& the TACO BELL BOYCOTT


                                      Do you know about the
                        Labor injustice & toxic contamination
                                         in the food you eat?

This workshop deals with Immigrant exploitation/ the Sweatshop system/ the fast food
industry/ corporate unaccountability/ and the negative effects of corporate globalization in
our everyday life (including our food!).

It shows how everyday people can get involved in transforming that relationship,
exploring their potential role as consumers, students, activists, family members,
community leaders, etc.

                                     Joint workshop by
                   MEXICO SOLIDARITY NETWORK &
The Everyday Face of Globalization & the Taco Bell Boycott

      1. This workshop hopes to raise up consciousness about the relationship between
         fast food, farm work and consumption, linking these to global issues and
         exploring the potential roles of people as consumers, students, activists, family
         members, etc to interject on all of these.

      2. This tour/workshop can be a tool to develop a more politically and socially aware
         citizenship in the MIDWEST region.

      3. To promote the Coalition of Immokalee Workers’ boycott campaign, especially
         student involvement, because they are the target market of Taco Bell. Concrete
         action proposal: “Boot the Bell” campaign.

      4. Construct a new “we” and “they” identifying consumers with farm workers vs.
         consumers with corporations.

      5. To develop an understanding of the global immigration process and to promote
         some concrete action in support of immigrant rights such as support for the
         Amnesty Proposal.

•    World Map
•    Post-it notes
•    Participants packets
•    Sign-on sheet
•    Butcher paper or blackboard & markers
•    Photos
•    Newspaper Articles

Agenda overview:

0.   Introduction & Agenda review (10 min.)
1.   Some general Info on Economic Globalization (40 min.)
2.   An Everyday example: Corporate Fast Food, Immigrant Workers & Consumers (15 min)
3.   A concrete case: The CIW & The Taco Bell Boycott (40 min.)
4.   What can we do? Some action proposals (15 min.)

1. Introduction & Agenda Review
Objective: a) to introduce MSN-CIW-SFW, b) to frame the workshop and c) review the agenda.

a) Facilitators introduce themselves with a brief description of their group:

The Coalition of Immokalee Workers is a community-based worker organization
located in Southwest Florida. Among other things, the CIW is dedicated to achieving: a fair
wage, the right to organize without fear of retaliation, and an end to indentured servitude
in the fields.

The Mexico Solidarity Network is a coalition of over 90 organizations struggling for
human rights, economic justice and democracy in the United States and Mexico and
alternatives to the corporate-centered model of globalization.

The Student Farmworker Alliance is a national network of students and youth working
in alliance with farmworkers for social justice.

**Optional Warm-up activity**:
What does GL means for you? Words listed in two columns: positive and negative

b) Framing the Workshop:

“We believe that the way globalization is taking place is not working for everyone.

The current globalization process is not responding to most people’s necessities and
actually benefiting only a few. Multinational corporations and powerful investors for
example, are the only ones who can move themselves and their money freely from
country to country. At the same time a lot of people in desperate situations cannot
cross borders to earn a simple livelihood. The exchange of products and profit is based
not on the sustainability of societies, the environment and democratic decision-making
but on labor exploitation, environmental degradation and a lack of societies’ input.

If globalization would mean free movement of people around the globe, fair exchange of
products from different countries, or better and accessible communications for
everybody, it would not make sense not being a globalization fan.

Another globalization is possible. The current globalization process is not something
inevitable, but historically constructed. It is based on a very particular economic system,
which is hurting people’s lives and the planet, and which does not count with our opinion
about it.

The global economy can be designed in another way, more positive and inclusive”.

C) The facilitator then reviews the agenda.

   1. Some general Info on Economic Globalization (40 min.)
   2. An Everyday example: Corporate Fast Food, Immigrant Workers & Consumers (15
   3. A concrete case: The CIW & The Taco Bell Boycott (40 min.)
   4. What can we do? Some action proposals (15 min.)

   1. Some general Info on Economic Globalization
Objective: a) to establish a personal connection to the global economy, b) to introduce some key
aspects of globalization, c) to explain some terminology


Now we are going to look at one way we are personally connected to the global economy. In pairs,
introduce yourself to your partner and then check the label on an article of clothing or footwear
your partner is wearing.

Write the name of the country it came from on a post-it note. And then, go up to the front of the
room and place the post-it where it belongs on the world map.

   •   “What strikes you about this map? If you have bought your clothes in the US, why are they
       manufactured so far away?”

   •   Make together a list of reasons (called “the Corporate Agenda)”. (stress the low wage

   • Do you know how trade specialists justify these reasons for doing Global trade?
   Explanation of the “Comparative Advantage Theory”

According to this theory, trade is more efficient when the production is made in the
“right place”. For example, it is more efficient to grow bananas in Honduras than in
Chicago. You can’t mine copper in an area where there isn’t any copper. Each country
should be dedicated to work on their best “advantages” as compared to other

   BUT, are bad working conditions (or the other reasons that we have listed above) a natural
   “advantage”? NO, it is a constructed advantage. These features have been developed
   historically (with colonialism). So most of the time, these “advantages” have been imposed.
   There is not more efficiency, but more exploitation.

   •   The activist theory: “The Race to the Bottom”

According to this explanation, the main reason for global trade is cutting the costs of
production looking to gain the maximum profit. All the reasons mentioned above are
ways to cut the cost of production, and to increase their profits. That’s why the
corporations want to move freely around the world looking for, imposing and
supporting the worst labor, humanitarian and ecological conditions. And just as a
reminder, this situation does not only happen in the Global South/in poorer countries
but also in the Global North. This is the case, as we will see, of Immokalee Florida.

KEY IDEA: Are these natural comparative advantages? Or imposed situations to cut production


     A. How is the global economy being constructed?
     B. The destabilization & impoverishment of South countries by this
     C. Massive Immigration Process begins: the Economic Exile

                            *** *** ***

  A. How is the global economy being constructed?

  Since the 70’s, powerful countries and corporations have promoted the “free market”
  economy around the world.

             Have you heard about this term? Where? Use this tip:
             *FREE= liberalize, no norms, no rules, deregulation
                          (So, the bigger you are . . . )

  This economic system is based on the FREE* movement of money, merchandises,
  and corporations’ bases. According to the powerful countries and their economists this
  economic system requires that there be no regulation in salaries, prices and services, and that
  this will bring goodness and positive results to everyone.

  BUT, the reality is that poverty has increased, in the poor and in the rich countries… while
  large multinational corporations are getting richer

  This economic system, which is expanding at the global scale, is called by different names:
  Corporate Globalization, Neo-liberal Globalization, Capitalist Globalization, etc…

     The “liberalization” of the different local economies around the world is being planned,
     commanded and carried out. So who is structuring the economies of the world
     according to this model? When you find out WHO is doing all of that (planning,
     restructuring. . .), then you will know WHO is benefiting from this global economy.

  **Optional Wrap-up activity: Myth Quiz**

Myth Quiz
1) In 1997, the richest one-fifth of the world’s population captured what percentage of the world’s income?
        a) 20%
        b) 50%
        c) 75%
        d) 85%

2) In 1997, the poorest one-fifth of the world’s population captured what percentage of the world’s income?
        a) 20%
        b) 10%
        c) 5%
        d) 1%

3) Since the signing of the North America Free Trade Agreement in 1994, the percentage of the Mexican population
   living in poverty has changed from 58.5% to:
         a) 22%
         b) 37%
         c) unchanged
         d) 79%

4) The sales of the world’s top 200 corporations are the equivalent of 27.5% of world economic activity. What
   percentage of the world’s workforce do they employ?
       a) 0.78%
       b) 2.1%
       c) 5.8%
       d) 27.5%

5) The average income of the poorest 20% of the population in the US changed in what way between 1973 and 1994?
       a) increased by 22%
       b) increased by 8%
       c) remained stagnant
       d) decreased by 3%

6) The age of globalization or neo-liberalism began in the late 1960’s. Since then, the trend in growth of the gross
   global product (the total of all goods and services produced in the world) has been:
       a) 4.5% growth in the 70’s, 3.5% growth in the 80’s, 2.5% growth in the 90’s
       b) 2.5% growth in the 70’s, 3.5% growth in the 80’s, 4.5% growth in the 90’s
       c) 4.5% growth throughout all three decades
       d) 2.5% growth throughout all three decades

7) From 1970 to 1992, average real wages (corrected for inflation) in the US have changed in what way?
       a) increased by 31%
       b) increased by 13%
       c) remained stagnant
       d) decreased by 19%

8) How much did corporations spend on marketing in 1992?
      a) 1 billion dollars per year
      b) 10 billion dollars per year
      c) 100 billion dollars per year
      d) 1 trillion dollars per year

9) According to the International Labor Office (ILO), a United Nations affiliate, in the year 2000 what percentage of the
   world’s workers were “unemployed, underemployed in terms of seeking more work, or earn less than is needed to
   keep their families out of poverty,” (with poverty defined as a wage level of $1 per day or less).
       a) 5%
       b) 10%
       c) 25%
       d) 33%

10) Between 1982 and 1996, real wages in Mexico changed in what way?
        a) increased by 50%
        b) remained stagnant
        c) decreased by 25%
        d) decreased by 80%

11) In 1982 at the beginning of the Latin American debt crisis, Mexico’s foreign debt stood at $78 billion of which $57
    billion was public debt (the rest was owed by the private sector). What was the debt in 1997 after 15 years of debt
    reduction and structural adjustment programs mandated by the IMF and World Bank?
          a) Mexico was debt free
          b) $20 billion of which $10 billion was public debt
          c) $100 billion of which $47 billion was public debt
          d) $170 billion of which $99 billion was public debt

12) What percentage of the daily $1.5 trillion that is traded in international currency markets is used to finance
    international trade or investment as opposed to pure speculation?
         a) all of it
         b) 80%
         c) 25%
         d) 2%

Myth Quiz Answers
1) D. 85%
2) D. 1%
3) D. 79% Poverty is defined by the Mexican government as living on less than $7.30 per day. Nearly half of those in
    poverty are living in “extreme poverty,” defined as living on less than $2.80 per day. (Source: La Jornada, Nov. 27,
    2000 )
4) A. 0.78% (Source: IPS Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power)
5) D. Decreased by 3%. In addition, the average wealth of the bottom 40% decreased during these years. (Source:
    Robin Hahnel, Panic Rules)
6) A. 4.5% growth in the 70’s, 3.5% growth in the 80’s, 2.5% growth in the 90’s. (Source: United for a Fair Economy,
    Globalization for Beginners Trainer’s Guide)
7) D. Decreased by 19%. In 1992 nearly ¼ of the US workforce earns less than the 1968 minimum wage. (Source:
    Kevin Danaher, Corporations are Gonna Get Your Mama)
8) D. 1 trillion dollars per year. This represents 1/6th of the gross domestic product. (Source: Noam Chomsky,
    Corporations are Gonna Get Your Mama)
9) D. 33%. (Source: New York Times, January 25, 2001)
10) D. Real wages decreased by 80%. The year 1982 marked the start of IMF structural adjustment programs in
    Mexico. (Source, Alejandro Nadal, The Micro-economic Impact of IMF Structural Adjustment Politics in Mexico)
11) D. Mexico’s debt was $170 billion of which $99 billion was public debt. The average annual growth rate of foreign
    debt was 5.7% while the economy grew by 1.8% annually. (Source, Alejandro Nadal, The Micro-economic Impact of
    IMF Structural Adjustment Politics in Mexico)
12) D. 2% is used for productive purposes. The remainder is speculation. Daily trading in currency markets grew from
$0.2 trillion in 1986 to $1.5 trillion in 1998. (Source: Robin Hahnel, Panic Rules)

B. The destabilization & impoverishment of South countries by this

The ex-colonial countries, the “developing” countries suffer the consequences of this
sudden deregulation of the economy: no rules enforcing labor rights nor environmental
standards. No government participation or support in public services such as education
and health. No state subsidies for some specific sectors. No regulation on prices,
salaries, currency value…All these “free market” or “neoliberal” policies that
intend to liberalize the economy, actually hurt the people of these newly
independent countries, often creating general instability and economic crisis.

These countries became weak and dependent on international lending institutions –such
as the IMF and the WB-. They gave financial assistance to these impoverished countries
under a condition: to implement more “free market” policies. This mechanism has
received a name: Structural Adjustment Program (SAPs).

    The ups and downs of salaries, prices, currency value bring
    instability to the people (to everybody but especially those who
    have less). This is “freedom” according to the liberal economists,
    who is free under these conditions?

**EXAMPLE: Mexico as a Case**

Read the New York Times story of ‘Lorenzo Rebollo’, a Mexican campesino
under “free policies” imposed by NAFTA.

[Look for some key words. What is the impact of free trade policies such as the ones,
which NAFTA imposed, on Mexican farmers?]

C. Massive Immigration Process begins: the Economic Exile

•   These policies impoverish local economies forcing people into migration and
    displacement from their homes due to a lack of opportunities.

•   Borders are opened for Corporations and capital but closed for most people.

•   Since borders are closed, what kind of conditions of migration are people
    forced into? –coyotes, desert crossings, precariousness of migrants’ position
    in new country exacerbating conditions of exploitation: SWEATSHOPS AT


                           IFIs: International Financial
                           Institutions. Multilateral lending
                           organizations that operate at the
                           regional or global level.

        SAPs: Structural Adjustment Programs. Implementation of “free market”
        policies in order to get international financial assistance (IFIs’ loans).
        These programs obligate countries to:
        -cut social programs such as education, health care, food subsides
        -freeze wages and take away labor rights
        -sell off publicly owned agencies and industries to private investors
        -stop growing and making things for their own population and start
        producing goods for export
        -open their economies to transnational corporations and investors

                                              IMF: International Monetary Fund. The IMF is an IFI.
                                              Imposes Structural Adjustment Programs on developing
                                              nations in exchange for short-term loans. It is controlled by
                                              about seven of the wealthiest countries in the world (G7).
                                              There is a board of directors and each director’s vote
                                              depends on how much money his country puts in.
                                              Over 90 countries around the world now have SAPs. That means that
                                              the IMF exercises some control over the economic destiny of half the
                                              world’s population.

WB: World Bank. The WB is an IFI. It provides
capital for development of infrastructure, such as
electrical power projects, roads, ports, railroads,…
Works with the IFM to impose SAPs. The WB
defines itself as an institution dedicated to
Development. Its notion of “development” is based solely on
indicators of macroeconomic growth and production.

        WTO: The World Trade Organization serves as a kind of world economic government,
        setting the rules for the global economy. The WTO serves the transnational corporate
        “We are writing a single constitution for the global economy” Renato Ruggiero, former
        Director General of the WTO.

KEY POINT: The IMF, the WB and the WTO are 3 of the most powerful global rule-
makers. There is almost no way of having effective democratic input on their existence,
structure, or even policies. These International Financial Institutions (IFIs) are the
targets of many large protests and critical campaigns:

   2. An Everyday example: Corporate Fast Food, Immigrant
      Workers & Consumers
This section tries a) to develop critical consumers and b) to understand the
relationship between Fast Food, Immigrant Workers & Consumers

Now we are going to look at another sphere of our daily life: eating!

   •   Find commonalties and explain why:

             LOCAL DINNER

                                               HOME FOOD

       Corporate Fast Food vs. local traditional food

b) Explain the logic of the Corporate Fast Food economic success:

                           THE PROFIT FORMULA:
                 Low salaries +bad quality product +Logo=
                               cheap prices

We are going to play a game called “The Profit Formula”

      Divide the group into 3 sub-groups. Each subgroup represent different roles:
      a transnational corporation/ a farmworker/ a consumer.
      Each group discusses how the “Profit Formula” impacts their situation.

      Each sub-groups has a spoke-person. The 3 spoke-persons stand in the middle of
      the room.

      A “journalist” is going to ask to each of the volunteers standing in the middle of the
      room is impacted under the “Profit Formula” logic.

      The spoke-person will move according to the results of the previous discussion: if,
      for example, the farmer comes out ahead s/he takes a stop forward explaining why.


  •   The Everyday life of a farm worker:

  •   Brief History of the CIW and its struggles:
      “From growers to corporations”

  •   The Taco Bell boycott history: the NATIONAL CARAVAN!!

  •   Analysis of the campaign:

            A struggle between two different visions: fast food vs. fair food
            A struggle among logos
            A struggle between two actors: the corporation vs. the farmworkers & the
            A struggle with two main references: campesino movement (Cesar Chavez) and
            the movement for global justice

            Pueden cambiar o incluir mas temas!!!!!


Taco Bell Campaign:

List serve
Local committees Ex.
Boot the Bell campaign

Amnesty Proposal for Undocumented Workers:

FTAA Campaign:

Street demonstrations: calendar

A20: Washington DC
G8: Canada


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