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									Practical Implications
Consistencies exist across radical product projects. Understanding these consistencies may help
managers identify areas of concern for their own radical innovations and facilitate their management

A managerial tool to identify opportunities for new and improved products in the marketplace. This
tool may enhance the competitive advantage of an organization by directing decisions towards
products that are new or better alternatives than what is currently on the market.

The way product innovativeness may influence new product success. Specifically, by studying
Japanese firms, they showed that certain synergies may adversely impact product competitive
advantage when the project faces high innovativeness. Thus, when high innovativeness occurs,
managers may want to focus on proficiencies (both marketing and technical) when there is high-
innovativeness rather than on synergies in order to benefit competitive product advantage and
relative product performance.

The ability of marketing to understand and communicate on manufacturing topics may be crucial to
establishing good working relationships across marketing and manufacturing functions under various
conditions. Further, the researchers suggest that by taking steps to enhance marketing’s knowledge
of manufacturing, managers may facilitate these relationships which, in turn, may benefit new product

Provides a practical approach that facilitates decision making about supply chain, product and
process designs. Their model optimizes the operation and design decisions of supply chains.
Moreover, a practical application may entail managers applying the method to see improvements in
design and operations before decisions are finalized.

In many cases, organizations ask suppliers to join in new product development processes. Firms may
impact effectiveness as well as financial and design performance depending on the capabilities and
culture of the supplier. Further, having suppliers involved in decisions about technical requirements
and coming to a joint agreement about requirements can enhance project team effectiveness
Maquiladora employees' satisfaction significantly affects their loyalty to the companies.
Empowerment, teamwork, and employee compensation had a positive influence on maquiladora
employees' work satisfaction. Employee training significantly affected the effectiveness of employee
empowerment and teamwork. In general, maquiladora management must place its priority on
employee training and employee empowerment to enhance employee satisfaction.

When a planner is faced with an increased number of actions, the variety of actions increases as

Vividness of information and perceived risk may be working together to produce a decision that is
different from the one that would be predicted by the expected utility model (which assumes rational
decision-making). Sellers should do whatever is reasonable to affect the factors influencing the
likelihood to outsource in order to enhance the chance of receiving the contract.

When participants are able to communicate, system-wide training appears to be somewhat more
effective than role-specific training, when the effectiveness is measured as the decrease in order

The results suggest that informal mechanisms play an integral role in shaping and creating relational
capital, and that this in turn can lead to direct benefits in the form of improved product and process
designs, as well as improved product and process designs, a well as improved responsiveness.

With regards to outsource management … Reliability, trust and relationship management are found
more important in Korean context than Western context. Also baiting vendor or postponding sme
outsourcing tasks are non-existent in Korean culture.

Flexibility improvements, especially in high volume processes, can be anchored in simplicity and
discipline in operations. Alternative approaches such as building inventory cushions and buffer
capacity may bring in more flexibility for the short term but, except for companies producing the
highest levels of variety, they may also increase cost and complexity to a point that will cripple the
organization's perfromance in the long term. Simplicity and discipline may incorporate simultaneous
improvements in technology and work methods, which reinforces the mertis of using a sociotechnical
approach to operations investments.
A framework for identifying the types of behavioral assumptions typically made in prescriptions to OM practice
is provided. The framework identifies areas that require further empirical examination in order to better justify
prescriptions (human subject studies of these areas in the field could prove particularly useful, as a complement
to laboratory examinations).

If firms improve their SGS they will also be able to improve their marketing message. Also it is
confirmed that service firms should make employee motivation a high priority.

The strong relationship between employee control initiatives and program results implies that the
most successful quality programs are exploiting this opportunity. The findings suggest that additional
utilization of employee control initiatives could vastly improve a mediocre hospital quality program.
Also, greater implementation of employee commitment initiatives has been successful in achieving
results. Expansion of the application of employee recognition, best practices sharing, meetings and
literature, and project results sharing are likely to achieve greater program results.

Goals have a positive effect on performance when use with six sigma tools and method. The
research suggests that setting challenging goals without fully utilizing the tools and method can lead
to sub-optimal results. Organizational leaders need to make sure that quality-improvement teams are,
in fact using the tools and method espoused by quality theorists and practitioners. Also, the research
suggests that challenging goals should be supplemented with tools and method to solve difficult

Organizations can be more proactive in designing their SMP systems, and deliberately institutionalize
elements of both rationality and adaptability early on in the planning cycle. To accomplish such meta-
planning, organizations must understand whre they have been, where they are currently, and what
factors led to their currect state. This meta-planning learning approach is a powerful tool in
benchmarking and enabling progress in SMP, providing valuable assistance to practice.
The performance-practice distinction helps to characterize manufacturing plants and brings clarity to
the discussion surrounding agility/leanness and lean manufacturing/agile manufacturing paradigms.
The performance-based perspective provides a strategic view in the sense of setting priorities, that is,
what should be done. A manufacturing practice oriented view, on the other hand, focuses on how
performance gains are to be achieved. Both are needed to in efforts to co-manage lean and agile
manufacturing efforts.

Strategy-knowledge fit is associated with chain performance. Capitalizing on knowledge can create
superior performance in supply chains, but only if the relative emphasis on various knowledge
elements matches strategy. Firms intending to position themselves in the various roles of
prespectors, analyzers, lo-cost defenders, differentiated defenders and reactors, each should
consider their ability to pursue specific knowledge characteristics (specifics outlined in the paper)

Firms who establish a culture of high integration between different departments within the firm and
externally with suppliers and customers will more efficiently manage flexibility, leading to improved
plant performance. The transformation framework (outlined in the paper) provides a rich decision
making tool for managers when configuring flexibility. I can also assist operations managers in
viewing the interal setup of their plants.

Concurrent engineering can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the product development
process. Moreover, CAD (computer-aided design) provides a tool through which concurrent
engineering further impacts process outcomes by facilitating engineering design and, in turn, cross-
functional information sharing. Thus, practitioners may integrate the use of a CAD tool for these two
purposes while invoking concurrent engineering to help the team meet time, quality, productivity, and
cost objectives.

Smaller firms should leverage their IT capabilities to compete in the global marketplace. Whereas
larger firms have long utilized the benefits of third party logistics outsourcing, smaller firms must use
their IT capabilities to a greater extent to realize the same benefits.

Understanding the key relevent elements of 'response' provides clarification of the dependency of a
knock-down on the interaction of distance to incident with time of alert relative to the start of free
burning. It also helps in the identification of the source of an otherwise seemingly contradictory
condition in which a newer piece of equipment can be misintepretted as the functional equivalent of
older apparatus during this type of response.

Tradeoffs among new product development(NPD) performance outcomes are manifested more
strongly in highly efficient projects when compared to inefficient projects. Critically important to
efficiency (holistic project performance) is project manager experience, management commitment,
and cross-functional integration.
In practice, managers should pick an 'arrow core' of integration practices in their strategic competitive
space and build an ideal profile of supplier integration for benchmarking and replication.
Management's ability to work with unions would not only facilitate internal coordination (cross-training,
transfers), but also secure union support for, or at least asssure neutral stances.

National culture plays a strong role in the effectiveness of the Baldrige constructs, with the exception
of customer and market focus. Countries need to develop awards and quality initiatives tailored to
their national cultures. Nevertheless issues relating to the pursuit of customer and market focus may
be somewhat universal.

In order to support a strategy of supply chain integration, buyer and supplier firms need to think
clearly about the concept of socialization within the supply chain. Socialization clearly has a positive
effect on how firms behave and conduct business. The use of cross-functional teams, social events
and supplier conferences (to name but a few) to develop closer relationshi[s has often been
dismissed as wastes of time. Investments in socialization must be made. If firms are to operate these
types of strategies they need to carefully allocate resources and consider the types of socialization
activities that will deliver the required results for their organizations.

Chinese manufacturers should be mindful of the potential trade-offs between competitive capabilities.
In particular, mass servers that appear to base their manufacturing strategy on the multiple
fundamental capabilities of quality, flexibility, cost and delivery may find it difficult and costly to
develop all of these capabilities at the same time. The emphasis on such a wide range of
fundamental capabilities requires extensive resources and programs for their implementation, and
could also result in a lack of focus and an incoherent strategy. Concentrating on a narrower set of
capabilities would result in a more effective allocation of resources and would avoid conflict or trade-

Although a reduction in complexity may lead to lesss transaction cost, and increased supplier
responsiveness, it also, at least initially, may reduce supplier innovation. Also, changing the size of
the supply base has an opposite effect on supply risk and supply innovation. Blindly lowering the
complexity of a supply base may not always be desirable. Our propositions suggest that there must
be an optimal size for a supply base in terms of the level of complexity.

Managers should invest in increasing behavioral transparency for two reasons. First it directly and
positively impacts non-financial performance. Second transparency results in improved social bonds
which then in turn lead to improved non-financial performance. Managers should focus on the roles of
behavioral transparency and social bonding in their international supplier relationships. US managers
need to be more concerned than German managers regarding their cultural distances from suppliers.
US managers must become more aware of these differences and more skillful in taking these cultural
differences into account when structuring international relationships.
The causal relationships between technology and nurse management decisions, and performance
established in this study are an important addition to the health services literature. Hospital
administrators are provided with n idea of what technology and nurse management decisions should
be developed in order to fit their location and size constraints in order to fulfill the oal of providing
quality service at a reasonable cost.

Forward-looking managers who are willing to invest in people and complementary management
practices can positively affect the subdimensions of absorptive capacity (which in turn incluence the
ability to implement innovative management practices such as time-based mfg practices). The use of
interdisciplinary teams allows information to flow through the system on both a formal and informal
basis. Managers need to develop a climate of trust, where communicaiton among constituents is not
only tolerated but is rewarded. FIrms should also monitor minor players and industry outliers who may
be the source of future innovation.

Service managers can receive misleading or erroneous information from traditional control charts if
the service process being monitored is a cascade process.

Environmental management programs that are highly specialized but disconnected may
not be as effective as managing for sustainable development.

Supplying more stores during time-window hours enabled by short distance, short
unloading time, and larger drop size, reduces sensitivity to time-window pressure.
Relaxation ot time-windows immediately results in a relief of the environmental burden
and a cost decrease for retailers. In order to achieve socialsustainability effects without
unnecesarily increasing the environmental burden and the retailers' cost, municipalities
should consider harmonizing their time-windows.

In some settings, enactment of collective WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic
Equipment) take-back will result in higher manufacturer and remanufacturer profits while
simultaneously spurring remanufacturing activity and reducing the tax burden on society.
It is likely that managers perceive that the risk and return relationship in a reverse supply
chain (RSC) is not equivalent that in a forward supply chain (FSC). Preference is towards
FSC investments. In times of high growth, the distinction is greater. RSC decisions are not
directly driven by customer pressures and environmental regulations. If managers
perceive the decision to invest in the RSC to be primarily driven by external constituents,
they will see this form of investment as one they cannot control. Rather the actions taken
by consumers and governments to pressure companies to adopt RSC invovement may
influence the plants' RSC risk propensity.

Generally speaking, OEMs should prefer to outsource the collection activity of reverse
supply chains. Under certain conditions an OEM should outsource the processing activity
as well.

The entire product life cycle provides opportunities to preserve resources while reducing
the environmental impact. Participation of operation managers in this process is crucial
since they play a key role to reduce cost and to preserve scarce resources at various
stages, namely design, production, usage and disposal. The integrated approach
proposed in this paper helps operation managers in strategic and operational decision
making during these stages.

Firms should invest in eBusiness capabilities if they want to enhance their productio
information integration intensity. Firms should not try to justify investments in eBusiness
technologies on the basis of their immediate impact on operational performance. To
achieve operational performance advantages, the firm must also have the processes and
procedures in place to use those capabilities. It is best to develop supplier integration
before customer integration, with the goal to have both in place. By first developing
supplier integration the firm establishes the capability to meet the performance
expectations of it customers before engaging in customer integration.

Not all technological and non-technological resources employed in a supply chain linkage
have the potential of providing a distinctive visibility for the supply chain and as an
extension, a sustainable competitive advantage. The manner in which resources are
deployed in a supply chain linkage is important in the achievement of disinctive visibility
and sustainable competitive advantage. An organization may be involved with many
linkages in its supply chain. However, the level of visibility that it enjoys may differ across
the linkages.

Large firms must differentiate between chains and within chains on the type of information
they wish to integrate, and how they achieve this. Within chains, if SMEs are to remain
strongly connected, this cannot easily be devolved to intermediaries such as eExchanges
as SME engagement with them is low. It also cannot easily be passed over as a black box
technology without support. Rather, larger firms need to build appropriate
informationintegration bridges to smaller supply chain partners, and , adopting a portfolio,
contingency approach, this may mean using different technologies that enhance the flows
and capture of tacit, informal information. Such bridges would carry mutual trust.
Dyadic coordination technologies, one factor of transactional e-business technology,
represents not only the most popular, but are also the only e-business technology for
which evidence was found of improved financial performance. In many North American
companies, the approach taken is to automate basic supply chain processes (e.g. dyadic
coordination) so that human resources can be deployed in more productive areas, likely in
areas such as strateic sourcing and supplier development. Executives considering
investments in e-business technologies should favor solidifying deployment in dyadic

In the maintenance outsourcing relationship the desire to dump the maintenance
problems on the outsourcing provider is a guaranteed formula for failure. The value of a
true partnership relationship between the plant and the service provider based on mutual
trust must be well understood.

A driving force behind any "e-Integration" related programs will be the expectation that
implementation of Internet technologies, combined with the development of collaborative
arrangements with trading partners, will lead to more effective business models. This in
turn makes possible additional returns in the form some of some variety of competitive

There needs to be a shift apart from traditional operations strategy when conducting
Internet-enabled commerce, particularly regarding integration choices and the way a
selling firm interacts with its supply chain partners. Unlike soft skills, structural elements of
SC strategy are often codifiable and explicit, and therefore may be more readily
transmitted and received among competing firms.

Investments in IT are important decisions for companies as they involve large capital
expenditures. Understanding the relationship between organizational use of e-business
technologies, intra and inter-organizational collaboration, and performance may help
companies in their decision to promote and facilitate collaboration internally.

Without standardization efforts at uncertainty reduction are less valuable, because the
processes themselves are too uncertain to control effectively. Managers should seek to
achieve supply chain performance improvement by exploiting opportunities to implement
both effective supply chain practice and effective information sharing.

Supply chain management plays an ever increasing role in the growing digital economy.
Both client and service providers can realize increased performance from greater levels of
client customization and access. The presence of greater access to partner expertise
yields higher levels of inter-organizational customization and subsequent real time
information access. The provider's level of trust in clients has a positive effect on
informatino exchang behavior which in turn has a positive impact on clients' level of
At the firm-level, CVI trade-offs can be attenuated through external adjustments that affect
process time, such as outsourcing. However, external adjustments that alter demand do
not change the fundamental trade-offs at the firm level. Strategic alignment between
market and process establishes the basis for relative levels of CVI. However, developing
capabilities that reduce variability or increase flexibility are necessary to make a
corresponding reduction in inventory, and improve responsiveness and cost. Looking for
additional means to either attenuate or accommodate CVI trade-offs must remain a
management priority, whether through outsourcing, flexible technologies, or demand

Supply managers might consider adopting only those parameters that both reduce bid
prices without damaging suppliers' perceptions of the buying organization. Supplier
perceptions of opportunism tended to increase over time, hinting that heavy reliance on
eRAs may impair buyer-supplier relationships.

Customer dissatisfaction due to waiting can be minimized if the customers are given a
reason for the wait. It does not necessarily matter what reason is given, however, the
customers' perceived wait times will be lower if they are given one.

Numerous attributes exhibit positive relationships with customer ratings (satisfaction
guaranteed 100%, priority mail delivery, download delivery, etc), suggesting that
managers should consider including those process attributes in their own service. Even
more numerous are the attributes that exhibit negative associations with customer ratings
(customer receiving email from companies, selling information to third parties, etc).
Managers need to be careful how the implement these negatively related process
attributes. Many of the process attributes are required in any e-service, yet it appears that
the way in which they are implemented may be leading to customer dissatisfaction.

Managers selling predominantly low risk products should be aware that customers will
view service-oriented quality dimensions as most important. Conversely, managers selling
mostly high-risk products should be aware that customers will focus on product-oriented
quality dimensions. Those who sell a mix of high-risk and low-risk products may need to
adjust their business processes to align themselves with customer expectations
appropriately, depending on the product. These relationships may also provide ways for
merchants to reduce costs by not providing benefits which are not valued by the

If a firm wants to see measurable effects on their firm performance via EMPs, recycling,
waste reduction, remanufacturing, environmental design, and surveillance of the markets
appear to be the EMPs that are likely to have the greatest impact.

Provides a multi-dimensional way that firms can assess their NSD competence. Moreover,
the authors suggest that financial firms may use the survey items to ascertain their
innovative capabilities.
The practical solution implemented by most project managers in order to deal with high
project risk is the improvement of the project plan. This approach significantly improves
project success. Project managers facing high-risk projects do not tend to fail more than
project managers managing low-risk projects. In high-risk projects, increasing the quality
of the project plan improves project success.

Reducing inventories has a significant and direct relationship with financial performance.
This provides strong justification for managers' continued emphasis on efficient inventory
management and supply chain inventory coordination. Perhaps wholesale managers need
to seek out appropriate improvement programs applicable to their specific operations.

Firms, in general, will first see an improvement in inventory turnover and a reduction in
SG&A expenditures. These, in turn, drive overall financial performance. High-tech firms
are likely to see the most dramatic improvements in financial performance around a SCM
implementation. As the scope of SCM implementation increases, diminished financial
results are more likely.

Capitalizing on its collaborative ties, a firm can develop cohesive ties with members from
its network. Through such a network, the firm can access resources and know-how from
direct ties and information from indirect ties. Practitioners need to develop cooperative
and long-term relationships with suppliers in their development. Such efforts need to be
accompanied with a supply base rationalization strategy along side the selection of
suppliers based on their product development capabilities. While there are potential
advantages of having access to network partners, it is equally important to mobilize such
partners. Supplier involvement through gray-box integration is useful as such mobilization
has manifested positive returns for product innovation, however small firms do not enjoy
higher levels of product innovation through gray-box integration. Perhaps they do not have
the expertise or resources devoted for gray-box integration.

The findings of the study highlight the paradoxical need for control and flexibility value
profiles, thus encouraging managers to avoid viewing such values as conflicting, seeking
instead to empower employees and to establish supporting policies and systems. In
essence, managers should nurture an organization that offers explicit controls for
evaluating and most decision-making, but also offer the flexibility for operators to depart
from routine work procedures. Such managers may encourage AMT operators to be
creative and autonomous problem solvers, while interacting with operators frequently to
set limits and help codify the learning that occurs via experimentation.

Outsourcing non-core business-related operations cannot significantly affect outsourcing
firm's value; however, contracting out core business-related operations improves firms'
value. For firms with lower capital intensity, contracting out core business-related
operations may put themselves in a vulnerable position, because their vendors may
become their potential competitors. When selecting a potential vendor, the outsourcing
firm must focus on a cooperative relationship with the vendor: it is risky to outsource just
because the vendor's costs are somewhat lower.
Top managers should attempt to integrate the purchasing function into the strategic
planning process of the overall business to ensure that its functional objectives align with
the business strategy. Purchasing managers should be invited to participate in the
strategic planning process; business strategy should be properly communicated to the
purchasing professionals. Top managers should provide the purchasing function with the
human and technical resources necessary to achieve its projected objectives. The
establishment of training and development programs for purchasing personnel and an
appropriate recognition of the purchasing function within the organizational structure are
also advisable initiatives in this respect.

Quality improvement would likely be more effectively executed in an ambidextrous
organizational form: an ambidextrous form (contextual and methodological elements)
provides support for concurrent activities in relatively diverse, and even contrasting, set of
goals and tasks in an organization. Managing ignorance and ambiguity are equally
important in quality. In this sense, a comprehensive quality program can become more
"intelligent" by considering the methodological elements AND the contextual elements
from a learning and knowledge creation perspective.

It is important for managers to understand the biases (geographic, personal) in journal
reviews and to keep this in mind when reading journals. (N/A)

Firms should consider mechanisms that permit sufficient transparency across simultaneous projects
to managers charged with resource management responsibility. Such transparency can permit
managers to more easily evaluate resource sharing options at a global level as well as reduce risks of
misattributing project difficulties to elements of organizational climate. At the same time, it is
crucial to augment such information availability with organizational structures that identify sharing
opportunities, clarify the constraints that individual managers have on their sharing decisions, and
encourage sharing when such actions are oriented towards management objectives.

More sophisticated matching rules which take full advantage of the available order and
unit assortment can significantly improve the profitability of the difficult-to-manage MTF
situation, freeing managers from some of the inefficient coping mechanisms they have
typically relied upon. MTO firms may find it advantageous to migrate to an MTF production
process for added competitive advantage given the global pressures for increasingly
faster delivery of their products.

A formal and well-defined business will lead to improved functional level outcomes: when
infrastructural decisions complement each other, operational outcomes for a service firm
are likely to be enhanced. For example, the leadership of a TSO should not only allow
high levels of operational autonomy in the organization but complement that with bold
behavior or risky projects. For TSOs, a focus on process innovativeness may lead to
better performance: service firms improve customer service by focusing on innovation.
Those decision makers choosing whether to engage a provider should carefully examine
the nature of logistics service requirements in their transactions with customers.
Management at ICFs faced with specialized needs may be better served by maintaining
an internal control over logistics activities. If an ICF deals with highly perishable products,
it may be better served by internally controlling much of its logistics services. An ICF's
reliance on a focal provider is economically favorable when asset specificity is not

Firms should implement quality management (QM) process control in order to help
knowledge transfers by making the firm's problems more visible, highlighting the
differences in efficiency among the different processes that the firm performs. QM
increases a firm's capacity to transfer knowledge. This capacity fulfills the requirements
for providing the basis of competitive advantage which explains the influence of QM on

The required investment in collaboration technology is not a key obstacle to large-scale
forecasting collaboration. Retailers' limited forecasting capabilities are a key obstacle to
collaborative forecasting, but not to information sharing or manufacturer-driven forecasting
collaboration. Due to different planning horizons and aggregation levels, retailers and
manufacturers have different forecasting and collaboration needs: long production
intervals and lack of internal integration make it difficult for manufacturers to efficiently use
demand and forecast information obtained through collaborative relationships in their

The choice of supplier flexibility has to fit plant flexibility, if profitability is the goal. In low-
cost markets with high volume and low profit margins, less flexible plants may be
appropriate. In such situations, the use of flexible suppliers is of no advantage. The use of
highly flexible suppliers when the plant is not flexible may increase material costs and
reduce profitability. In marginally profitable firms, cost savings from reduced flexibility may
mean the difference between success and failure for some firms.

Managers who plan to adopt AMT should carefully consider the types of performance
improvements they are seeking, as well as their links to the overall manufacturing
strategy. They also should consider the degree to which product design and
manufacturing functions are isolated or integrated, and what steps might be required to
improve integration between these two functional perspectives.

Firms with similar exchange conditions will make the same decisions about strategic
outsourcing. Strategic outsourcing enables firms to bridge boundaries and access
capabilities from intermediate markets that are subsequently deployed along the value
chain. By linking value chain activities with intermediate markets for the purpose of
gaining access to valuable specialized capabilities, firms can accrue value beyond the
cost economies available through more efficient governance mechanisms.
Four strategies that partners participating in a strategic supply chain can use to develop
optimal levels of power and trust are establishing an authority, forming a common supply
chain identity, interlocking organizations through the use of boundary spanners, and
maintaining organizational justice.

Selective play results in greater cooperation because cooperative parties should, over
time, refuse to interact (play) with non-cooperative parties and begin only to associate
(play) with other cooperative parties. By making more informed alliance partner selections,
a firm should be less uncertain and thus less fearful of opportunistic behavior on the part
of its selected partner. Communication increases cooperation: partners feeling a sense of
common fate facing a common enemy are more likely to cooperate. Geographic proximity
fosters more frequent interaction and information exchange among firms--increasing
familiarity and decreasing fear. The probability of a firm's investment in supply chain
alliances increases in the presence of rewards for alliance cooperation and punishments
for alliance defection.

While supermarket retailers have been urged to use category management relationships
to leverage focal supplier resources and capabilities, many have been reluctant to do so
because of fears of focal supplier opportunism. Retailer fears of allowing focal suppliers
greater influence over their category management efforts are well founded. Retailers can
limit opportunistic behavior by investing in their supplier monitoring capabilities.

There is a positive relationship between buying firms' commitments to long-term
relationships with key suppliers and buying firms' performance improvements. There is a
positive relationship between buying forms' perceptions of shared values and goals with
key suppliers and buyers' performance improvements. There is a stronger positive
relationship between buyers' "direct involvement" supplier development activities with key
suppliers to achieve buyers' performance improvements in quality, delivery, and flexibility--
than between buyers' efforts to share information and evaluate suppliers, and these
performance improvements.
The most obvious beneficiaries of supply chain management are stronger firms who
appropriate a large share of SCM gains. The gains from SCM are the following: profit
gains from lower costs, increased value, and enhanced innovative capacity. When
stronger firms forbear, weak members gain because they keep their pre-SCM profits plus
accrue SCM gains. The benefits of SCM for weaker firms mirror those of their stronger
counterparts when forbearance occurs.

Best value supply chains use strategic supply chain management in an effort to excel in
terms of speed, quality, cost, and flexibility. Strategic choice contends that managers'
decisions play a tremendous role in organizational success or failure. Strategic supply
chain management opens the door to unique blended strategies that transcend the firm
and provide the chain with increased agility and adaptability.

Managers should insist that a project have a written procedure specifying how to conduct
design reviews. Such a procedure must include clear outlines about specific dates,
participants and their responsibilities and a list of tests and other information that should
be presented

The "one size fits all" auditor with a focus on the letter of the standard, although still
required, is perhaps less relevant for many organizations. These organizations require a
balance of competencies, experiences, and perspectives that may be difficult to find in the
external auditor.

Internet retailers will not succeed solely by cutting costs and aiming to become price
leaders. Price leadership will yield suboptimal results for retailers, even in online markets
where it is easy for buyers to search for the best offers. The lowest-priced retailers in
these markets can lure bargainhunters but price leaders will forego margins from buyers
who either seek great service quality or take no advantage of the web's ssearch
capabilities. Retailers hould consider sharing their markups when the PDS quality support
they obtain from their suppliers allows them to retain buyers who are insensitive to
asymmetric information on markups vis-a-vis the experiential PDS quality they receive
while attracting savvy consumers who are prone to continue buying online.
Managers must find the proper balance in product-processintegration efforts, or they must
develop integration approaches that do not unnecesssarily restrict product innovation or
other market-based initiatives. The positive impacts of product-process integration on
customer satisfaction through improved manufacturing competitive capabilities should
also be considered. Ceteris peribus, a plant manager faced with a choice may want to
invest in corporate strategy integration activities prior to initiating other individual types of
integration efforts.

Communication medium (internet enabled versus face-to-face) effects seller trust. Also,
some of the effects of communication medium depend on the level of procurement
complexity. When trust is an important outcome, buyers must pay heed to the information
richness of the tools under consideration.

Evaluation and certification efforts lay a foundation for initiating OKTA. It ensures that the
supplier has the minimum capabilities to warrant further investment of resources in the
supplier and provides a tool for detecting development opportunities and benchmarking.
Second, incentives are important to effective supplier development partnerships. Firms
develop suppliers with whom they expect to continue doing business and should
communicate that expectation to the supplier.

ERP system adoption seems to be associated with consistent evidence of improvement in
profability but not in stock returns. Adopters of the SCM system experience positive
abnormal returns as well as improvements in profability. There is no evidence of
improvements in stock returns or profitability for firms that have invested in the CRM

Those companies that already have quality initiatives other than TQM can use the
practices constituting TQM (outlined in this paper) as an assessment tool to determine
whether additional practices could be incorporated into their existing programs to cover
the range of principles supported by TQM. Such an assessment could significantly reduce
investment that would be required for a full-bloawn TQM program.

The performance effect of certain factors, such as workload should not generally be
categorized as unidirectional in nature. Under varying conditions, such "bipolar" factors
may exhibit either performance-limiting or performance enhancing effects.
There is concern that economics will take over as theoretical basis for the supply
chain management research agenda. Pracitioners should be wary of studies
conducted soley through economic lenses. Economics alone does not provide a
full picture and Supply Chain Management - both economic and behavioral lenses
need to be used to appropriately develop SCM tactics and strategies in practice.

Routines associated with improvement and innovation capabilties indeed form
distinct and internally consistent bundles, and these routine bundles are
significantly related to operational performance.

Effective process implemenation capability allows plants to reduce the
performance trade-offs and thus develop their MC capability

It is possible to leverage project cost, construction speed and plant operability
through effective people management. Not all project team practices are equally
critical for project success criteria. Project maangers must recognize that given
differences in the importance of certain success criteria, different managerial
emphasis on established team practices is needed. Project managers need to
clearly prioritize their goals for each project.

Internet retailers should consciously and deliberately design and implement a
competitive strategy that is flexible enough to accommodate both bargain hunters
(by offering the lowest price for an item to be sold) and non-bargain hunters (by
promising superior performance of PDS activities in return for an increase in total
price). The realization of Internet retailer premiums requires an understanding of
how customers' receptivity to the payment of S&H premiums is tempered by
product markups, and vic versa. To obtain any advantage offered by promised
PDS performance to an Internet retailer's bottom line, the firm needs to consider
S&H margins in tandem with product margins so as to avoid eroding customer
demand and consequently profitability. in the manufacturer-retailer relationship
The impact of the shift to retailer power
challenges the mass production mentality ("doing things right") and challenges
manufacturers to focus on developing customer closeness as a way to provide
higher levels of service operations effectiveness ("The ability to do the right
thing"). There is an important managerial significance of using an understanding
of specific customer needs to develop order fulfillment service capabilities in order
to maintain a loyal customer base. Phyiscal products are bundled wtih their
accompanying services, and firms can differentiate their products by the quality of
the operations service processes accompanying those products.
Demand uncertainty is a key contingency variable that firms should take into
acount when selecting an organizational sructure for managing supply chain
process variability and influencing performance. Managers should understand that
(1) in a predictable demand environment, formal control is a driver of
performance, but its impact is completely mediated by supply chain process
variability; and (2) in an unpredictable demand environment, integration is a driver
of performance and its impact is partially mediated by supply chain process
variability. Supply chain process variability is equaly detrimental to financial
performance in unpredictable and preditable demand environments.
Relationsips between brokers' power bases and project outcomes are mediated
through strength of ties. These are positively related to design performance and
development time. The perceived use of position power bases was found to
positively influence the strength fo ties. The power bases that constitute position
power are those which a broker uses to control or guide network members'
behavior because the broker possesses the reinforcements that are capable of
guiding members' behavior.

Business units that more clearly articulate and communicate product technology
strategies achieve more profitable levels fo product portfolio complexity. Business
units that establish clearly defined, minimal numbers of product differentiating
features achieve more profitable levels of product portfolio complexity. Business
units that organizationally separate product feature and core technology planning
activities from specific product development projects achieve more profitable
levels fo product portfolio complexity. Business units that employ more rigorous,
cross-functional review processes throughout product development and lifecycle
management achieve more profitable levels of product portfolio complexity.
Business units that establish explicit complexity targets achieve more profitable
levels of product portfolio complexity. Business units that extensively use
comprehensive product data management systems achieve more profitable levels
of product portfolio complexity.

Firms that have a very narrow or very broad technological focus have fewer
opportunities for complementary interactions that arise from process
management practices and thus benefit less than those with limited breadth in
technologically related activities.

Three new practices critical for implementing Six Sigma's methods in an
organization are Six Sigma role structure, Six Sigma structured improvement
procedure, and Six Sigma focus on metrics. These are distinct practices from
traditional quality management practices, and complement the traditional quality
management practices in improving performance.

Employee satisfaction is an important determinant of operational performance.
The drivers of service qualtiy and competitive performance are linked to people,
processes, and technology. Knowledgeable emloyees are a primary determinant
fo service quality, while factor productivity has a hidden cost of reduced service
quality. Having employees working overtime traps service organizations in a
vicious cycle of declining service quality, causing financial losses. Service quality
could easily be impaired by human factors, holding back overall performance.
Employee satisfaction is integral to achieving quality in the service industry.
Behavior-based control strategies in professional service firms are, at best,
difficult to manage and, at worst, an obstacle for productivity.

When employees are faced with a situation where their perceptions of their own
safety at work differ from the perceptions, statements, and actions of
management, employees will respond in ways that are likely to reduce the
effectiveness and quality of their work

Supply chain quality management (SCQM) is a systems-based approach to
performance improvement that leverages opportunities created by upstream and
downstream linkages with suppliers and customers. Key variables of SCQM are
customer focus, quality practices, supplier relations, leadership, HR practices,
business results, and safety.

Quality management should be implemented as an integrated system ratehr than
as a subset of QM practices. Managers must look beyond their own internal
organizations into the supply chain to manage quality. A prerequisite to supply
chain quality is the implementation of QM internally iwthin each supply chain
member's organization.

SSM (strategic supply management) improves on-time shipments, reduces
operational costs, and leads to customer satisfaction and improved business
performance. SSM can be initated regardless of firm size or process type. SSM is
positively associated with time-based and cost-related operational efficiency, such
as on-time shipments and costs of quality, leading to customer satisfaction and
superior business performance.

Companies that fully integrate a QMS (quality mgmt system) can reap significant
benefits internally and externally in terms of quality assurance. ISO9000:2000
does not have to be a non-value-added, paper-driven process (albeit many firms
continue to view it as such). Those that see ISO registration as an opportunity to
improe QA and SC integration of quality standards helps to elevate the
effectiveness of their supply chain (and reap associated rewards).

Even though Six Sigma structure is built off prior quality management practices, it
offers a new structure for improvement. It promotes more control and exploration
in improvement efforts. Some organizations may find Six Sigma benefits them a
great deal, and fits their organizational needs better
Coordination between supply chain partners is a result of a range of human
interactions that are supported by IT, but are not guaranteed by th mere existance
of IT. This underscores the complexity of organizational IT use (i.e. with regards
to exploitation and exploration efforts). Managers must understand that their
specific use of IT in terms of exploitation and exploration efforts has differential
effects on operational and strategic performance goals.

Manufacturers should cultivate normative relationship commitment wih their
customers, in order to enhance integration (CI). Committed customers cooperate
with manufacturers, sharing information and integrating inter-organizational
processes. When partners have an intrinsic desire to continue a relationship due
to congruence in values and norms, CI can be achieved more readily. In contrast,
instrumental relationship commitment does not have any significant influence on
CI, due to its short-term and loose nature. Therefore, manufacturers should
regrain from cultivating instrumental relationship commitment because it has no
effect on CI and may actually damage shared values and norms in the long run.

People adapt systems to their particular work needs, and in some cases, may
even fail to use them entirely. As IT systems become a critical driver for stratgic
advantage, it is important to understand how their role evolves in
interorganizational contexts, and ultimately, their impact on performance.

The order fulfillment strategies in supplier firms become their capabilities.
Effective management of supplier capabilities can lead to increase manufacturing
flexibility, a technology-based competitive advantage, reasonable protection from
price competition in finished goods and an advantage in lead-time-based
competition. The information flow between buyers and suppliers gives rise to a
cooperative fulfillment strategy for the suppliers. This cooperative information flow
leads to better logistics fulfillment quality which in turn leads to overall better e-
procurement performance.

Managerial interventions aimed at MOA factors that are not constraining in the
organization are less likely to be effective. Also, clearly, the nature of investments
to be made will vary widely depending on which variable or comination of
variables consitues the bottleneck that needs to be addressed. Hence anticipated
costs for continuing to pursue improvements along MOA lines are likely to widely
vary. Nevertheless an awareness of MOA constraints should prove absolutely
crucial to managers.

Improving communication flows between managers and technical employees can
help embed the relationships (e.g., integrated production, procurement and
design versus integrated procurement) result in different amounts and types of
relational capital. We argue that the broader the range of integrated activities and
closer the relationship (i.e the more confident buyers are that their key suppliers
will respond quickly to their needs) the more relational capital accrued.
There are many factors attributed to the growing demand of offshoring
knowledge; these include, technology, view of business processes, government
attitudes/regulations, and international historic relationships. This article brings
together these events and gives insight as to the history that created this current
offshoring situation.

Most companies underestimate the cost and effort associated with outsourcing, at
least at the onset. There must be a sufficient scheme by which to measure
supplier performance versus expectations. The cost of managing complexity and
buffering against risks should be included in the outsourcing decision process.

Despite the savings in labor costs, about one half of the outsourcing
arrangements entered into end up being terminated. Failure to meet strategic
expectations undermines the touted benefits of offshoring, and this failure is often
the result of not taking the invisible costs created by communication and cultural
friction into account.

Organizations are not completely unaware of threats as they try to gain
competitive advantage, and at the same time do not overlook joint value by being
too protective. Successful offshoring alliances create a unique combination of
investments in transactional, core and relational elements and realize the evolving
objectives for offshoring as a result of these investments.

There are many risks and downsides to offshoring. The loss of local and tacit
knowledge, the cultural conflict, and the additional country risk associated with
offshoring call to question whether many information-oriented jobs will gravitate
(or remain) offshore. The typology presented in the article implies that while
offshoring is a viable option for many firms, a proportion of the service processes
now being offshored will remain in high-wage countries.

Although an array of organizational factors may ultimately determine the success
or failure of offshore efforts, the ability to transfer best practices across locations,
the competence to build and share organizational culture, and blend local
practices with home office mandates in managing human resources are all very
crucial components of offshoring success.

The US is losing its longstanding leadership in many areas of rare-earth
technology. Not only is the rate of successful rare-earth patent applications by US
organizations decreasing in relation to the rest of the world, but the likelihood that
knowledge generated in the US will be used for such innovative activity is also
decreasing. Offshoring elements of a system relevant for technology innovation
may reduce the level of R&D and productivity of innovation processes at the home
Four dominant SSO configurations can be delineated. Distinctions among these
clusters can be described through three dimensions: Operating scale, market
mentality, and incubation model. Environmental needs are captured by the
operating scale function, and SS capabilities by the market mentality and
incubation model functions. The configurations provide a rich description of firm
and SSO characteristics in each cluster, thus improving the common uni-
dimensional view of SSOs.

Formal control (e.g. detailed contracts) minimizes opportunistic behavior among
alliance partners. However formal control does not guarantee the intent of
mutuality, bilateralism and continual exchange and contact of partners. Relational
governance complements such adaptive limits of formal control by fostering
continuance of the exchange and entrusting both parties with mutually agreeable
outcomes. On the other hand, in order to accomplish radical innovation, social
control may be serve better than formal control mechanisms.

Managerial practices that can reduce transaction costs will enhance the success
of offshoring initiatives. Enterprise systems directly address many of the
challenges offshoring managers face. Comprehensive and consstent information
about the firm's processes and business environment reduce uncertainty and
allow for efficient transactional monitoring. Business process capabilities
developed during enterprise system implementation facilitates the transfer of
process knowledge to the offshore service vendor.

The effect of incomplete information in outsourcing contexts can be mitigated
under several conditions. The decision to outsource front-end tasks should also
take into account the nature of customer contact and the information intensity. If
the contact is symbolic and the information intesity high, then there is greater
potential for outsourcing such tasks.

MQT value decreases as cost of inspection increases, and increases with
increases in process value (to the buyer). As the cost of inspection goes up
buyers should find the inspection option more costly, hence resulting in a
decreased willingness to inspect output. Similarly, as the process value increases,
the buyers should be more inclined to inspect the process since the loss from sub-
optimal quality increases.

Companies fall into four clusters that represent different levels of offshoring.
These clusters have different average performance levels as well as different
levels of offshoring. However comparing the industry sectors, no particular level or
cluster of offshoring is dominates in terms of performance.
It may be misleading to view any single time-reference as indicative of stable
appropriation when appropriation equilibria both evolve over time and may not be
accurately descrived as faithful. Short-term reactions to system changes will tend to be
much more subdued than long-term reactions when misfit is high, unless ease of
circumvention is also high. Employee exposure to supervisory or other opportunities
which reveal organizational interdependencies may yield beneficial increases in the
stability of new system usage.
Compositions of bundles put up for bid as part of a single RFQ benefit from
homogeneity. Specifically this homogeneity must be considered in terms of the
capabilities of the supply base. If the spend included in the bundle is too large, or
if the items are too diverse, suppliers may be unable or unwilling to bid on the
business. Still worse, suppliers may overestimate their capabilities in the heat of
the auction (and overcommit).

Greater supplier involvement increases new product performance, and increased
specific investments and qualification of abilities increase the level of supplier
involvement. New venture power was found to increase involvement through it
contingent effect on supplier investments.

Building collaborative communication skills or competencies can have direct,
positive effects on the bottom lines of the supply chain partners. For supplier
firms, merely adopting a long-term relationship orientation is necessary but not
sufficient for achieving strategic advantage. Managers of supplier firms need to
hone skills for effective communication in order to fully reap the benefits of long-
term relationships with buyer firms. For buyer firms, establishing a network form
of governance may not be sufficient; such governance may only engender
strategic advantage through providing an interorganizational context that is
conducive to collaborative communication.

ETI projects are more effective if there is a fit, alignment or congruence between
technology uncertainty and interorganizational interaction. A combination of high
tech uncertainty and high interorg interaction tends to result in greater
performance than a combination that is otherwise misaligned. In the short term
firms should seek to align interorg interaction with the uncertainty represented by
a chosen tech. Firms can also choose to only integrate those techs with low
uncertainty. This is a strategic choice between developing and implementing
organizational capability for interfirm interactions versus obtaining and integrating
highly certain technologies. A firm that routinely integrates only highly certain
techs would liely not compete on innovation, but rather on other factors, such as

Abnormal returns from industry exchange participation is contingent upon existing
firm capabilities. Firms that have better process efficiency benefit more from
participation. Higher benefits to larger firms indicate the need to develop proper
safeguards and incentives for the smaller participants of the exchange.
The managerial implications from the study challenge conventional views of
management and leadership that utilize top-down approaches to getting things
done. It is important to allow ideas to come from the bottom up. Developing
shared interpretations of organizational goals through dialogue increases
employee performance.

Implementing CI simply by training people in new process improvement methods
without putting in place mechanisms for managing and maintaining CI initiatives
will not be effective. Because of the interdependencies that exist among the
different elements of CI infrastructure, attempts to manage CI through selected
aspects of its infrastructure instead of as a whole may be ineffective.

E-collaboration improves the manufacturer's ability to accurately predict and fulfill
customer orders in a timely fashion; it also improves the ability to reap business-
related performance benefits as well. Operational benefits associated with e-
collaboration are particularly pronounced when manufacturers compete in less
munificent environments.

Cooperative actions help to ameliorate the negative effects of relational stress,
although they do not eliminate them, and in some cases relational stress actually
stimulates greater reciprocity. Effectiveness of buyer assistance to suppliers is
greater when there is a high level of relational stress. In addition, industrial buyers
should also involve suppliers in their product development process and provide
adequate information to suppliers in an open and timely manner. Despite the fact
that communication is less effective under high relational stress, both buyer
communication and supplier involvement still significantly enhance a supplier's
willingness to invest in technology in a high relational stress situation.

ISO standard is not a guarantee of quality or better performance. The selection of
suppliers or business partnership should not depend solely on possession of an
ISO 2000 certification. In addition, when a company wants to improve its quality
management system, the application in isolation of the ISO 2000 model is not a
secure way of getting improvements. Despite this warning, ISO 2000 certified
companies do apply total quality management, overall, at a higher level than ISO
1994 companies.
Suppliers must follow a pricing policy that allows for the norm of reciprocity
development. Also, proactive investments by the buyer act as a long-term
relationship enhancing mechanism. In addition, a supplier must pursue
operational efficiency improvements as they help sustain a long term relationship
with the buyer.

Outsourcing management teams must focus on the development of a cooperative
and mutually committed relationship with the provider if they are to fully realize
their performance expectations. The positive influence of strategic evaluation on
out-sourcing performance is indirect rather than direct. The true value of a more
extensive strategic evaluation lies in its direct influence on relationship
management which in trn directly influences outsourcing performance. While
extensively sought, a more complete contract annot be relied upon to guarantee
improved outsourcing performance.

Operations policy complements financial instruments in hedging against severe
disruptions. Fleet standardization, fleet utilization, fleet ownership and
globalization enhance operational hedging.

Improving patient quality as well as the overall performance of the hospital must
begin at the top of the organizational chain and can ultimately result in the
improvement of the hospital.

The supply chain has been useful in creating a competitive advantage for the firm.
There has been a general shift in the competition of firms in that it has become
more specific. it is not so much firm against firm, but more supply chain versus
supply chain. supply chain strategy, knowledge, and action are key antecedents to
firm performance. implcations for the manager include the need to fit a supply
chain innovation-cost strategy that enhances action and creates superior firm
Today, firms and business heavily relay on their information enterprise systems to
make difficult decisions. In an environment of easy access and available
information, firms would be able to competitively succeed. Although enterprise
systems have been neutral in their usage, this paper seeks to examine their
effectiveness in the firm. having access to a wide base of managerial information
does not necessarily provide a competitive advantage, but it different usages of
certain forms of enterprise systems can result in success.

Supplier code of conduct is consistently ignored and has become a problem in the
industry to observe the behaviors of those industries misbehaving. While it is
difficult to obtain information from those non-compliant idustries, this paper serves
as the first to research a large sample of non-compliant firms in China. Also, this
paper suggests that the buyer plays an important role in maintaining supplier
codes of conduct during purchases.

There are certain psychological contracts that contribute to unethical behaviors of
the firm. Such psychological contracts fully mediate the relationship between
deceit and benevolence in long term relationships. Perceptions play a role as an
important driver of feelings of psychological contract violation and trust levels.

Competitive edges in the market place are obtained through trust building
relationships between supplier and buyer. The superior relationships are those
that are able to survive and adapt to an ever changing economical environment.
Using translational and relational mechanisms, the firm can dispel oppurtunism
and improve relationship performance.

Attaining the most efficient market performance relies heavily on the ability of the
firm to work collaboratively on new product development. companies that fail to
achieve desired project performance will also fail in achieving market optimization.
Focus is a supportive but not sufficient ingredient in hospital redesign efforts. The
success of focus depends on many other factors, including patient volume,
process improvement and implementation management. Focus can have both
efficiency enhancing and revenue expanding benefits.

Those who follow a more abstract view of a problem are more effective and
efficient than those that follow a concrete path to a solution when there is a limited
availability of information. However, when there is a complete set of information
available, both approaches become negligible.

Firms have to worry about balancing stock price performance during normal
operations as well as when it experiences supply chain disruptions. In an
efficiency driven environment the market may reward firms that ar operating with
little operational slack. Yet the lack of operational slack can hurt the firm when it
experiences a disruption. Firms will have to strike a balance by focusing on areas
where lack of slack can really hurt in case of a disruption. Firms may need to
explain to investors the need for building slack so that investors accurately reflect
the value of slack in their valuations.

Logistics personnel working in inbound and outbound flows should challenge each
others' opinions and press each other on what the new information entails and the
significance of it in terms of most efficiently and effectively creating value for

A firm's supply chain agility is impacted by a number of factors that include market
orientation, learning orientation, and other organization practices. These issues
contribute positively to the ability of a firm to respond quickly and efficently to
changes in the marketplace.

A tool is given to help devise a strategic plan that would be useful if a plant were
to be hit with some type of catastrophe such as storms or hurraicanes. Because
many companies do not have the "slack" to take on such an impact by sudden
catastrophes, planning ahead is key to financial success and stability during those
times of uncertainty. These potential risks were first identified during the
September 11th attacks, followed by other weather storms and electrical
A multi-disciplinary view of risk is provided as a tool for managers. It is flexible
enough to accommodate variance arising from specific requirements of a supply
chain structure. The key advantage is that it preserves the strengths of both
process engineering and decision science approaches to risk analysis and

Pressures in the industry force businesses to rely mainly on mobile workers to
offset frozen costs as well as other industrial variables. The problem is that those
mobile workers have a low job turnover rate, which asks the question of what
qualities are more significant than others in the work place. directly collecting
information from those migrant workers has helped to provide first hand
information about this anomaly. it was found that low human resource
management and POM were the root causes.

New perspectives are suggested for consideration in service design. In particular,
the management of the encounter between the organization, their personnel, and
the customer may be imperative for success.

When new products are being designed, there is a significant amount of time that
goes into each project. Factors such as the purchase price of materials and
goods contribute only a portion of the decision making. The monetary
quantification, ultimately, is a precursor to the judged success of the analysis of
cost and performance.
Plant performance can be affected by a number of factors that include
downstream and upstream complexity, and internal manufacturing plant
performance. The charasteristics of the supply chain drive the dynamic complexity
and have a greater influence than detail complexity.

Combinations of OM and HRM practices seem to be most effective in elevating
productivity. Benefits to productivity associated with an embracement of quality
management philosophy (establishing and maintaining multiple synergistic
practices) seems sustainable over a very significant time period. Viewing
empowerment as a best practice unto itself is misleading - it must be matched
with an appropriate operating setting in which operational practices that capitalize
on it are also present.

While organizing and structuring relationships with their overseas exchange
partners to fully tap the benefits of relationship learning, firms should look for
exchange partners with complementary skills and knowledge. Compatibility
between exchange partners in terms of congruence of goals, strategy and
corporate culture should be examined before serious commitment to establishing
inter-firm learning relationships. Once partners are chosen, firms should consider
allocating idiosyncratic investments to support the relationship (support lock-in,
minimize opportunism and motivate relationship learning).

In many cases (e.g. low design responsibility scenarios), by aligning with suppliers
that have contrasting learning styles (exploratory vs. exploitative), manufacturers
can benefit more from supplier innovativeness. The reassurance of selecting
partners that are similar in learning style and culture may be at the expense of not
having an environment suited towards allowing for innovativnenss to lead to
enhanced performance.

Buying firms from individualist cultures should give special attention to ensuring
that they don't tie the hands of procurement staff with policies appropriate for
individualist cultures but inconsistent wih collectivist values. Relationships
governed solely through through performance expectations may well prove to be
less successful than those that take into account softer governance mechanisms.
Trust on the otherhand is essential. SUppliers are encouraged to undertake
activities that enhance a buyer's trust of their firm.
As supply chain managers begin to consider changes to their firm's technology
portfolio, they should be aware that decision makers will increasingly want to latch
onto the first solutions that appear to be easy to use and/or useful for the firm's
SC management tasks as turbulence in the tech market increases. Tech
turbulence can cloud the selection committee's judgement. This can likely be
overcome or mitigated through the use of meaningful trial periods and/or pilot
testing, preferably with SC partners who are experienced - well-understood
procedures that may lead to more effective choices over the long term.

Potential anti-organizational behaviors (e.g. non-willingess to share scarce
resources) may result from what otherwise might be seen as very common
operating condictions for project managers (i.e., challenging and widely varying
work plnning tasks). The direct and practical implications of the observed task self-
efficacy moderation should be an increased organizational focus on both effective
selection processes coupled withe training modules designed to improve task self-
efficacy. In contexts in which organizational objectives unavoidably impose
greater levels of difficulty, it is essential that members have both a greater
capacity to be creative as well as the ability to balance attachment to their
solutions with broader organizational goals.

Firms that value control are going to react actively to normative and coercive
pressures. Thus when persuading a firm with such an organizational structure to
adopt eSCM, the practitioners should emphasize normative and coercive
pressures. In contrast, firms that value flexibility are less affected by coercve
pressures. Therefore, practitioners should avoid taking coercive measures when
trying to get these types of firms to adopt eSCM.
In supply chain staffing decisions, senior managers should consider the personal
characteristics of key personnel in charge of managing buyer-supplier exchanges
to ensure alignment with the relational norm. Changes in personnel may require
reassessing the alinment between relational norm contexts and newly appointed

The importance of an ambidextrous SC strategy for managers implies that even
under constant pressures to achieve short-term performance and cost-cutting
incentives, supply chain managers should not shirk from continuously exploring
their supply chains for new ideas, processes, practices and technologies. Such
exploration reinforces and fosters organizational learning needed for building
multiple, dynamic capabilities. Top performing SCs all exhibit simultaneous
mastering of combinative capabilities. Thus, SC managers should continuously
leverage their existing SC capabilities as well as search for new sources of SC

The market is selective in reacting to Corporate Environmental Initiatives and
Environmental Awards and certifications. While the majority of CEI types are
value neutral,there are certain CEIs and EACs for which the market reaction is
positive (environmental philanthropy, achievements, ISO 14001) and certain
CEIs/EACs for which the market reaction is negative (voluntary emission
reductions). These results are important as managers often face pressures from
various stakeholders to give consideration for environmental issues.

Managers need to focus on such channels like face-to-face meetings and video
conferencing to facilitate predominantly unanlyzable tasks. The chaces of
members developing strong social ties are greater through such channels with the
cavaet of risks associated with expediency, personality clashes, groupthink, etc. If
an innovation task is relatively analyzable or can be highly operationalized -
managers should opt for low richness communication channels.

Firms should not assume that all JIT practices improve all aspects of
performance. Many are subject to moderation effects by other factors. In resource
constrained contexts, managers should evaluate their implementation options
based on both the breadth and depth of performance impact (with these
moderation effects accounted for). It is likely that firms implmenting the same JIT
practices may see widely varying effectiveness of these practices and therefore
mimicking and benchmarking activities, without adequate attention to the context,
may turn out to be ineffective.
"Tacit knowledge" can be critical for the benefit of an organizaion, and can provide
a competitve advantage over competitors before the knowledge spreads.
However, it is challenging to capture without concentrated efforts. Practices used
in team projects to extract team-member knowledge can be valuable for process
improvement project success, and project level observation are most beneficial to
process improvement.

Using a menu or portfolio of views may allow managers to have a relatively
comprehensive model of a complex process through "portals" (that is,
comparatively simple views). It seems increasing standardization of views
pursued by some organizations might actually be counterproductive to project

Institutionalization exerts a positive influence on the use of social and formal
control both in domestic and international buyer-supplier relationships. However,
the length of cooperation only facilitates the use of formal control mechanisms I
domestic cooperation and boosts the use of social control in international

Top management commitment, customer focus and trust all have a combinatorial
influence on all qualiy system design factors to positively influence TQM outcome
factors. Structural resources such as top management comitment, customer
focus and trust, when deployed early, contribute significantly to the success of
TQM implementations. The study provides an audit tool o verify whether firms are
lacking the initial precursor condition to build the right quality culture or whether
the deficientcies lie beyond the cultural aspects. Also, using this study, managers
can benchmark their TQM resources deployment levels with competitors on the
culture and system design constructs.

Increasing the diversity of scholarly exchanges within Operations management,
and conducting more cross-disciplinary research with ther managemet disciples
should improve the scholarly development of Operations Management. While
Operations Management shows a high willingness to to exchange ideas outside
the discipline, it is less willing to exchange within the discipline. Further, OM is
more likely to adopt outside ideas than to share them. Finally, the study shows
that special issues can generate a high level of cross-disciplinary citation
Some distinctions in OM decisions are a matter of differing international
situations, rather than culture. Regardless culture still plays a major role in the
effectiveness of operations and associated strategy. For example, in a situation
where the workforce is entirely of the indigenous culture, young and female, and
the management is of another culture, much older and male, workers
communicating suggestions for changing processes to management is not a
social reality. In cultures that do not care for women to work at night, for work
considered 'women's work', the third shift is not a realistic possibility.

Host countries may wish to promote certain cultural characteristics so as to better
assimilate themselves into the service economy and thereby diversify their
economies away from manufacturing. While this may indeed be a worthy goal for
governmental policy makers, such change will not happen overnight as cultural
characteristics are deeply embedded in countries' histories, traditions, education
systems and ways of life. Hence the results from policy measures may be
modest. Still countries do have tools for shaping their nation's cultures and
adapting to the times and so the policy implications are worth host country
governmental considerations.

Plants can establishe an organizational culture that is different from the national
culture in which they reside. Furthermore this study provides guidance to
managers about which dimensions of organizational culture lead to high
performance. More specifically an organizational culture characterized by low
power distance an dassertiveness and high institutional cullectivism, ingroup
collectivism, future orientation, performance orientation, uncertainty avoidance
and humane orientation leads to enhanced manufacturing performance.

Individualism is associated with the type of creativity and entrepreneurial spirit
required to create innovation cycles plan managers will invitably need to facilitate.
For the managers of Asian emerging economy plants, the need to innovate may
not be as pressing, but the need to maitain control of operations where the
expansion in both investment and capability is so rapid becomes of paramount

Not all Confucian Asian cultures are congruent with QM values. High
assertiveness is associated with lower QM practice effectiveness, explaining
China's lower QM practice effectiveness. Uncertainty avoidance promotes QM
effectiveness, which also increases QM practice effectiveness in Asian cultures.
It might be inappropriate to only focus on classic supplier performance metrics in
a market that is highly dynamic and immature. The concept of supplier readiness
and continued supplier development activities ought to be of high relevance.
Relationships with domestic suppliers are generally built gradually at very senior
levels, and the level of trust and commitment increase in an iterative way over
time, with relatively little reliae on contractual agreements unless necessary.

Successful implementation of interfirm information integration primarily depends
on trusting relationships, as well as the influence of institutional factors conducive
to such integration. Chinese firms customarily establish guanxi networks with
carefully selected trading partners to build trust and seek assurance of
government support to prevent problems or resolve conflicts before they engage
in boundary spanning information integration. Managers should consider rapidly
changing influences of institutional forces in China before adopting various SCM
practices, including information sharing and collaborative planning.

Local suppliers in emerging economies must recognize the potential of offshore
OEM for them to learn from foreign buyers. This can be realized through strong
learning intentas well as effective capability enhancement as the external-internal
transformation in the process of developing a new absorptive capacity. Local firms
should also pay attention to the proper balance between trust and contract -
specifically they need to understand the complementary nature of trust with a
moderate emphasis on contracting detail. Little or extreme contracting detail can
prove counterproductive to trust efforts.

Information sharing has a much greater influence on supplier commitment in
comparison to buyer commitment. Joint relationship effort impacts trust for
suppliers more so than for buyers. While trust building may be more difficult for
suppliers to demonstrate there is need for both buyers and suppliers to
continuously look for such opportunities (since Trust appears more relevant than
simply dedicated investments to perceived commitment).

A supply manager needs to be aware that what takes place between suppliers
indirectly will have a direct effect on the operations of his or her own company.
Proactive steps are necessary to manage supplier-supplier relationships. Since
supplier-supplier co-opetition is not necessarily associated with better supplier
performance, the buying company needs to invest in time and resources to
manage supplier-supplier co-opetition.
When considering outsourcing, careful attention should be paid to the overall level
of congruence between the emphasis a firm places on all five competitive
priorities and the emphasis placed on all of the corresponding outsourcing drivers.
Scrutinizing the alignment of outsourcing decisions across multiple dimensions
rather than focusing on a single dimension is a must.

Because building IT-based competences to support manufacturing operations is
an ongoing process, managers must understand the contribution of each
dimension of IT toward specific organizational outcomes in order to make the right
IT investment decisions; however, none of the three dimensions of dynamic
intelligence (process intelligence, integration intelligence, collaboration
intelligence) appears to have much impact on discretionary work practices related
to experimentation and development.

Large companies in competitive supply chains have come to realize that greening
supply chains is necessary to maintain an acceptable and reliable source of
components and material. Smaller companies may not have the resources to
implement or address these issues, so larger organizations may with to provide
some of these necessary resources and training is a major conduit to this
development. Also, smaller companies may greatly benefit from governmental
training and education programs. Supporting the diffusion of environmental
practices to companies needs to begin with the development of human resource
capabilities through training and other 'soft loans' by the government
organizations. Further training in general awareness-raising topics may provide
the necessary catalyst for smaller and less resource-capable companies to begin
working in the direction of environmental operational sustainability.
Contractors that maintain business interactions with sub-contractors are likely to
have projects completed on time and within budget. This is an important factor for
contractors to consider when awarding construction contracts, and in more
general terms, suggests that customers should pay close attention to their roles
as participants in business relationships. Suppliers can influence the strength of
the relationship with their customer. The supplier must understand, however, that
there may be a period of time early in the relationship during which the customer
acts to prevent the relationship from becoming stronger, and they may have to
prove themselves through repeated strong performance before the relationship is
allowed by the customer to strengthen.Contractors that wish to have projects
continually completed on time and within budget should continue to invest in
stronger relations with their subcontractors--increasing returns on their relational
resource investments.

Major customer (MC) relationships can often be difficult terrain for relatively weak
supplying firms to navigate. The conclusions regarding the drivers of chain- and
firm-level performance may help managers develop realistic expectations for
SCM: for example, the finding of a positive association between relationship
duration and CSC-level profit margin suggests that chain-level efficiency is
derived from ongoing collaboration and joint experience, and is not achieved
instantaneously. The finding that consolidation of purchasing among suppliers
with concentrated sales bases improves total asset and cash utilization may help
managers forecast the likely outcomes of their SCM choices.

For fast development of a new product, NPD teams need to have clear product
visions and support from top managers throughout the process. NPD teams need
to build formal procedures, rules, or disciplines to perform their tasks and make
decisions, follow parallel and concurrent NPD processes, and emphasize a probe-
and-learning approach to improve team and team members' learning abilities.
Managers also need to balance flexibility and formality; that is, while the NPD
process should be flexible to enable probing and learning, certain process
formality such as decision-making rules and disciplines to pursue the product's
vision and goals should also be maintained.

Direct material buyers' decisions are driven by their perception of overall supply
disruption risk: organizations may foster improved decision-making by
implementing purchasing policies and procedures that facilitate buyers' translation
of objective supplier performance data into accurate risk assessments.
Associating attributes of exchange with specific representations of risk is highly
important for firms evaluating disruption risks.
It is much more difficult to maintain very high unit fill rates when there are many
component and subcomponent variations. When offering products with many
variations, managers must take into account the substantial increase in
component inventory required to maintain high unit fill rates. Managers need to
develop and adopt efficient inventory management policies to support flexible
production systems and greater responsiveness to customer demand. Managers
could adopt proactive demand management policies such as offering incentives
to customers to order product modules and features that require readily available
inventory. Second, firms that segment their customers by profit contribution
should measure customer service performance in terms of order fill rate.
Managers should establish efficient capacity planning, allocation, and utilization
strategies to improve service performance when measured in terms of order fill
rate. Third, managers must be willing to bear higher inventory carrying costs in
order to improve service performance. Fourth, managers must consider the cost
and service trade-offs when determining needed buffer capacity to maintain high
service performance in an environment characterized by demand skew.

The effects of supply chain integration are cumulative, providing significant insight
for companies in implementing it. Improvements in SCI will not lead to improved
operational performance; however, once a threshold level of SCI has been
achieved, further improvements in SCI, even small improvements, will be
associated with significantly improved operational performance.

Many individuals lack an understanding of which persuasive tactics to emphasize
when it comes to seeking others' buy-in to environmental projects. Rational
persuasion is the most frequently used tactic and is fairly effective; however,
inspirational appeals is the most effective tactic but is used less than rational
persuasion. Despite it being widely used, ingratiation tactics are counter-
productive, and individuals will lower their chances of buyer commitment by
emphasizing ingratiation.
实践启示                                                Paper Title
一致性存在于不同的关键性的产品项目中。理解这些一致性可以帮助经理人辨别他们 Managing radical product
对于他们自己的关键性创新项目的顾虑并且协助他们管理             development in large manufacturing
                                      firms: A longitudinal study

一个管理性的工具用于辨别在市场上新的和改进的产品的机会。这个工具可以加强企 Optimization tools for design and
业的竞争优势,通过引导重大决定朝着发展更新更好的产品而不是仅仅面对现有市场 marketing of new/improved products
的产品                                   using the house of quality

产品创新的方法会影响到新产品的成功。特别是通过学习日本企业,他们展示了特定 Challenges of managing the
的统合纵效可以反过来影响产品的竞争优势,当项目面临高度创新时。因此,当高度 development of breakthrough
创新发生时,经理们可能想要集中精力于营销能力和技术能力,而不是统合纵效,以 products in Japan

市场营销在生产话题上的理解和沟通方面的能力可能会是对于在复杂环境下开创市场               Investigating the manufacturing-
营销和生产部门之间良好工作关系至关重要的。而且,研究人员建议一步一步加强市               marketing interface in new product
场营销对于生产方面的知识,经理们会阴令这些关系,并且也会最终带来对于新产品               development: does context affect the
开发方面的利益。                                            strength of relationships?

                                                    The service concept: The missing link
                                                    in service design research?

                                                    Human issues in service design

提供一个时间性的方法用于协助制定关于供应链,产品和流程设计决策。他们的模型 PCDM: A decision support modeling
优化了运营和供应链决定的设计。而且,一个实际性的应用可能让经理们应用这个方 methodology for supply chain, product
法可以在最终决定确定之前看到设计和运营的改进。               and process design decisions

在很多情况下,公司要求供应商加入到新产品开发的过程中。公司可能会影响到有效 Supplier integration into new product
性和财务以及设计业绩,取决于能力和供应商的文化。更进一步,让供应商参与到关 development: coordinating product,
于技术要求方面的决定中并达成关于要求的一致性决议可以提高项目团队的有效性。 process and supply chain design
马基拉朵拉工厂员工的满意度很大程度的影响了他们的忠诚度。授权,团队合作和员 TQM practice in maquiladora:
工的奖励制度都有着对于马基拉朵员工满意度的积极影响。员工培训很大程度上影响 Antecedents of employee satisfaction and
着员工授权和团队合作的有效性。通常来说,马基拉朵拉管理必须把员工培训和员工 loyalty

当计划者面临着行动数量的增加时,行动的多样性也随之增加                            Action variety of planners: Cognitive load
                                                       and requisite variety

信息的生动性和假定的风险可能会共同产生作用来做决定,这个决定是和区别于另一 A behavioral study of supply manager
个有预期效用模型(假定理性决定)可预测性的决定。销售应该尽可能的作任何合理 decision-making: Factors influencing
的可以影响外包可能性的事情来提供拿到订单的可能性。             make versus buy evaluation

当参与者能够沟通,系统范围的培训看上去应该是比特定角色的培训更加有效,在有 Learning, communication, and the
效性是用订单的波动性的减小来衡量的。                    bullwhip effect

结果显示非正式性的方法在塑造和制定关系资本时期到一个整合性的角色,他因此也 Creating supply chain relational capital:
会带来直接的利益在改进产品和工艺流程设计的形式中,改进的产品和工艺流程设计 The impact of formal and informal
本身,以及改进的反应性                           socialization processes

                                                       Using replication research for just-in-time
                                                       purchasing construct development

                                                       Revisting the theory of production
                                                       competence extensions and cross-

考虑到外包管理,信任,可靠性和关系管理是被认为在韩国比在西方国家更加有效的 Information systems outsourcing:
。同时选择供应商和推迟外包采购任务也是在韩国不存在的            Replicating an existing framework in a
                                      different cultural context

灵活性的改进,特别是在大数量的流程,可以锁定在运营中的简单性和原则性。另一                  Effectsof simplicity and discipline on
种方法是例如建立库存和缓冲能力可能带来更大灵活性,在短期来讲。                        operational flexibility: An empirical
但是对于公司生产最高水平的多样性,他们可能会增加成本和复杂性到一个定点已影                  reexaminationf of the rigid flexibility
响公司业绩表现,从产期角度来看。简单性和原则性,可以整合技术上同步的改进和                  model
                                                      Meta-analysis of the relationship between
                                                      quality management practices and firm
                                                      performance-implications for quality
                                                      management theory development

用于辨别行为假设形式,并且被典型的用于在运营管理实践中的模型已经被提供了的 Behavior in operations management:
。这个模型辨别那些需要深度实践性检验以确定更好的判定方法(人类学科在这些领 Assessing Recent findings and revisiting
域的研究能够提供特别的有用的,作为一个试验检验的补充)的领域        old assumptions

如果公司提高他们的服务确保强度,他们可以提高他们的市场营销信息。      Service Guarantee Strength: The key to
同时,服务公司应该将他们的员工激励作为较高的优先级别来对待,这一点已经被证 service quality

员工管理创新和项目结果之间的强烈关系说明了最成功的质量项目正在发掘着这个机 Exploring the efficacy of healthcare
会。发现表明对于员工管理创新的额外应用能够大大的提高普通医院质量项目。同时 quality practices, employee commitment,
,大面积应用员工忠诚创新在获得结果方面是非常成功的。对于员工的认可的扩大应 and employee control

目标在业绩方面有着积极的作用,当运用6西格马工具和方法时。研究表明在没有完 Six Sigma: The role of goals in
全采用工具和方法的情况下设定挑战性的目标会产生次优的结果。组织领导者需要确 improvement teams

组织能够变得在设计战略性生产计划系统中更加主动,并且主动地在计划周期的早期 Evolution in the strategic
系统化合理性和适应性的元素。为了完成这样的多元计划,组织必须明白他们过去, manufacturing planning process of
现在所处的位置,以及什么因素使得他们出于现在的境地。这个多元的计划学习方法 organizations
实践业绩的突出可以帮助具体化生产工厂并且澄清关于敏感性/精益性和精益生产/灵 Disentangling leanness and agility: An
敏性生产典范。业绩为基础的视角可以提供一个战略性的视角在设定优先级判定,也 empirical investigation

战略知识的吻合是伴随着供应链业绩的。通过知识获得收益能够创造优越的业绩表现 Knowledge as a strategic resource in
在供应链中,但是仅仅当相关的重点放在不同的与战略相符合知识元素。公司倾向于 supply chains

那些宣布具有在公司内部不同部门和外部供应商和客户进行高度整合的文化的公司,                Interplay between uncertainty and
会更加有效管理灵活性,并达到优异的工厂业绩。转型的模型提供了一个丰富的制定                flexibility across the value-chain:
决策的工具给经理人在需要确定灵活性时。                                  Towards a transformation model of
我也能够帮助运营经理人在审视他们工厂内部设立。                              manufacturing flexbility

同时发生的工程可提高产品开发流程的有效性和效率。而且,CAD(计算机辅助设计)              Mediating effects of computer-aided
可以提供一个工具,它可以通过同时发生的工程更大程度的影响流程的产出,通过协                design usage: From concurrent
调工程的设计并作用于跨职能信息分享。因此,实践者可以整合CAD的使用来实现                engineering to product development
两个目标,在同时发生的工程到帮助团队达到时间,质量,产量,和成本要求。                  performance

小型公司应该可以利用他们信息系统的能力去在全球市场上竞争。但是大公司拥有长 A comparative model of firm size and
期使用第三方物流外包公司的优势,小公司必须利用他们信息系统的能力在很大程度 the global operatinal dynamics of U.S.
上实现相同的利益                              firms in Europe

对于‘反应’最主要的相关因素的理解可以提供一个重要的依存性的澄清,它是在从距 Modeling of residential structure fire
离方面的互动到相对于自由发展的起始者的警告的时间倾向性。它也会帮助在另一个 response: Exploring the hyper-project

在新产品开发业及产出之间的权衡通常在高效率的项目中显示得比较强烈在与效率不 Faster, better, cheaper: A study of
高的项目中比。对于效率至关重要的是项目经理的经验,管理层的承诺,和跨职能部 NPD project efficiency and
门的整合。                                 performance tradeoffs
在实际中,经理们应该选择一个整合时间的关键核心,在他们的战略竞争空间中,并 Supplier integration - Finding an
且建立一个完美的供应商整合的背景资料,用于作为参照物和复制学习。管理层对于 optimal configuration

国家的文化在带有着客户和市场中心的期望值的鲍德里奇构造的有效性上起着非常重 Relevance of Baldrige constructs in
要的作用。国家需要开发奖励和质量的创新,按照他们国家的文化。尽管如此,关于 an international context: A study of
追求客户和市场为中心的相关问题可能会是很普遍的。              national culture

为了支持供应链整合的策略,采购和供应公司需要很清楚地思考供应链内部的社会化 The implications of socialization and
理念。社会化对于公司如何操作和进行生意往来有着很清楚的积极作用。对跨部门团 integration in supply chain
队,社会活动和供应商会议的利用来开发紧密的关系会被误解为浪费时间。对社会化 management

中国生产商应该有现在的关于在各种竞争能力之间权衡的思维。特别是,将他们的生 A taxonomy of manufacturing
产策略重心放在多元化能力,在质量,灵活性,成本,运送的大众的服务者可能会发 strategies in China

尽管在复杂性方面有所降低会可以导致较低的交易成本和较高的供应商的反应,它也 The supply base and its complexity:
会至少在某种程度上降低了供应商的创新。并且,改变供应基础的规模对于供应风险 Implications for transaction costs,
和供应创新有一个相反的作用。模糊的降低供应基础的复杂性可能是不经常被需求的 risks, responsiveness, and innovation

经理们应该投资在提高行为透明度,原因有两个:一,它可以直接的积极的影响非财               International supply relationships and
务的业绩表现。二,透明度可以导致较高的社会联系,他相反可以提高非财务的业绩               non-financial performance - A
表现。经理们应该关注与在他们国际供应商关系中的社会联系的角色。美国的经理们               comparison of U.S. and German
需要比德国经理们更加关注考虑到他们与供应商之间的文化差距。美国经理们必须对               practices
技术和护士管理决定以及在这个研究中既定的业绩之间的因果关系是对医疗服务行业 Hospital technology and nurse staffing
的一个很重要的补充。医院的管理者被提供了一个关于什么技术和护士管理决定应该 management decisions

前瞻性的经理们愿意投资在员工和相关的管理实践中,他们可以积极的影响吸收能力 Absorptive capacity: Enhancing the
的分支角度(这些也会因此会影响他们对于执行创新性事件执行,例如时间为基础的 assimilation of time-based
生产实践)。使用跨部门间的团队可以让信息流通于整个系统在正式和非正式的基础 manufacturing practices

服务经理们能够从传统的控制图表中收到误导性的和错误性的信息,如果被监控的服 Measuring performance in multi-stage
务流程是一种串联流程。                           service operations: An application of
                                      cause selecting control charts

                                                    Sustainable supply chains: An

高度专业化但不相互关连的环境管理项目可能在对于管理可持续性发展方面 Integrating sustainable
很有效                               development in the supply chain:
                                  The case of life cycle assessment
                                  in oil and gas and agricultural
在时间窗口中供应更多的门店,由于短距离,短的卸货时间,很大量的卸货 Exploring retailers' sensitivity to
数量,可以减少对于时间窗口压力的敏感性。对于时间窗口的压力释放可以 local sustainability policies

在一些环境下,集体性的废物电器和电子设备的应用可以产生较高的生产商 Competitive strategy in
和再生产商的利润同时能够激发再生产活动并且减少社会的税务负担。   remanufacturing and the impact
                                  of take-back laws
经理们很有可能假定在相反的供应链中风险和回报之间的关系是合在一个正 Linking forward and reverse
向供应链中不等衡的。正向供应链的投资是有偏向性的。在高速增长时,这 supply chain investments: The
种差距更加明显。逆向供应链的决定不是直接由客户压力和环境建管所导致 role of business uncertainty

通常来说,外包生产应该倾向于外包逆向供应链的收集行为。在特定的条件 An analysis of decentralized
下外包生产也要应该外包流程行为                   collection and processing of end-
                                  of-life products

整个产品生命周期提供了机会对于保护资源,当减少了环境影响时。在这个             Remaining life estimation of used
过程中,运营经理们的参与是非常重要的,因为他们在减少成本保护稀有资             components in consumer
源,在不同的阶段:设计,生产,使用,和处理,起着非常重要的作用。这             products: Life cycle data analysis
篇文章提出了整合的方法帮助运营经理们在战略和运营决定制定在这些阶段             by Weibull and artificial neural
。                                             networks

                                              The frontiers of eBusiness
                                              technology and supply chain

公司应该投资在电子商务能力,如果他们能够加强它们产品信息的整合密度             Impact of eBusiness technologies
。公司不应该尝试判定在电子商务技术基于他们现有对于运营表现的影响。             on operational performance: The
为了获取运营业绩表现优势,公司必须也要拥有相应的流程和步骤来实现这             role of production information
些能力。最好是开发供应商整合在客户整合之前,但是最终是要拥有两者。             integration in the supply chain

并非所有的应用在供应链中的技术的和非技术的资源都具备潜力提供一个卓             Antecedents of supply chain
越的可视性和延展性,一个可持续的竞争优势。资源在供应链中的使用是在             visibility in retail supply chains: A
获取卓越的可视性和可持续竞争优势起着至关重要的作用。组织可能会参与             resource-based theory
到供应链的很多环节。但是可视性的程度是在不同的连接中所不同的。               perspective

大的企业必须在他们想要整合以及如何达到的信息形式上的链之间和链之内 Barriers to supply chain
进行差异化。在链之内,如果中小型企业试图保持很强相互之间的联系,这 information integration: SMEs
不会简单的被移交给中间者例如电子交换,因为中小型企业的参与度是比较 adrift of eLands
技术协作,一个交易性的电子商务技术,代表了最流行的,也是唯一的电子 Utilizing e-business technologies
商务技术作为改进财务业绩的的证据。在很多北美公司,大多采用自动的基 in supply chains: The mpact of
础供应链流程,这样人力资源可以被在很多高产出的领域被应用,例如战略 firm characteristics and teams

在外包采购关系维护中,对于倾注在外包采购提供商维护方面的问题的意愿 Remote control and maintenance
是必定会导致失败的。一个真正在工厂和服务提供者之间伙伴关系是基于相 outsourcing networks and its
互信仸的,这一点是必须很好的被双方所理解。             applications in supply chain

在仸何相关项目电子整合背后的驱动力都将是对于整合网络技术的期望,这 The e-integration dilemma: The
些技术是与交易伙伴合作性组合的发展相结合的,也会导致更加有效的生意 linkages between Internet
模型。这也因此会产生额外的回报在很多形式的竞争优势。        technology application, trading
                                  partner relationships and
                                  structural change

当进行网络商务,特别是考虑到整合选择和销售公司与他的供应链合作方进             B2B seller competence:
行互动的时候,通常会有一个从传统运营战略的转移。不像软性技术那样,             Construct development and
供应链战略的结构性元素是通常可编辑的也是明显的,因此也可能是更加有             measurement using a supply
准备的在竞争公司之间被传输着和接收着。                           chain strategy lens

在信息技术的投资是对于公司来说很重要的决定,当他们关系到大量的资本 An empirical study of the impact
投入。理解组织对于电子商务技术,组织内和组织间合作,以及业绩表现之 of e-business technologies on
间的关系可以帮助公司在推广和引领公司内部协作方面的决定。      organizational collaboration and

没有标准化的努力不确定性的减少是没有价值的,因为流程本身是很不确定 Supply chain practice and
的对于有效控制来说。经理们应该追寻供应链表现的改进通过开发机会来执 information sharing

供应链管理在迅速发展的信息化经济中起着很重要的作用。客户和服务提供             Customization and real time
者都意识到不但提高的业绩表现,来自于更大程度的客户定制和接触。更大             information access in integrated
范围的与合作者接触可以产生更高程度的组织间的定制和接下来一系列的实             eBusiness supply chain
时信息接触。提供商在客户端的信任水平有一个积极的作用在信息交换的行             relationships
在公司层面,产能可变性库存的代价可以通过外部对于营销流程时间(例如 The process management
外包采购)的调整来削弱。但是可以改变需求的外部调整不能够改变基本的 triangle: and empirical
在公司层面的代价。战略的一致性在市场和流程方面可以产生一个产能可变 investigation of process trade-offs

供应链经理们可以考虑调整那些可以降低竞标价格的参数并且不影响供应商 Electronic reverse auction
的对于购买方的概念。供应商对于机会主义的概念会增加,随着时间的变化 configuration and its impact on
,也说明了大量依赖电子反向拍卖可能破坏采购和供应商之间的关系    buyer price and supplier
                                  perceptions of opportunism: a
                                  laboratory experiment

由于等待时间造成的客户不满意可以通过给出需要等待的理由给客户来最小 A video method for empirically
化。对于原因并不是很重要的,但是客户假定的等候时间应该是较短的如果 studying wait-perception bias

大量的属性显示了客户评级方面的积极关系(满意度保证100%,优先级运 Process drivers of e-service
送,下载送达)这表示经理们应该考虑包括这些流程的属性在他们自己的服 quality: analysis of data from an
务中。更大量的属性显示负面的影响(客户收到来自于售卖信息给第三方的 online rating site

经理们销售那些绝对地奉献的产品应该了解客户将会把服务为导向的质量因              Customer expectations in online
素作为最重要。相反,经理们销售那些高风险产品需要了解到客户将会关于              auction environments: an
产品质量为导向的质量因素。对于那些销售混合高风险和低风险产品的经理              exploratory study of customer
们应该调整它们的生意流程来与他们客户的期望值达成比较一致,也依赖于              feedback and risk

如果一个公司想要看到可衡量的效果在他的公司也业绩上通过环境管理实践 An examination of corporate
,那么回收,废物减排,再生产,环境设计和对于市场的观察会显示称环境 reporting, environmental
管理实践会更加有可能有最大的影响力                 management practices and firm

提供一个多角度的方法让公司能够评估他们的新服务开发的能力。并且,作 New service development
者建议金融企业可以使用调研来确定它们的创新能力           competence in retail banking:
                                  Construct development and
                                  measurement validation
被很多项目经理们用来解决的高项目风险的应用实践的解决方案是一个对于 Planning effort as an effective risk
项目计划的改进。这个方法很大程度上改善了项目的成功率。项目经理们面 management tool

降低库存和财务业绩表现有着直接和很重要的关系。这提供了很强烈的判断 Relationships among information
给经理人,让他们不断地将重点放在库存管理和供应链库存协调上。也许经 technology, inventory and
销商的经理需要寻找出一个合适于他们的特殊运营环境的改进方案     profitability: an investigation of
                                  level invariance using sector level

公司,通常来说,将会首先看到一个在库存周转性方面的改进和一个在管理               The financial performance effects
费用方面的减少。这些最后也会提高整体的财务业绩。搞技术及企业更加容               of IT-based supply chain
易可到最大程度的在财务方面的改进,当进行实施供应链管理的时候。随着               management systems in
供应链管理实施的增加,递减性的财务结果是很有可能的。                      manufacturing firms

一个公司可以发展紧密地联系和她的网络中的成员,这样就可以利用这种合               "Black-box" and "gray-box"
作性的关系获取利润。通过这样的网络,公司能够接触到资源和专利技术从               supplier integration in product
他们的直接的关系纽带中以及从长期的供应商关系的发展中。这样的努力需               development: antecedants,
要能够与一个供应为基础的合理的战略并且具有功在供应商开发新产品能力               consequences and the
方面的一个选择。当这些接触网络合作者的潜在的优势存在时,使这些合作               moderating role of firm size

研究发现强调了对于控制和灵活价值属性的悖论性需要,这也鼓励了经理们 Innovation-supportive culture: the
去避免将这些价值看作为冲突,寻找相替代的授权员工和扩展支持性的政策 impact of organizational values
和系统。特别是,经理们应该让公司自然性的提供一种对于评估和大多数决 on process innovation

外包采购非核心生意相关的运营不能够很大程度影响外包公司的价值;但是 Outsourcing impact on
外包出核心业务相关的运营会改善公司的价值。对于公司拥有低资本密集度 manufacturing firms' value:
,外包出核心业务的运营会将它们自身置于很敏感的地位,因为他们的供应 evidence from Japan
高级经理们需要试图整合采购职能到战略计划流程中以确保他的职能的目标 A theory of purchasing's
与整体生意一致。采购经理应该被邀请参加到战略计划流程中;业务战略需 contribution to business
要很好的沟通给采购专家。高级经理应该提供购买职能到人力和资源上面对 performance

质量提高很可能更加有效地被执行在一个成熟的组织形式中:成熟的形式能 Method and context perspectives
够提供给现有的活动提供支持在一个多元化环境中和相照性的目标和任务中 on learning and knowledge
。管理忽略性和模糊性是同样重要的在质量管理中。在这种情况下,复杂的 creation in quality management

理解在评论中的偏向性并且在阅读时牢记于脑对于经理来说是非常重要的              Insights into factors affecting
                                              Production and Operations
                                              Management journal evaluation

公司需要考虑允许充足的在跨项目透明性给到负责资源管理的经理们的方法             Moderating effects of information
。这样的透明性能够允许经理们更加容易的评估资源分享的选择在一个全球             access on proect management
的水平上面,同时也可以减少错误分配的项目的难度给到组织气氛的元素。             behavior, performance and
同时,扩大这样信息可接触性在能够辨别分享机会,澄清限制的组织是非常             perception

                                              Service operations management

更多高级的符合性的条例能够利用现有的订单和产品组合,可以很大程度的 Characterizing and structuring a
提高在很复杂的情况下管理按照预测生产的盈利性,也会让经理们从他们现 new make-to-forecast production
在依赖的无效的处理方法中解脱出来。按照订单生产的公司可以发现在现有 strategy

一个正式的并且经过良好确认的生意将会带来一个改进的智能水平的产出:             Process innovativeness in
当基础性决定完成了,运营产出对于服务性公司来说是很有可能需要加强。             technology services
举例来说,一个整体服务组织的领导层不仅仅能够创造很好水平的运营自主             organizations: roles of
性,也能够导致冒失的行为和风险的项目。对于整体服务组织,一个专注于             differentiation strategy,
流程创新可能导致更好的业绩:服务企业提高客户服务水平,通过专注于创             operational autonomy and risk-
新。                                            taking propensity
那些角色制定者选择是否采用一个服务提供者,需要仔细考虑到物流服务的             Why do Internet commerce firms
性质和在他们与客户交易时的要求。在网络商业企业中德管理层面对特殊的             incorporate logistics service
要求可能是更好地被实现通过维持在物流行为中的内部控制。如果一个网络             providers in their distribution
服务企业处理易腐化的产品,它可能通过管理他们内部的物流服务来实现。             channels? The role of transaction
网络商业企业依赖于一个重要的提供商是很经济的,当资产特殊性没有出现             costs and network strength

企业应该实行质量管理流程控制来帮助知识转移,通过让公司的问题更加透 Relationship between quality
明,可视,强调在不同流程的有效性的不同。质量管理增加了公司能力来进 management practices and
行知识转移。这种能力也满足了提供可以帮助影响业绩的质量管理的竞争优 knowledge transfer

在合作技术中的资本投入需求不是一个对于大规模预测合作的主要障碍。零 Forecasting collaboration in the
售商的有限的预测能力是一个对于合作性预测的主要障碍而不是信息分享或 European grocery sector:
者生产商主导的预测合作。因为不同的计划维度和收集信息水平,零售商和 observations from a case study

供应商灵活度的选择需要和工厂灵活性相匹配,如果利润是一个目标的话。             Matching plant flexibility and
在低成本制造行业,并且有着高数量和低毛利的情况下,较少的灵活性的工             supplier flexibility: lessons from
厂可能会更加适合。在这一情况下,利用灵活性的供应商并不是一种优势。             small suppliers of U.S.
在工厂不灵活的情况下,使用灵活的供应商会增加原材料成本降低利润。在             manufacturing plants in India

那些计划使用高级生产技术的经历应该仔细考虑他们所追寻的业绩表现的形 Capturing the competitive
式,以及他们与公司整体战略的关系。他们也应该考虑产品设计和生产智能 advantages of AMT: design-
的整合和分离的程度,以及需要提高在这两个智能方面整合所需要的步骤。 manufacturing integration as a
                                  complementary asset

有着想类似交换环境的公司会得出相同的决定关于战略外包采购。战略外包 Toward a model of strategic
采购能够是公司跨越界限并且接触中间市场,这些市场是能够相应的作用于 outsourcing
合作者参与战略性供应链的可以用于开发优化的能力和信任四个战略是建立 A multi-theoretic perspective on
权利,行程一个通用的供应链,相互关联的组织通过利用边界管理,以及维 trust and power in strategic
护组织的判断。                           supply chains

选择性参与到了更大程度的合作,因为合作双方应该不断的拒绝与不合作的             Happy together? Insights and
那一方进行互动,并且开始仅仅与那些愿意合作的人互动。通过制定更多的             implications of viewing managed
联盟合作选择,一个公司应该减少了不确定性,并且减少了对于投机行为的             supply chains as a social
恐惧,关于他的合作者。沟通增加了合作:合作方在感觉到有共同命运需要             dilemma

当超市零售商已经急切的使用品类管理关系并利用主要供应商的资源和能力 Focal supplier opportunism in
,还是有很多拒绝这么做,因为他们担心主要供应商的机会主义。零售商担 supermarket retailer category
心让主要供应商有了更大的影响力在他们的品类管理中。零售商限制投机行 management

在采购公司承诺给主要供应商长期的合作关系和采购公司的业绩改善之间存             The relationship between supplier
在积极的联系。在采购公司的对于供应商的分享的价值和目标的判定和采购             development, commitment, social
公司的业绩改善之间也是有着积极的联系的。更加有着积极联系的是采购公             capital accumulation and
司直接参与到与主要供应商的发展行为来实现采购公司在质量,运送和灵活             performance improvement
供应链管理的最明显的利益是加强公司在供应链中的收益。从供应链管理中 Sources and consequences of
获得的收益来自以下几个方面:来自低成本的利润收益,增加的价值,提高 bargaining power n supply chains

                                               A supplier development program:
                                               rational process or institutional
                                               image construction?

最有价值的供应链利用战略性供应链管理在争取完美,在速度,质量,成本 Bridging organization theory and
,和灵活性方面。战略性选择代表了经理们的决策在组织的成功与失败中起 supply chain management: the
到了非常重要的作用。战略性的供应链管理为独特的混合性战略打开了大门 case of best value supply chains

经理们应该坚持一个项目需要有一个文字版的流程确定如何进行设计回顾。 Formality and discretion in
这样的流程必须包括清晰的框架关于特定的日期,参与者,职责以及检验清 successful R&D projects

一个规模适用于所有的作者倾向于关注标准化,尽管这是需要的,但是这也 Quality audit roles and skills:
许与很多企业有很少的相关性。这些组织要求一个在能力,经验,以及外部 Perceptions of non-financial
审计者很难观察的到视角之间的平衡                  auditors and their clients

网络零售商如果仅仅通过减少成本并致力于变成价格领导者是不会成功的。 Linking e-service quality and
价格领导力仅仅会产生次优级别的结果对于零售商来说,即使在在线市场, markups: The role of imperfect
在这个环境下价格和可以很容易的被买家搜寻到最低价。最低价的零售商可 information in the supply chain
经理们必须找到合适平衡点在产品流程整合努力中。或者他们必须要开发整             Managing beyond the factory
和方法,不能够不必要的去限制产品创新或者其他市场为基础的创新尝试。             walls: Effects of four types of
通过改进生产竞争能力在消费满意度方面的产品流程整合的积极影响也是要             strategic integration on
被考虑到的。一个经理面临着抉择可以希望投入公司战略整合行为早于尝试             manufacturing plant performance

                                              Evaluation Criteria development
                                              and assessment of purchasing
                                              and supply management journals

沟通媒体(网络和面对面)影响者销售者的信用。同时,有一些沟通媒体的 Negotiation, emailm and internet
作用也是依赖于采购复杂性水平的。当信任是一个很重要的产出时,采购必 reverse auctions: How soucing
须要利用相关工具关注大量的信息进行考虑               mechanisms developed by
                                  buyers affect suppliers' trust

评估和认证的努力给实施OKTA创造了一个基础。它确保了供应商有最基本 Supplier development: Improving
的能力来确保今后的资源的投入在供应商中,也提供了一个工具作为检验发 supplier performance through
展机会并且制定标准。第二,激励机制是很重的对于有效的供应商发展合作 knowledge transfer

企业资源管理系统的实施看上去与持续的改善利润率而不是股票收益直接联             The impact of enterprise systems
系在一起的。那些供应链管理系统的实施者获得了积极的非同一般的回报,             on corporate performance: A
也改善了盈利性。并没有证据表名对于股票回报或者利润回报是因为公司投             study of ERP, SCM, and CRM
入了客户关系管理                                      system implementation

那些已经拥有了质量创新尝试而不是整理质量管理的公司能够利用实践指导             Examining the effects of
他们的整体质量管理作为一种评估手段来决定是否需要额外的操作加入到现             contextual factors on TQM and
有的项目中来覆盖整体质量管理原则的范围。这样的评估系统能够很大程度             performance throught the lens of
减少进行整体全面实施整体质量管理时的投资。                         organizational theories: An
                                              empirical Study

特定因素的业绩作用,例如工作量不应该被广义的归类到统一的方面。在不 Bipolarity in reactions to
同的条件下,这样的两极因素可能展示了要么业绩的局限性或者是业绩的加 operational 'constraints' OM bugs
强因素。                              under an OB lens
通常人们会有一种顾虑:经济学会逐渐成为供应链管理研究的理论基            Paradigms, revolutions, and
础。实践者应该注意到大量的研究是仅仅通过经济学的视角来进行的            tipping points: The need for
。经济学本身不会提供全局观和供应链管理的知识。无论是经济学的            using multiple methodologies
视角还是行为学的视角都需要合理的应用于在实践中制定供应链管理            within the field of supply chain
的战略和策略。                                   management

                                          Contigency research in
                                          operations management

具有改进能力和创新能力的日常行为事实上形成了独特的和持续的内 Linking routines to operations
部约束,这些日常行为上的约束直接影响到运营的业绩表现。    capabilities: A new perspective

有效的流程执行能力可以让工厂减低提升业绩的代价,并提供边际成 Linking learning and effective
本的能力                           process implementation to
                               mass customization capability

通过有效的人员管理降低项目成本,提高建设速度,和工厂运营能力            Project success and project
是很有可能实现的。并非所有的项目团队都对项目的成功持同样的衡            team management: Evidence
量标准。项目经理必须认识到在面临拥有对成功持不同衡量标准的团            from capital projects in the
队时,在既有团队行为中采取不同管理侧重点是必要的。项目经理需            process industries

网络零售商应该有意识的并且深思熟虑的设计并执行一个有竞争力的            Physical distribution service
战略。这个这略需要足够的灵活以适应无论是议价偏好者(通过提供            performance and Internet
最低的价格来促成商品销售)和非议价偏好者(通过提供优质网络和            retailer margins: The drop-
分销运送服务来获取总体销售价格提升)。如果要高端的网络零售商            shipping context

在供应商与零售商的关系中,零售商的权利逐渐增强,这种变化对于            Creating consumer durable
大众化生产商的理念(正确的做事)是一种挑战,同时是对激发生产            retailer customer loyalty
商更加关注紧密的客户关系,并且提供高质量的服务运营效率(做正            through order fulfillment
确的事情的能力)。有一个非常重要的管理要点:通过对客户特殊需            service operations
需求的不确定性是一个重要的偶发性事件变量。公司在为管理供应链            Supply chain variability,
的灵活性和业绩表现选择组织结构的时候需要考虑到这一点。经理们            organizational structure, and
需要清楚:1)在可预测需求的环境下,正式的管控是业绩的主要驱            performance: The moderating
动力,但是他的影响力是完全被供应链流程的可变性所淡化的。2)            effect of demand
在不可预测需求的环境下,整合是业绩的主要驱动力,他的影响力部            unpredictability
经纪人的权力基础和项目产出之间的关系是被内部关系的强化程度所            The relationship between
淡化的。                                      brokers' influence, strength of
这些都是与设计业绩和发展时间有着正相关的。通常认为,对于职权            ties and NPD project
的使用是积极的影响着内部关系的强化程度的。由于职权构成的权力            outcomes in innovation-driven
基础是经纪人通过过去的控制或指导其网络成员的行为来形成的,因            horizontal networks

每个业务单元都很清晰的陈述产品技术战略以获得高利润的产品组合            Toward a theory of
。业务单元也会发布具有清晰定义的和最小化的产品差异化属性以获            competencies for the
取更高利润的产品组合。业务单元通过组织结构性的从特定的产品开            management of product
发项目中分离产品属性和核心技术计划行为来获取高利润的产品组合            complexity: Six case studies

拥有狭隘的技术侧重点或者广泛技术侧重点的公司通常会获得相对比 ISO 9000 practices and
较少的来自于流程管理方面的相互互补的机会,也因此与那些有着特 financial performance: A
定广度的技术活动行为的公司相比获得比较少的收益。       technology coherence

三个新的对于在组织中执行6 Sigma方法的实践形式是 6    The evolving theory of
Sigma角色结构,6 Sigma 结构化的改进流程,6     qualitymanagement: The role
Sigma关注于衡量标准。这些独特的实践形式是来自于传统的质量管 of Six Sigma

员工满意度是一个重要的运营业绩表现决定因素。服务质量和具有竞            The impact of employee
争力的业绩的驱动力是直接与人员,流程和技术相关联的。具有一定            satisfaction satisfaction on
知识水平的员工是服务质量的主要决定因素,同时,要素生产力具有            quality and profitability in high-
一种隐形的成本,这种成本来自于服务质量的降低。员工的加班工作            contact service industries
在专业性服务行业中,以行为为基础的管控战略,在最好的情况下, Influence factors for
是难于管理的,在最差的情况下是生产力的阻力。         operational control and
                               compensation in professional
                               service firms

当员工面临着他们心中的关于工作环境的安全程度理解与实际管理层 Toward a theory of the
陈述的和表现的有区别的时候,                 linkages between safety and
员工的反应很有可能降低他们工作的质量和效率          quality

供应链质量管理是一个系统化的提升业绩的方法。它是通过利用与供 Towards an understanding of
应商和零售商的有效衔接创造的机会来实现的。供应链质量管理的主 supply chain quality
要变量是客户的关注点,高质量的行为,供应商关系,领导力,人力 management

质量管理应该被作为一个整体的系统来应用而不是作为一个质量管理 A replication and extension of
实践中的一个分支。经理们必须要跳过他们本身的内部组织来研究供 quality management into the
应链并管理质量。一个供应链质量的前提是质量管理已经在供应链每 supply chain

战略性供应管理可以提高送货准时率,降低运营成本,提高客户满意 Strategic supply management,
度和业绩表现,战略性供应管理可以广泛应用不论是企业的规模大小 quality initiatives, and
和流程形式。战略性供应管理是与时间为基础的和成本相关的运营效 organizational performance

在质量保证的角度上,完全集成 (质量管理体系)           An examination of ISO
质量管理体系认证的公司可以从内部和外部带来巨大的益处。Iso900 9000:2000 and supply chain
0: 2000 并非是是一个非增值、                quality assurance
即使6                               Six Sigma: Definition and
Sigma结构的形成早于质量管理实践,但是它提供了一个新的结构可 underlying theory
供应链合作方之间的良好协作是源于一系列的以信息系统作为支持的 Pattern of information technology
人员沟通,但是现有的信息系统并不能确保这一点。这也降低了综合 use: The impact on buyer-suppler
性组织信息系统应用的重要程度(考虑到拓展和开发的努力)。经理 coordination and performance

为了提高整合度(客户整合),制造商应该与客户培养规范性关系               The impact of power and
承诺。承诺过的顾客会与制造商通力合作,共享信息以及整合跨组               relationship commitment on the
织流程。因为具有共同的价值观和规范,合作伙伴会产生内在动力               integration between
来维持合作关系,使客户整合更容易实现。相较之下,由于工具性               manufacturers and customers in a
关系承诺短期性和松散性,它对客户整合没有任何显著影响。制造               supply chain

人们调整系统以适应特定的工作需要,并在一些条件下,可能会完全 Theoretical perspectives on the
失败。当信息系统逐渐成为一个战略优势的重要驱动力时,理解如何 coordination of supply chains

处理订单的策略是供应公司应具备的能力。有效的供应管理能够提               The role of quality in e-
高生产的灵活度,增强以技术为核心的竞争优势,使成品在价格竞               procurement performance an
争中处于稳定地位的同时,确保前置期优势。采购方与供应方间的               empirical analysis

管理型干预如果被使用在那些不受激励,机会,能力因素所限制的组 How motivation, opportunity, and
织机构中,很有可能是不有效的。另外,很明显的,投资决定的本身 ability drive knowledge sharing:
需要根据不同的变量或者变量的组合而形成的各种需要解决的瓶颈。 The Constraining-factor model

改进经理们与技术员工之间的沟通流程可以帮助建立良好的关系(例 Antecedents and consequences of
如,整个生产,采购,以及设计与整合性采购)以及不能形式和数量 social capital on buyer
的相关资金。我们相信整合性活动越广泛以及密切的关系越近(例如 performance improvement
现在有很多因素被归属于对于日渐增长的离岸知识的需求:他们包括 History of offshoring
技术,业务流程的视角,政府的态度与监管,国际历史关系。这篇文 knowledge services

大多数公司都是低估了伴随着外部采购的成本和投入,至少在初期是              Offshore outsourcing of
如此。公司必须要有足够的考核标准去和衡量供应商的表现和对其的              professional services: A
期望值。管理的复杂性和规避风险的延迟性带来的成本应该被考虑进              transaction cost economics
做外包采购的决定中。                                  perspective

尽管在劳动力成本上可以节约,但是一半的外包采购项目最后都被终 Invisible costs in offshoring
止了。无法满足战略发展要求削弱了离岸经济的优势。这也是因为他 services work

企业不会完全没有危机意识在他们试图获取竞争优势时,与此同时,              Analysis of interactions among
也不会忽略过分自我保护的联合价值。成功的离岸采购联盟在交易,              core, transaction and relationship-
核心关系因素方面创建一些列独特的投资组合,并实现对离岸采购不              specific investments: The case of
断发展的目标要求。                                   offshoring

离岸经济有很多风险和缺点。缺乏当地知识,文化冲突,以及伴随着 A Typology of offshoring and
离岸经济的额外的国家风险引发我们质疑是否很多信息导向型的工作 outsourcing in electronically
将会继续保持离岸状态。在文章中的这种预示表面当离岸经济是一个 transmitted services

尽管一些列的组织因素会最终决定离岸经济的成功与失败,但是在不 Offshoring knowledge and
同地区传递最佳实践经验的能力,建立分享组织文化的能力,在人力 service work: A conceptual
资源方面融合当地实践活动与总部指令都是离岸经济成功的重要组成 model and research agenda

美国正在失去他长期以来的在很多稀有技术领域的领导地位。    Offshoring technology
不仅是这些来自于美国机构对于稀有的专利申请的成功率与其他国家 innovation: A case study of rare-
比在下降,而且对于由美国创造的针对创新行为的知识的推广率也在 earth technology
分享服务型组织的配置主要有四个。这些群体之间的差异主要是集中              Effective Strategies for internal
在三个方面:运营规模,市场心态,以及既有模式。环境需求是可以              outsourcing and offshoring
通过运营规模来实现的,分享服务的能力可以通过市场心态和现有模              business services: An empirical
型来实现。这些配置提供了一个全面的企业描述和在每个群体当中的              investigation

正式形式的管理(详细的合同)可以最小化联盟合作伙伴中的机会主 Transformational offshore
义行为。但是正式形式的管理并不会保证互惠,双边主义以及不断交 outsourcing: Empirical evidence
流的的初衷和合作伙伴间的沟通。有关心的监管可以补充正式型管理 from alliances in China

能够降低交易成本的管理时间可以提高离岸经济的成功率。企业的系              Facilitating offshoring with
统可以可以直接发现很多离岸经济经理人的很多挑战。综合性和紧密              enterprise technologies: Reducing
性的关于企业流程和经济环境的信息可以减少不确定性,并产生有效              operational friction in the
的交易监管。在企业系统建立形成的业务流程能力能够帮助流程知识              governance and production of
传递给离岸服务供应商。                                 services

在外包采购环境下的不完整信息的影响可以被在很多情况下缓和。对 Outsourcing of front-end business
于前端任务的外包采购的决定也需要考虑与客户沟通的性质和信息密 processes: Quality, information,
集程度。如果客户沟通是标志性的并且信息密集度高,也就意味着对 and customer contact

物化查询表的价值随着调查成本的增加而减少,随着流程价值(对于              Monitoring process quality in off-
采购来说)的增加而增加。当调查成本上升时,采购会发现调查选项              shore outsourcing: A model and
的成本会变得高,因此导致调查产出的意愿下降。相似的,流程价值              findings from multi-country
增加,采购会更加倾向于调查流程,因为从次优质量中的损失在增加              survey

公司按照离岸经济的不同程度都可以被归入四类。这些类别有着不同 Is more IT offshoring better? An
的平均业绩水平和不同的离岸经济水平。但是从行业的角度看,没有 exploratory study of western
特别的水平或者类别的离岸经济占据了业绩的主导地位       companies offshoring to South
                               East Asia
当拥有的平衡不断发展并且可能不会被准确的描述为信仰的时候,将 Understanding behavioral sources
任何单一时间参考为一种稳定占有的信号是会起到误导作用的。在不 of process variation following
和谐程度比较高的情况下,短期对系统变化的反应将会倾向于更加受 enterprise system development

捆绑式的组合作为部分的得益于同质性的单一报价是为了竞标做准备 The use of bundling in B2B
的。特别要强调的,这种同质性需要被考虑进供应能力方面的。如果 online reverse auctions

大量的供应商参与增加了新品的业绩表现,也增加了特定的投入,能 Supplier's involvement and
力资质增加了供应商的参与程度。新的探索风险的能力都用来增加参 success of radical new product
与度,通过他一系列的在供应商上投资的努力           development in new ventures

建立协同沟通的能力能够对供应链的伙伴关系产生直接的正面的影响             Inter-organizational
。对于供应商来说来说,建立长期的伙伴关系是达成战略优势的必要             communication as a relational
不充分条件。供应商的管理人员应该掌握有效沟通的技巧,以建立和             competencey: Antecedents and
采购商之间的长期关系并从中获益。对于采购商而言,建立有关监管             performance outcomes in
的网络形式也许并不充分,这种监管仅仅通过提供有助于组织之间合             collaborative buyer-supplier
作沟通的环境而产生战略优势                              relationships

当技术不确定性和组织间互动互相匹配的时候,环境技术创新(ETI            The joint influence of technology
)                                          uncertainty and
项目会更加有效。高度的技术不确定性和高度的组织之间互动的结合             interorganizational interaction on
往往会导致更好的表现,而两者如果不相匹配,表现则会相对较弱。             external technology integration
短期来说,公司应该追求在现有技术代表的不确定性环境下组织之间             success

来自于跨行业活动的非同一般的回报是依赖于现有公司能力的。具备             Supply chain integration and
优秀的流程有效性的公司可以从这种跨行业的活动中获得更大的收益             shareholder value: Evidence from
。对于大公司来说的高收益意味着为小型跨行业活动的开发合适的保             consortium based industry
障系统和激励体制的需求                                exchanges
从研究中得到的管理方面的启示质疑了传统的利用从上到下的方法完 A qualitative study of high-
成目标的管理学和领导力的观点。让想法来源于基层是非常重要的。 reputation plant managers:
开发可分享的对话式组织目标可以提供员工业绩表现        Political skill and successful

简单的执行通过在心流程改进方法中上面培训人员而不是通过将其放 Dynamic capabilities through
在管理和维护持续改进的创新中的角色上的持续改进的方法是不会有 continuous improvement
效果的。因为在持续改进的组织机构中的不同元素存在着相互依存性 infrastructure

电子合作改进了生产商准确及时预测和满足客户订单的能力。它也改 A contingent view of e-
善了获取经济效益的能力。伴随着电子合作的运营方面的利益是特别 collaboration and performance
显著的,当生产商竞争于相对狭小的环境下。           in manufacturing

合作性的行动帮助改善关系压力的消极作用,尽管他们无法被完全去             Do buyer cooperative actions
除,在一些情况下,关系压力可以激发更大互惠利益。采购对于供应             matter under relational stress?
的协助的有效性会在高水平的关系压力下变得更大。而且,工业产品             Evidence from Japanese and
的采购也应该把他们供应商参与到新产品开发的过程中,并在一个开             U.S. assemblers in the U.S.
放环境下,及时的提供完整的信息给供应商。尽管事实上在高水平的             automotive industry

ISO标准不是一个质量和高业绩表现的保证。供应商和生意伙伴的选 ISO 9000/1994, ISO
择也不仅仅依赖于拥有一个ISO2000的证书。           9001/2000 and TQM: The
并且,当公司想要改善其质量管理系统是,在单一的ISO2000的模式 performance debate revisited
                                            To much theory, not enough

供应商必须遵守基于互惠发展的日常行为的价格政策。并且,采购积              Lock-in situations in supply
极主动的投资通常被视为一种加强长期关系的方法。另外,供应闪必              chains: a social exchange
须追求运营的有效性的改善,因为这会帮助维护与采购的长期合作关              theoretic study sourcing
系                                           arrangements in buyer-
                                            supplier relationships

如果外包采购管理团队已经完全明白了他们的业绩期望值的话,他们 Unlocking the business
必须关注开发与供应商的一种合作性和互惠性的承诺关系。对于外包 outsourcing process model

运营政策是对于规避严重干扰的财务手段的补充。设备的标准化,设 Operational hedging against
备的使用率,设备的所有权,以及全球化可以加强这种风险的规避。 adverse circumstances

提供病人质量和医院的整理业绩表现必须从组织链的顶端开始才能够 The patient safety chain:
最终改善医院的整体形式。                   transformational leadership's
                               effect on patient safety culture,
                               initatives, and outcomes

供应链是一个可以为公司创造竞争优势的重要角色。由于竞争的具体              The effects of innovation-cost
化,导致企业间的竞争有一个普遍的转移。现在并不是很多企业与企              strategy, knowledge, and
业的竞争,而是更多的供应链与供应链间的竞争。供应链战略,知识              action in the supply chain on
,行动都是企业业绩的重要因素。对于经理们的启示包括了调整为了              firm performance
今天,企业都很强烈的依赖于他们的信息企业系统去做艰难的决定。            The efficient use of enterprise
在一种很容易接触并获得信息的环境下,企业能够取得竞争性的成功            information for strategic
。虽然企业系统在他们的使用中是中立的,这篇文章是要检验他们在            advantage: a data
企业中的有效性。拥有广泛的管理信息并不一定能够提供一种竞争优            envelopment analysis

供应商行为准则是一直被忽略的,并且长期以来已经成为一个行业的            The effects of
问题来观察那些有着错误行为的行业的行为。当很难从那些不遵守的            interorganizational governance
行业中获得信息是,这篇文章作为第一次在中国研究大量不遵守的企            on supplier's compliance with
业。并且,这篇文章建议采购作为一个很重要的角色在购买过程中维            SCC: An empirical
护供应商行为准则。                                 examination of compliant and
                                          non-compliant suppliers

有一些特定的心理学的合同限制着不道德的企业行为。这些合同完全 The effect of unethical
在中和着欺骗与善良的关系。                  behavior on trust in a buyer-
                               supplier relationship: the
                               mediating role of psychological
                               contract violation

在市场地位中的竞争优势是可以通过建立采购和供应商关系的信任中            Governing buyer-supplier
获得的。卓越的关系是能够确保生存与并且适应不断变化的经济环境            relationships through
的。利用交易和关系的机制,企业可以消除机会主义并改善关系业绩            transactional and relational
表现                                        mechanisms: evidence from

获得最有效的市场业绩表现,很大程度依赖于企业在新品开发方面的 In union lies strength:
合作性能力。那些无法获得项目业绩成功的公司也通常会在获取市场 collaborative competence in
优化的过程中失败。                      new product development and
                               its performance effects

                                          The Evolution of the
                                          Intellectual Structure of
                                          operations management- 1980-
                                          2006: A citation/co-citation
关注点是在医院改造的过程中的支持性的元素并不是充足的元素。关 Performance analysis of a
注点的成功依赖于很多方面:包括病人数量,流程改善,执行管理。 focused hospital hunit: the
关注点可以是提高效率和扩大利润。               case of an integrated trauma

当信息不完整的时候,那些以抽象的角度看问题的公司会表现的比那 Decision-making in the supply
些根据实际情况寻找解决方案的公司更加有效果和有效率。但是,当 chain: Examining problem
有完整信息的时候,两种方法都变得可以忽略了          solving approaches and
                               information availability

公司必须考虑到平衡在常规运营中和在经历供应链干扰是的股票价格              The effect of operational
表现。在效率为驱动力的环境下,市场可以给那些几乎没有运营松懈              slack, diversification, and
的公司回报。但是缺乏运营的松弛性也有可能在经历干扰是给公司造              vertical relatedness on the
成伤害。公司将不得不保持一种平衡,通过关注于那些如果缺乏松弛              stock market reaction to
性就会给公司造成伤害的领域。公司可能需要向投资者解释建立松弛              supply chain disruptions

工作在内部和外部流通的物流人员应该质疑其他的部门的观点并给他 Linking improved knowledge
们指出新信息能够带来什么,以及其重要性,尤其在最有效果和最优 management to operational
效率的给客户提供价值。                    and organizational

企业的供应链的机敏程度受到一系列因素的影响,包括市场关注点, The organizational
学习关注点,和其他组织的行为。                antecedents of a firm's supply
这些问题都积极的影响着企业对于快速有效的回应市场变化的能力  chain agility for risk mitigation
                               and response

如果工厂有可能遭受某种灾难例如暴风雨和台风,那么有一个可以帮 Proactive planning for
助设计战略性计划的工具将会是非常有用的。因为很多公司不具备松 catastrophic events in supply
弛性去承受这样的来自于突然的灾难的影响。在这些不确定的时期, chains
现提供给经理们一个多种规律的关于风险的视角。它已经足够灵活以 Supply Chain risk identification
至于可以适应来自于供应链结构的各种特定要求。最主要的优势就是 with value-focused process
它保护了工程流程和科学决定的方法在对于风险分析和管理的强项。 engineering

行业中的压力迫使企业主要依赖于流动员工去减少固定成本以及其他             An Analysis of job
工业变量。它的问题在于流动员工有着很低的流失率,这就引发了另             dissatisfaction and turnover to
一个问题什么素质在工作环境中更加重要。直接收集来自于那些流动             reduce global supply chain
性的员工的信息可以帮助提供关于这种不寻常现象的第一手资料。我             risk: evidence from China

新的视角已经被建议用来考虑服务设计。特别是,对于组织,人员, an empirical assessment of
和客户之间互动的管理可能是成功的关键因素           the EFQM excellence model:
                               evaluation as a TQM
                               framework relative to the
                               MBNQA Model

                                           Reconceptualizing the effects
                                           of lean on production costs
                                           with evidence from the F-22

                                           How the transaction cost and
                                           resource based theories of the
                                           firm inform outsourcing

当新产品被设计时,会有很多时间继续投入在每个项目中。像原材料 Improving sourcing in NPD
购买价格等因素仅仅是最后决定的所要考虑的一部分因素。财务量化 projects: Monetary
指标最终是一个判断成本和业绩分析的成功与否的先行者。     quantification of points of
工厂的业绩表现可以被一些列因素影响,包括上游,下游的复杂性, The impact of supply chain
内部生产工厂的业绩。供应链的属性驱动着动态的复杂性并有着比细 complexity on manufacturing
节复杂性更大的影响                      plant performance

运营管理和人力资源管理的实践组合似乎是在提升生产力中最有效的             The integration of human
。对于生产力的益处,并且伴随着质量管理理念(开创并维护多种综             resource and operation
效的实践)似乎在一段时间内是可持续发展的。考虑到授权作为一种             management practices and its
最佳实践本身是一种误导。它必须和一个合适的运营体系环境现匹配             link with performance: a
,在这种环境下,从它本身获利的运营实践也是存在的。                  longitudinal latent class study

当为了全面获取关系性学习的利益而去组织和建立与海外合作方的关             Does relationship learning
系时,公司应该研究合作方的补充性能力和知识。与合作方的在目标             lead to relationship value? A
,战略,企业文化方面的一致性上的兼容性应该被仔细的考虑,在作             cross-national supply chain
出郑重决定与其建立企业间相互学习关系之前。。一旦合作方被选定             investigation

在很多情况下,(在较低的设计责任的情况下)通过与有着不同学习             Supplier innovativeness,
风格(开发性和拓展性)的供应商达成一致,生产商可以从供应商的             organizational learning styles
创新中获取利益。                                   and manufacturer
在选择拥有相似学习缝合和文化的合作方可以保证不需要产生因创新             performance: an empirical
而引发的环境费用的情况下获得业绩的提升。                       assessment

从个人主义文化购买公司应该他们给予特殊的关注以确保他们不要用 Building long-term orientation
对于个人主义文化合适的但是捕鱼集体主义价值不一致的政策束缚采 in buyer-supplier relationships:
购人员的手。仅仅通过业绩期望来监管关系可能很好的证明了不如那 the moderating role of culture
当供应链的经理开始考虑公司的技术组合的变化时,他们应该了解决             The effects of technological
策者在很多技术存在于市场的情况下,会倾向于采用看上去很容易使             turbulence and breadth on
用并且对公司供应链管理很有效的第一方案。技术的复杂性可能会影             supply chain technology
响委员会的判断能力。                                 acceptance and adoption

                                           Strategic interdependence,
                                           governance effectiveness and
                                           supplier performance: a
                                           dyadic case study
                                           investigation and theory

潜在的反组织性行为(不愿分享稀有资源的意向)可能是由于被普遍 The perception of difficulty in
视为项目经理们的运营矛盾(挑战,和广泛不同的工作计划任务)这 project-work planning and its
些被观察的自我能效的任务的直接的和实际的启示是一种被提高了的 impact on resource sharing

                                           What medicine can teach
                                           operations: What operations
                                           can teach medicine

注重价值的公司将会很积极的对于标准化和强制化的压力反应。因此             The role of institutional
,当劝说一个公司采用组织性的架构来适应电子供应链管理,实践者             pressures and organizational
应该强调标准化和强制化的压力。相反,注重灵活性的公司很少被强             culture in the firm's intention to
制化压力所影响。                                   adopt internet-enabled supply
因此,实践者需要避免设计强制化压力,在试图让这类企业采纳电子             chain management systems
在供应链人事决定中,                       The interaction effect of
高级经理应该考虑那些管理采供关系的关键人物的个人性格以保证这   relational norms and agent
些关系性的日常行为的一致性。                   cooperativeness on
人员变动需要重新评估关系性日常行为和新任人选的协调性       opportunism in buyer-supplier

具有两面性的供应链战略对于经理来说的重要性是即使在持续的压力   The effect of an ambidextrous
下达成短期业绩和成本削减的奖金,供应链经理不应该躲避持续性的   supply chain strategy on
开发他们供应链的新想法,新流程,实践和技术。这样的开发加强和   combinative competitive
巩固了组织性的学习,这是在建立多种化,多元化能力所需要的。顶   capabilities and business
尖的业绩表现的供应链展示了同时拥有综合能力。因此,供应链经理   performance

市场在对企业环境创新和环境奖励以及认证中反应时有选择性的。当   An empirical investigation of
大量的企业环境性创新的形式是中等价值的,必然有一些企业环境性   environmental perofrmance
创新和环境奖励认证对于市场是有积极作用的,也有一些是消极作用   and the market value of the
的。这些结果是非常重要的,因为经理们经常会面临来自大量股东要   firm

经理们需要关注于面对面的会议和视频会议来带领主要的非分析性的   Communication channels,
任务。通过那些有着一些列风险例如私利,个人冲突,小组考虑等渠   innovation tasks and NPD
道,团队成员可以发展很强的社会关系的机会变得更大。如果一个创   project outcomes in innovation-
新的任务是相对分析性的或者可以被很大程度操作化的,经理们需要   driven horizontal networks

公司不应该假定全部的及时生产的实践可以挺高业绩表现的所有方面   Relationship between just-in-
。很多方面被其他因素影响。在资源紧缺的环境下,经理们应该评估   time manufacturing ractices
他们的可执行的方案基于业绩表现影响的广度与深度。         and performance: a meta-
很有可能,公司在执行相同的及时生产的活动时,效果会很不同。因   analytic investigation
隐形知识对于组织来说可以是至关重要的,也可在知识广泛散布之前            Role of explicit and tacit
给组织提供优于竞争对手的竞争优势。然而,在没有集中的努力的情            knowledge in Six Sigma
况下,                                       projects: An mpirical
要获得这种利益是很挑战的。在团队项目中的实践可以提取团队成员            examination of differential
的知识,可以是对于流程改进,项目成功很有帮助的,项目的整体意            project success

利用视角组合的菜单可以让经理们通过各种端口(相对简单的视角) On the alignment of the
拥有对于复杂流程的相对综合性的模型。这看上去是很多组织都在追 purposes ad views of process
求的不断标准化的视角,可能会对项目的业绩表现有反作用。    models in project

机构化对于采用社会性控制和正式性控制在本土和国际性采供关系中 Forman control and social
的积极影响。然而,合作的长度仅仅协助使用正式控制机制在本土的 control in domestic and
合作中也增强社会性控制在国际合作中的使用。          international buyer-suplier

管理层的承诺,客户关注点和信任都有着一个组合性的影响在全面质            Contingency relationshps of
量系统设计的因素上,进而积极的影响全面质量管理的产出因素。结            firm size, TQM duration,
构性资源例如管理层的承诺,客户关注点和信任,在被采纳早的情况            unionization, and industry
下,会对整体质量管理的实施的成功有重要的作用。研究提供了一个            context of TQM
审计的工具可以确认企业是否缺乏前期的条件去建立正确的质量文化            implementation - a focus on
或者除了文化方面以外的匮乏。另外,利用这个研究,经理可以衡量            total effects

不断增加的运营管理的学术交换的多样性,更多的跨领域不同管理原 The scholarly exchange of
则的研究可以提高运营管理的学术发展。一方面运营管理展示了很高 knowledge in Operations
的意向去与领域外交换想法,也展示了不愿与领域内进行想法交换。 Management
一些运营管理决定上的差异是由于不同的国际形势引起的而不是文化   The way that can be told of is
。不管怎样,文化还是一个主要的角色在运营管理和企业战略中。例   not an unvarying way: cultural
如,在员工是完全本土化的文化,年轻,女性,但是管理层是来自于   impacts on Operations
另一个文化,大多是男性,年龄略大,员工建议给管理层进行流程改   Management in Asia

主办国希望通过推广文化特性建立服务性经济良好形象,从而是他们   Service cultural alignment in
的经济从单一的生产型扩展到多元化。这也确实是一个有价值的目标   offshoring: the impact of
,对于政府政策制定者来说,这些变化不会一夜发生,因为这些文化   cultural dimensions on
的因素已经深深刻入在这些国家的历史,传统,教育体系以及生活方   offshoring location choices

                                 The globalization of operations
                                 in Eastern and Western
                                 countries: upacking the
                                 relationship between national
                                 and organizational cultural and
                                 its impact on manufacturing

                                 The cultural characteristic of
                                 individualism/collectivism: a
                                 comparative study of
                                 implications for investment in
                                 operations between emerging
                                 Asian and industrialized
                                 Western countries

                                 Quality management
                                 effectiveness in Asia: the
                                 influence of culture
在一个高度多元化和不成熟的市场上,仅仅关注于典型供应商业绩指   Antecedents to supplier
标也许是不合适的。供应商的准备就绪的程度和不断发展的实践行为   integration in the automotive
应该视为高度相关的。与本土的供应商的关系通常都是通过渐渐的在   industry: a multiple-case study
高层建立的,信任水平和承诺的随着实践在反复的增加,而不是依赖   of foreign subsidaries in China

公司间的信息整合的成功执行主要依赖于信任关系和机构性因素对于   Implementing supply chain
整合的影响。中国企业特定的与经过仔细筛选的合作伙伴建立关系网   information integration in
络进而建立信任和寻找政府支持的保证以防范问题或者解决冲突在他   China: the role of institutional
们确立信息整合关系之前。经理需要考虑到迅速变化的机构性因素在   forces and trust

本土供应商在新兴经济下必须认识到离岸经济外包生产对于他们来说   Learning trajectory in offshore
向外方采购的学习的潜力。这可以被通过很强的学习意愿来实现,也   OEM cooperation: transaction
可以通过有效的能力加强和内部外部的在流程上面的改变以开发新的   value for local suppliers in the
吸收能力。本地企业应该关注于合理的平衡信任和合约,特别是他们   emerging economies

信息分享对于供应商的承诺有很大的影响,相比之下对于采购方的承   Examining supply chain
诺。                               relationships: Do buyer and
联合关系的努力会影响供应商多于采购方。然而信任建立也许会更加   supplier perspectives on
难对于供应商来证明在采购和供应商之间有共同的需要(因为信任表   collaborative relationships
现出比简单的投资到承诺中更加有相关性)              differ?

供应链经理需要知道供应商之间间接发生了什么会直接影响到他们企   Supplier-supplier relationships
业的运营。主动的行动是有必要的去管理供应商-           in buyer-supplier-supplier
供应商关系。因为供应商-                     triads: Implications for supplier
供应商之间的合作不会必然带来更好的供应商业绩表现,采购公司需   performance
当考虑外部采购时,需要仔细考虑企业5个竞争优先点和企业所有的 Outsourcing congruence with
相关的外包采购的驱动力。检验外包采购决定与其他各个维度的一致 competitive priorities: Impact
性而不是简单的看单一的维度是有必要的。            on supply chain and firm

因为建立以IT为基础的能力对于支持生产运营是一个不断进行的过程           The impact of information
,经理必须理解IT对于特定组织产出的各个维度的贡献,以做出正确           technology use on plant
的IT投资的决定;但是,在动态智能(流程智能,整合智能,合作智           structure, practices, and
能)的三个维度中没有一个展示出强大的影响在差异化与实验和开发            performance: an exploratory
的工作实践中                                    study

在竞争的供应链环境中的大企业已经意识到绿色供应链是一个必要的            Stakeholder pressure and the
,用于维护一个可接受的和可信任的原料和部件的来源。小公司也许            adoption of environmental
没有资源区实施这些问题,所以大企业也许会提供一些必要的资源和            practices: the mediating effect
培训,这将是推动这一发展的重要贡献。另外,小企业可以从政府培            of training
维护与分包商之间相互业务往来的承包商很可能把项目按时间按预算 Evaluating buyer-supplier
完成。对于承包商有一个很重要的因素在获取建设合同回报时和一些 relationships-performance
通常的条款中需要考虑的是客户需要作为生意合作关系的重要参与者 spirals: a longitudinal study

主要客户关系能通常是很艰难的地带对于相对薄弱的供应商来说。考             Concentrated supply chain
虑到供应链和企业水平的业绩的结论可以帮助经理发展比较对供应链             membership and financial
管理比较现实的期望值:例如,来自于对于关系期间和主要供应链级             performance: chain- and firm-
别的利润的积极组合的发现说明了链级别的有效性是来自于持续的合             level perspectives

对于快速的新品开发,新品开发团队需要有明确的产品远景和来自于 Understanding antecedents of
管理层的支持和良好的流程。新品开发团队需要建立正式的流程,规 new product development
则,方针来确保他们的任务和决定能够按照新品开发流程执行,还要 speed: a meta-analysis

直接材料采购的决定是受他们对整体供应干扰风险的判定影响的:组             Buyer perceptions of supply
织可以加强改进的决策制定通过执行帮助采购诠释供应商业绩数据并             disruption risk: a behavioral
获得准确的风险评估的采购流程和政策。具有风险特定代表性的交换             view and empirical
属性对于企业评估干扰风险至关重要。                          assessment
当有很多组件和附属组件变化时,维护高水平的产品满足率是变得更   The differential impact of
加困难的。当提供的产品有不同的选择是,经理必须考虑到组件库存   product complexity, inventory
的大幅提升以实现维护高水平的产品满足率。经理需要开发并选择有   level, and configuration
效的库存管理政策一支持灵活的生产系统和更好的回应客户的需求。   capacity on unit and order fill
经理可以采用主动地需求管理政策例如给客户奖励,针对订购那些有   rate performance

供应链整合的效果是累积的,这对于公司在执行它时提供了重要的洞   The impact of supply chain
察发现。供应链整合的改进不会直接导致运营业绩的改善,但是一旦   integration on performance: a
门槛水平跳过了,进一步的供应链整合的改进,即使是很小的改进也   contingency and configuration
会有巨大的运营业绩的改善。                    approach

很多个人缺乏对于劝说性的用来强调让他人接受环境项目方法的理解   Understanding project
。理性的劝说是最常用的方法,也是相对有效的,但是鼓舞人心的劝   champions' ability to gain intra-
说是最有效果的方法但是通常应用的少于理性劝说。尽管它被广泛应   organizational commitment for
用,讨好性的方法是起反作用的,如果强调讨好性,个人将会降低他   environmental projects
                   Authors                                             Yr Source                                   Is. #        pp Theories / Frameworks
在大型制造型企业中管理关键性产品                                                                                                                                                        网络理论和知识为基





                                                                                Journal of
                                                                                                                                          network theory and the
开发:一个纵向研究                                                                                                                                 knowledge based view          础的视角
                                                                                                                                          (alluded to)

利用质量的模型对于设计和市场营销                                                                                                                                                        质量职能发展模型,




                                                                                Journal of
                                                                                                                                          QFD framework, graph
新的/改良的产品的优化工具                                                                                                                             theory                        图形理论

                   Song, X.M.; Parry, M.E.




                                                                              Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                          Contingency theory and
                                                                                                                                          theory of organizational      识创造理论
                                                                                                                                          knowledge creation

调查研究生产和营销之间在新产品开                                                                                                                                                        跨部门的和谐(从根


                                                     C.; Vickery, S.

                                   Goldstein, Calantone, R.; Droge,

                                                                                Journal of Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                          Cross-functional harmony
发方面的互动:背景环境是否会影响                                                                                                                          (basically an example of      本上来讲,一个预防
关系的强弱?                                                                                                                                    Contingency Theory)           性理论的例子)

服务理念:在服务设计研究中的缺失                                                                                                                                                        服务理念,服务传递



                      Dasu, S. Duffy, J., Rao,

                                Johnston, R.

                                                                                                                                          The Service concept,
的连接                                                                                                                                       Service delivery system       系统模型

在服务设计中人的因素                                                                                                                                Prospect theory, motivation 前景理论,激励理论
                   Bowen, D.E.;



                                                                                Journal of
                    Cook, L.S.;

                   Chase, R.B.;



                     O’Grady, P.



                                                                                Journal of
                   Blackhurst, J.;
                         Wu, T.;

                                                                                                                                          network theory (alluded to)


                                                                                                                                          Transaction cost economics, 交易成本经济,组织
                      Ragatz, G.L.



                                                                                Journal of
                   Handfield, R.B.;
                    Petersen, K.J.;

品,流程和供应设计                                                                                                                                 Organizational design        设计理论,关系理论
                                                                                                                                          theory, Relationship theory, ,网络监控
                                                                                                                                          Network governance








Silveira, Giovani J.C. da                                     Samaddar,                 Schmenner, Kaynak, Hale;                                                   Cousins, Paul                                 Wu, Diana Y.;                    Mantel, Susan P.; Fransoo, Jan C.;                                                Minjoon Jun, Shaohan
                                                    Subhashish; Kadiyala,                Roger W.; Hartley, Janet L.                                              D.; Handfield,                                  Katok, Elena                Tatikonda, Mohan V.; Wiers, Vincent                                                       Cai, Hojung Shin
                                                                 Savitha              Vastag, Gyula                                                                   Robert B.;                                                                         Liao, Ying            C.S.
                                                                                                                                                                  Lawson, Benn;
                    2006                                           2006                                 2006                                   2006                       2006                                          2006                                         2006                                2006                                      2006
Journal of Operations                                        Journal of                 Journal of                                        Journal of                Journal of                                     Journal of                Journal of Operations                        Journal of                               Journal of Operations
        Management                                          Operations                 Operations                                        Operations                Operations                                     Operations                         Management                          Operations                                        Management
                                                           Management                 Management                                        Management                Management                                     Management                                                             Management

                         24                                               24                                        24                                24                                         24                        24                                                24                                     24                                                24
                                    6                                         6                                            6                              6                                            6                         6                                              6                                         6                                                    6

               932-947                                          910-931                   893-909                                           868-892                    851-863                                       839-850                                  822-838                       813-821                                             791-812


                                                                                          even flow

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Bullwhip Effect

                                                                                                                                                                       Relational social
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Research based off

                          rigid flexibility model
                                                                                          Theory of production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Theoretical framework
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    posited in order to test
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Model Human Scheduler
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (based of decision ladder of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    behavioral decision models.

                                                                                          competence, theory of swift- 流转理论



                                                                                                                                                                       organizational socialization, 组织性社会化,关系
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   TQM practices; Institutional 整理质量管理实践;
                   Nair, Anand



                                                                                                            Journal of

                      Bendoly, Elliot;

                   Schultz, Kenneth L.
                     Donohue, Karen;



                                                                                                            Journal Of

                                                                                                                                                                                      Operations Management
现和回顾过去的假设                                                                                                                                                                             Model; Intentions, Actions, and 性,行动,反应模型
                                                                                                                                                                                      Reactions Framework

服务确保强度:服务质量的关键     Hays, Julie M.; Hill, Arthur V.



                                                                                                          Journal Of Operations Journal Of Operations Management
                                                                                                                                                                                      Service Guarantee Strength
                                                                                                                                                                                      Framework; Marketing         营销沟通影响;员工
                                                                                                                                                                                      Communications Impact;       激励和远景;通过服
                                                                                                                                                                                      Employee Motivation and      务的失败学习;服务
                                                                                                                                                                                      Vision; Learning Through     质量;客户满意度;
                                                                                                                                                                                      Service Failure; Service     客户忠诚度;生意业
                                                                                                                                                                                      Quality, Customer            绩表现
                                                                                                                                                                                      Satisfaction and Customer
                                                                                                                                                                                      Loyalty; Business
                                                            Adrian S. Hoobler, Jenny M.; Tallon,
                                                                        McFadden, Kathleen L.;
                                                                              Gown, Charles R.;

                                                                                     William J.




                                                                                                                                                                                      CQI;TQM; Six Sigma;
工承诺度和员工管理                                                                                                                                                                             MBNQA; Structural Equation 体质量管理;6西格
                                                                                                                                                                                      Modeling                   马;结构平衡模型
                   E.; Malhotra, Manoj K.; Schroeder, Roger G.; Choo,
                                                   Linderman, Kevin;



                                                                                                          Journal Of Operations

                                                                                                                                                                                      Goal-setting theory; Six
                                                                                                                                                                                      Sigma Construct              格马结构

                           Grover, Varun



                    Papke-Shields, Karen

                                                                                                          Journal of Operations
解决精益性和敏感性:一个实践性的                                                                                                                                              知识视角的效益,生



                   Narasimhan, Ram; Swink, Morgan;

                                                            Journal of Operations Management
                                                                                                                             Economies of knowledge

                                    Kim, Soo Wook
研究                                                                                                                           perspective, evolutionary        产系统的革新性的视
                                                                                                                             perspective of production        角

只是在供应链中作为一种战略性资源                                                                                                             The resource-based view of 公司的以资源为基础



                    Ketchen, David J.;

                    Hult, G. Tomas M.;

                   Calantone, Roger J.
                   Cavusgil, S. Tamer;

                                                            Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                             the firm, Strategic Choice   的视角,战略选择理
                                                                                                                             Theory, Configuration theory 论,结构理论

                   Sawhney, Rajeev



                                                            Journal of Operations Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                             Transformation theory, The
交叉影响:对于一个生产灵活性的转                                                                                                             resource-based view, the         础的视角,公司的理
型模型                                                                                                                          theory of the firm, the          论,流动性理论,消
                                                                                                                             liquidity theory, the thory of   费者选择理论,层级
                                                                                                                             consumer choice,                 理论
                                                                                                                             hierarchical theory




                     Prater, Tan, C.; Vonderembse,

                                                                                                                             knowledge based view and
时发生的工程到产品开发业绩表现                                                                                                              TCE (alluded to)

美国企业在欧洲市场中,公司规模和                                                                                                                                           阶段性理论,垄断优



                                                              Journal of

                                                                                                                             Stage Theory, The
全球运营多元化比较性模型                                                                                                                 Monopolistic Advantage        势理论,寡头理论,
                                                                                                                             Theory, Oligopolistic Theory, 网络理论
                                                                                                                             Network Theory



                                                            Journal of Operations
                   Simpson, N.C.


                   Swink, Morgan; Talluri,



                    Srinivas; Pandejpong,


                                                            Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                             theory of performance
率和业绩表现的权衡的研究                                                                                                                 frontiers(TPF),                  学习理论
                                                                                                                             Organizational learning






  Kaufmann, Lutz; Carter, Craig R.                     Choi, Thomas Y.; Krause,                                 Zhao, Xiande; Sum, Chee- Cousins, Paul D.; Menguc, Bulent                       Flynn, Barbara B.;                        Das, Ajay;
                                                                      Daniel R.                                 Chuong; Qi, Yinan; Zhang,                                                         Saladin, Brooke                 Narasimhan, Ram;
                                                                                                                 Huiying; Lee, Tien-Sheng                                                                                            Talluri, Srinivas

                                   2006                                    2006                                                     2006                             2006                                    2006                                             2006
Journal of Operations Management                           Journal of Operations                                    Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations                   Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations
                                                                   Management                                               Management                       Management                              Management                         Management

                                           24                                     24                                                  24                               24                                           24                                                 24
                                               5                                               5                                          5                                    5                                        5                                                     5

                              653-675                                   637-652                                                  621-636                          604-620                                 583-603                                  563-582

               exchange theory,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          isomorphism theory
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The resource-based

               Game theory, Social
                                                                                                                                                                       resource based view

               information processing
               Transaction cost theory,

               Theory of organizational
               static structural theories,

               coordination, The theory of
                                                                                   transaction cost economics

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          analysis(TCA), institutional 趋同理论


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          perspective, transaction cost 交易成本分析,制度





   Webster, Quak, H.J.; de Koster,      Matos,         Linton, Sulek, Joanne                                                     Tu, Qiang; Vonderembse, Mark A.;                          Li, Ling; Benton, W.C.
 Scott; Mitra,             M.B.M. Stelvia; Hall, Jonathan D.;             M.;                                                          Ragu-Nathan, T.S.; Sharkey,
     Supriya                           Jeremy        Klassen,    Marucheck,                                                                           Thomas W.
                                                      Robert;      Ann; Lind,
                                                                     Mary R.
        2007                 2007         2007           2007           2006                                                                                 2006                                           2006

  Journal of            Journal of Operations              Journal of Journal of                         Journal of              Journal of Operations Management                          Journal of Operations
 Operations                     Management                Operations Operations                         Operations                                                                                 Management
Management                                               Management Management                         Management

             25                               25                           25            25                          24                                             24                                        24
                 6                                6                           6              6                           5                                                   5                                     5

  1123-1140                       1103-1122                  1083-1102             1075-1082               711-727                                        692-710                                       676-691

                                                                                                                                                                     Absorptive capacity

                                                         innovation dynamics
                                                         complexity theory, risk

                                                         stakeholder theory, the





Harland, C.M.; Caldwell, N.D.;              Barratt, Mark; Oke,                        Devaraj, Sarv; Krajewski, Lee;             Boone, Mazhar, M.I.; Kara, Karakayali,                             Kocabasoglu, Canan;
         Powell, P.; Zheng, J.                        Adegoke                                           Wei, Jerry C.             Tonya; S.; Kaebernick, H. Ibrahim; Emir-                       Prahinski, Carol; Klassen,
                                                                                                                               Ganeshan,                         Farinas,                                         Robert D.
                                                                                                                                    Ram                            Hulya;
                                                                                                                                                               Akcali, Elif
                        2007                              2007                                                   2007               2007               2007         2007                                                      2007
        Journal of Operations             Journal of Operations                                Journal of Operations            Journal of               Journal of Journal of                       Journal of Operations
                Management                        Management                                           Management              Operations               Operations Operations                                Management
                                                                                                                              Management               Management Management

                               25                               25                                                    25               25                           25                25                                                 25
                                  6                                      6                                              6                   6                         6                  6                                                     6
                   1234-1254                        1217-1233                                             1199-1216             1195-1198               1184-1193           1161-1183                           1141-1160
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (alluded to)

                                                                 Resource-based view
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   information processing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   theory and control theory 制理论


                    Awaysheh, Amrou

                 Leenders, Michael R.;


                   Klassen, Robert D.;

                   Johnson, P. Fraser;

                                                            Journal of Operations
                                                                                                         Transaction cost
公司特性和团队的影响                                                                                               economics(TCE), the         应链的相关性视角
                                                                                                         relational view of the      ,资源为基础的视
                                                                                                         supply chain, the           角
                                                                                                         resource-based view of
                                                                                                         the firm (RBV)





                                                              Journal of



                 Power, Damien; Singh,



                                                            Journal of Operations
                                                                                                         Transaction Cost
用,交易伙伴关系和结构性变化                                                                                           Economics Theory,           会技术系统,资源
之间的联系                                                                                                    Socio-technical Systems     依赖度,机构性理
                                                                                                         Theory, Resource            论,知识为基础的
                                                                                                         Dependency, Institutional   视角,股东理论,
                                                                                                         Theory, Knowledge           组织学习能力,同
                                                                                                         Based View, Stakeholder     源理论
                                                                                                         Theory, Organiational
                                                                                                         Learning, Cognate theory

                 Sanders, Nada Rosenzweig, Eve D.;



                                                              Journal of
                                    Roth, Aleda V.


                                                                                                         Resource based view
链战略角度来发展和衡量                                                                                              (RBV)



                                                              Journal of






                                                              Journal of


                                                                                                         Information processing
                 Benton, W.C.



                                                                                                         Transaction Cost Theory 交易成本理论

                 Klein; Richard

                                                            Journal of Operations






Menor, Larry                       Montabon,                        Finch, Byron J. Heim, Gregory R.; Field, Joy Seawright, Kristie K.; Carter, Craig R.; Klassen, Robert D.; Menor,
   J.; Roth,                           Frank;                                                                 M.   Sampson, Scott E. Stevens, Cynthia                        Larry J.
   Aleda V.                           Sroufe,                                                                                                         K.
       2007                             2007                                      2007                            2007                                 2007                                   2007                                 2007
  Journal of Journal of                                       Journal of Operations               Journal of Operations                           Journal of                           Journal of                  Journal of Operations
 Operations Operations                                                Management                          Management                             Operations                           Operations                           Management
Management Management                                                                                                                           Management                           Management

             25                                    25                                   25                              25                                   25                                        25                                         25
                      4                                5                                    5                                     5                                    5                                   5                                             5
    825-846                         998-1014                              985-997                             962-984                             1055-1066                            1035-1054                             1015-1034

                                                                                                                                                                                              Auctions (ERAs)

                                                                           Internet Retailing,

                                   (EMPs), canonical
                                                                           transactions (B2C)
                                                                                                                                                                                              Electronic Reverse

              Contingency theory
                                                                                                                         e-service operations
                                                                                                                                                              Wait-Perception Bias

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Process Management,

                                   Management Practices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Operations Management 理





                 Zwikael, Ofer; Sadeh,



                                                                                 Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                       Risk Management,
管理工具                                                                                                                                   Quality of Planning index 数的质量


                                                                                                                                       Operations management, 运营管理,供应链


                 Shah, Rachna;

                                                                                   Journal of
                  Shin, Hojung

关系:对于使用产业水平数据的                                                                                                                         supply chain           管理,信息系统,
不同的调查                                                                                                                                  management,            信息技术




                                                                                   Journal of
                  Dehning, Bruce;

                 Vernon J.; Zmud,

                                                                                                                                       Supply Chain
                       Robert W.

生产企业中的财务业绩表现的作                                                                                                                         Management (SCM)

在产品开发中的黑盒子和灰盒子                                                                                                                                                 交易成本经济,社
                 Koufteros, Xenophon A.; Cheng, T.C.
                               Edwin; Lai, Kee-Hung

                                                                                 Journal of Operations Management

                                                                                                                                       Transaction Cost
供应商整合:原因,结果和企业                                                                                                                         Economics (TCE), Social 会网络的视角
规模的作用                                                                                                                                  Network Perspective

                                             Khazanchi, Shalini; Lewis,

                                                                                                                                       Advanced Manufacturing 高级生产技术,价

                                                                                 Journal of Operations
                 James A.; Young, Scott Marianne W.; Boyer, Kenneth K.

新的价值的影响                                                                                                                                Technologies (AMT),    值档案
                                                                                                                                       value profiles


                   Jiang, Bin; Belohlav,


                                                                                 Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                       Transaction Cost
:来自日本的验证                                                                                                                               Analysis, Signaling   号理论

                  Gonzalez-Benito, Javier



                                                                             Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                              Theory of Production




                       Choo, Adrian S.;

                   Schroeder, Roger G.

                                                                             Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                              Six Sigma, Quality

                  Linderman, Kevin W.;
和知识创建                                                                                                                                         Management                 理

对于影响生产和运营的管理日至                                                               Management                                                                             生产和运营管理
                   Machuca, Bendoly, Elliot; Swink, Morgan Theoharakis,



                                                           Vasilis; Voss,

                                                             George C.;

                                                                               Journal of

                                                                                                                                              Production and
的评估                                                                                                                                           Operations Management



                                                                             Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                              Reciprocity hypothesis,
息接触的中和性的影响,                                                                                                                                   Information processing     理理论,影响普遍
                                                                                                                                              theory, Affect             化


                   Maria del



                  Jose A.D.;


                                                                               Journal of


                                                                                                                                              literature review (LR),    文字性回顾,模型
                                                                                                                                              models and simulations     和模拟,实践研究
                                                                                                                                              (M/S), empirical studies
                       Das, Sidhartha R.; Meredith, Jack; Akinc,



                                                                             Journal of Operations Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                              Engineer to order (ETO),
测生产的战略                                                                                                                                        make to order (MTO),       ,按照订单生产,
                                                                                                                                              make to forecast (MTF),    按照预测生产,按
                                                                                                                                              assemble to order (ATO),   照订单组装,建立
                                                                                                                                              Make to stock (MTS)        库存的生产

                  Joshi, Maheshkumar P.



                                                                                                                                              Contingency Theory,
差异化战略运营自主化,和风险                                                                                                                                Service Operations         运营管理
承受意愿的角色                                                                                                                                       Management (SOM)






Holcolmb, Tim R.; Hitt,                           Swink, Morgan; Nair,                        Avittathur, Balram; Swamidass,                               Smaros, Johanna                                Molina, Luis M.;  Rabinovich, Elliot;
           Michael A.                                          Anand                                                    Paul                                                                             Llorens-Montes, Knemeyer, A. Michael;
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Javier; Ruiz-Moreno,     Mayer, Chad M.

                 2007                                                       2007                                         2007                                                2007                                       2007                               2007
Journal of Operations                             Journal of Operations Journal of Operations Management                                                Journal of Operations                                 Journal of                  Journal of Operations
        Management                                        Management                                                                                            Management                                   Operations                           Management

                               25                                                  25                                       25                                                      25                                          25                            25
                                       2                                               3                                               3                                                  3                                        3                            3
              464-481                                             736-754                                           717-735                                         702-716                                     682-701                               661-681
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 based view

                 (TCT), RBV
                                                                                                                                                                     Forecast and

                                                            Integration (DMI)
                                                            Technologies (AMT),
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 centrality, knowledge-

                                                                                                                                                                     Collaborative Planning,

                                                                                                                                                                     Replenishment (CPFR)

                                                                                                                            Manufacturing flexibility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Communication Theory,



                 Transaction Cost Theory 交易成本理论
                                                            Advanced Manufacturing 高级生产技术,设



                                                                                           Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                      Transaction Cost

                                 Justin W.
                 Ireland, R. Duane; Webb,
在供应链中的作用                                                                                                                              Economics (TCE), Social 会认知理论
                                                                                                                                      identity theory


                                                                     Gregory B.
                                                                                                                                      Interdependence Theory, 独立性理论,交易


                 Morgan, Neil A.; Kaleka, Anna; McCarter, Matthew W.; Northcraft,

                                                                                           Journal of Operations
链作为一个社会的悖论的发现与                                                                                                                        Transaction Cost        成本经济
暗示                                                                                                                                    Economics (TCE)



                           Gooner, Richard A.

                                                                                           Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                      Transaction Cost
投机主义                                                                                                                                  Analysis (TCA), Agency 理商理论,网络理
                                                                                                                                      Theory, Network Theory, 论,关系交换
                                                                                                                                      Relational Exchange

                   robert B.; Tyler, Beverly B.



                 Krause, Daniel R.; Handfield,

                                                                                           Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                      Social Capital Theory




                  Crook, T. Russel; Combs, James

                                                             Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                                             Resource Dependence
果                                                                                                                                            Theory, Supply Chain        应链管理

                  Purdy, Lyn;



                                                                                                             Journal of

                   Keith W.;                                                                                                                 Organizational Theory


                  Ketchen, David J.; Hult, G. Tomas

                                                               Journal of Journal of Operations Management

                                                                                                                                             Strategic Choice Theory,
佳价值供应链的案例                                                                                                                                    Agency Theory,              代理商理论,资源
                                                                                                                                             Resource Dependence         依存理论,博弈论
                                                                                                                                             Theory, Game Theory,        ,机构性理论,交
                                                                                                                                             Institutional Theory,       易成本经济,社交
                                                                                                                                             Transaction Cost            能力理论,网络理
                                                                                                                                             Economics, Social           论,资源/知识为
                                                                                                                                             Capital Theory, Network     基础的视角
                                                                                                                                             based view

                  Naveh, Eitan



                  Terziovski, Mile
                  Power, Damien;



                                                               Journal of



                  Rabinovich, Elliot



                                                             Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                             Customer Satisfaction
:供应链中的不完全的信息的角色                                                                                                                              Theory; Theories on         务质量理论,服务
                                                                                                                                             service quality; Theories   市场运营理论,服
                                                                                                                                             on service market           务运营管理,交易
                                                                                                                                             operations; service         成本理论
                                                                                                                                             operations management;
                                                                                                                                             Transaction Cost Theory;







  Bendoly, Elliot; Hur,                            Sila, Ismail                          Hendricks, Kevin B.; Modi, Sachin B.; Mabert,                                              Gattiker, Thomas F.;            Zsidisin, George A.;        Swink, Morgan;
                Daesik                                                                     Singhal, Vinod R.;              Vincent A.                                                 Huang, Xiaowen;                Smith, Michael E.; Narasimhan, Ram; Wang,
                                                                                             Stratman, Jeff K.                                                                       Schwarz, Joshua L.             McNally, Regina C.                 Cynthia

                       2007                                2007                                          2007                                    2007                                                2007                         2007                                   2007
Journal Of Operations                   Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations                   Journal of Operations                              Journal of Operations          Journal of Operations             Journal of Operations
         Management                             Management                                     Management                              Management                                         Management                     Management                        Management

                             25                                25                                                 25                                          25                                         25                             25                                     25
                                 1                                      1                                              1                                              1                                    1                               1                                      1
                    13-Jan                            83-109                                           65-82                                  42-64                                            184-202                       165-183                           148-164


                                                                                                                                               the firm

                                                                                                        Bullwhip Effect

           (TOC), goal-setting
                                                               organizational theory
                                                                                                        resource based view,

           Theory of Constraints
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                information processing

           theory, Yerkes Dodson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                knowledge based view,



                                                                                                                                               knowledge based view of 知识为基础的公司





   Davis-Sramek, Beth;      Rabinovich, Elliot;                Scott-Young, Christina;                    Huang, Peng, David Sousa, Rui; Carter, Craig R.;
Mentzer, John T.; Stank,    Rungtusanatham,                           Samson, Danny                     Xiaowen;          X.;       Voss, Sanders, Nada
           Theodore P. Manus; Laseter, Timothy                                                            Kristal, Schroeder, Christopher  R.; Dong, Yan
                                            M.                                                           Mehmet Roger G.;              A.
                   2008                        2008                               2008                     Murat;
                                                                                                            2008       Shah,
                                                                                                                        2008         2008            2008
  Journal of Operations        Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations Journal of Journal of Journal of                                                                                     Journal of
          Management                   Management                       Management Operations Operations Operations                                                                                       Operations
                                                                                      Manageme Manageme Manageme                                                                                         Management
                       26                            26                            26         nt
                                                                                             26          nt
                                                                                                        26          nt
                                                                                                                   26                                                                                                      26
                        6                             6                             6          6          6          6                                                                                                      6
               781-797                     767-780                           749-766                    714-729                             730-748                        697-713                           693-696
                                                                                  (allued to)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of "paradigm".

                                                                                  goal setting theory
                                                                                                                                                                                    contingency theory
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Framework of Kuhn

                                                                                                                                                     resource-based view
                                                                                                                                                                                                             and Kuhn's definition



                                                                                                             knowledge based view 以知识为基础的







                                                                                ISO 9000实践和财务业绩表现:
Yee, Rachel W.Y.; Yeung,                     Zu, XingXing;               Benner, Mary Closs, David J.; Jacobs, Mark A.; Swink,       Oke, Adegoke;                                                         Germain, Richard;
  Andy C.L.; Cheng, T.C.                       Fredendall,                 J.; Veloso,                 Morgan; Webb, G. Scott        Idiagbon-Oke,                                                         Claycomb, Cindy;
                   Edwin                     Lawrence D.;                Francisco M.                                          Moronke; Walumbwa,                                                            Droge, Cornelia
                                                  Douglas,                                                                                    Fred
                    2008                       Thomas J.
                                                     2008                       2008                                                         2008                        2008                                           2008
    Journal of Operations                      Journal of                  Journal of                            Journal of Operations Management Journal of Operations Journal of Operations
            Management                        Operations                  Operations                                                                      Management            Management
                                             Management                  Management
                          26                                 26                          26                                                           26                                26                                  26
                           5                                  5                           5                                                            5                                 5                                   5
                651-668                           630-650                    611-629                                                      590-610                    571-589                                        557-570

                           attitude theory
                                                     DMAIC, DMADV
                                                                                          institutional theory

                                                     Six Sigma Theory,
                                                                                                                                             technical systems)
                                                                                                                                             STS Theory (Socio-


                                             6 Sigma

                                                                                                                                                                         social exchange theory 社交交流理论

                                                                                                                                                                         Political power theory, 政治权力理论,



              6 Sigma: 定义和深层理论

Schroeder, Roger                 Sroufe, Robert;                   Yeung, Andy C.L.                Kaynak, Hale; Hartley, Janet            Foster, S.           Das, Ajay; Goodale, John
  G.; Linderman,                 Curkovic, Sime                                                                              L.             Thomas                Pagell,    C.; Kuratko,
  Kevin; Liedtke,                                                                                                                                                   Mark;     Donald F.;
  Charles; Choo,                                                                                                                                                   Behm, Hornsby, Jeffrey
         Adrian S
            2008                           2008                                     2008                                 2008                   2008             Michael;
                                                                                                                                                                     2008              S.
      Journal of                     Journal of                 Journal of Operations                    Journal of Operations             Journal of Journal of                                 Journal of
     Operations                     Operations                          Management                               Management               Operations Operations                                 Operations
    Management                     Management                                                                                            Management Manageme                                   Management
              26                                   26                                     26                                   26                 26          nt
                                                                                                                                                             26                                             26
               4                                    4                                      4                                    4                     4                             4                        5
         536-554                       503-520                              490-502                                   468-489                461-467             521-535                           669-688

                                                                             based view

               meso theory
                                                                                                                                                                                                             agency theory

                                                                             transaction cost
                                                                             economics, resource
                                                                                                                                                                    Cognitive dissonance




                Holweg, Matthias; Zhao, Xiande; Huo, Baofeng; Flynn, Barbara B.; Nada R. Jeff H. Y.

信息技术的应用模式:在采购                                                                                                                                                                 交易成本效益

                                                                                                               Journal of

                                                                                                                                                    transaction cost

                                                                       Sanders, Yeung,
与供应双方协作与业绩表现方                                                                                                                                       economics,

权力与关系承诺的在供应链中                                                                                                                                       transaction cost theory 交易成本理论,

                                                                                                             Journal of Operations
供应商和客户之间整合的影响                                                                                                                                       , social exchange       社会交换理论


供应链协作的理论视角                                                                                                                                                                    以资源为基础的
                     Pil, Frits K.

                                                                                                               Journal of

                                                                                                             Management                             resource-based view,
                                                                                                                                                    complex adaptive          视角,复杂适应
                                                                                                                                                    systems theory,           系统理论,调适
                                                                                                                                                    adaptive structuration    性结构理论
                Vaidyanathan, Ganesh;
                        Devaraj, Sarv


                                                                                                             Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                                    Dynamic Capabilities
角色---一种经验性的分析                                                                                                                                       Theory; Resource
                                                                                                                                                    Based View
                                              Siemsen, Enno; Roth,

                                       D. Balasubramanian, Sridhar
                                                         Aleda V.;


如何让激励,机会,能力驱动                                                                                                                                                                 激励,机会,能
                                                                                                             Journal of Operations

知识分享:限制因素模型                                                                                                                                         ability framework ,       力模型,工作表
                                                                                                                                                    work performance          现理论,期望理
                                                                                                                                                    theory, expectancy        论,限制理论
                                                                                                                                                    theory, theory of
                   Lawson, Benn; Tyler,
                Beverly B.; Cousins, Paul


在采购业绩表现方便的社会资                                                                                                                                                                 社会性资金理论
                                                                                                             Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                                    Social Capital Theory




Fifarek, Brian J.; Veloso,              Youngdahl,           Metters, Richard          Vivek, Shiri D.; Stringfellow, Anne;                    Ellram, Lisa M.;             Metters, Richard;
Francisco M.; Davidson,                   William;                                      Banwet, D.K.;     Teagarden, Mary                      Tate, Wendy L.;                 Verma, Rohit
                    Cliff I.           Ramaswamy,                                       Shankar, Ravi       B.; Nie,, Winter                  Billington, Corey
                      2008                    2008                      2008                       2008                       2008                        2008                          2008
 Journal of Operations                  Journal of               Journal of               Journal of                    Journal of                Journal of Journal of Operations
 Management Special                    Operations               Operations               Operations                    Operations                Operations          Management
   Issue: Offshoring of               Management               Management               Management                    Management                Management
service and knowledge
                    26               Special Issue:
                                                 26           Special Issue:
                                                                          26           Special Issue:
                                                                                                   26                Special Issue:
                                                                                                                                 26            Special Issue:
                                                                                                                                                           26                   26
                              2                       2                         2                             2                     2                       2                    2
                 222-238                  212-221                   198-211                  180-197                      164-179                     148-163                       141-147

                                                                                                  Economics; RBV
                                                                                                  Transaction Cost
                                                                                                                                                         Transaction Cost




  Bhalla, Ajay; Sodhi,       Aron, Ravi; Balakrishnan, Karthik;                        Stratman, Jeff K.              Li, Yuan; Liu, Yi; Li,             Aksin, O. Zeynep; Masini, Andrea
  ManMohan S.; Son,     Bandyopadhyay,           Mohan, Usha;                                                        Mingfang; Wu, Haibin
           Byung-Gak Subhajyoti; Jayanty,     Seshadri, Sridhar
                       Siddharth; Pathak,
                 2008                  2008                        2008                               2008                             2008                                         2008
           Journal of        Journal of              Journal of Journal of Operations                               Journal of Operations                        Journal of Operations
         Operations         Operations              Operations Management Special                                   Management Special                      Management Special Issue:
Management Special         Management              Management       Issue: Offshoring of                              Issue: Offshoring of                    Offshoring of service and
 Issue: Offshoring 26     Special Issue:
                                      26          Special Issue: service and knowledge
                                                              26                     26                            service and knowledge
                                                                                                                                       26                              knowledge work26
                     2                      2                                  2                             2                                    2                                         2
            322-335              303-321               288-302                                275-287                             257-274                                       239-256


                                                        based view
                                                                                               theory; dynamic

                              transaction cost
                                                        transaction cost
                                                                                                                                      transaction cost

                                                                                               capability theory
                                                                                               Transaction cost

                              economics, GHM
                              framework, game


                                                        economics; knowledge 知识为基础的视




    Mitra, Sabyasachi;                        Stock, Gregory N.; Tatikonda,   Paulraj, Anthony; Lado,                                                Song, Michael; Di Schoenherr, Tobias; Bendoly, Elliot; Cotteleer, Mark J.
       Singhal, Vinod                                            Mohan V. Augustine A.; Chen, Injazz J.                                           Bendetto; C. Anthony     Mabert, Vincent

                  2008                                                       2008                                    2008                                          2008                 2008                            2008
Journal of Operations                              Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations Journal of Operations              Journal of
        Management                                         Management                                     Management                                     Management            Management                Operations
                             26                                                      26                                         26                                        26                 26                               26
                              1                                                       1                                          1                                         1                  1                                1
              96-114                                                    65-80                                     45-64                                        22-Jan                  81-95                           23-44

                                                                                                                                                                                                       TAM, valence-

                                                                                                                                                                                                       expectancy (VIE)

                                                                                                                                                                  Transaction cost
                                                                                                                                                                                                       of planned behavior,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       task tecnology fit, theory

                                                                 information processing 论


                Resource-based view 资源为基础的视
                                                                                                                   Resource-based view 资源为基础的视
一个关于较高评价的工厂经理                                                                                                                               工厂管理,中层


                      Mohan V.; Schilling, Duchon, Dennis ; Quinn,
                                              Plowman, Donde A.;
                                                   Smith, Anne D;

                                                        Amber M.

                                                                              Journal of Operations
                                                                                                                     Plant Management,
的定性的研究:政治能力和成                                                                                                        Middle Management,     管理,政治能力
功的结果                                                                                                                 Political Skill

通过持续改进组织形式的多元                                                                                                                               持续改善,组织


                                                                              Journal of Operations
                      Peter T.; Tatikonda,

                     Anand, Gopesh; War,
化能力                                                                                                                  Improvement (CI),      学习力
                     Rosenzweig, Eve D.

关于生产中的电子合作和业绩                                                                                                                               电子合作,公对

                                                                              Journal of Operations
表现的发展性观点                                                                                                             business to business   公业务,组织间
                                                                                                                     (B2B) marketspace,     系统
                                                                                                                     Systems (IOS)

在关系压力下,采购的合作性                                                                                                        social exchange theory 社会性交换理论

                                                         Griffith, David A.

                                                                              Journal of Operations
                            Martínez-Costa, Zhang, Chun; Henke, John W.;

行动是重要的吗?来自美国汽                                                                                                        (SET), buyer-supplier ,采供关系
车工业的日本和美国生产商的                                                                                                        relations
                       Y.; Martínez, Jose A.;
                     Martínez-Lorente, Angel


                                                                              Journal of Operations
                      Micaela; Choi, Thomas

ISO 9000/1994, ISO                                                                                                   Quality management,
9001/2000                                                                                                            ISO 9000, Total        000,总体质量
和总体质量管理:再次对业绩                                                                                                        Quality Mangement      管理
表现的辩论                                                                                                                (TQM)




Craighead, Christopher; McFadden, Kathleen L.;                             Weiss, Dan; Maher,                  Handley, Sean M.; Narasimhan, Ram; Nair, Schmenner, Roger W.;
       Hult, Tomas M.; Henagan, Stephanie C.;                                      Michael W.                      Benton, W.C.    Anand; Griffith, David  Wassenhove, Luk V.;
  Ketchen Jr., David, J.   Gowen, Charles R.                                                                                         A.; Arlbjorn, Jan S.; Ketokivi, Mikko; Heyl,
                                                                                                                                           Bendoly, Elliot Jeff; Lusch, Robert F.
                   2009                                   2009                            2009                              2009                                       2009                                   2009
  Journal of Operations               Journal of Operations               Journal of Operations             Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations
          Management                          Management                          Management                        Management                         Management                                     Management

                           27                                   27                          27                                      27                                           27                             27
                            5                                    5                           5                                       5                                            5                              5
              405-421                             390-404                             362-373                           344-361                            374-389                                        339-343

                                                   the multifactor

                   strategic choice
                                                                                                                            transaction cost
                                                                                                                            perspective, RBV

                                                   leadership theory;
                                                   organization theory;
                                                                                                                                                            theory; agency theory; 代理理论


                                                                                                                                                            (SET); transaction cost 交易成本理论,
                                                                                                                                                            social exchange theory 社会交换理论,




     Pilkington, Alan; Mishra, Anant A.; Shah,                      Liu, Yi; Luo, Yadong;                           Hill, James A.; Eckerd,                                      Jiang, Bing                    Bendoly, Elliot;
      Meredith, Jack                  Rachna                                     Liu, Ting                               Stephanie; Wilson,                                                                  Rosenzweig, Eve;
                                                                                                                       Darryl; Greer, Bertie                                                                  Stratman, Jeff K.

                2009                              2009                              2009                                               2009                                            2009                               2009
Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations                            Journal of Operations                             Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations
        Management                       Management                         Management                                       Management                                        Management                         Management

                  27                                     27                                       27                                                 27                                        27                                       27
                   3                                      4                                        4                                                  4                                         4                                        4
            185-202                          324-338                             294-309                                           281-293                                         267-280                             310-323



                                                                                                                                                                                       transaction cost

                                                                                    social exchange theory 社会交换理论
                                                                                                                                       Psychological contract 心理合约理论
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Theory of performance 业绩边缘理论




Knemeyer, Michael A.; Braunscheidel, Michael Fugate, Brian S.; Stank,                                                               Hendricks, Kevin B.;           Cantor, David E.;                                Hyer, Nancy L.;
 Zinn, Walter; Eroglu,  J.; Suresh, Nallan C. Theodore P.; Mentzer,                                                                   Singhal,Vinod, R.;         Macdonald, John R.                              Wemmerlov, Urban;
               Cuneyt                                        John T.                                                                  Zhang, Rongrong                                                               Morris, John A.

                   2009                             2009                                            2009                                            2009                        2009                                            2009
Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations                            Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations        Journal of Operations                           Journal of Operations
        Management                         Management                                       Management                                     Management                   Management                                      Management

                         27                                       27                                              27                                    27                                    27                                      27
                          2                                        2                                               3                                     3                                     3                                       3
             141-153                           119-140                                          247-264                                        233-246                      220-232                                         203-219


             risk analysis

             and Kunreuther
             framework of Cohen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The principle of focus


                                                                                                                                                                                Construal level theory 构建水平理论

                                                    competence-capability 技能,能力模型
                                                                                                    knowledge-based view 知识为基础的视






        Wouters, Marc;                   McIvor, Ronan                           Browning, Tyson B.;                Bou-Llusasr, J. Carlos;                     Jiang, Bin; Baker,          Neiger, Dina; Rotaru,
     Anderson, James;                                                               Heath, Ralph D.                  Escrig-Tena, Ana B.;                      Revenor, Baker C.;             Kristian; Churilove,
Narus, James; Wynstra,                                                                                                Roca-Puig, Vicente;                      Frazier, Gregory V.                        Leonid
                  Finn                                                                                                     Beltran- Martin,
                  2009                                    2009                                    2009                         Inmaculada
                                                                                                                                     2009                                       2009                                 2009
  Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations                        Journal of Operations                Journal of Operations                   Journal of Operations          Journal of Operations
          Management                       Management                                   Management                           Management                              Management                     Management

                        27                                         27                                    27                                27                                       27                                      27
                         1                                          1                                     1                                 1                                        2                                       2
                 64-77                                 45-63                                     22-44                              22-Jan                                 169-184                          154-168



                  Total Cost of
                                                                                                                                                                                                      process chain;

                                                                                                                                                                    turnover theory;
                                                                                                                                                                    Mobley's model;

                                                                                                  Lean Production
                                                                                                                                            TQM Framework;
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Theory; (e-EPEC)

                                                (TCE) Transaction
                                                                                                                                                                    The unfolding model;

                                                Research based view 角
                                                                                                                                                                                                      extended event driven 动流程链


                                                cost economics; (RBV) 研究为基础的视
                                                                                                                                                                                                      (VFT) Value Focused 价值中心的理论



   Cannon, Joseph O.; Doney,                                   Azadegan, Arash; Dooley,                              Cheung, Mee-Shew; Myers, de Menezes, Lilian M.l Bozarth, Cecil C.; Warsing,
Patricia M.; Mullen, Michael R.;                                               Kevin J.                             Matthew B.; Mentzer, John T. Wood, Stephen; Gelade, Donald P.; Flynn, Barbara
          Petersen, Kenneth J.                                                                                                                                    Garry      B.; Flynn, James B.

                          2010                                                             2010                                               2010                         2010                          2009
         Journal of Operations                                     Journal of Operations                                   Journal of Operations          Journal of Operations        Journal of Operations
                 Management                                                Management                                              Management                     Management                   Management

                                28                                                                    28                                          28                           28                              27
                                 6                                                                     6                                           6                            6                               1
                       506-521                                                 488-505                                                    472-487                     455-471                           78-93


                                                                                alluded to
                                                                                                                             relational view,
                                                                                                                                                                                                    (CAS) Complex
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Adaptive System

                                                                                                                             cost analysis, the
                                                                                                                             theory, transaction
                                                                                                                             resource based view,

                                                                                                                             interfirms relationship
                                                                                                                             organizational learning


                                 Hofstede's framework 霍夫斯德模型
                                                                                theories, theories of fit ,暗示性的适应
                                                                                organizational learning 组织性学习理论



Liu, Hefu; Ke, Weiling;                         Boyer, Kenneth K.; Bendoly, Elliot; Perry-Smith, Jill; Mahapatra, Santosh K.;  Autry, Chad W.; Grawe,
  Wei, Kwok Kee; Gu,                             Pronovost, Peter             Bachrach, Daniel G.         Narasimhan, Ram;          Scott J.; Daugherty,
 Jibao; Chen, Huaping                                                                                         Barbieri, Paolo Patricia J.; Richey, Glenn
                  2010                                        2010                            2010                                2010                                2010
Journal of Operations                         Journal of Operations           Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations         Journal of Operations
        Management                                    Management                      Management                       Management                    Management

                      28                                            28                              28                                28                                     28
                       5                                             5                               5                                 6                                      6
              372-384                                     367-371                          385-397                           537-552                         522-536
                                                                                                                      transaction cost
                                                                                                                                                       reasoned action,

                                                                                                                      product life cycle,

                       institutional theory
                                                                                                                      dependency theory
                                                                                                                                                       absorptive capacity

                                                                                                                      economics, resource
                                                                                                                      resource based view,


                                                                                                                                                       model (TAM), theory of 合理行动理论,
                                                                                                                                                       technology acceptance 技术接受模型,
                           Young K.
关系性日常行为和代理商合作                                                                                                                    交易成本经济,


                 Hung, Kuo-Ting; Ro,
                Tangpong, Chanchai;

                                                                    Journal of Operations
                                                                                                           Transaction cost
性在采供关系中机会主义者的                                                                                              economics, relational 关系性监管方法
相互影响                                                                                                       governance approach

具有两面性的供应链战略在组                                                                                                                         组合性能力,竞


                    Xiaowen; roth, Aleda V.

                Kristal, Mehmet M.; Huang,

                                                                    Journal of Operations
合性的竞争能力和业绩表现的                                                                                              capabilities;              争性程序理论,
作用                                                                                                         competitive                多元化能力,知
                                                                                                           progression theory,        识为基础的视角
                                                                                                           dynamic capabilities,      ,必备的多样性
                                                                                                           knowledg based view,       规则
                                                                                                           law of requisite variety

                 Singhal, Vinod R.;


                Subramanian, Ravi

                                                                    Journal of Operations
                 Jacobs, Brian W.;


沟通渠道,创新任务,新品开                                                                                              Media richness theory 媒体广泛接触性

                                             Oke, Adegoke;

                                                                    Journal of Operations
                         Nair, Anand Idiagbon-Oke, Moronke

发,创新为导向横向网络的产                                                                                                                    理论

及时生产实践和业绩表现的关                                                                                                                         及时生产执行模

                                                                    Journal of Operations

                                                                                                           Just-in-time (JIT)
                Mackelprang, Alan W.;

系:一个共同的分析研究                                                                                                implementation             型,应急理论
                                                                                                           contingency theory







   Linderman, Kevin; Jayaram, Jayanth; Ahire, Sanjay Li, Yuan; Xie, En; Teo,                                   Browning, Tyson R.                   Anand, Gopesh; War,
    Chandrasekaran,                L.; Dreyfus, Paul Hock-Hai; Peng, Mike                                                                            Peter T.; Tatikonda,
            Aravind                                                      W.                                                                                     Mohan V.

                2010                                  2010                                  2010                              2010                                   2010
Journal of Operations             Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations                      Journal of Operations                 Journal of Operations
        Management                        Management                       Management                                 Management                            Management

                  28                                       28                                      28                                  28                                     28
                   4                                        4                                       4                                   4                                      4
            357-368                             345-356                            333-344                                316-332                                303-315

                                                                             institutional view
                                                                             Transaction cost

                                            Outcomes model,
                                                                             economics (TCE),
                                                                                                                                                                     Nonaka's theory of

                                                                                                                              Task-technology fit

                                            Contingency theory
                                                                                                                                                                     knowledge creation



                                                                             social network theory, 机构性视角


    Kull, Thomas J.;                                Power, Damien;                        Nair, Michael;                         Hahn, Eugene D.;                          Metters, Richard; Zhao,
    Wacker, John G.                              Schoenherr, Tobias;                  Linderman, Kevin;                     Bunyaratavej, Kraiwinee                         Xiande; Bendoly, Elliot;
                                                    Samson, Danny                     Schroeder, Roger                                                                     Jiang, Bin; Young, Scott

                2010                                                2010                           2010                                        2010                                           2010
Journal of Operations                           Journal of Operations              Journal of Operations                      Journal of Operations                          Journal of Operations
        Management                                      Management                         Management                                 Management                                     Management

                  28                                                      28                         28                                            28                                               28
                   3                                                       3                          3                                             3                                                3
            223-239                                         206-222                            194-205                                     186-193                                         177-185

                                                             (RBV), performance
                                                             Resource based view
                                                                                                     Hofstede's framework
                                                                                                                                                    Hofstede's framework

                  Hofstede's framework 霍夫斯德模型




 Wu, Zhaohui; Choi,                                 Nyaga, Gilbert N.;           Li, Yuan; Li, Peter P.; Liu,              Cai, Shaohan; Jun,                           Lockstrom, Martin; Schadel, Joachim;
        Thomas Y.;                                  Whiple, Judith M.;                      Yi; Yang, Dong                Minjoon; Yang, Zhilin                              Harrison, Norma; Moser, Roger;
Rungtusanatham, M.                                   Lynch, Daniel F.                                                                                                                     Malhotra, Manoj K.
                        2010                                       2010                                   2010                            2010                                                                2010
Journal of Operations                            Journal of Operations               Journal of Operations                Journal of Operations                           Journal of Operations Management
        Management                                       Management                          Management                           Management

                                   28                                    28                                    28                               28                                                                     28
                                    2                                     2                                     3                                3                                                                      3
             115-123                                         101-114                               269-282                            257-268                                                       240-256


                                                                                                                                                                                                    theory; TCE

                                                              network theory
                                                              analysis, Social
                                                                                                    Trasaction value

                                                              Transaction cost
                                                                                                    perspective, TCE,
                                                                                                                                                 Institutional theory

             supplier relationship



                                                                                                                                                                                                    resource dependency 资源依赖性理论
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hofstede's framework; 霍夫斯德模型,

             relationships, supplier- 应商-供应商关系
外包采购与竞争优先点的一致                                                                                                                                                    代理理论,知识


                                                                                         Journal of Operations
                Heim, Gregory R.; Peng, David X. Kroes, James R.; Ghosh, Soumen
                                                                                                                                           Agency Theory, TCE,
性:对于供应链和企业业绩的                                                                                                                              RBV, Knowledge-       为基础的视角
影响                                                                                                                                         based View

信息技术的应用在工厂结构,                                                                                                                                                    信息技术,高级


                                                                                         Journal of Operations Management
实践,和业绩的影响:一个探                                                                                                                              Technology (IT),      生产技术,统计
索性研究                                                                                                                                       Advanced              流程控制
                                                                                                                                           Technology (AMT),
                                                                                                                                           Statistical Process
                                                                                                                                           Control (SPC)
                Sarkis, Joseph; Gonzalez-Torre, Pilar; Adenso-Diaz,

股东压力和环境性活动:培训                                                                                                                                                    股东理论,资源


                                                                                         Journal of Operations Management

                                                                                                                                           Stakeholder Theory,
的中等效果                                                                                                                                      Resource-Based        为基础的理论,
                                                                                                                                           Theory, environmental 环境培训



  Ellis, Scott C.; Henry,              Chen, Jiyao; Damanpour,           Lanier, Danny; Wempe,                   Autry, Chad W.; Golicic, Susan L.
Raymond M.; Shockley,                 Fariborz; Reilly, Richard R. William F.; Zacharia, Zach G.

                   2010                                    2010                                 2010                                         2010
  Journal of Operations                    Journal of Operations               Journal of Operations            Journal of Operations Management
          Management                               Management                          Management

                           28                                      28                                 28                                            28
                            1                                       1                                  1                                             2
                  34-46                                    17-33                              16-Jan                                       87-100

                                                           New Product

                   Supply Chain

                                                                                    Transaction Cost

                                                                                    Economics (TCE),

                                                                                    View (KBV), Supply

                                                           Development (NPD)

                   Management (SCM)
                                                                                    Chaim Management


                Gattiker, Thomas F.; Flynn, Barbara B.; Huo, Closs, David J.; Nyaga, Gilbert N.; Voss, M. Douglas
产品复杂性,库存水平,和组                                                                                                                                                                                   根据订单组装,


                                                                                                                           Journal of Operations Management
装能力在产品满足率和订单满                                                                                                                                                              (CTO) production     生产系统,业绩
足率表现中的不同影响                                                                                                                                                                 systems, performance 衡量标准

供应链整合在业绩上的影响:                                                                                                                                                                                   供应链整合

                     Carter, Craig R. Baofeng; Zhao, Xiande

                                                                                                                           Journal of Operations

                                                                                                                                                                           Supply Chain
一个连续性和组合性的方法                                                                                                                                                               Integration (SCI)

理解项目制胜的能力去获得组                                                                                                                                                                                   环境管理,组织

                                                                                                                           Journal of Operations

织内部对于环境项目的承诺                                                                                                                                                               Management, intra-   内部影响理论
                                                                                                                                                                           influence theory
Measures                                                                Analytical Results

Marketing Synergy, Technical Synergy, Marketing   市场营销统合综效,技术统合综 All direct paths were significant at p<0.05.
proficiency , Product competitive advantage,      效,市场营销能力,产品竞争优 For High-innovativeness sample [Low-
Product innovativeness , Relative product         势,产品创新,相对产品表现  innovativeness sample]; {1} Marketing
performance                                                      synergy --> Marketing Proficiency 0.25
                                                                 [0.28]. {2} Technical synergy --> Technical
                                                                 Proficiency 0.12 [0.59]. {3} Marketing
                                                                 proficiency --> Product Competitive
                                                                 Advantage 0.21 [0.33]. {4} Technical
                                                                 proficiency --> Marketing proficiency 0.51
                                                                 [0.49]. {5} Technical proficiency --> Product
Marketing Knowledge of Manufacturing, Marketing- 生产的营销知识,营销和生产的 {1} The relationship between Marketing
Manufacturing Integration, Manufacturing          整合,营销沟通的生产评估,营 Knowledge of Manufacturing and
Evaluation of Marketing Communication, Marketing- 销和生产关系质量,环境不确定 Manufacturing Evaluation of Marketing
Manufacturing Relationship Quality, Environmental 性,新产品上市率       Communication was significant only under
Uncertainty, New Product Introduction Rate                       High Uncertainty (beta = 0.517, p<0.05). {2}
                                                                 The relationship between Manufacturing
                                                                 Evaluation of Marketing Communication and
                                                                 Marketing-Manufacturing Relationship

Detailed Supplier Assessment, Technical             详细的供应商评估,技术评估,      {1} Detailed Supplier Assessment --> Project
Assessment, Business Assessment, Project Team       生意评估,项目团队的有效性,      Team Effectiveness (beta = 0.28, p< 0.01).
Effectiveness, Firm Financial Performance, Design   公司财务业绩,设计业绩,整合      {2} Technical Assessment --> Project Team
Performance, Stage of Integration, Level of         的阶段,责任水平            Effectiveness (beta = 0.21, p < 0.05). {3}
Responsibility                                                          Business Assessment --> Project Team
                                                                        Effectiveness (N.S.). {4} Project Team
                                                                        Effectiveness --> Firm Financial
                                                                        Performance (beta = 0.28, p< 0.01) and
Top management commitment, employee                        管理层的承诺,员工授权,员工 Each variable (top management commitment,
empowerment, employee training, teamwork,                  培训,团队合作,奖励系统,员 employee empowerment, employee training,
appraisal systems, employee                                工薪酬系统,员工满意度    teamwork, appraisal systems, employee
compensationemployee loyalty, employee                                    compensation, employee satisfaction, and
satisfaction                                                              employee loyalty) had a cronbach's alpha of 0.7
                                                                          or greater except teamwork and appraisal

Action variety                                             行动多样性                       Significant positive correlation between the total
                                                                                       number of actions and the variety of actions.

Core competency, Strategic vulnerability,                  核心能力,战略性弱点,信息来 T-test conducted for hypothesis 1 with t-score of
information source formality, information                  源格式化,信息的充足性,外包 6.6 (significant at 0.001 level). ANOVA
sufficiency, likelihood to outsource                       采购的可能性         conducted for hypothesis 2 with 3 main effects
                                                                          observed all significant at the 0.005 level. An
                                                                          interaction was also observed for hypothesis 3
                                                                          (significant at 0.005 level). T-test conducted for
                                                                          hypothesis 3 with a t-score of 8.8 (significant at
                                                                          the 0.01 level). ANOVA conducted for
                                                                          hypothesis 4 with 2 main effects were observed
Standard deviation in order placements                     订单制定的标准差       The manufacturer had a larger median score of
                                                                          orders placed than the other three variables
                                                                          (retailer, wholesaler, distributor).

Formal socialization mechanisms, informal                  正是的社会化机制,非正式的社 Infrmal socialization mechanisms-->Relational
socialization mechanisms, relational capital,              会化机制,关系资本,供应商关 capital (P<.01), relational capital --> supplier
supplier relationship outcomes                             系的产出           relationshps outcomes (p<0.01)

Top measurement commitment, training, employee 管理层的承诺,培训,员工的关 Replication study: Validation of construct
relations, supplier quality management,        系,供应商质量管理,运输数量 validity of 6 JITP factors
transportationquantities delivered             的抵达

Customization, flexibility, product performance,           定制性,灵活性,产品业绩表现 Production competence --> business performance
reliable delivery, new product introduction, quick         ,可靠的运送,新产品上市,快 (sign.) [and across various production process
delivery, low cost                                         速送达,低成本        contexts raning from batch to continuous flow]

Task partitioning, contract duration, criticality of the   仸务设定,合同期限,外包任务 Task partitioning to increase competitiveness: not
outsourced tasks, familiarity of the outsourced            的重要性,外包仸务的熟悉性, supported in Korean context, Task partitioning to
tasks, baiting the vendors, postponing, contractual        选择供应商,推迟,合同的完成 gain advantage of the varied expertise: supported
completeness, design of the contract, scope of             情况,合同的设计,竞争的规模 in Korean context(not observed in Western
competition, level of trust, flexibility and control.      ,信仸水平,灵活性和控制。  culture); Duration of contract: 1/2 preferred short
                                                                          termed, 1/2 preferred long termed(different to
                                                                          Western culture), Scope of
                                                                          competition:external(different to Western
Simplicity, discipline, flexibility, customization,        简单性,原则,灵活性,定制性 simplicity and discipline --> customization,
volume flexibility, mix flexibility, time to market        ,数量灵活性,混合的灵活,上 volume flexibility, mix flexiblity (p<0.001) and
                                                           市时间            time to market (p<.05) ; simplicty and discipline
                                                                          interacting with deadline --> volume flexibility
                                                                          (p<0.01) ; simplicty and discipline interacting
                                                                          with square of deadline -->(-neg) volume
                                                                          flexibility (p<0.01) ;
management leadership, people management,           管理者的领导力,人员管理,流              QM practices, People management, process
process management, quality data analysis,          程管理,质量数据分析,供应商              management, Management leadership, supplier
supplier quality management, and customer focus     质量管理,客户为中心通常是通              quality management, quality data analysis,
were obtained from commonly suggested               过普遍推行的来自于广义文学的              customer focus---> aggregate performance (sign.)
measures from extant literature.                    衡量尺度获得的

Product Development, Inventory and DC management,   产品开发,库存和总仓广丽,质              Previous Articles Reviewed; no analytical tests
Quality Management, Production and Workflow         量管理,生产和工作流程管理,              completed
Management, Procurement and Strategic Sourcing,     采购和战略采购,供应链管理
Supply Chain Management

Service Guarantee Strength Construct                服务确保建设强度                    SGS significantly positively correlated with
                                                                                EMV, MCI, Customer Evaluations of QSL and
                                                                                Employee Evaluations of QS. Not significantly
                                                                                correlated with LTSF. MCI and EMV
                                                                                significantly positively correlated with customer
                                                                                evaluations of QS. MCI and EMV not
                                                                                significantly correlated with Customer
                                                                                evaluations of QSL. LTSF not correlated with
                                                                                either employee evaluations of QS or Customer
                                                                                evaluations of QSL.

Quality practices, employee commitment initiatives, 质量实践,员工承诺创新,员工 Each variable (quality practices, employee
employee control initiatives                        管理创新           commitment initiatives and employee control
                                                                   initiatives) was significantly positively correlated
                                                                   at at least the 0.01 level.

project improvement goals, project performance,     项目提高的目标,项目业绩,遵 Team project performance and domestic projects
and adherence to six sigma tools and method         循6西格马工具和方法     are significantly negatively correlated at the 0.01
                                                                   level. The six sigma method and team project
                                                                   performance are significantly positively
                                                                   correlated at the 0.01 level

                                                                                Consistent patterns of SMP exist, which in
                                                                                turn are related to planning success and
                                                                                ultimately business performance. It appears
                                                                                that these systematic differences with
                                                                                respect to the degree of "rationality" and
                                                                                "adaptability" also reflect changes in the
                                                                                SMP process over time. Management can
                                                                                intervene to hasten the progress toward a
                                                                                more "rational adaptive" approach and more
Workforce development, teams, TQM culture,              劳动力的发展,团队,整理质量 Identified plant groups whose characteristics
supplier information sharing, supplier development,     管理文化,供应商信息分享,供 accord well with the description found in the
supplier partnership, supply base rationalization,      应商发展,供应商合作关系,供 lean and agile manufacturing literatures.
strategic supplier selection, supplier certification,   应为基础的理性化思维,战略供 Their data distinguish lean performing plants
MRP/ERP, integrated product design, advanced            应商选择,供应商认证,企业资 from low performing plants on performance
manufacturing techs, in-house tech, JIT flow,           源计划,整合的产品设计,高级 and practice dimensions that are mostly
cellular mfg, SQC, customerorientation,                 的生产技术,公司内部技术,及 consistent with concepts put forward in the
manufacturing strategy integration, benchmarking        时性流程,卫星是生产,供应商 literature. Similarly, the data distinguish agile
                                                        质量控制,客户为中心,生产战 performing plants from the others in
                                                        略整合,参照         expected dimensions. Moreover, agility
                                                                       appears to represent a higher state of plant
                                                                       performance and capability, as agile plants
                                                                       meet or exceed other plants in all of the
Memory, Tacitness of knowledge, Accessibility of                       Higher-order and practice dimensions that
                                                        记忆力,知识的默许,知识的可 performance factor is strongly and positively
knowledge, Knowledge use, Knowledge intensity,          接触程度,知识的应用,知识的 related to performance (parameter
Learning capacity, Process outcomes                     密度,学习能力,流程产出   estimate=0.62; p<0.01).The indirect paths
                                                                       linking the knowledge elements with
                                                                       outcomes by way of the higher-order factor
                                                                       are stronger than the direct paths from the
                                                                       knowledge elements to the outcomes. The
                                                                       parameters estimates for the indirect paths
                                                                       range from 0.51 to 0.89 (all paths had
                                                                       p<0.01) while the direct paths range from

Concurrent engineering, CAD use for engineering         同时发生的工程,CAD在工程设{1} Concurrent engineering had significant
design, CAD use for cross-functional information        计中的应用,CAD在跨只能信息positive relationships with CAD use for
sharing, Product development performance, Cost          分享中的应用,产品开发业绩表 engineering design (beta = 0.46) and product
performance                                             现,成本表现         development performance (beta = 0.48). {2}
                                                                       CAD use for engineering design had a
                                                                       significant positive relationship with CAD use
                                                                       for cross-functional information sharing (beta
                                                                       = 0.62). {3} CAD use for cross-functional
                                                                       information sharing had a significant positive
Global supply chain structure, Global operating         全球供应链结构,全球运营战略 {1} The magnitude of impact of a firm's
strategy, IT-based global coordination capability,      ,信息为基础的全球合作能力, global operating strategy on its global supply
Global experience, Structural model analysis            全球经验,结构性模型分析   chain structure is less for small firms than for
                                                                       larger firms. This affect nearly doubled for
                                                                       firm size, with standardized path coefficients
                                                                       beta of 0.25, 0.44, and 0.92 for SMEs, large,

Financial performance; Technological uncertainty,       财务表现;记住不确定性,项目             {1} Global tradeoffs in NPD project
Project complexity, Balanced management                 复杂性,平衡的管理支持,并列             performance are more evident in efficient
support, Collocation, Collaborative environment,        ,合作性环境,设计生产整合,             projects than in inefficient projects. {2} The
Design manufacturing integration, NPD experience,       新产品开发经验,时间减少经验             market success of efficient NPD projects is
Time reduction experience, Explicit goals, Project      ,明确的目标,项目活动的重复             greater than that of inefficient projects. {3}
activity overlap                                                                   There is no significant difference in market
                                                                                   success across efficient NPD projects which
                                                                                   pursue different modes of efficiency. {4} NPD
                                                                                   project management experience is positively
supplier integration, manufacturing performance,       供应商整合,生产表现,公司表 {1} 'MisFit' showed a significant and positive
firm performance, the theory of diminishing utility in 现,运营中的边际效用递减理论 relationship to 'stability of market volume'. {2}
operations, the law of diminishing syngergies          ,统合综效递减法则      There are significant negative correlations
                                                                      between several supply chain management
                                                                      practices and 'MisFit'.

Power distance, Uncertainty avoidance,               权力距离,不确定性的避免,个 {1} Leadership construct scores were higher
Individualism collectivism, Masculinity/femininity   人主义集体主义,男权主义/女权 in countries with greater power distance,
(from Hofstede, 2001)                                主义              uncertainty avoidance and masculinity and
                                                                     lower in countries with higher individualism.
                                                                     {2} scores on the information and analysis
                                                                     construct were higher in countries with
                                                                     greater uncertainty avoidance and lower in
                                                                     those that were more individualist. {3} Score
Supply chain integration, Socialization              供应链整合,社会化机制,供应 on the strategic planning construct were
                                                                     {1} There is a positive significant relationship
mechanisms, Supplier's contractual conformance,      商的合约一致性,采购的依赖度 between operational performance and
Buyer's dependence, Supplier's operational           ,供应商的运营表现,供应商的 contractual conformanc (t=2.49, p<.01).
performance, Supplier's communication                沟通表现           There is a positive significant relationship
performance                                                         between communiation performance and
                                                                    contractual conformance (t=1.89, p<0.05).
                                                                    {2} There is a positive significant relationship
                                                                    between socialization mechanisms and the
                                                                    supplier's communication performance
                                                                    (t=4.21, p<.001) and operational
                                                                    performance (t=3.95, p<.001).

Low price, design flexibility, volume flexibility,   低价,设计灵活性,数量灵活性             {1} The authors proved that new
conformance quality, performance quality, speed,     ,质量一致性,业绩质量,速度             manufacturing strategies can take shape in
dependability, after-sales service, broad product    ,依赖性,售后服务,宽泛的产             different parts of the world where the
line                                                 品线                         competitive environment and context are
                                                                                different. {2} A managerial implication of our
                                                                                findings for Chinese manufacturers is that
                                                                                they should be mindful of the potential trade-
                                                                                offs between competitive capabilities. {3} The
                                                                                auhtors' findings suggest that manufacturing
                                                                                strategies derived from realied performance,
                                                                                rather than the emphasis on competitive
                                                                                capabilities, may be better predictors of
Supply base complexity                               供应基础的复杂性                   financial performance. {4} Their results
                                                                                Supply base complexity is positively
                                                                                associated with the total transaction cost the
                                                                                focal company incurs from interacting with
                                                                                the supply base. However, blindly lowering
                                                                                the complexity of a supply base may not
                                                                                always be desirable. There must be an
                                                                                optimal size for a supply base in terms of the
                                                                                level of complexity.

Dynamism regarding purchased item, Complexity 购买上面的多元性,商品复杂性 US respondants: complexity of item --
of item, Extendedness of the relationship (rate the ,关系的延展性,社会联系,行 >extendedness of the relationship
importance of the following items in the negotiation 为透明度,非财务的供应商表现 (p<0.0001); cultural distance-->(-neg) social
process), Social bonding, Behavioral transparency,                  bonding(p<0.1); behavioral transparency--
Non-financial supplier performance                                  >social bonding(p<0.0001); social bonding--
                                                                    >non-financial performance of the suppliers
                                                                    relationship (p<0.0001); behavioral
                                                                    transparency-->non-financial performance of
                                                                    the suppliers relationship (p<0.005) ;
                                                                    German respondants: dynamism re. item -->(-
                                                                    neg) behavioral transparencyp<0.05);
                                                                    complexity of item --> extendedness of the
                                                                    relationship (p<0.0001), behavioral
                                                                    transparency (p<0.05) ; behavioral
Investment in clinical and support technology,      在诊断和支持技术方面的投资, {1} Hospital bed-size has a positive effect on
nurse staff training, nurse competence, job         护士员工的培训,护士能力,职 hospital technology decisions. {2} Rural
enlargement and sharing, cost performance as        业扩展和分享,与竞争对手相比 hospitals tend to put more emphasis on staff
compared to your competitors, quality performance   较的成本业绩,与竞争对手相比 development. {3} Technology has a positive
as compared to your competitors                     较的质量业绩         effect on nurse decision. Hospitals that
                                                                   invest in more technology promote nurse
                                                                   training and competence. {4} Nurse
                                                                   management decisions have a significant
                                                                   effect on cost performance. {5} Technology
                                                                   management decisions have a significant
                                                                   effect on hospital cost and quality
absorptive capacity, prior relevant knowledge,      吸收能力,先前的相关知识,沟 Absorptive Capacity --> Time-Based
communication network, communication climate,       通网络,沟通氛围,知识扫描, Manufacturing Practices have a positive
knowledge scanning, time based manufacturing        时间为基础的生产实践,对客户 relation. (p<0.01); TBMP-->Value to
practices, value to customer                        的价值            customer (p<0.01)

distance between distirbution center and            配送中心和门店之间的距离,             During the time-window hours negative
stores, % stores located in shopping areas,         在购物中心的门店的百分比,             impacts still occur in time-window
delivery frequency, drop size, vehicle              配送频率,配送数量,货车容             areas, albeit felt by fewer people that
capacity, unloading time per vehicle, self-         量,每辆车的卸货时间,自我             are shopping,as the time-windows
implied time-windows, total drivig time,            暗示的时间窗口,总体驾驶时             obviously mostly do not correspond with
number of vehicle kilometers, vehicle               间,车辆公里数,车辆利用率             busy shopping hours. The study found
utilization, vehicle load factor, financial         ,车辆载货因素,财务表现,             that time-windows cause an increase in
distribution performance, time window               时间窗口的压力                   the amount of global and local
pressure                                                                      emissions. Time-window also cause an
                                                                              {1} Even though the manufacturer has
                                                                              the power to keep a remanufacturer
                                                                              from entering the market under
                                                                              individual WEEE take-back, this power
                                                                              is not exercised when return rates and
                                                                              unit collection/disposal cost are
Business uncertainty, management                  生意的不确定,管理假设,经           Business uncertainty-->FSC Risk
perception, managers' perceptions of              理们的生意不确定性的假设,           propensity (*); Business uncertainty--
business uncertainty, R&D activity, Hostility ,   研发行为,敌对,不同性,正           >RSC Risk propensity(*); FSC Risk
heterogeneity, FSC risk propensity, RSC risk      向供应链风险倾向,逆向供应           propensity--> FSC Investment(**); RSC
propensity, FSC investment, RSC investment        链风险倾向,正向供应链投资           Risk Propensity-->Reconditioning(**);
                                                  ,逆向供应链投资                RSC Risk Propensity-->Recycling and
                                                                          Waste Management(**); FSC
                                                                          Investment-->Recycling and Waste
                                                                          Management(**); where *=Mixed
                                                                          results, **=Sign p<.1 or better

                                                                          This study investigates the
                                                                          effectiveness of neural networks for
                                                                          estimating the remaining life by
                                                                          analysing complex and nonlinear life
                                                                          cycle data. The research further
                                                                          explores and highlights the advantages
                                                                          of using artficial networks over multiple
                                                                          regression for the development of a

eBusiness Capabilities, Production                电子商务能力,产品信息整合 {1} EBUSPUR and EBUSCOLL
Informaiton Integration(Supplier Integration,     (供应商整合,客户整合)  positively influence the degree of
Customer Integration)                                           supplier integration. {2} EBUSPUR and
                                                                EBUSCOLL positively influence the
                                                                degree of customer integration. {3} A
                                                                degree of customer integration and
                                                                operational performance are not
                                                                statistically significant. {4} A degree of
                                                                supplier integration and operational
                                                                performance are positively related.
Team usage, Firm characteristics, e-            团队使用度,公司特性,电子 {1} As the use of internal teams for
Business technologies, Industry context,        商务技术,工业背景,业务业 supply chain management increase, the
Financial performance                           绩表现           use of transactional e-business
                                                              technologies increases. {2} As the use
                                                              of customer teams for supply chain
                                                              management increase, the use of
                                                              relational e-business technologies
                                                              increases. {3} As the use of e-business
                                                              technologies increases, firm-level
                                                              financial performance increases.

Internet technology application, Trading        网络技术的应用,交易伙伴关 Internet technology application --
partner relationships, Structural change        系,结构变化        >trading partner relationships (p<0.05);
                                                              Internet technology application-->
                                                              structural change(p<0.05); trading
                                                              partner relationships --> structural

Technical skills, Change disposition, Conflict 技术能力,改变性情,冲突管 The proposed multi-item measurement
management, Market acuity, Coordinated         理,市场敏感度,协作的物流 B2B-SC scales exhibit sufficient
logistics, Knowledge channels, Fluid           ,知识渠道,流畅的关系   psychometric properties. Six of the
partnering                                                   seven B2B-SC scales-change
                                                             disposition, conflict management,
                                                             market acuity, coordinated logistics,
                                                             knowledge channels, and fluid
                                                             partnering-are positively coorelated with
Use of e-business technologies, Intra-         电子商务技术的应用,组织内 e-business --> intra-organizational
organizational collaboration, Inter-           部的合作,组织间的合作,组 collaboration (p<0.01); e-business--
organizational collaboration, Organizational 织的表现            >inter-organizational collaboration
performance                                                  (p<0.01); e-business-->performance
                                                             (p<0.01); inter-organizational
Information quality, Customer information,     信息质量,客户信息,生产商 collaboration (p<0.01); intra-
                                                             Effective information sharing-->
Manufacturer information, Information sharing   信息,信息分享支持技术,计 effective supply chain practice (p<0.05);
support technology, Plan, JIT Production,       划,及时生产,运送实践,供 ; Supply chain dynamism -->
Delivery practice, Supply chain dynamism,       应链的多元化,运送表现,信 information sharing (p<0.05)
Delivery performance, Information sharing,      息分享,供应链实践
Supply chain practice
customization, Real time information access,    客户定制,即时信息更新,表 Client customization of integrated
Performance, Information/knowledge              现,信息/知识交换/信任  eBusiness supply chain vendor
exchange/ Trust                                               solutions--> real time access(p<0.001),
                                                              provider performance (p<0.001) and
                                                              client performance (p<0.01); real time
                                                              access --> provider performance
                                                              (p<0.05), client performance (p<0.01) ;
                                                              Provider trust -->
                                                              Information/knowledge exchange
Utilization factor, variance factor, capacity   利用率因素,偏差因素,产能
utilization-variability-inventory (CVI)         利用率-变化性-库存

Percentage of profits in final bid, perceived 在最终竞标中的利润比例,假 Within-subjects effects: Auctions -->
buyer opportunism, auctions, bid visibility,  定的采购机会主义者,拍卖, %profit in final bid (p<0.01); Auctions x
level of need, number of competitors          竞标的可视性,竞争者的数量 # of competitors x level of need -->
                                                              %profit in final bid (p<0.05); Auctions x
                                                              bid visibility x level of need x number of
                                                              competitors --> %profit in final bid
                                                              (p<0.10); Between-subjects effects: Bid
Wait explanation: SERVFAIL (wait caused by 等待解释:由于服务生错误导 The reported perceived duration of wait
failure of servers), CUSTFAIL (wait caused    致的等待,由于客户错误导致 between SERVFAIL and CUSTFAIL
by failure of customer), CONTROL (no wait     的等待,控制:没有解释的等 groups was not significantly different.
explanation given), INFORMED (fusion of       待,通知:融合于前两者,假 The reported differences in perceived
SERVFAIL and CUSTFAIL participants),          定的等待时间          duration of wait between INFORMED
perceived duration of wait                                    and CONTROL groups, however, were
                                                              significant at the p<0.05 level. The
                                                              CONTROL group had a higher
Payment process, on-time delivery, ease of    支付流程,及时运送,退货和 Credit card fraud protection --> payment
returns and refunds, privacy experience,      退款的方便性,隐私的经历, process (p<0.01); Privacy policy: no
customer support, primary customer support 客户支持,主要客户支持方法 information shared or sold --> payment
method, secure ordering, order tracking,      ,确保订单,订单追踪,确认 process (p<0.01); Primary customer
confirmation tracking, inventory tracking,    追踪,库存追踪,工业品类的 support: live operator during business
industry category dummy variables (clothing, 隐性可变性,餐饮的会员支付 hours --> (-neg) payment process
sports, business, electronics, computers,     ,购物车,礼品服务,产品搜 (p<0.05); Diner's Club payment --> (-
children, etc), Diner's Club payment,         索,满意确保100%,退货条款 neg) payment process (p<0.10); E-
shopping cart, any order tracking done?, gift                 check payment --> (-neg) payment
services, product search, satisfaction                        process (p<0.05); Privacy policy:
guaranteed 100%, return terms                                 information shared with third parties -->
Frequency of service-only feedback,           仅仅关于服务的反馈的频率, Frequency of service only feedback in
frequency of product-only feedback, low-price 仅仅关于产品的反馈的频率, LPLA > HPLA (p<0.01); in LPLA >
low-ambiguity (LPLA), high-price high-        地价地模糊性,高价高模糊性 LPHA (p<0.01); in LPLA > HPHA
ambiguity (HPHA), HPLA, LPHA                                  (p<0.01); Frequency of product only
                                                              feedback in HPLA > LPLA (p<0.01); in
                                                              LPHA > LPLA (p<0.01); in HPHA <
                                                              LPLA (p<0.01)

Recycling, proactive waste reduction,           回收,积极的废物减排,再生 In the first canonical function,
remanufacturing, environmental design,          产,            environmental design, remanufacturing,
specific design targets, surveillance of                      proactive waste reduction, recycling,
market, product innovation, process                           and surveillance of the market exhibit
innovation, ROI, sales growth                                 high loadings. For dependent variables,
NSD Process Focus, Market Acuity, NSD                         {1} first function has and high loadings
                                                新服务开发流程关注,市场敏 the Through iterative very rigorous
Strategy, NSD Culture, IT Experience, NSD       感性,新服务开发战略,新服 assessment of convergent and
Competitiveness, NSD Effectiveness              务开发文化,信息技术经验, divergent validity, scale items and
                                                新服务开发的竞争力,新服务 measures were refined for five
                                                开发的有效性        dimensions of NSD competence: NSD
                                                              Process Focus, Market Acuity, NSD
Organizational systems, organizational             组织的系统,组织文化,组织   Scope --> quality of planning (p<0.01);
cultures, organizational structure, project        结构,项目公司,整合,规模   Cost --> quality of planning (p<0.01);
office, integration, scope, time, cost, quality,   ,时间,成本,质量,人力资   Human resources --> quality of planning
human resource, communications, risk               源,沟通,风险管理,采购,   (p<0.01); Organizational systems -->
management, procurement, quality of                计划质量。           quality of planning (p<0.01)

IT investment (manufacturing sector,               信息技术投资(生产行业,批   Time --> inventory performance (M, W,
wholesale sector, retail sector), inventory        发行业,零售行业)库存业绩   R) (p<0.01); Past inventory
performance (M, W, R), financial                   ,财务业绩,时间,过去的库   performance --> inventory performance
performance (M, W, R), time, past inventory        存表现,现在库存表现,过去   (M, W, R) (p<0.01); Current IT
performance, current IT investment, past IT        信息技术投资,过去财务业绩   investment --> inventory performance
investment, past financial performance,            现在库存表现。         (M) (p<0.05); Current IT investment -->
current inventory performance                                      inventory performance (R) (p<0.05);
                                                                   Past IT investment --> inventory
Return on assets (ROA), return on sales            资产回报率,销售回报率,库   ROS --> IT (p<0.05); ROS --> (-neg)
(ROS), inventory turn, SG&A expenditure,           存流转,销售管理费用,资产   SG&A expenditure (p<0.05); ROS -->
asset turnover (AT), scope, hightech               流动性,范围,高科技      hightech (p<0.05); ROA --> IT (p<0.05);
                                                                   ROA --> AT (p<0.05); ROA--> ROS
                                                                   (p<0.05); IT --> ROS (p<0.05); IT -->
                                                                   ROA (p<0.05); SG&A --> (-neg) ROA
                                                                   (p<0.05); Hightech --> ROS (p<0.05);
Embeddedness with suppliers, supplier             基于产品开发能力的供应商和    Supplier selection --> embeddedness
selection based on product development            供应商选择的能力,供应基础    with suppliers (p<0.01); Supply base
capabilities, supply base rationalization, black- 的合理性,黑盒子整合,灰盒    rationalization --> embeddedness wtih
box integration, gray-box integration, product 子整合,产品创新,外部质量       suppliers (p<0.01); Supply base
innovation, external quality                      控制               rationalization --> supplier selection
                                                                   (p<0.01); Black-box integration -->
                                                                   supplier selection (p<0.01); Gray-box
                                                                   integration --> embeddedness with
                                                                   suppliers (p<0.01); Gray-box integration
                                                                   --> supplier selection (p<0.01); Gray-
                                                                   box integration --> supply base
                                                                   rationalization (p<0.01); Gray-box
                                                                   integration --> black-box integration
                                                                   (p<0.01); Product innovation -->
                                                                   supplier selection (p<0.01); Product
Plant size, AMT investment, AMT training,          工厂规模,高级生产技术投资   Flexibility values (oprs) --> flexibility
flexibility values (mgrs, oprs), control values    ,高级生产技术培训,灵活性   values (mgrs) (p<0.05); Control values
(mgrs, oprs), AMT objectives, operators            价值,控制价值,高级生产技   (mgrs) --> AMT investment (p<0.05);
discretion, plant performance                      术目标,运营者差别,工厂表   Control values (mgrs) --> flexibility
                                                   现               values (mgrs) (p<0.01); Control values
                                                                   (mgrs) --> flexibility values (oprs)
                                                                   (p<0.05); Control values (oprs) -->
                                                                   flexibility values (oprs) (p<0.01); Control
                                                                   values (oprs) --> control values (mgrs)
                                                                   (p<0.01); AMT objectives --> flexibility
                                                                   values (oprs) (p<0.01); AMT objectives --
                                                                   > Control values (oprs) (p<0.01); Plant
Market value (MV), closing book value (BV),        市场价值,票面价值,现在收   Intercept --> BV (p<0.01); BV --> BV
current earnings (E), declared dividend (DIV),     入,已经宣布的分红,收购中   (p<0.01); E --> BV (p<0.05); DIV --> BV
goodwill on acquisition (GW), capital              的溢价,资本贡献,研发和广   (p<0.01); CC --> (-neg) BV (p<0.01);
contributions (CC), research/development           告开销,外包合同的价值,资   RDAD --> BV (p<0.10); OUT --> BV
and advertising expenditures (RDAD),               本密集度            (p<0.10)
outsourcing contract's value (OUT), capital
intensity (CI)
Sales growth (BP1), reputation and image           销售增长,信誉和形象,客户            Purchasing efficacy --> commercial
(BP2), customer satisfaction (BP3), market         满意度,市场份额,新产品上            performance (p<0.05); Purchasing
share (BP4), success of new product                市成功,投资回报,利润率,            efficacy by purchasing strategic
launches (BP5), return on investment (BP6),        劳动力生产率,商业表现,财            integration --> commercial performance
profits as percent of sales (BP7), labor           务表现,购买有效性,购买战            (p<0.10); Commercial performance -->
productivity (BP8), commercial performance,        略性整合,通过战略性购买整            BP1 (p<0.01); Commercial performance
financial performance, purchasing efficacy,        合的购买有效性                  --> BP2 (p<0.01); Commercial
purchasing strategic integration, puchasing                                 performance --> BP3 (p<0.01);
efficacy by purchasing strategic integration                                Commercial performance --> BP4
                                                                            (p<0.01); Commercial performance -->
                                                                            BP5 (p<0.01); Purchasing efficacy -->
                                                                            financial performance (p<0.05);

Sharing behavior, project resource information     分享行为,项目资源信息可视 Sharing by others-->Sharing (significantly
visibility, task performance, perceptions of       化,任务表现,其他优先化假 only when Information visibility is high);
prioritization of others, future sharing intent,   定,未来分享倾向,动力。  Perceptions of being given low priority is
motivaiton                                                       significantly dependent on sharing by others
                                                                 (-neg), lateness (+), with both effects
                                                                 tempered by interactions of these factors
                                                                 with information sharing (+ and - intx
                                                                 respectively); perceptions of being given
                                                                 low priority lead to significantly lower
                                                                 future intent to share resources

firm size, firm age, differentiation strategy, 企业规模,企业年龄,差异化 Operational autonomy --> differentiation
operational autonomy, risk-taking propensity, 战略,运营自主权,风险接受 strategy (p<0.01); risk-taking propensity
process innovativeness, firm performance       意愿,流程创新,公司业绩  --> operational autonomy (p<0.05);
                                                             process innovativeness -->
                                                             differentiation strategy (p<0.01);
                                                             process innovativeness --> operational
                                                             autonomy (p<0.01); firm age --> firm
                                                             performance (p<0.05); process
                                                             innovativeness --> firm performance
Asset specificity ICF level, asset specificity    资产特殊性网络商业公司水平 asset specificity transaction level --> (-
transaction level, strength of networked          ,资产特殊性交易水平,王国 neg) reliance on a focal logistics service
governance structure, asset specificity           的监管结构的强度,资产特殊 provider (p<0.05); asset specificity
product level, uncertainty provider               性产品水平,不确定性提供者 product level --> (-neg) reliance on a
performance, uncertainty logistics service's      的业绩,物流服务环境下得不 focal logistics service provider (p<0.05);
environment, reliance on a focal logistics        确定性,对于本地物流服务提 uncertainty logistics service's
service provider                                  供商的依赖         environment --> (-neg) reliance on a
                                                                focal logistics service provider (p<0.05);
                                                                uncertainty provider performance --> (-
suppliers cooperation, teamwork, autonomy,        供应商合作,团队管理,自主 Suppliers cooperation --> suppliers KT
process control, customers cooperation,           性,流程控制,合作,供应商 (p<0.001); Autonomy --> internal KT
suppliers knowledge transfers (KT),               知识的转移,客户知识转移, (p<0.001); Process control --> internal
customers KT, internal KT, performance            内部知识转移,业绩     KT (p<0.001); Customers cooperation --
                                                                > customers KT (p<0.001); Suppliers
                                                                KT --> internal KT (p<0.05); Customers
                                                                KT --> performance (p<0.01); Suppliers
                                                                KT --> performance (p<0.01); Internal

Growth, profitability, inventory, SJITS (small    增长,利润,库存,小型及时           SPFS --> growth (p<0.10); JITPSS --> (-
JIT supplier), IEPT (Use of Information           生产供应商,信息交换和计划           neg) inventory (p<0.05); PFLEX --> (-
Exchange and Planning Technology), SPFS           技术,小型近距离灵活供应商           neg) inventory (p<.10); HVAT --> (-neg)
(small proximate flexible supplier), PPDT (use    ,产品设计技术,小型供应商           profitability (p<0.01);
of product design technology), JITPSS (JIT        的及时生产实践,低数量灵活
practices of small suppliers, LVFAT (use of       的自动化技术,小型供应商自
low-volume flexible automation technology),       动供应实践,高数量自动化技
ASPSS (automated supply practices of small        术,工厂灵活性
suppliers), HVAT (use of high-volume
automation technology, PFLEX (plant

Cost efficiency, quality, delivery, new product   成本有效性,质量,运送,新 Planning AMT --> (-neg) cost efficiency
flexibility, process flexibility, process AMT,    品灵活性,流程灵活性,流程 (p<0.005); MTO dummy --> cost
planning AMT, design-manufacturing                高级生产技术,计划高级生产 efficiency (p<0.005); ATO dummy -->
integration, plant size, number of major          技术,设计生产整合,工厂大 cost efficiency (p<0.05); MTS dummy --
products, MTO dummy, ATO dummy, MTS               小,主要产品数量,按照订单 > cost efficiency (p<0.10); Electronics
dummy, electronics dummy, machinery               生产,           dummy --> cost efficiency (p<0.005);
dummy                                                           Planning AMT --> (-neg) quality
                                                                (p<0.05); DMI --> quality (p<0.005); DMI
                                                                --> delivery (p<0.10); Plant size -->
                                                                delivery (p<0.01); MTO dummy --> (-
Performance, Internal process integration,        业绩,内部流程整合,外部流 neg) complexity-> internal process -->
                                                                task delivery (p<0.05); MTS dummy
External process integration, Task                程整合,任务复杂性,任务安 integration (p<0.01); task complexity->
complexity, Task security, End customer           全性,终端客户导向,信息技 performance(p<0.01); end customer
orientation, IT capability                        术能力           orientation->internal and external
                                                                process integration (p<0.01); end
                                                                customer orientation->
                                                                performance(p<0.01); IT capability->
                                                                internal and external process
                                                                intergration (p<0.01), IT capability->
                                                                performance (p<0.01); both internal and
                                                                external process integration-> BPO
Focal supplier influence, retailer dependency,   主要供应商影响力,零售商依   Focal supplier influence --> focal
supplier dependency, retailer monitoring         存,供应商依存,零售商监管   supplier opportunism (p<0.05); Retailer
ability, retailer punitive capacity, focal       能力,主要供应商机会主义,   monitoring ability --> focal supplier
supplier opportunism, non-focal supplier         非主要供应商好战性,零售商   opportunism (p<0.05); Focal supplier
militancy, category strategic performance        的惩罚性能力,品类战略性业   opportunism --> retailer category
                                                 绩               performance (p<0.01); Focal supplier
                                                                 opportunism --> non-focal supplier
                                                                 militancy (p<0.05)

Constant, environment: dynamism, annual          一致性,环境:多元化,年度   Environment: dynamism --> (-neg)cost
sales, annual sales x annual sales, buyer        销售,采购的承诺,分享的价   (p<0.10); Buyer Commitment --> cost
commitment, shared values, information           值,信息分享,供应商评估,   (p<0.01); Share values --> cost
sharing, supplier evaluation, supplier           供应商开发,关系的长度,采   (p<0.01); Buyer dependence --> cost
development, length of the relationship in       购依存度,供应商依存度     (p<0.01); Supplier dependence --> (-
years, buyer dependence, supplier                                neg) cost (p<0.10); Annual sales --> (-
dependence                                                       neg) manufacturing flexibility (p<0.10);
                                                                 Buyer commitment --> manufacturing
                                                                 flexibility (p<0.01); Shared values -->
                                                                 manufacturing flexibility (p<0.01);
                                                                 Supplier development -->
                                                                 manufacturing flexibility (p<0.01)
formality, discretion, deviation from unit-cost    形式,差异,来自个体成本的
                                                            formality --> (-neg) dev from unit cost, (-
objective, total project cost, time-to-market,     标准差,整体项目成本,上市
                                                            neg) dev from total cpst, (-neg) dev from
mean time between failures (MTBF), mean            时间,两次失败间的平均时间
                                                            time-to-market, (+) MTBF, (-neg) MTTR,
time to repair (MTTR), customer satisfaction       ,修复之间的平均时间,客户
                                                            (+) customer satisfaction (mostly at
                                                   满意度      p<0.001) ; discretion has similar sign and
                                                            magnitude direct effects on these same
                                                            outcomes ; formality x discretion --> (-neg)
auditing for continuous improvement, auditing 为了持续改进的审计,为了遵 effects on all these outcomes at p<0.001.
                                                            Scores compared between non-financial
for compliance                                从的审计          auditors and clients produced significant
                                                            results at the 0.05 level. Effect of company
                                                            size as a moderator of a compliance focus
                                                            was analyzed and found significant results
                                                            at the 0.03 level.

cd time in market, privacy, system availability,   市场存活时间,隐私权,系统    search efficiency --> list prce discounts
search efficiency, CD popularity, actual           普遍性,搜索效率,音乐流行    (p<0.05) ; list price discount --> fulfillment
markups, list price discounts, inventory           性,实际加价率,标价折扣,    reliability (p<0.05) ; search efficiency -->
availability, delivery timelinessfulfillment       库存,运送时间可靠性       actual markups (p<0.05) ; actual markups --
reliability                                                         >(-neg) fulfillment reliability (p<0.05) ; cd
                                                                    popularity -->(-neg) actual markups
                                                                    (p<0.05) ; cd time in market --> actual
                                                                    markup and listr price discount (p<0.05) ;
                                                                    inventory availability --> fulfillment
                                                                    reliability (p<0.05); delivery timeliness -->
                                                                    fulfillment reliability (p<0.05)
corporate strategy integration, product-          公司战略整合,产品流程技术            corporate strategy integration -->market
process technology integration, strategic         整合,战略客户整合,战略供            performance, customer satisfaction, process
customer integration, strategic supplier          应商整合,成本质量,运送,            flexibility (all p<0.1); product-process
integration, cost, quality, delivery, process     流程灵活性,新产品灵活性,            technology integration --> (-neg) market
flexibility, new product flexibility, market      市场表现,客户满意度               performance, (+)quality, (+)new product
performance, customer satisfaction                                         flexibility (all p<0.1) ; strategic customer
                                                                           integration --> (-neg)market performance,
                                                                           (+)customer satisfaction (p<0.1) ; strategic
                                                                           supplier integration --> market performance,
journal quality, journal reputation, psm          日报质量,日报名誉,采购与
practitioner relevance, psm research              供应管理操作者相关性,采购
relevance                                         与供应管理研究的相关性

pre- and post-treatment honesty trust, pre-       诚实信任治疗前后,利益驱动
and post-treatment benevolance trust              信任治疗前后

competitive pressure, evaluation certification,   竞争压力,评估认证,未来业 future business incentives --> knowledge
future business incentives, operational           务激励,运营性知识转移行为 transfr activities (p<0.01) ; evaluation and
knowledge transfer activities, bi-lateral top     ,双方管理层的参与,合作性 certification --> knowledge transfer
management involvement, collaborative             的沟通,供应商业绩改善   activities (p<0.05) ; knowledge transfer
communication, supplier performance                             activities --> supplier performance
improvement                                                     improvement (p<0.01) ; knowledge transfer
                                                                activities --> collaborative communication
                                                                (p<0.05) ; collaborative communication -->
                                                                supplier perfromance improvement (p<.05)
abnormal returns to investment,                   不正常的投入回报      Results for ERP systems carried out during
                                                                the implementation period, after the
                                                                implementation period, and throught the
                                                                whole period were significantly different
                                                                from zero at the 5% level. Results for SCM
                                                                systems carried out during the
                                                                implementation period, after the
                                                                implementation period, and throught the
                                                                whole period were significantly different
TQM, human resource results, customer             整体质量控制,人力资源结果 TQM --> HR results, customer results,
results, organizational effectivenes, financial   ,客户结果,组织有效性,财 organizational effectiveness, financial and
and market results                                务和市场结果        market results (significantly so) ; HR results
                                                                --> organizational effectiveness
                                                                (significantly so) ; organizational
                                                                effectiveness --> customer results, financial
                                                                and market results (significantly so) ;
                                                                customer results --> financial and market
                                                                results (signficantly so)
                                                                No analytical data gathered previous
                                                                research analyzed for conclusions
N/A                                                        There is a general consensus
                                                           among authors that a paradigm with
                                                           which to develop a theoretical basis
                                                           for SCM is important.

contingency variables, performance          偶发事件变量,业绩表现    There is a lack of a unifying
variables, measurement, research            变量,衡量标准,研究设    research framework and common
design, employed form fo fit                计,雇用形式         terminology to use when reviewing
                                                           OM PCR through the contingency
                                                           approach. There are many areas
improvement; innovation; operational        改进能力,创新能力,和    The two capabilities are significantly
performance                                 运营业绩表现         related to operational performance
                                                           and their performance impact differs
                                                           depending on the operational
                                                           performance involved.
Effective process implementation, mass      有效的流程执行能力,大    internal learning, external learning --
customization capability, internal          众化定制的能力,内部学    >effective process
learning, external learning                 习能力,外部学习能力     implementation(p<0.01) ; effective
                                                           process implementation-->Mass
                                                           customization capability (p<0.01);
clear goals, senior management support,     清晰的目标,高层管理者    clear goals-->operability(p<0.01);
autonomous project structure, team          的支持,拥有自主权的项    cross-functional team--> cost,
experience, team continuity, co-location,   目结构,团队经验,团队    schedule (p<0.01); autonomous
virtual office setup, office designed for   的稳定性,共同工作地点    project structure --> cost (p<0.01);
communication, project manager              ,虚拟办公室的建立,为    virtual office setup-->cost(p<0.05);
continuity, project manger incentives,      了增进沟通的办公室设计    office designed for communication--
problem solving, team potency, cost,        ,项目经理的稳定性,项    >operability(p<0.01); project
schedule, operability                       目经理的奖励机制,问题    manager continuity-->schedule
                                            解决能力,团队的潜力,    (p<0.370); project maanger
                                            成本,时间计划,运营能    incentives-->schedule (p,).05); team
product margin, S&H margin, promised        产品毛利,S&H溢价,承   holiday proximity-->promised PDS
PDS performance, sku popularity,            诺的实体分销运送系统的    performance(p<0.05); number of
customer loyalty, weight, holiday           表现,产品受欢迎程度,    items-->(-neg) promised PDS
proximity, number of items, distance        客户忠诚度,权重,假日    performance(p<0.05) ; sku
                                            效应,商品数量,距离。    popularity -->(-neg) product margin
                                                           (p<0.05) ; distance-->(-neg) S&H
                                                           Margin (p<0.05) ; number of items--
                                                           >(-neg) S&H margin (p<0.05) ;
                                                           weight-->(-neg) S&H margin
Affective commitment, purchase              情感认同,购买行为,运    relational weight -->product
                                                           (p<0.05) ;order fulfillment service--
behavior, operational order fulfillment     营层面的订单履行服务,    >operational order fulfillment
service, relationship order fulfillment     关系层面的订单履行服务    service(p<0.001); relational order
service                                                    fulfillment service--
                                                           >satisfaction(p<0.001); operational
                                                           order fulfillment service--
                                                           >satisfaction(p<0.001); satisfaction--
                                                           > affective commitment(p<0.001);
                                                           behavior(p<0.001); affective
Supply Chain Process Variability,           供应链流程的可变性,财      Demand unpredictability groups did
Financial Performance, Formal control,      务业绩,正式的管控,整      not differ with respect to the number
integration, production technology          合,生产技术的流程化。      of employees (t=.934; p>.10),
routiness                                                    annual sales (t=1.38; p>.10), or
                                                             production technology routineness
                                                             (t=1.040; p>.10). Paths from formal
                                                             control to supply chain process
                                                             variability and to financial
                                                             performance were estimated in the
Personal Power Bases, Position Power        个人权力的基础,职权的      Results revealed positive links from
Bases, Strength of Ties, Development        基础,内部关系强度,发      strength fo ties to design
Time, Design Performance, Complexity        展时间,设计的业绩,复      performance (ß=0.57, p<0.01) and
                                            杂性               from strength of ties to development
                                                             time (ß=0.55, p<0.01). There are
                                                             positive links from position power to
                                                             strength of ties (ß=0.42, p<0.01).

Competence areas: product/technology 能力领域:产品/技术组合 Socio-technical systems theory is an
portfolio strategy, organization and    战略,组织和监管,设计 appropriate theoretical lens for
governance, design and decision support 和决定支持系统     studying product portfolio complexity
systems.                                            management. The ten principles of
                                                    STS offer helpful guidance in the
                                                    evaluation of product complexity
                                                    management processes.

Firm performance: return on assets and      公司业绩:资产回报率和      Performance benefits are driven by
return on sales, as well as stock market    销售回报率,以Tobin的q   early adopters in the results for ROS
based measure Tobin's q (the ratio          (介于公司股票市场价值      and ROA, but nto for Tobin's q.
between a firm's stock market value.        之间的比率)为衡量标准      Adoption of ISO 9000 drives
                                            的股票市场            performance. Performance
                                                             advantages accrue for earlier
Top management support, customer            管理层的支持,客户关系      Top management support is
relationship, supplier relationship,        ,供应商关系,劳动力管      positively related to the three
workforce management, six sigma role        理,6 sigma的角色结构   traditional QM infrastructure
structure                                                    practices and to the Six Sigma role
                                                             structure, and to the Six Sigma
                                                             focus on metrics. Customer
Employee satisfaction, service quality,                      relationship is positively related to
                                                             employee satisfaction -->service
customer satisfaction, firm profitability                    quality (p<0.001); employee
                                                             satisfaction, service quality -->
                                                             customer satisfaction, (p<0.001) ;
                                                             customer satisfaction --> firm
                                                             profitability (p<0.001 ) ; firm
professional service influence factors,     专业性服务影响因素,任      Baseline results confirmed agency
task programmability, outcome               务的程序化,产出的衡量      logic within professional service
measurability, profession-based             标准,专业为基础的专业      firms that has been articulated by
professional service influence factor       服务影响因素           several studies. Significant
                                                             coefficients for task programmaility
                                                             reflected a positive relatioship
                                                             There is task programmability and
                                                             between a simple linear relationship
Safety disconnect, quality performance      安全不一致,质量业绩
                                                             between disconnect and quality
                                                             outcomes. There is no evidence of a
                                                             curvilinear relationship or a negative
                                                             exponential relationship. Disconnect

costomer focus, training, management        客户关注点,培训,管理      management leadership-->customer
leadership, employee relations, quality     层领导力,员工关系,质      focus(p<0.05), training (p<0.01),
data and reporting, process                 量数据和报告,流程管理      employee relations(p<0.01),
management, supplier quality                ,供应商质量管理,产品/     supplier quality
management, product/service design,         服务设计,质量表现,财      management(p<0.01),
quality performance, financial and market   务和市场表现,库存管理      product/service design(p<0.01) ;
performance, inventory management                            training-->employee
performance                                                  relations(p<0.01) ; employee
                                                             relations-->customer focus(p<0.01),
                                                             quality data and reporting(p<0.01) ;
                                                             quality data and reporting-->supplier
time-based efficiency, strategic supply     以时间为基础的效率,战      quality management (p<0.01),
                                                             QM implementation-->strategic
management, cost-related efficiency,        略性供应管理,与成本相      supply management(p<0.001) ;
customer satisfaction, business             关的效率,客户满意度,      strategic supply management-->
performance, iso 9000 cert, QM              业绩表现,ISO9000认证   time based efficiency(p<0.001), cost-
implementatino, company size, process       ,质量管理执行,公司规      related efficiency(p<0.01) ; time
type                                        模,流程形式           based efficiency(p<0.001), cost-
                                                             related efficiency(p<0.01)-->
                                                             customer satisfaction ; customer
IT use for exploitation, IT use for         对于拓展的信息系统应用   IT use for exploitation-->Operational
exploration, operational coordination,      ,对于开发性的信息系统   coordination(p<0.01) ; Operational
strategic coordination, operational         应用,运营协作,战略协   coordination-->Operational
benefits, strategic benefits                作,运营利益,战略性利   benefits(p<0.01); IT use for
                                            益             exploration-->Strategic
                                                          coordination(p<0.01) ; Strategic
expert power, referent power, legitimate    专家权力,参考者权力,   benefits(p<0.01), Strategic benefits
                                                          expert power, referent power,
power, reward power, coercive power,        立法机构权力,奖励的权   reward power --> Normative
normative relationship commitment,          利,强制权力,规范性关   relationship commitment (all
instrumental relationship commitment,       系承诺,工具性关系承诺   p<0.05) ; coercive power-->(-neg)
customer integration                        ,客户整合         normative relationship
                                                          commitment(p<0.05) ; reward
                                                          power, coercive power--
                                                          >instrumental relationship
                                                          commitment(p<0.05) ; normative
                                                          relationship commitment--
                                                          >customer integration(p<0.05)

online information, order procedures,                     order procedures, online information-
fulfilled order accuracy, fulfilled order                 ->fulfilled order accuracy, fulfilled
timeliness, satisfaction                                  order timeliness (all 4 paths p<0.05)
                                                          ; fulfilled order accuracy, fulfilled
                                                          order timeliness --> satisfaction
                                                          (both paths p<0.05)

knowledge sharing attempt, motivation to 知识分享欲望,分享的动      motivation-->knowledge sharing
share, time availability, ability to share 机,可以支配时间,分享    attemp (p<0.01) ; however
                                           的能力            motivation's positive impact on
                                                          knowledge sharing attempts is
                                                          severely reduced if the 'constraining'
                                                          (actually simply the minimum) MOA
                                                          factor in a situation appears to
                                                          either be ability or time availability

supplier integration, supplier closeness,   供应商整合,供应商的紧   supplier integration, supplier
relational capital, managerial              密关系,相关性资金,管   closeness --> relational
communication, technical exchange,          理性沟通,技术交换,采   capital(p<0.001) ; relational capiital--
buyer performance improvement               购业绩改善         > buyer performance
                                                          improvement(p<0.05); managerial
                                                          performance improvement(p<0.01) ;
                                                          technical exchange-->buyer
                                                          performance improvement(p<0.001)
N/A                                                      Theory discussion and review.
                                                         Numerical data not used

Competitive Priorities: Time, Quality,     竞争有限次序:时间,质   Overall impact of outsourcing
Innovativeness, Fexibility and Cost;       量,创新,灵活性,和成   congruence --> significant, p < 0.01.
Outsourcing Drivers: Cost, Flexibility,    本;离岸采购的驱动力:   Interactions between each of the
Innovativeness, Quality and Time           成本,灵活性,创新,质   five competitive proirities and
                                           量和时间。         outsourcing drivers significantly
                                                         impact supply chain performance --
                                                         > p < 0.1, cost drivers x competitive

rare earth patents granted, patent year,   稀有专利,
citations of US work, patents granted in   专利年,美国工作的引文
US                                         ,美国颁发的专利
environmental dynamism, market            环境多元化,市场覆盖率     4 distinct clusters of firms (SSO
coverage, number of employees,            ,员工数量,技术设备的     configurations) are identified using
turnover, technological infrastructure    更新率,离岸经济,分享     the measures of the study : Cost
(ERP), offshoring, SSO concentration,     服务组织的关注点,外包     watchers, focused adopters,
outsourcing, SS investments per           采购,每个员工的分享服     business-minded optimizers,
employee, number of services offered      务投资,由外界提供服务     immature service providers
outside, number of areas covered by SLA   的数量,由服务联盟协议

acquiring tacit knowledge through         通过离岸经济获取心照不     ATK-->formal control(p<0.05), social
(offshore) outsourcing {ATK} ; formal     宣的知识:正式性管控,     control(p<0.05), (-neg) incremental
control, social control, incremental      社会性管控,额外的创新     innovation (p<0.1) ; Social control --
innovation, radical innovation            ,重大创新           >radical innovation(p<0.05), (-neg)
                                                          incremental innovation (p<0.05) ;
                                                          formal control-->incremental
                                                          innovation(p<0.05),(-neg) radical

sales, profits, profits per employee, sales 销售,利润,每个员工的
per employee                                利润,每个员工的销售
perceived misfit, perceived ease of            假定的不和谐,假定的规   Short term circumvention is a function
circumvention, intent to circumvent (shrt vs   避的容易性,规避的倾向   of misfit (p<0.01), ease of
long term measures)                            性(短期和长期的标准)   circumvention (p<0.01) and their
                                                             interaction term (p<0.01); Long term
                                                             circumvention is a function of misfit
                                                             (p<0.01) and ease of circumvention
                                                             (p<0.01) ; Effect of misfit significantly
                                                             Item specification effect of
                                                             greater in long-term,difficulty -->(-neg)
Item Specification difficulty, bundle          产品说明书的复杂性,捆
complexity, supply base availability,          绑式的复杂性,可利用的   Supply base availability(p<0.05) ;
bundle performance                             供应基础,捆绑业绩表现   Bundle complexity -->(-neg) supply
                                                             base availability (p<0.01) ; bundle
                                                             complexity -->(-neg) bundle
                                                             performance(p<0.001); supply base
                                                             availability -->bundle
supplier's specific investments, new           供应商特定的投资,新投   supplier involvement -->gross
venture's relative power, new venture's        机的相对权力,新投机的   margin(p<0.01); supplier
commitment, qualification of supplier's        承诺,供应商能力的资质   involvement-->sales growth
abilities, supplier involvement, success of    ,供应商参与度,卓越创   (p<0.01) ; supplier's specific
radical innovation (gross margin and           新的成功(毛利率和销售   investment-->supplier
sales growth)                                  增长)           involvement(p<0.01); qualification of
                                                             the supplier's abilities -->supplier
                                                             involvement(p<0.01); commitment
                                                             to supplier-->supplier
long-term relationship orientation,            长期关系为中心,网络监   involvement(p<0.01); supplier's
                                                             long-term relationship orientation--
network governance, information                控,信息技术,组织间沟   >interorganizational
technology, inter-organizational               通,采购业绩表现,供应   communication(p<0.01); network
communication, buyer performance,              商业绩表现         governance-->interorganizational
supplier performance                                         communication(p<0.01); information
                                                             communication(p<0.01); long-term
                                                             relationship orientation-->supplier
                                                             interorganizational communication--
technology uncertainty,                        技术不确定性,组之间的   >supplier performance(p<0.01); ETI
                                                             technology uncertainty-->(-neg)
interorganizational interaction, fir           互动,环境创新技术流程   project performance(p<0.05) ;
(between technology uncertainty and            经验,用户参与,项目的   interorganizational interaction-->ETI
interorganizational interaction), ETI          重要性,环境创新技术项   project performance(p<0.001) ;
process experience, user participation,        目的业绩表现        technology uncertainty x
project criticality, ETI project                             interorganizational interaction -->
performance                                                  ETI project performance (p<0.01) ;
                                                             Fit btx tech uncert and interorg
                                                             interaction --> ETI project
                                                             performance (p<0.05); user
                                                             participation--> ETI project
                                                             performance (p<0.05) ; project
operating margins, inventory turns, sales,     营运利润,库存周转,销   criticality--> ETI project performance
                                                             operating margins, inventory turns,
exchange joining announcement                  售,交换联合声明属性(   sales-->abnormal returns (p<0.001)
attributes (e.g. exchange founder, buyer       交换创始人,交换采购)
set up exchange), Abnormal returns             非正常收益
E-collaboration, product complexity,    电子合作,产品复杂性,        E-collaboration --> operational
market variability, environmental       市场可变性,环境性富足        performance (p<0.01); E-
munificence, operational performance,   ,运营表现,生意表现,        collaboration --> business
business performance, e-transactions,   电子交易,规模            performance (p<0.05); Size --> (-
size                                                       neg) operational performance
                                                           (p<0.05); Size --> (-neg) business
                                                           performance (p<0.10); E-
                                                           transactions --> business
                                                           performance (p<0.10);
Supplier willingness to invest (SWTI),    供应商的投资意愿,供应 Environmental munificence --> (-
                                                           Without moderating effects:
supplier involvement, buyer               商参与,采购沟通,采购 Supplier involvement --> SWTI
communication, buyer assistance,          协助,关系压力,汽车组 (p<0.01); Buyer communication -->
relational stress, automotive assemblers, 装商,组件形式          SWTI (p<0.01); Buyer assistance --
component types                                            > SWTI (p<0.01); Relational stress --
                                                           > (-neg) SWTI (p<0.10);
                                                           Assemblers 1-4 --> (-neg) SWTI
                                                           (p<0.01); Electrical and electronics --
                                                           > SWTI (p<0.10); With moderating
                                                           effects: Supplier involvement -->
                                                           SWTI (p<0.01); Buyer
                                                           communication --> SWTI (p<0.01);
Unit production costs, fast delivery,     单位生产成本,快速送达 ISO 2000 --> (-neg) fast delivery
flexibility, cycle time, design quality,  ,灵活性,            (p<0.05); ISO 2000 --> design
manufacturing quality, customers'         周期时间,设计质量,生 quality (p<0.05); ISO 1994 -->
satisfaction, market share, employees'    产质量,客户满意度,市 flexibility (p<0.05); ISO 2000 -->
satisfaction, ISO 1994 certification, ISO 场份额,员工满意度,ISO customers (p<0.05); ISO 2000 -->
2000 certification, customers, suppliers, 1994证书,ISO2000证书 information (p<0.05); ISO 2000 -->
workforce, information, design, process ,客户                design (p<0.05); ISO 2000 -->
management, leadership                                     process management (p<0.05); ISO
                                                           1994 --> information (p<0.05); ISO
                                                           2000 certified companies apply
Buyer investment, Supplier price               采购投资,供应商价格    strong support for this proposition
                                                             with the coefficient for the effect of
                                                             demand on subsequent buyer
                                                             investment both negative and highly
                                                             significant (std. coeff. = -0.107, p <
                                                             0.01 ). These results highlight the
                                                             advantages of a long term
                                                             relationship that the supplier can
                                                             accrue by bearing the NR costs.
capability evaluation; strategic risk          能力评估,战略风险评估   2nd order construct of strategic
assessment; contracutual completeness;         ,合同完整性,关系承诺   evaluation showed significant
relationship commitment; cooperation;          ,合作,外包业绩表现,   representation from both capability
outsourcing performace; Inspection cost,       调查成本,生产成本,产   evaluation and strategic risk
Production cost, Quality of output             出的质量          assessment (p<0.05); strategic
                                                             evaluation--> contractual
                                                             completeness (p<0.05); strategic
                                                             evaluation--> relationship
                                                             management (p<0.05); relationship
fleet diversification, load factor, leasing,   设备的多元化,负荷元素   managementranking can be largely
                                                             Hedgescore -->outsourcing
domestic, fuel hedging, cash on hand,          ,租赁,本土,汽油的套   predicted by mesaures such as fleet
financial leverage, hedgescore (sum of         期保值,现金,财务杠杆   diversification (-neg), load factor (+),
hedging activity indicators, used as a         作用,套期保值的评分(   leasing (-neg), domestic (-neg), and
ranking)                                       套期保值行为的指数加总   cash on hand (+) (approx. 75.5% of
                                               ,被用来做排名)      variance accounted for)

transformational leadership, patient           可变化领导力,病人安全   Transformational leadership -->
safety culture, patient safety initiatives,    文化,病人安全创新,病   Patient safety initiatives (p<0.05) ;
patient safety outcomes                        人安全产出         transformational leadership -->
                                                             patient safety culture (p<0.001) ;
                                                             patient safety culture --> patient
                                                             safety initiatives (p<0.001) ; patient
                                                             safety initiatives --> patient safety
                                                             outcomes (p<0.001)

knowledge development capacity,                知识发展能力,知识资本   For cost-efficient imitators and
intellectual capital, product-specific         ,产品特定反应能力,营   costly innovators, knowledge
responsiveness, profitablity, financial        利性,企业的财务健康    development capacity -->
health of the firm                                           responsiveness (p<0.01). For these
                                                             firms and also cost-efficient
                                                             innovators, knowledge development
                                                             capacity x intellectual capital -->
                                                             responsiveness (p<0.01) ; For cost-
                                                             efficient imitators and costly
                                                             innovators, there is some sign of
Use of info relevant to operational          对于运营卓越性的相关性   Compustat profitability showed
excellence, use of info relevant to          息的使用,对于客户关系   statisically significant, positive
customer intimacy, use of information        的相关信息的使用,对于   Pearson and Spearman rank
relevant to product leadership, strategic    产品领导力,战略运营卓   correlations with the derived
operational excellence performance,          越性,战略客户关系的相   efficiency levels (p < 0.01). DEA-
strategic customer intimacy perforance,      关信息的使用        based efficiency value is a strong
strategic product leadership performance                   predictor of profitability (B=18.043
                                                           and p<0.001). Results showed
                                                           annual sales and the percentage of
Price pressure, production complexity,       价格压力,生产复杂性,   products in the mature phase of the
                                                           price pressure--> buyer-to-supplier
contract duration, buyer-to-supplier         合同期,采购供应商监管   governance (p<0.001); price
governance, peer-to-peer governance,         ,相互之间的监管,供应   pressure -->(-neg) peer-to-peer
supplier's conduct                           商行为           governance (p<0.05); production
                                                           governance(p<0.001); peer-to-peer

psychologyical contract violation,           心理合约的违背,依赖性   subtle & deceitful unethical activity --
dependability, benevolence, deceit,          ,善良,欺诈,隐约     > psychological contract violation (p
subtle                                                     < 0.001); Psychological contract
                                                           violation -->(-neg) supplier's
                                                           assessment of buyer dependability
                                                           and benevolence (p < 0.001); length
                                                           of relationship --> benevolence (p <

contract, transaction-specific investment,   合约,特定交易投资,关   significant negative relationships
relational norms, trust,                     系行为,信任,机会主义   were found between contracts and
opportunism,relationship performance,        ,关系业绩,交易的复杂   opportunism (B = -0.196, p < 0.01)
transactional complexity, personal           性,个人关系,关系的方   and TS investments and
relatioship, relationship direction          向             opportunism (B = -0.247, p <0.01).
                                                           Effect of contracts on relationship
                                                           performance is positive and
                                                           significant (B= -0.152, p < 0.01).

supplier involvement, customer               供应商参与,客户参与,   supplier involvement, customer
involvement, cross-functional                跨部门的参与,合作性能   involvement and cross-functional
involvement, collaborative competence,       力,市场业绩表现,项目   involvement all appear to be
market performance, project                  业绩表现。         significant first order constructs
performance                                                indicative of the second order
                                                           construct of collaborative
                                                           competence (all at p<0.01).
                                                           Collaborative competence -->
                                                           project performance (p<0.01);
citation counts                              引证计数          projectfound that the field has been
                                                           It was performance--> market
                                                           steadily moving away from tactical
                                                           fragmented topics to more strategic
                                                           macro subjects that borrow
                                                           information from a multitud of
                                                           theories and previous literature.
                                                           rather than examining one or two
                                                           details within the supply chain,
                                                           contemporary literature has focused
                                                           on the bigger picture of the supply
Standard deviation in order placements        在次序排列中的标准方差   Two types of problem solving
                                                            methods were examined.
                                                            Invididuals that took a more abstract
                                                            approach were found to make better
                                                            ordering decisions than those that
                                                            took a concrete approach. Later
                                                            experiments tested the impact of
                                                            the level of information and the
                                                            efficency of the two problem solving
abnormal returns, cash to cycle, business 不正常回报,现金周期,       methods. No signficant difference
                                                            abnormal returns is a significant
diversification, geographic diversification, 生意多元化,地理多元化    function of cash-to-cash cycle (neg,
verticle relatedness,                        ,垂直关系          p<0.025), geographic diversification
                                                            (-neg, p<0.1), verticle relatedness

logistics operations knowledge                物流运营知识的产生,物   LOKG -->LOKD (p<0.001) ; LOKD--
generation (LOKG), LO knowledge               流运营知识的传播,物流   >LOKSI (p<0.001); LOKSI --> LOKR
dissemination (LOKD), LO knowledge            运营知识的共同解释,物   (p<0.001); LOKR --> LOPERF
shared interpretation (LOKSI), LO             流运营知识的反应,物流   (p<0.001); LOPERF-->OPERF
knowledge responsiveness (LOKR), LO           运营知识的业绩表现,物   (p<0.001) ; LOEFF-->LOPERF
performance (LOPERF), LO efficiency           流运营知识的有效性     (p<0.001) ; LOEFV-->LOPERF
(LOEFF), LO effectiveness (LOEFV), LO                       (p<0.001) ; LODIF -->LOPERF
differentiation (LODIF), organizational                     (p<0.001)
market orientation, learning orientation,     市场关注点,学习关注点   market orientation -->internal
internal integration, external integration,   ,内部整合,外部整合,   integration (p<0.001); market
external flexibility, firm's supply chain     外部灵活性,        orientation --> external integration
agility                                       企业供应链的灵活性     (p<0.001); learning orientation-->
                                                            internal integration(p<0.001);
                                                            internal integration --> firm's supply
                                                            chain agility (p<0.05); external
                                                            integration-->firm's supply chain
                                                            agility(p<0.001); external flexibility--
                                                            >firm's supply chain agility (p<0.001)
human resource management (HRM),             人力资源管理,和生产运   BUY -->(-neg) Intent to quit
job evaluations relating to production and   营有关的工作评估,与采   (p<0.01); HRM-->(-neg) intent to
operations management (POM), job             购和客户相关的工作评估   quit (p<0.05); POM-->(-neg) intent
evaluation issues relating to buyers         的问题,对于生活和工作   to quit (p<0.01); PAY-->(-neg) intent
(customers) (BUY), attitudes towards         的态度           to quit(p<0.05)
working and living conditions (CON),
factors relating to pay (PAY), migrant
work opinions of their industry (IND)

Social dimension, technical dimension,       社会维度,技术维度,促
enabler excellence, result excellence,       进者的卓越性,结果的卓
customer results, people results, society    越性,客户结果,人员结
results, key results                         果,社会结果,主要结果

Monetary quantification of differences,      不同点的财务量化指标,   Decision justification --> Monetary
decision justification, conflicting          决定判定,冲突的不同点   quant of differences (p<0.05 for
differences, detail gathering, information   ,细节手机,信息不对称   project leader, p<0.01 for cost
asymmetry, supplier information,             ,供应商信息,不确定性   analyst); Conflicting differences -->
uncertainty reduction, application           的降低,应用成功      MQD (p<0.05 for both); MQD -->
success                                                    Detail gathering (P<0.01 for both) ;
                                                           Decision justification --> detail
                                                           gathering (p<0.01 for porject
                                                           leader); Conflicting differences -->
                                                           supplier information (p<0.01 for
Upstream complexity measures, internal          上游复杂性衡量标准,内   Long supplier lead times -->(-
manufacturing complexity measures,              部生产复杂性衡量标准,   neg)schedule attainment (p<0.01),
downstream complexity measures,                 下游复杂性衡量标准,阶   unit mfg cost perfomance (p<0.05),
schedule attainment, unit manufacturing         段性成果,单位生产成本   customer satisfaction (p<0.01),
cost performance, customer satisfaction,        ,客户满意度,竞争表现   competitive performance
competitive performance                         。             (p<0.01);Unlevel MPS-->(-
                                                              neg)schedule attainment, unit mfg
                                                              cost perfomance, customer
                                                              satisfaction, competitive
                                                              performance (all p<0.01); Demand
Number of practices used per year               每年被应用的实践的数量   variability -->(-neg) schedule
(practices including empowerment, jIT,          (实践包括授权,信息交
learning culture, teamwork, supply-chain        流技术,及时生产,学习
TQM)                                            文化,团队精神,供应链

environmental uncertainty, environmental        环境不确定性,环境不相   environmental uncertainty,
dissimilarity, complementarity,                 似性,补充,兼容,沉没   environmental dissimilarity,
compatibilit, idiosyncratic investments,        成本与专属性投资,信任   complementarity, compatibility,
trust, cultural distance, relationship          ,文化差距,关系学习,   idiosyncratic investments--
learning, relationship value                    关系价值)         >rekationship learning(p<0.05) ;
                                                              relationship learning-->relationship
                                                              value (p<0.05)

supplier innovativeness, manufacturing          供应商创新,生产商业绩   For most performance measures :
performance, learning style, learning           ,学习风格,学习风格的   Supplier innovativeness-->
style alignment, mfgr's absorptive              共识,生产商的可吸收性   manufacturing performance
capacity, supplier resonsibility, supplier      能力,供应商责任,供应   (p<0.001); Manufacturer's abs cap--
importance, manufacturer performance            商的重要性,生产商业绩   >mfgr performance (p<0.01) ; For
(cost, quality, product development,            (成本,质量,产品开发   most performance measures : Fit x
delivery, flexibility)                          ,运送,灵活性)      supplier innovativeness --> mfgr
                                                              performance (p<0.05) {except non-
                                                              sig on delivery and flexiblity in low
                                                              design responsibility conditions)

buyer firm trust of the supplier firm,          采购公司对于供应商的信   buyer firm trust of the supplier -->
supplier firm performance, buyer's long-        任,供应商的业绩表现,   buyer firm's long term orientation
term orientation, supply importance,            采购的长期导向,供应重   (p<0.01) ; supplier firm's
availability of alternative suppliers, age of   要性,备选供应商的可选   performance --> buyer firm's long
relationship with supplier firm, size of        择性,与供应商关系的年   term orientation (p<0.01) {only for
buying firm, buyer's purchasing                 份,采购公司的规模,采   anglophone Canada and US cases;
experience, previous experience with the        购的购买经验,先前与供   i.e. depedent upon
supplier                                        应商的经验         individualism/collectivism}
perceived ease of use, perceived                假定的应用的简单性,假   perceived ease of use --> perceived
usefulness, intent to use a specific SC         定的有用性,应用特定供   usefulness (p<0.01) ; perceived
tech,SC tech turbulance, SC tech                应链技术的意向,供应链   usefulness--> intent to use SC tech
breadth, SC tech implementation                 技术的波动性,供应链技   (p<0.01) ; tech turbulence--> intent
                                                术的广泛性,供应链技术   to use SC tech (p<0.05); perceived
                                                的应用           ease of use x tech turbulence -->
                                                              intent to use (p<0.01); perceived
                                                              usefulness x tech turb --> intent to
                                                              use (p<0.01) ; tech breadth -->(-
                                                              neg) tech implementation (p<0.01);

Self-reported efficacy, Willingness to          自我汇报的能效,分享的   Task difficulty (-neg) --> Willingness
share, responsiveness to difficulty             意愿,对于困难的责任感   to share (p<0.01) ; Task difficulty x
                                                              task efficacy --> Willingness to
                                                              share (p<0.01)

N/A                                                           N/A

Flexibility orientation, control orientation,   灵活为导向,控制为导向   Normative pressures --> Adoption
coercive pressures, mimetic pressures,          ,强制化压力,模仿性压   (p<0.01); Coercive pressures -->
normative pressures, adoption intention         力,标准化压力,采纳意   Adoption (p<0.05); Flexibility
                                                向             orientation --> Adoption (p<0.05);
                                                              Mimetic pressure x Flexibility
                                                              orientation --> Adoption (p<0.05) ;
                                                              Coercive pressure x Flexibility
                                                              orientation (-neg) --> Adoption
                                                              (p<0.01) ; Normative pressures x
opportunism, agreeableness, teamwork,        机会主义者,同意性,团       agent cooperativeness (-neg) -->
compassion, cooperativeness ( higher         队工作,同情,合作性(       Opportunism (p<0.05) ; Relational
order construct of agreeableness,            高程度的一致性,团队工       norms (-neg) --> Opportunism
teamwork, compassion)                        作,同情心)            (p<0.05); some evidence of
                                                               interaction effect for agent
                                                               cooperativeness and relational
                                                               norms on opportunism

SC exploitation practices, SC Exploration    供应链拓展实践,供应链       Ambdextrous SC strategy -->
practices, ambidextrous SC strategy,         开发实践,具有两面性的       Combinative competitive capabilities
combinative competitve capabilities,         供应链战略,组合性竞争       (CCC) (p<0.01); CCC --> Profit level
environmental dynamism                       能力,环境多元化          (p<0.01); CCC--> Market share

announcements of ISO 14001 certif,           ISO14001认证的颁布,能   Environmental philanthropy -->
LEED certif, awards, philanthropy,           源环境领导性设计认证,       AbReturns (p<0.01); Voluntary
voluntary emissions                          奖励,慈善,自愿性排放       emission reduction (-neg) --
                                             ,                 >AbReturns (p<0.01); ISO
                                                               certification --> AbReturns (p<0.01)
                                                               ; Federal awards (-neg) --
                                                               >AbReturns (p<0.01)

Task analyzability, social ties,             任务的分析性,社会联系       task analyzability (-neg) -->
communication channel richness,              ,沟通渠道的广泛性,开       development time (p<0.01) ; task
development time                             发时间               analyzability (-neg) --> ties (p<0.01)
                                                               ; task analyzability (-neg) -->
                                                               communication channel rishness
                                                               (p<0.01) ; communication channel
                                                               richness --> development time
                                                               (p<0.01) ; communication channel
                                                               richness --> ties (p<0.01)
Setup time reduction, Small lot sizes, JIT   设定时间减少,小规模,       All JIT practices are positiely
deliveries from supplies, daily schedule     从供应商及时运输,每日       associated with aggregate
adherence, preventative maintenance,         时间表,预防性维护,设       performance. This indicates that
equipment layout, kanban usage, pull         备布局,拉出心痛,与客       each JIT practice results in
system, JIT link with customers,             户链接的及时生产,时间       improved aggregate performance
repetitive nature of masture schedule        表的重复性             even though the practice may not be
                                                               positively associated with
                                                               performance measures individually.
                                                               While most of the associations
                                                               btween individual JIT practices ad
                                                               aggregate performance are
technically oriented practices, socially     技术导向型的实践,社会   H1 is supported, given the limiation
oriented practices,                          导向型的实践        of the two-factor solution for the
                                                           knowledge-creation mechanism
                                                           variables. A significant amount of
                                                           variance (11%) in Six Sigma project
                                                           success is explained by technically
                                                           oriented knowledge-creation
                                                           practices in step 2 of the regression.
                                                           H2, regarding the incremental effect
Sufficiency, Extraneousness and              大量对于可视化和描述化
Alignment of a large menu of task            的任务目的的菜单的足够
purposes to visualizations/depictions        性,外部性和一致性

Length of cooperation, Institutionalization, 合作的长度,机构化,社   Length of cooperation --> use
Social control, Formal control,              会性控制,正式控制,业   of social control in international
performance                                  绩表现           buyer-supplier relationships.
                                                           (structural model 2: p<0.05);
                                                           Length of cooperation -->
                                                           formal control in domestic
                                                           buyer-supplier relationships.
                                                           (Model 1: p<0.01);
Top management commitment, customer          管理层承诺,客户关注点
                                                           Institutionalization --> use
                                                           H1. The relationships among of
focus, trust, design management,             ,信任,设计管理,培训   culture, quality systm design and
training, empowerment, supplier quality      ,授权,供应商质量管理   outcomes vary across large and
management, design performance,              ,设计业绩,质量信息的   small firms: 4 path coefficients
quality information usage, process quality   使用,流程质量管理,流   statistically distinct; H1 is supported.
management, process quality, product         程质量,产品质量,客户   H2. The relationship among culture,
quality, customer satisfaction               满意度。          quality system design and outcomes
                                                           vary across firms with larger and
                                                           shorter TQM durations: 5 path
                                                           coefficients statistically distinct; H2
                                                           is supported H3. The relationships
                                                           among culture, quality systm design
Citation Proportion (CP) and Balance of      引文比例,贸易平衡     andCitation Proportion: Operations
                                                           {1} outcomes vary across
Trade (BOT                                                 Management has a higher
                                                           propensity to exchange with
                                                           Marketing and Management than
                                                           with Finance. Over time, CP spikes
                                                           in Marketing and Management by
                                                           OM indicate publications on special
                                                           issues. {2} Balance of Trade: OM
                                                           has the highest citation exchange at
Uncertainty avoidance, power distance,                      Number of service offshoring
masculinity, individualism                                  projects is significantly influenced by
                                                            uncertainty avoindance (-neg),
                                                            individualism, some limited support
                                                            for impact of power distance

Organizational culture, national culture,                   Organizational culture significantly
power distance, institutional collectivism,                 impacts all Hofstede constructs
ingroup collectivism, future orientation,                   measured (some positively some
performance orientation, assertiveness,                     negatively). It's impact dominates
uncertainty avoindance, humane                              the measurement of national culture
orientation                                                 as a predictor of these constructs.

quality performance, delivery                               Various performance measures
performance, flexibility performance, cost                  differ in their dependence on
performance, cellular mfg, JIT,                             operational tactics and capabilities,
throughput time reduction, setup time                       depending on whether the cultural
reduction, tqm, spc, factory automation,                    context is collectivistic or
process redesign, EPR, MRP, ISO9000                         individualistic, Asian emerging vs.
                                                            Western industrialized. Various
                                                            significant effects . TQM significant
                                                            positive predictor of quality, delivery
Future orientation, institutional             未来为导向,机构性集体   Product quality performance
collectivism, humane orientation,             主义,人权导向,不确定   strongly dependent upon quality
uncertainty avoidance, assertiveness,         性的避免,武断性,权力   management, uncertainty
power distance, in-group collectivism,        距离,小组的集体主义,   avoidance, power distance (-sign.);
performance orientation                       业绩导向          Nevertheless the effectiveness of
                                                            these practices is highly dependent
                                                            on cultural context.
Process management capability,                 流程管理能力,沟通能力
communication cap, autonomous                  ,自主解决问题能力,工
problem solving cap,                           程、创新能力,组织性学
engineering/innovation cap,                    习能力,计划性能力,业
organizational learning cap, planning cap,     绩管理能力,质量观念,
perofrmance management cap, quality            客户导向,战略一致性,
mindset/customer orientation, strategic        管理层支持,长期导向,
alignment, top management support,             精益改进的意愿,
trust, long-term orientation, willingness to

Legal protection, government support,          法律保护,政府支持,关   Government support --> trust
importance of guanxi, trust, information       系的重要性,信任,信息   (p<0.05), information sharing
sharing, collaborative planning                分享,合作性计划      (p<0.05) and collaborative planning
                                                             (p<0.05) ; Importance of guanxi -->
                                                             information sharing (p<0.05) and
                                                             trust (p<0.05) ; trust --> information
                                                             sharing (p<0.05) and collaborative
                                                             planning (p<0.05)

Trust mode, contract mode, learning            信任模型,合同模型,学   Learning intent --> overall
intent, capability enhancement, overall        习意向,能力加强,整体   innovativeness (p<0.01 , except in
innovativeness                                 创新            presence of capability enhancement
                                                             term in model) ; Capability
                                                             enhancement --> overall
                                                             innovativeness (p<0.01) ; Learning
                                                             intent --> Capability enhanceent
                                                             (p<0.01), contract mode -->
                                                             capability enhancement (p<0.01),
                                                             Square of contract mode -->
Information sharing, Joint relationship        信息分享,联合关系努力   capability enhancement (p<0.01,
                                                             Buyer survey model: Information -
effort, Dedicated investment,                  ,特定的投资,承诺,信   sharing --> Trust (*),Commitment
Commitment, Trust, Satisfaction with           任,关系满意度,业绩    (*); Joint relationship effort--
relationship, Performance                                    >Trust(*); Dedicated investment--
                                                             >Commitment(*),Satisfaction with
                                                             relationship(*),Satisfaction with
                                                             Commitment-->Satisfaction with
Buyer influence, supplier-supplier co-         采购影响,供应商供应商   Supplier-supplier co-opetition -->
opetition, supplier performance                合作,供应商业绩      buyer influence (p<0.01); Supplier
                                                             performance --> (-neg) supplier-
                                                             supplier co-opetition (p<0.01)
Cost competitive priority, cost drivers,        成本竞争优先,成本驱动   Cost drivers x competitive priority --
flexibility competitive priority, flexibility   力,灵活竞争优先,灵活   > supply chain performance
drivers, innovativeness competitive             驱动力,创新竞争优先,   (p<0.01); Flexibility drivers x
priority, innovativeness drivers, quality       创新驱动力,质量竞争优   competitive priority --> supply chain
competitive priority, quality drivers, time     先,质量驱动力,时间竞   performance (p<0.01);
competitive priority, time drivers,             争优先,时间驱动力,生   Innovativeness drivers x competitive
business performance, supply chain              意业绩,供应链业绩表现   priority --> supply chain
performance                                                   performance (p<0.01); Supply chain
                                                              performance --> business
                                                              performance (p<0.01); Quality
                                                              drivers x competitive priority -->
                                                              supply chain performance (p<0.01);
                                                              Time drivers x competitive priority --
Statistical process control (spc), process 统计流程控制,流程智能        Labor --> process intelligence
intelligence, integration intelligence,       ,整合职能,合作智能,     (p<0.001); Facility size --> process
collaboration intelligence, parent firm       母公司规模,工厂销售,     intelligence (p<0.01); Orders
size, plant sales, # of employees, facility 员工数量,设备规模,劳       processed per month --> process
size, labor productivity, capital             动力生产能力,资本生产     intelligence (p<0.10); Number of
productivity, orders processed per month, 能力,每月订单处理量,         final product configurations -->
number of final products configurations, 最终产品数量,集中化,          process intelligence (p<0.05); % of
centralization, organizational structure      组织结构扁平化,合作,     workers with engineering degrees --
flatness, cooperation, employee               员工建议,交互式培训比     > process intelligence (p<0.10);
suggestions, percent cross trained, multi- 例,跨部门员工,问题解        Developing unique practices -->
functional employees, percentage on           决团队的比例,小组解决     process intelligence (p<0.10);
problem solving team, small group             问题,工程师比例,开发     Willingness to introduce new
problem solving, percentage of engineer 独特的实践,开发新品的           products --> process intelligence
degrees, developing unique practices,         意愿,去年的新品,平均     (p<0.001); Volume flexibility -->
willingness to introduce products, new        产品生命时间,数量灵活     process intelligence (p<0.10);
products last year, average product life      性,流程定制性,职能整     Customization --> process
time, volume flexibility, process             合,交互职能设计的努力     intelligence (p<0.05); Customer
customization, functional integration, inter- ,报废率,客户满意度。     satisfaction --> process intelligence
functional design efforts, scrap rate,                        (p<0.10) ; Plant sales --> statistical
customer satisfaction                                         process control (SPC) (p<0.10);
                                                              Labor --> SPC (p<0.10);
                                                              Centralization --> (-neg) SPC
                                                              (p<0.01); Structural flatness -->
Eco-design, source reduction, env.              环境友好设计,资源减少   Stakeholder pressures --> eco
management systems (EMS),                       ,环境管理系统,股东压   design (p<0.001); Stakeholder
stakeholders pressures, training                力,培训          pressures --> source reduction
                                                              (p<0.001); Stakeholder pressures --
                                                              > EMS (p<0.001); Stakeholder
                                                              pressures --> training (p<0.01);
                                                              Training --> EMS (p<0.001);
                                                              Training --> source reduction
                                                              (p<0.001); Training --> eco design
interaction frequency (RELINIT,                互动频率,标准化产品准   PERFINIT --> RELINIT (p<0.05);
RELSTR2, RELSTR3, etc), standardized           时任务完成,承包商的经   PERF2 --> RELSTR2 (p<0.05);
product of on-time task completion             验,分包商的经验,结构   RELSTR3 --> RELINIT (p<0.05);
(PERFINIT, PERF2, PERF3, etc),                 性内在因素,分包商的可   RELSTR 3 --> RELSTR2 (p<0.05);
contractor experience (EXP_K),                 选性,工作复杂性,日历   RELSTR3 --> PERF2 (p<0.05);
subcontractor experience (EXP_S),              年,公司规模        PERF3 --> PERF2 (p<0.05); PERF3
structural embeddedness (SEMBED),                            --> RELSTR3 (p<0.05); RELSTR4 --
subcontractor proliferation (PROLIF_S),                      > RELSTR3 (p<0.05); RELSTR4 -->
job complexity (COMPLEX), calendar                           PERF3 (p<0.05); PERF4 -->
year (YEAR), firm size (SIZE)                                PERFINIT (p<0.05); PERF4 -->
                                                             RELSTR3 (p<0.05); PERF4 -->
                                                             PERF3 (p<0.05); PERF4 --> (-neg)
                                                             RELSTR4 (p<0.05); EXP_K -->
                                                             PERFINIT (p<0.05); EXP_K -->
                                                             COMPLEX (p<0.05); COMPLEX -->
                                                             EXP_S (p<0.05); SIZE --> EXP_K
                                                             (p<0.05); SIZE --> EXP_S (p<0.05);
Captive, duration, hightech, power,            获取性,期间,高科技,   Captive --> (-neg) adj-ROA
adj_ROA, adj_margin, adj_turnover,             权力,调整的资产回报率   (p<0.01); Captive --> (-neg)
adj_cycle, clnput                              ,调整的毛利,调整的周   adj_margin (p<0.01); Captive -->
                                               转率,调整的周期,输入   adj_turnover (p<0.01); Captive -->
                                               。             adj_cycle (p<0.01); Duration -->
                                                             adj_ROA (p<0.01); Duration -->
                                                             adj_margin (p<0.01); Hightech --> (-
                                                             neg) adj_ROA (p<0.01); Hightech --
                                                             > (-neg) adj_margin (p<0.01);
                                                             Hightech --> (-neg) adj_turnover
                                                             (p<0.01); Hightech --> adj_cycle
NPD speed, emphasis on speed, top              新品开发速度,注重质量   12 of the Power --> adj_ROA
                                                             (p<0.01); 17 antecedents
mgt. support, goal clarity, newness,           ,管理层支持,目标明确   significantly (p<0.05) affect NPD
complexity, process formalization,             性,新鲜度,复杂性,流   speed. The five non-significant
process concurrency, iteration, learning,      程形成化,流程合作,重   (p>0.05) relationships are emphasis
team leadership, team experience, team         复,学习,团队领导力,   on speed, newness, complexity,
dedication, internal integration, functional   团队经验,团队投入度,   functional diversity, and team co-
diversity, external integration, team          内部整合,只能多样性,   location.
empowerment, team co-location                  外部整合,团队授权,团

Overall disruption risk, search for            整体干扰风险,需要备选   Technological uncertainty -->
alternate source, probability of disruption,   资源干扰的可能性,干扰   probability of disruption (p<0.01);
magnitude of disruption, technological         的强度,技术性不确定性   Market thinness --> probability of
uncertainty, market thinness, item             ,市场狭小,产品定制化   disruption (p<0.01); Item importance
customization, item importance                 ,产品重要性        --> magnitude of disruption
                                                             (p<0.001); Item customization -->
                                                             magnitude of disruption (p<0.001);
                                                             Market thinness --> magnitude of
                                                             disruption (p<0.001); Technological
Configuration capacity (CC), inventory       组装能力,库存水平,产   Multivariate results indicate that five
level (IL), product complexity (PC),         品复杂性,需求曲线,订   interactions are significant: IL x PC
demand skew (DS), order fill rate, unit fill 单满足率,产品满足率    (p<0.001); IL x DS (p<0.001); PC x
rate                                                       DS (p<0.001); CC x PC x DS
                                                           (p<0.05); IL x PC x DS (p<0.001).
                                                           Univariate results: CC --> order fill
                                                           rate (p<0.001); IL --> unit fill rate
                                                           (p<0.001); DS --> unit fill rate

Operational performance, business          运营业绩,公司业绩,内     Internal integration --> operational
performance, internal integration,         部整合,客户整合,供应     performance (p<0.001); Customer
customer integration, supplier integration 商整合             integration --> operational
                                                           performance (p<0.001); CI x SI -->
                                                           operational performance (p<0.05);
                                                           Internal integration --> business
                                                           performance (p<0.001)

Rational persuasion, legitimating,          理性劝说,合法性的,咨    Government regulation --> (-neg)
consultation, ingratiation, inspirational   询,奉承,鼓舞性的劝说    commitment (p<0.05); Top mgt.
appeals, coalition, government              ,联合,政府监管,管理    support --> commitment (p<0.01);
regulation, top mgt. support, customer      层,支持,客户压力,项    Return of project --> commitment
pressure, return of project, upward         目回报,向上的方向,向    (p<0.01); Rational persuation -->
direction, downward direction,              下的方向,承诺        commitment (p<0.05); Inspirational
commitment                                                 appeals --> commitment (p<0.001);
                                                           Consultation --> commitment
                                                           (p<0.05); Ingratiation --> (-neg)
              Items         Hours
Before 2006            39            5
Yr 2007                61           15
Yr 2008                45            9
Yr 2009                30            5
Yr 2010                39            8
                      214           42

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