

       3. Cross flow HRV unit
          with electrical after
          heating                                   105                                    19.1

       4. Cross flow HRV unit
          with water based after
          heating                                    22                  83                 7.7

       5. Counter flow HRV unit                      22                  26                 5.2

       6. New optimised HRV
          system (EcoVent)                         7                     18                 3.2
(Ref.: Report by Danish Technological Institute 2003).

As it can be seen counter flow heat recovery ventilation is more sustainable than natural ventilation
with respect to CO2 emission. Besides development work with the company EcoVent will lead to
even better solutions.

The big challenge is not to install low cost solutions as explained in the following.

Healthy, energy efficient housing by help of new developed, cost effective, easy to
                   integrate, heat recovery ventilation system
In co-operation with the Danish company EcoVent it has been possible to develop a new type of
thin and compact heat recovery ventilation unit, HRV, for housing projects which have a thickness
of only 15 cm, so it is easy to integrate in most housing units. This development work is based on
experiences from the EU-supported demonstration project Green Solar Regions.




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Besides it has also been possible to optimise the overall designs so you can reach very low costs for
this HRV unit, with a price around 500-600 Euro for the most simple base unit ready for
installation.
At the same time the electricity use is only 20-30 W depending on the air volume, and the noise
level is below 25 dB which is very difficult to hear. The heat recovery efficiency is designed to be
at least 85% with airflow rates from 50-130 m³ per hour.

The basic idea of the thin HRV unit is that it is especially useful for
smaller housing units like e.g. in social housing projects. Here it can
e.g. be possible to use the thin HRV unit to extract 50-60 m³ per
hour of air from the bathroom while fresh air is supplied to another
area in the housing unit, to allow an efficient air exchange.

At the same time the overall air tightness of the housing unit should
be ensured, and the need to extract air from the kitchen can be made
in the normal way by a cooker hood which is manually operated
when you cook.

In any case you should always ensure an air exchange of at least 0.5
times per hour.
Since the thin HRV unit can be installed directly onto an outside oriented wall the installation costs
can be very low. For a small housing unit it is estimated that you need to pay 130 Euro to drill a
hole in the wall and 400 Euro for installation including one air duct away from the HRV unit.
Electricity can be obtained by a normal plug.

Since you will both save costs for a normal bathroom ventilation and radiator effect, the real extra
costs for the total ventilation solution in new build housing projects are very low (perhaps 500
Euro).

Based on energy costs and the climate situation in Denmark this means that a payback time of 3-4
years should be possible, at the same time giving the benefit of an improved indoor air climate. For
countries with less energy costs the payback time can be more like 7-8 years which must still be
considered attractive.

For larger housing units the installation costs will be somewhat higher than the mentioned but due
to the need for a larger air volume the saving will also be higher, so the economy is almost equal to
the before mentioned.


In connection to the realisation of the EU-supported demonstration projects, Green Solar regions
and Green Housing Block which have been realised in relation to the European Green Cities co-
operation, it was agreed to distribute one of this low cost HRV unit to the partners in Poland, the
UK, Italy and France as an inspiration for their future activities.




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The here mentioned technology can also be used for larger rooms like in a school (see enclosed
picture).




               Illustration of a compact and cost effective HRV unit for offices, schools etc.
               It can supply 500 m³ per hour without any noise, and 800 m³ per hour is also
                                                  possible.




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Publicity, Commercialisation and Other Developments
Presentation of project results have been made during the project period by help of the
www.europeangreencities.com web site, and the final reporting will be possible to download here
including a final brochure. Experiences concerning sustainable solar low energy building in general,
including BAT information, and experiences from use of the “Green Build” tool has also been
presented in the greenglobal21.com web site – to the Green Housing Block partners.

Hillsley Road
At a partner meeting in February 2004 local stakeholders were invited and a site visit was made.

On completion of the project Portsmouth City Council intend to disseminate information on the
project in the following manner:
    • Technical, funding and project details to be published both on the City Council web site and
        in printed form.
    • Seminars to involve Major Cities Technical Partners.
    • Local stakeholders’ workshop in Portsmouth in co-operation with Green Housing Block
        partners (February 2004).
    • Open day with guided tours for selected interested parties at the site when works are
        completed and prior to occupancy.
    • Video presentations to other City Council departments and Porthsmouth University.

Grenoble
Many visits were already organised in L’Isle d’Abeau, both during work and after. OPAC 38 is now
well known in France and also in Europe for its work. We are often contacted to provide visits and
explanation to local communities or European partners such as:
               _AROHLM, PACA Corse, a social housing company for the south of France, that
visited the installations the 11/06/2003
               _The Guinness Trust that visited the site the 24/06/2003

The work programme, its expectations and first results are also presented in many meetings, to
promote the use of renewable energies for social housings, for instance:
             _Solar Energy in Social Housings, organised by ADEME the 16/06/2002
             _The French Exhibition for the Renewable Energies in Lyon the 28/02/2003
             _A conference on Clever Energy for Social Housing in Paris the 19/11/2003

Furthermore a detailed form is edited and is distributed to some partners all over France.

Outlook
Portsmouth City Council is a major builder and building owner in Portsmouth. The partnership in
the European Green Cities co-operation and related demonstration projects are seen as an important
policy to support sustainable and energy efficient housing.




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A major conclusion from the realised project has been that it is necessary with more quality details
and cost reductions, e.g. by help of prefabricated building solutions. An initiative has been made to
develop a proposal for such a project which is foreseen to be realised in the same area in
Portsmouth, Paulsgrove with a total of 12-14 housing units.

The Danish architect company, Nielsen & Rubow has here developed a design in co-operation with
the local architect, Ken Skatten, see fig. below This is a row house housing design with 2-2 ½
storeys.
Besides the Danish building manufacturer, Scandibyg has given a feedback on a competitive price.

Building start for such a project is foreseen to October 2004.




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Two row house designs (The basic and the flexible row house) have been proposed where the
kitchen and the bathroom section always will be prefabricated. Designs Nielsen & Rubow.




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OPAC 38 is one of the leaders for the work on energy savings in social housings. Its projects are a
pertinent demonstration to show the success of renewable energies for reducing the maintenance
costs. This project will thus be used at OPAC 38 as a reference for its coming work programmes. It
will also be a reference for other social housing companies in France.




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Lessons Learned/Conclusions
Hillsley Road
The demonstration project in Portsmouth is both very interesting due to the used concepts of
sustainable and energy efficient building and also due to the urban approach where difficult
problems concerning especially noise and pollution are handled in an optimised way as part of the
sustainable building approach, e.g. taking fresh air into the dwellings from the far side of the
housing units and preheating it in the ground.

An important lesson learned was that there is many obstructions towards new ways of realising
housing projects in the UK, leading to higher costs because of the uncertainty of using new
technologies.
It has however, still been possible to realise a very interesting housing project with a few less
housing units based on the original anticipated budget. Here also but with interesting results in
relation to the introduction of innovative technical solutions from other European Green Cities
partners which are in practice compared to the more normal standard concerning these technologies
in the UK. This is especially true for the chosen ventilation solutions.

With the realised project in Portsmouth there is now a local reference on sustainable and energy
efficient building which also involves RES technologies like passive solar design, solar DHW and
PV panels.
At the same time it has been discussed among the partners how it can be possible to reach the
introduced qualities at competitive costs. Here a useful approach for the UK could be manufactured
building where it is easier to control the quality, and where costs reductions due to rationalisation
are possible. The latter option and the overall results of the projects were discussed at a final partner
meeting also with a group of local stakeholders in Portsmouth.

Grenoble
The project is very demonstrative to show the maintenance costs reduction through a total energy
approach, particularly with use of active solar energy. The optimisation of all the heating systems
(boilers, heating distribution, pumps, insulation, water storage) aims at reducing the energy
consumption and the greenhouse gases of 40 %, which is very interesting regarding to a lot of social
housing, which could be retrofitted as in this project.

The realised project also demonstrates how renewable energies’ equipment can replace normal
construction materials and solve conception problems, in this case the glass roof.
Another important action to learn from this project is concerning how technical improvements are
brought to social housing also by help of social monitoring. It is important to ensure a “teaching”
and a follow-up of the use of innovative equipment.

The overall Green Housing Block project

The realised demonstration projects in Portsmouth and Grenoble have been realised in relation to
the European Green Cities co-operation also in connection to another demonstration project, “The
Green Solar Regions” project (No. NNE5/1999/227).




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There has been many benefits of realising such a demonstrative approach in connection to a well
established European partnership co-operation, where the responsible builders also had experience
from the already realised EU-targeted project in the building sector from the European Green Cities.

In this way is has been possible to create an important continuation of this co-operation already
from year 2000 and it also created the background of further development of the
europeangreencities.com web site as an efficient dissemination tool in Europe which also shows
important examples of best practice RUE and RES technologies.

In connection to the European Green Cities co-operation and the partner meetings there has also
been ongoing discussions on how to realise large scale implementation plans for solar energy
among the partners. Here e.g. work on this in Copenhagen has been communicated to the partners
in relation to the ongoing large scale PV implementation plan for Valby in Copenhagen (see
www.solivalby.dk) and work on establishing a “Solar City Copenhagen” partnership .
Possibilities and barriers concerning introducing similar policies with other European Green Cities
partners have also been discussed.


Commercialisation
The aim of the Green Housing Block project is to create a market for combined use of solar energy
technologies together with energy saving and an optimised energy supply.
E.g. the use of PV assisted ventilation system has already a prospect of being cost efficient for
certain purposes, and solar DHW heating is also often a cost effective solution which just need
organisation to be normal practice in the housing sector, this has been proved with one of the Green
Cities partners in Salzburg where 70% of new social housing projects utilise solar DHW.

With OPAC 38, use of solar DHW has been introduced in many housing projects as part of a total
energy saving package, and the realised demonstration project documents that this is a viable
solution.

In Portsmouth the use of ambitious energy savings and solar technologies are a completely new
approach. The project in Hillsley Road is a good step ahead and it has revealed important
conclusions on where to focus in the future.




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References
    •   Green Housing Block, Technical Reports 1-3
        Cenergia Energy Consultants, Denmark, 2001-2003

    •   Green Housing Block, Final report
        Portsmouth City Council Housing Service, Hillsley Road Development, UK, 2004-02-24

    •   Green Housing Block, Final report
        OPAC38, Grenoble, France, 2004

    •   EGCN web site: www.europeangreencities.com
        Green Housing Block project information




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Photographs
Hillsley Road




                                             Conservatory




ABB HRV Ventilation system                   ABB HRV system




Solar collectors for DHW                     Airtight construction




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EcoVent HRV system                      EcoVent HRV system




                                       Underfloor ventilation system




                                       Hillsley Road construction



Condensing gas boiler




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Grenoble




Heating network pipes                   Regulation automaton for heating




PV panels                               PV panels




PV panels                               PV panels




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Thermal solar panels                                    Thermal solar panels




Solar DHW cylinder and heat exchanger




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                                                                                         Annex

    -          Energy Audits, Quality Labelling
    -          Urban ecology planing, design building
    -          Presentation L’ISLE D’ABEAU
    -          Presentation Portsmouth, Hillsley Road design proposal
    -          Green Build questionnaire / point system
    -          Green Quality Building Process
    -          Energy Saving Building of the future
    -          Healthy and environmentally Correct House Building in Denmark
    -          Green Q Standards




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