11-nml-nib-international-laenderbericht-spanien by yaofenji

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									nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien




NML-NIB im internationalen Kontext

Länderbericht: Spanien
1      Higher education in Spain............................................................................................................ 2
    1.1 Current situation of the Spanish University System................................................................... 2
    1.2 National Strategies and Objectives of eLearning ....................................................................... 2
2      eLearning Developments in Spain............................................................................................... 3
    2.1 Past developments of eLearning in Spain .................................................................................. 3
    2.2 Present and future situation of eLearning in Spain .................................................................... 4
3      Present scenes of eLearning in the Superior Education in Spain............................................. 8
    3.1 Technologies of the Information and the Communications in the Spanish University System . 8
    3.2 Organizational models of the Virtual Campus in Spain........................................................... 10
4      The public involved in the use of eLearning in Spain ............................................................. 11
    4.1 Motivations and barriers in the use of eLearning..................................................................... 11
    4.2 Resources, organization and formation of the public............................................................... 12
5      Successful models of eLearning at Higher Education Institutions in Spain.......................... 12
6      Attitude of Superior Education concerning eLearning in Spain............................................ 15
7      eLearning strategies and services in Spanish University System ........................................... 16
    7.1 Services TIC and eLearning in Spain....................................................................................... 17
    7.2 Planning eLearning in the Spanish universities........................................................................ 18
8      Standards and quality of eLearning in Spain .......................................................................... 19
Bibliography ...................................................................................... Fehler! Textmarke nicht definiert.
WEBSITES .......................................................................................................................................... 22




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                                                              1
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien




1         Higher education in Spain
1.1       Current situation of the Spanish University System
The Spanish University network has grown considerably in the last the two decades. At the present
time, there are 73 universities, both public and private centres.

Due to this independent character, the Universities, public or private, offer two types of degrees:
        a) Own titles of each University
        b) Official Titles with validity throughout Spain

According to the legal form the typography of Spanish universities is the following one:

      •   Public University. - It grants university official and accredited titles. It is financed by the Sta-
          te.
      •   Private University. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the registered stu-
          dents themselves. It is ruled by its norms of organization and operation.
      •   University of the Church. - It grants official and accredited titles. It is financed by the regis-
          tered students themselves and the Church. It is ruled by its norms of organization and opera-
          tion. In addition to the official degrees, they grant ecclesiastical titles.

A total of 73 universities offer Superior Education in Spain, (study can be consulted in Education and
Science         Ministry.         Document         hypertext         available       in       Internet:
http://www.mec.es/educa/ccuniv/html/estadistica/Datos/DATOS0506.pdf) distributed as follows:

      •   50 Public Universities
      •   23 Private Universities (7 of which are of the Church)

•       The anticipated number of university students for course 2005-06 is of 1.442.081 (1.4% less
than the previous course), which confirms the reduction of matriculation in the last years in Spanish
universities, with annual reductions around 1,5%. This is due to reduction of the population that should
have signed up for university, i.e., young people born in the middle of the 80s.

•        Nevertheless, whereas Public Universities have a tendency to have less students (aggravated by
the fact that the private sector of the centres have moved to the public sector), the Private Universities
and Universities of the Church experience an increasing tendency in the number of registered students,
due to a parallel increase in the number of centres (16 new private universities in the 10 last years).

•       In the international scope, the Spanish situation has improved substantially in the last years. In
2003, out of one hundred people ranging 25 to 64 years old, 25 studied superior education (in 1995 only
16). The results are still better in the population between 25 and 34 years old, since it goes from 27% in
1995 to 38% in 2003. In Spain, the percentage of women with university studies is superior to men:
19% within the population of 24 to 64 years old and 30% between the population of 24 to 34 years old.


1.2       National Strategies and Objectives of eLearning
The ministries of Education and Science (www.mec.es) and Industry, Tourism and Commerce
(www.mityc.es), this last one through the Public Organization Enterprise Red.es (www.red.es), impel
Program Internet in the Classroom (http://www.internetenelaula.es/portal) in collaboration with gov-
ern provinces.

Program Internet in the Classroom counts with a budget of 453 million euros for the period 2005-08.

Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                            2
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


The main objectives of this program are the following ones:

      •   To guarantee the effective use of the existing computer science equipment in the educational
          centres and to reinforce it with budget specifically directed towards the classrooms.
      •   To eliminate the barriers that make difficult the use of the TIC (Technologies of Information
          and Communication) in the educational context, increasing the confidence in the technology
          and the services associated (support and advising), distributing formation to the educational
          ones to guarantee a use adapted to their necessities and offering services and contents of util-
          ity.
      •   To harness the communication of the families with the educational centres making use of the
          new technologies of the information and communication.
      •   To make specific performances directed to the use of the TIC on the part of students with spe-
          cial educational necessities.


2         eLearning Developments in Spain
2.1       Past developments of eLearning in Spain
The use of personal computer burst upon the scene at the beginning of the 80s in Spain. It implied an
increase of the possibilities to the world of the formation since it offered an individualized way of
learning.

It was in 1986, when the first modules, known as "Education attended by computer" (EAO) were de-
signed by different companies.

Out of the 73 Spanish universities, two of them offer remote instruction: “Universidad Nacional de
Educación a Distancia” (www.uned.es) set up in 1972, and "Universitat Oberta de Catalunya"
(www.uoc.edu) established in 1994.

In the 90s, products in CD-I and D-ROM were developed. About the middle of the1990s there was in
Spain a considerable group of companies and institutions working on important projects like Interac-
tive Anaya, Telephone I+D, Chadwyck-Healey, BSI Multimedia, Espasa Calpe, Zeta Multimedia,
Creativity and Technology, Edicinco, FYCSA...

In the second half of the 90s, the beginning of the learning online is stressed. The companies of the
technological sector introduce the use of Internet in their formativa offer.

In that year, the 2000 most important companies systematized online learning incorporating the
courses in their corporative networks or intranets offering an alternative to the current continuous for-
mation (AENA, Alcatel, Oracle, Madrid Box, IBM, ENDESA, Ferrovial, UOC, SCH).

In Spain, the use of the platforms Open Source (free software) is more frequent in the scope of public
the university formation. According to a study of Moodle (one of the platforms open source more ex-
tended in the world) in the 2004, 92 Spanish educational centers used platforms of free software.

In 2002, a new concept is introduced to comprise formation through the Internet: the Blended Learn-
ing or mixed formation. It consists of combining online learning with the normal classes.

This synthesis of the brief history of eLearning, shows that the private company and the educational
institutions are those that have impelled the east market in Spain. Running parallel with this, the public
universities have been developing their own models of eLearning around open sources (or platforms or
tools). The private universities and schools of business have also being, progressively, incorporating
the modality online in their catalogues.

Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       3
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien



2.2       Present and future situation of eLearning in Spain

In 2005, Millward Brown made a study that, through personal interviews and questionnaires, ap-
proached to a sample of 40 people in charge of Human Resources of great companies and organiza-
tions. The result of that study was the: ‘e-learning in the Public Administration and the Great Com-
pany Spain 2005’ report, according to which this modality of education/earning has suffered three
phases from its appearance in Spain:

      •   Launching - Revolution (Until the 2000): it slightly agrees with the fascination towards every-
          thing related to the new technologies. This change is like a revolution of the formation and the
          future of the sector.

The Bricall Report (2000) showed that practically all Spanish universities had carried out initiatives
that implied the use of the TIC in the three main described scopes of application:

      •   Management: fundamentally to spread information on the own university (history, location,
          supply, etc), as well as to allow the access to certain services (auto matriculation or consulta-
          tion of file).
      •   Formation: in order to extend the supply of its courses, as much of degree as of post degree.
      •   Investigation: in order to facilitate the access to bibliographical bottoms and the contact, in
          real time, with investigators of other countries.
      •   Beginnings - Deception (2001-2002): it had multiple problems of acceptance and implanta-
          tion. Formats and technical contents were of little quality and problems.
      •   Present situation - Relocation (2003-2006): the technical contents and aspects have improved
          clearly. It is considered a useful methodology that complements the current formation.

AEFOL (Spanish Association of Formation On Line) esteem that in year 2004 more than two million
residents in Spain made some course of formation through the Internet. Nevertheless, the director of
this association, Jose Lozano, indicates: "e-learning in Spain is in a process of maturation and devel-
opment, but simultaneously it undergoes such symptoms of stagnation of our society of the informa-
tion and the low indices of connection to Internet that there is in our country" (Document hypertext
available                           in                             Internet                         in:
http://www.consumer.es/web/es/tecnologia/internet/2005/07/28/144050.php?page=4 ).

According to the “Estudio General de Medios” of the Association for Research Media Communica-
tion, the evolution of users (individual in thousands) of Internet in Spain is the following one:




The annual report eEspaña analyzes the Development of the Society of the Information in Spain. The
report, besides to present/display a general perspective of the Society of the Information in the world
and the position of Spain in the European surroundings, continues the study of the main variables in
the use of the TIC by companies, citizens and Administrations, as well as the specific analysis of the
eSociedad, electronic commerce, eBanca, eSalud, eLearning and initiates in previous years. (More
information in http://www.fundacionauna.org/areas/25_publicaciones/publi_00.asp)
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                        4
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien



According to the report eEspaña the relation of Spanish users with the European ones is the following
one:




In the last years the scope of application of the TIC has registered a significant increase, particularly
from the point of view of the supply of courses, commercial programmes and initiatives destined to
cover individual an increasing demand. This supply includes practically all the educational levels and
it even extends to studies of third cycle along with regulated studies of smaller rank and not always
ties to degrees or programmes.



2.2.1 Initiatives of eLearning market in Spain

The actors of eLearning market in Spain are:

    •   Developer of software
    •   Generating of content
    •   Virtual Centres of formation
    •   Websites of formation

The companies and the educational institutions have been the actors who have allowed the develop-
ment of eLearning in Spain. At the moment the formation online is in continuous growth, but its pene-
tration in the companies is still small: 7% of the total of the corporative formation oscillate between
4% and, although it gets to reach 15% or 20% in the group of the greater companies of the country.

The different actors from the market have managed eLearning in different ways. As far as the devel-
opment of initiatives of university institutions is concerned, two universities should be mentioned:

    •   UNED: National University of Remote Education (UNED), is a public University of state
        scope, created in 1972, as a result of the contained innovating principles in the General Law of
        Education of 1970.
    •   UOC: "Universitat Oberta de Catalunya" is an innovating institution, created with the impulse
        of the “Generalitat de Catalunya” in 1994. It is a university private in its studies in Castilian
        language.

Universities like the Polytechnic of Madrid, Carlos III of Madrid, and of course the UNED, in the 90s,
networks of videoconference classrooms were created through which remote instruction classes in real
time were distributed. Later, these universities also incorporated the use of the Internet, offering totally
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                         5
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


remote courses or mixed courses combining the use of both technologies. However, the general ten-
dency of the Spanish universities has been the one to decide directly on the use of the Internet, as
much as technology of support to current education (what blended is denominated learning, or b-
learning), like of support to the remote education (e-learning).

On the other hand, the rest of universities (current ones) develop free software that allows them to
generate campus and/or courses virtual on line (for example virtual campus MIT-UPV Exchange of
the Polytechnic University of Valencia developed with the Technological Institute of Massachusetts).
Private institutions generate their own virtual campuses subcontracting suppliers of software (Virtual
Campus CEU).

This is the percentage of use of the alternatives of virtual formation in Spain according to AEFOL:

    •   Private and Consulting Companies: 49,8%
    •   University: 28,4%
    •   Websites: 10,5%
    •   Administration: 8%
    •   Private Schools: 2,5%



2.2.2 SWOT Analysis of eLearning in Spain

We were at crucial moments for the taking off of an wide application of the TIC in the university edu-
cation, that reaches the critical volume able to initiate a true process of change. For this to be feasible,
the Conference of Directors of Spanish Universities (www.crue.org) indicated several types of condi-
tions:

    •   Access of students and professors to the appropriate infrastructure.
    •   Development of methodologies for the educational advantage of the Tics.
    •   Development of educational materials based on Tics.
    •   Formation of the teaching staff and the students.
    •   Promotion of the use of the Technologies of the Information and the Communications.

The conditions that have delayed the development of eLearning in the Universities must follow three
principles:

    •   Technological: Little introduction of the Technologies of the Information and investment in
        TIC
    •   Cultural: few efforts in continuous formation, the formation considered cost, non investment,
        little culture of the workers on TIC, lack implication government team, lack of motivation of
        teaching staff and PAS
    •   Political: Lack of effective results of the impulses to the Society of the Information, lack of
        regulation of the Quality, lack of official certifications, and imbalance between Supply and
        Demand by the absence of political leadership.

Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats of eLearning in Spain according to the Association of
Suppliers of e-Learning (www.apel.es):




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                         6
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien




Weaknesses                                             Threats
> The atomization of the Supply                        > Little formation of the human resources
> Slow adaptation to the necessities and expec-        > Considered Formation "cost" and not
tations of the demand                                  an "strategic investment"
> Insufficient development of services                 > Proactive management of the human capital
> Limitations cultural and practical to respond        is not a "declaration of intentions"
to the challenge to provide solutions                  > Possible rejection of the workers
> Problems to accede to financial resources of         > Low "computer science culture"
development                                            > Reduction of budgets in formation of the
> Deficiencies in the specialized development          companies or delay of the performances
of personnel                                           > Reduction of the investment in investigation,
                                                       development and innovation of the suppliers.

Strengths                                              Opportunities
> The companies of traditional formation begin to      > Increase of PCs connected to networks in the
have specific weight inside del market                 work
> Tending strategic alliances                          > Consolidation of the Society of the Information
> Advantage in unit costs of formation                 > Adaptation from the supply to the country
                                                       > Immediacy of learning actions oriented to the
                                                       business
                                                       > Formation in TIC of the new generations
                                                       > Tendency to the implantation in all the coun-
                                                       tries mature increasing
                                                       > Tendency according to the demand
                                                       > Favourable European and Spanish Frame politi-
                                                       cal
                                                       > Systems Public of support to the Continuous
                                                       Formation



2.2.3 Tendencies of eLearning in Spain

According to J. Lozano, AEFOL president, "is necessary that the Administration and the Government
know how to discover in e-learning a fundamental strategic sector, because is the heir of the traditional
knowledge, that must distribute through the technologies of information and communication; the for-
mation in century XXI has to use the new technologies " (“eLearning” in Consumer, Document hyper-
text                   available                    in                    Internet                    in:
http://www.consumer.es/web/es/tecnologia/internet/2005/07/28/144050.php?page=4). On the other
hand, P. Martin thinks that the formation online in Spain is going to continue growing, although in the
mid term is not foreseeable that he does it to a rate greater than the present one. In Spain there have
already been some exemplary initiative in this field, like for example the creation of the Defending of
the User of eLearning.

According to, the Association of Suppliers of eLearning the tendencies as far as the supply happen
through 3 stages:

    •   Centre centred in Technological Solutions
    •   Design and elaboration of contents
    •   Integral and Added Value Services

According to “Capital Humano” Magazine, and taking care of the triangle of eLearning, the tendencies
in each one of the three slopes can be transformed of the following way:
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                      7
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
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eLearning           > New technologies: reduction of costs through a system of virtual meeting
                    (video conference, chat, forum of discussion)
                    > eLearning live: sessions of direct formation in through Internet, using com-
                    plementarily telephone or voIP
Companies           > To bet by fast, short and focused processes of learning
                    > Return of the investment, looking for indicating that they allow to evaluate re-
                    sults.
Contents            > To personalize of the formation
                    > eLearning combined: suitable contents for defined profiles
                    > Methodology of implantation of the formation: through the motivation of the
                    person who is going to participate in the formation


3       Present scenes of eLearning in the Superior Education in Spain
It is obvious that the learning necessities of the greater citizens are every time, prioritizing the educa-
tion and the formation for the life and the work. In this frame, the University has to be prepared to face
in the next years the qualitative changes, deeper radicals and since it reorganized his operation based
on the printed book (Drucker, 1992). These changes are going to be in good part caused by the effects
of the TIC on the functions carried out by the University: formation, investigation and, in general,
benefit of services to the society. In the educational scope, a policy of technical and pedagogical for-
mation, motivation and investment in TIC is required.


3.1        Technologies of the Information and the Communications in the Spanish Uni-
           versity System

In the last years the universities have advanced in the implementation of the TIC in their daily activi-
ties, in the aspects of management and formation, as therefore they demonstrate diverse works to it
(eEspaña 2004).

The report elaborated by the CRUE (Conference of directors of the Spanish Universities) call: "The
Technologies of the Information and the Communications in the Spanish University System" analyze
the implications of the TIC in each one of these areas:



3.1.1 The TIC and the management

In the scope of the administration the services have been extended that the universities offer through
the network, simplifying many of the bureaucratic tasks that the personnel is itself forced to carry out.
The data come from the report of the Auna Foundation for the years 2003 and 2004, based on the di-
rect observation of the Web pages of 69 Spanish universities during the months of December of 2002
and 2003.

The services on line supplied by the Spanish universities are:

    •   93% offer customized information, that is to say, specifically directed to students, educational
        and personal of administration and services. Within this type of information they occupy an
        outstanding place: the consultation of academic files, the academic state of the request of
        scholarships and titles, the state of the matriculation and the marks of selectivity (exam to ac-
        cess university).
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                        8
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


    •   As regards the general information, the following aspects are included: relative to the educa-
        tional management (hour, educational supply, etc.) direct video and, cultural agendas, aspects
        magazine channel audio on the university. The information concludes that the information of-
        fered by the universities in the Internet displays levels of very high development and quality.
    •   28.6 % have tools multimedia, being the most frequent systems: webcam, virtual visits, audio
        video and/or of presentation of the university, institutional subjects and acts, etc. However, the
        universities have followed a different affluent evolution with respect to this type of tools.
        While the public ones have reduced them, the prevailed ones have increased them as main in-
        struments of presentation.
    •   67% of the universities allow the access to educational material (material of support to teach-
        ing, didactic electronic and material magazines).



3.1.2 The TIC and the formation

Perhaps it is in the area of the formation where the greater advances have taken place. The expansion
of open universities has transformed the University, at the same time that is harnessing a greater diver-
sification and development of the models of superior education. An example of it is “Universitat
Oberta de Catalunya”, in addition to the UNED, that offers degree education and than 500 courses
related more to the permanent formation. However, except both institutions, there are few universities
where titles of official degrees through formation can be obtained online, being centred this educa-
tional supply in post degree courses, own specialization and titles.

In the course 2002, more than half of the Spanish universities (36 of the 68 existing ones) offered
formation through some virtual campus, existing 28 virtual campuses, 23 pertaining to a single uni-
versity and 5 integrated by several. A course later, the number of virtual campuses had ascended to 49:
44 pertaining to a single university and 5 intercollegiate students (Auna Foundation, 2004).

Even so, Spain is far behind the countries of the European Union in the use of tools of eFormation in
the companies as in the use of contents and eLearning courses by individuals. With regards to the inte-
gration of the New Technologies in our classrooms, the situation improves gradually and the political
commitments bet for that reason.

According to the report eEspaña 2005, and taking like variable the percentage from formation users on
line with respect to the number of users of Internet, Spain is below the average of the European Union
and appears between the set of European countries with smaller rates of introduction of formation
through the Internet.

Percentage of users of the Internet and formation on line respect to the total of the population. UE-25,
2004 in % (eEspaña 2005)




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       9
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Projektleitung: Johann Günther
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The majority of the universities as soon as they supply courses that use exclusively the new technolo-
gies like transmission means, but that these usually work like complementary mechanism of actual
teaching. The stages of development of the Spanish universities in the use of the Web are:

      •   Phase first: Availability of webs informative that offers general information on the university.
          At the moment all the universities have this type of information
      •   Phase second: Existence of "virtual secretariats" where the university community accedes not
          only to customized information but it can also make managements on line. At the moment
          85% of the universities have this type of information
      •   Phase third: Virtual management that goes from the accomplishment of simple administrative
          transactions (issue of certificates) to some more complex (matriculation)
      •   Phase fourth (the present time): Incorporation of resources on line for educational aims that
          serve as support to the present formation (virtual classrooms and campuses).


3.1.3 The TIC and the investigation

The use of the Internet closely is related to RedIRIS, that counts on 250 affiliated institutions, funda-
mentally universities and public investigation organisms, and a potential demand of 500,000 users.
The services that RedIRIS provides are, basically the support of a basic infrastructure of transport and
the services of communications, among which distribution lists are emphasized.


3.2        Organizational models of the Virtual Campus in Spain

The eLearning in the superior education can be constituted more as a complement of the traditional
forms of education or as a strategic pillar of the university. According to the academic director of the
UOC, A Sangrá, there are five forms of application of e-learning in the universities:

      •   Current University that introduces virtual elements in its educational dynamics. Examples of
          this model is the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), the Complutensian University of
          Madrid (UCM), University of Oviedo (UNIOVI), Pompeu-Fabra University (UPF) or the
          University Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M)
      •   Current University with virtual university extension: a widely extended model at universities.
      •   Virtual University based on the traditional university: The incorporation in a traditional uni-
          versity of a virtual university working along with the traditional one. It can be the case of the
          University Ramon-Llull (URL), with masters exclusively online or the MBAs of universities
          like Stanford or Harvard.
      •   Virtual University as virtual organization the representative model is the distant learning Uni-
          versity Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) or universities like the UNED.
      •   Common interuniversity virtual Spaces are based on having an unique virtual point of contact
          to several universities. According to Auna Foundation, examples in Spain are:

G9 Group                     ADA Ma-         Intercampus        “Instituto universi-    Universia
                             drid                               tario de postgrado”
Cantabria                    Alcalá          Autónoma de        Carlos III              745 universities in
Castilla-La Mancha           Autónoma        Barcelona          Autónoma de             collaboration with
Extremadura                  de Madrid       Barcelona          Barcelona               the BSCH. Is
Illes Balears                Carlos III      Girona             Alicante                greater university
La Rioja                     Complutense     Lleida             Santillana              website in Span-
Oviedo                       Politécnica     Oberta de                                  ish-Portuguese.
País Vasco                   de Madrid       Catalunya
Pública de Navarra           Rey Juan        Politécnica de
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                        10
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
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Zaragoza                    Carlos           Catalunya
                                             Pompeu Fabra
                                             Rovira i Virgili


4       The public involved in the use of eLearning in Spain
The public involved in the use of eLearning in Spain bears in mind: students, teaching staff, and ad-
ministrative staff. Throughout this point, we analyzed their expectations and difficulties in using
eLearning, as well as the resources, the organization and formation of the three public centres in the
use of the TIC and eLearning.


4.1     Motivations and barriers in the use of eLearning

According to the report “TIC in Spanish universities” (CRUE, 2005) the introduction of the TIC re-
sponds as much to a necessity of the society (demand) like of the University itself (Supply).

                                                Obstacles
Demand                                               Supply
> Little information of society to make satisfac-    > Lack of an institutional strategy
tory use of some aspects of the TIC.                 > Lack of motivation of the university personnel
> Financial restrictions.                            > Lack of financial resources
                                               Necessities
Demand                                               Supply
> The college students have abilities and new        > Impulse of the investigation
competitions to use the technologies.                > Competitiveness: Formation, Investigation and
> Increase in the competition (public, private and Management
corporative universities).

From the point of view of the supply (University), the main obstacles for the development of eLearn-
ing is the resistance that personnel college to student and the lack of resources.

The main motivations in the use of eLearning for the students are:
   • Fast access to the formative material
   • Interaction with teaching staff
   • Customized education
   • Educational Experience multimedia
   • Agile Interchange of information between companions
   • Ability in the use of the TIC

Motivations in the use of eLearning for the teaching and administrative staff are:
   • Improvement quality in teaching
   • Effective File of the documentation
   • Easy access to the information
   • Fast and customized Authorization
   • Improvement job stream

Difficulties in the development for the teaching and administrative staff are:
    • Lack of motivation> Lack of financing
    • Lack of implication of the government team
    • Ignorance
    • Absence of strategy
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                    11
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien




4.2     Resources, organization and formation of the public

According to the report "Technologies of the Information and the Communications in the Spanish
University System" (CRUE, 2004), in the last years it is confirmed that the increase of the importance
granted to this type of technologies in the society has been reflected in the budgets of the universities.
The relevance they have reached in the Spanish universities can be seen in the annual average increase
in the budget destined to TIC:

                                   2000               2001               2002               2003
% Universities               40,63%              46,88%             53,13%            68,73%
Average budget               1.661.259           1.795.704          1.962.383         2.357.319
Annual average increase                          8,09%              9,28%             20,13%

In relation to the number of students the average cost is approximately of 180 euros, making 30% of
the universities a cost superior to 200 euros by student.

The average cost by teaching and administrative staff ascends to 3,963 and 2,200 euros, respectively,
although there are important differences between the universities, in such a way that only one out of
four is situated in a rank of +/- 25% of the average value.

The following factor to consider is the number of degrees, since the catalogue of each university can
count on a number different from titles. The average value of the total budget of TIC by degree is su-
perior to the 78,300 euros.

The average budget of TIC based comes from human resources is:

Total budget of TIC by student                    177,33 euros
Total budget of TIC by teaching staff             3.963,11 euros
Total budget of TIC by administrative             2.199,48 euros
staff

On the other hand, and following information available in this same report, the average number of
students by each person who works in TIC is approximately 500, whereas the one of PDI and PAS is
33 and 16, respectively.

Finally it is possible to indicate that the universities do not invest too much in formation in TIC and
eLearning (less of 11% of the annual budget of formation). Consequently, the material resources and
the supply of formation courses are not too abundant.

Less than 50% of the universities offer courses of formation to their personnel, normally with own
personnel and in the same universities, with sufficient freedom of schedules. More than 65% of the
universities they use tools of remote instruction in the development of these courses.


5     Successful models of eLearning at Higher Education Institutions in
Spain
In Spain, the distant educational offer is concentrated in two institutions: the National University of
remote Education, UNED, a public university with more than thirty years of existence, and the most
modern one “Universitat Oberta de Catalunya” (UOC). They are two forms to understand remote edu-
cation, the relation with the student and the use of the Network.

Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       12
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


UNED a public, dependent university of the Ministry of Education and Science, founded in 1972, has
nowadays more than 170,000 students. The UNED offers 25 official degrees that include degrees of
sciences, engineering, law, philology. These titles are equivalent to those of any other public univer-
sity:

    •   Reasonable price. The price of the matriculation is the same one, ranging from 400 euros to
        750 euros per course. In addition, it offers different master courses and post-graduate courses.
    •   On the UNED the relations between the professors and the students are based on personalized
        tutorials in the associated centres that the UNED has in Spain and other countries.
    •   Material of consultation. The different chairs from the UNED publish their own books, that in
        many cases form the base for the study of a subject, and which are not included in the price of
        the matriculation.
    •   There is no continuous evaluation. The student of the UNED must prepare the subject from
        the material recommended in the subject, and sit the examinations in February, June and Sep-
        tember.
    •   Classes by radio, television and archives multimedia online. In Spain, the UNED was pioneer
        in the use of the radio and the television as a support for distant education. Today it counts on
        the UNED Programme, channel 2 of TVE, Radio UNED in Radio 3 of RNE, and TeleUNED,
        a system of transmission of audio-visual content through his Web.
    •   Related virtual development. The UNED has recently developed a virtual space to offer the
        contents through the Internet, where the students count on communication tools to consult
        doubts to the professors of their subject, tests of self-assessment and forums of debate. Never-
        theless, not all the subjects of the UNED can be studied in the Network. The tools of Internet
        are used as a complement of the positions of a guardian, and the examinations continue being
        current.
    •   Little contact via the Internet between student and professor. Some students compare the de-
        grees of the UNED with the study of a competitive examination, since there is little relation
        with professors and companions, the examinations are based on books of the subject, and the
        qualification depends on the results of these examinations. Others, nevertheless find that this
        way they can administer his time, specially when combining their studies with their work.

UOC is an online university founded in 1996. Its success has been so spectacular that it has exported
the formula to other countries. The number of students has increased in about 7 years and there are
universities in other countries that have virtual campuses designed and are under the supervision of the
UOC.

In this totally virtual type of universities a significant fact can be stated: 75% of their students are
over 25, 40% have children and 90% share the studies with the work.

In its Web pages there are all the elements that we can find in a university with updated studies: li-
brary, secretariat, etc with a noticeable character 24x7. In addition, the relation and the communication
professor student is closer in this type of education.

Other projects of the UOC are the programmes of doctorate of the Institute of Investigation in Tech-
nologies of the Information and the Knowledge with students of several countries worldwide, the
courses of third cycle and formation continued along with the Group Planet, or active classroom for
studies non regulated with the Complutensian University of Madrid.

From their creation, the 6 of October of 1994, the UOC has formed a very diverse university commu-
nity that reunites more than 37,000 people in more than 45 countries, that the knowledge has like
common interest, personal enrichment and the learning throughout the life, and that uses the technolo-
gies of the information and the communication to interact, forming a community in dynamic network
and growth.


Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                      13
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien



Growth of the supply of degrees accredited in the main campus and the Latin American campus




* Main campus
** Latin American Campus

Evolution of the number of students of the UOC




The UOC in numbers 2003-2004

Accredited Degrees main campus: 17
Accredited Degrees Latin American campus: 12
Own Degrees: 1
Programmes of postgraduate: 158
Students: 32,246
Own teaching staff 128
Consultants 1,174
Tutors 332
Subjects 1,584
Graduated degrees accredited 2,836
Graduated masters and postgraduates 2,197
Budget 2004: Type (42.158.761,90 euros) Investments (6.244.790,53 euros)

CASES INTER UNIVERSITIES

    •   Project ACCEPTS Madrid (at a distance Open Classroom: UAM, UPM, UC3M, URJC, UCM,
        UAH) financed by the Council of Education of the Community of Madrid. The students can
        attend subjects of free configuration non available in their university. The classes are even dis-
        tributed through the Internet or by means of videoconferences.




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       14
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


    •   Grupo9 Project Universities (UIB, UNICAN, UCLM, UNEX, UNIRIOJA, EHU, UPN, UN-
        IOVI, UNIZAR) whose virtual campus offers subjects of free configuration. In addition, the
        students can attend through videoconference classes given by educational of other universities.


6       Attitude of Superior Education concerning eLearning in Spain
According to the study "Virtual Models of European Universities" of the Europe Commission in 2003,
there are four groups of universities in which the use of the TIC is present in the organizational and
educational framework: runners, co-operatives, self-sufficient and sceptical.

Focusing on the situation in Spain, we expose attitudes of the Superior Education concerning eLearn-
ing. These points have been extracted of diverse investigations. The analyzed studies of investigation
have been: "Technologies of the Information and the Communications in the Spanish University Sys-
tem" of the CRUE in 2004, "The offer of superior education through the Internet. Analysis of the Vir-
tual Campuses of the Spanish universities" of the Ministry of Education of the 2002 and “University
Virtual Campus in Spain. Analysis of the current situation” of the Laboratory of Education and New
Technologies of the La Laguna University in 2002.

    •   More than half of the Spanish universities (52%) have some type of educational offer through
        the Internet, or own or shared with other centres. But if in addition to the certificates the cen-
        tres consider, the data reveals that public universities (61 percent) almost double the percent-
        age of private centres (31.5 percent) that have some virtual learning offer.
        > One of the most important aspects is the formation that it offers, being the courses of con-
        tinuous formation, the subjects of 1st and 2nd cycle, studies of postgraduate and courses of the
        most frequent doctorate. As regards the areas, there is a greater number of remote courses in
        Social Sciences and Technical Studies, whereas the offer is less considerable in Experimental
        Sciences of Health and Sciences.
    •   93% of the universities offer customized information in their Web pages, that is to say, infor-
        mation directed specifically to students, educational and personnel of administration and ser-
        vices, as opposed to 85% in 2002. On the other hand, 67% of the universities allow the access
        to educational material of way online and 20% allow the payments of transactions online with
        credit card.
    •   The services on which they count practically all the universities (more of 90%) have a basic
        character, and they are related to the security (antivirus and backups in a corporative level)
        and the maintenance, being this last the one the one that requires a greater number of average
        employees. Next, a service of organizational type, as it is the direction of projects, and another
        one with a more administrative profile are located, the management of the university member-
        ship card (both with a percentage of 87.9% of the universities).
    •   Three of each four universities offer degrees in which some E-learning tool is used, represent-
        ing such studies 62.6% of its supply, which demonstrates the considerable use of this type of
        virtual learning. Nevertheless, only four universities supply some degree using this class of
        tools of exclusive form, although those that make it do it with more than a degree. On the
        other hand, 37.5% of universities confirms their participation in eLearning partnerships.
    •   The main tools that are included within the E-learning can be divided in three main groups:
        communication, author and management. Those that are more expanded in the Spanish Uni-
        versity System are those of communication and those of management, with 68% and 66% of
        the universities that have covered the survey. The author tools come next, with a percentage
        of use of 54%.

    •   The universities have actively participated in the development of a series of centred applica-
        tions, in its majority, the scope of the basic services of management (academic, of personnel,
        scholarships, doctorate and emission of titles). Nevertheless, the applications supporting the
        management and research are not so often used.
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       15
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien



    •   We can affirm that the Spanish universities at the moment are in an expansive phase of crea-
        tion and virtual development of campus or services for university teaching, and it is foreseen
        that the supply of courses and programmes in line increases of well-known form in the short
        and mid term.

    •   According to the report of 2002, "The supply of superior education through the Internet.
        Analysis of the Virtual Campuses of the Spanish universities”, the offered university educa-
        tional supply in Spain through Virtual Campuses is organized in three great types or organiza-
        tional models:

    •   Virtual campus of an current university: the immense majority of the campuses (40%) corre-
        sponds to this type, although they are at different moments of development. Some campuses
        only offer courses in the virtual modality, but the major tendency is to combine the support to
        the attendance and the potentiality. Thus, in the year 2002 more than half of the Spanish uni-
        versities (36 out of 68) supplied formation through some virtual campus, having 28 virtual
        campuses, 23 of which belonged to a single university and 5 integrated by several.

    •   Virtual University: in this case the Virtual Campus (virtual services for teaching) comprises of
        the services of a University, which offer all by means of the network (virtual administration,
        investigation, virtual campus and libraries /digital data base). There are two Spanish examples:
        UNED and UOC.

    •   Interuniversity Virtual campus: one is a CV shared by a group of universities. 55% of these
        universities have this type of virtual campus.

In 2003 they solely supplied courses of formation in TIC and E-learning 46.9% and 31.3%, respec-
tively. These universities declare to have supplied 97.1% average courses of formation in the scope of
TIC and 17.9% in the scope of the E-learning.

Spanish universities based on the types offered by the report "Virtual Models of European Universi-
ties" are in their great majority universities centred in the cooperation. It is due to the agreements be-
tween diverse universities developed due to the capacity of these groupings to reduce costs and to the
idiosyncrasy of the Spanish university system. For that reason, in Spain they emphasize the runners
universities with respect to the rest of the European Union. After this type of universities, the rest
would be the self-sufficient ones. The most reduced group and with tendency to disappear would be
the sceptical.


7       eLearning strategies and services in Spanish University System
The decision of investment in the TIC depends not as much on its own technological characteristics as
on the strategic decision taken by the direction of the universities so that its implantation serves better
the addressees as the services of the University.

The universities have to foment a greater implication of the professors, departments, centres and facul-
ties. In this context, the professor should change his/her role of informer to the function of tutor in the
learning process.

Therefore, the universities will have to inform that the TIC represents for the professors an opportunity
to develop their careers, being given account of the reasons that advise their use. To this aim, they
would have to put into practice a policy of incentives to encourage professors into the adoption of new
competitions and the formation in these technologies. The investment in TIC will fail if the teaching
staff is not sufficiently motivated or is enabled for his use.
Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                        16
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien



The strategic alliances with other organizations can contribute to improve the financial situation of the
universities and to strengthen their autonomy. In order to reach these objectives, the strategy of the
universities would not have to trust a single strategic alliance. The universities must open to multiple
collaborations with other organizations, coordinating properly the different alliances on the basis of
their own strategic targets.


7.1     Services TIC and eLearning in Spain

The training of personnel is not considered an essential aspect of the TIC services. This data is alarm-
ing, since the PDI, PAS and the pupils are habitual users of these services, being able to be generated
an initial rejection in its use that, later, is difficult to correct.

With respect to eLearning services, practically the totality of universities counts on some product to
distribute virtual teaching. The system more using is WebCT (50% of the universities), followed of
Edustance, with a percentage of a much smaller use and, finally, a great variety of products used by a
singleinstitution. The main one via developing the E-learning products is the commercial one (48% of
the universities), whereas one out of three decides on their own development.

Three of each four universities supply degrees in which some tool is used eLearning, representing such
studies a 62.6% of their supply, which demonstrates the considerable use of this type of virtual learn-
ing. Nevertheless, only four universities supply some degree using this class of tools exclusively, al-
though those that make it possible with more than a degree. On the other hand, 37.5% of universities
affirm to participate in eLearning partnerships.


        E-learning Services according with report “TIC in Spanish universities” (CRUE, 2004)

System more used                                      WebCT
Participants universities in partnership              37,5 %
eLearning
Tools eLearning (use level)
Of communication        Forum (high)
(high)                  Calendar (high)
                        Slate (under)
Of management           The entrance page accedes to evaluations/examinations (high)
(average)               the entrance page accedes to obtained notes (high)
                        the professor can qualify feedback customized of an examination, in function
                        of the note (under)
Of author               To copy, to connect, to modify or to erase existing elements (high)
(under)                 To create, to insert, to copy or to move a new course or element (high)
                        Evaluation to fill up the spaces in target (high)
                        Surroundings the creation, organization and management of contents (high)
                        Evaluation type test (high)
                        Creation of interactive contents multimedia and (under)
                        All the contents are exported in format XML (under)




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                      17
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien




7.2       Planning eLearning in the Spanish universities

The material and human supply in TIC and eLearning has acquired increasing importance within the
productive and financial information of the universities.

On the other hand, the processes made within the systems TIC show to a level of planning and organi-
zation superior to the found one in other aspects. Thus, approximately in 75% of the universities there
is a person responsible of this area and documentation of pursuit. Different affluent situation is the one
of the processes made within the E-learning systems:

      •   25% of the universities declared to carry out an integrated process of academic management
      •   40% use standards within this area (fundamentally, IMS and, to a lesser extent, SCORMIEEE)
      •   Only 15% use some type of performance indicator, not existing consensus some surroundings
          to the used index.

On the other hand, and in relation to the development of applications, according to the report "the TIC
in the Spanish university system" of 2004, the universities have actively participated in the develop-
ment of a series of centred applications, in its majority, the scope of the basic services of management
(academic, of personnel, scholarships, doctorate and emission of titles). Nevertheless, the non exis-
tence has been detected or minor is present at of the applications that they have like main purpose of
supporting the direction and the investigation.

Concerning the support that universities apply in teaching and the investigation in the scope of the
TIC, it is possible to say that the universities count on an important supply of classrooms of computer
science and computers. However, it is appraised again that the Spanish university is far behind the
objective established by the Dearing Report for the year 2000 (a computer for each student). Of
course, to reach this objective, not only fixed computers should be taken into account, but also to pro-
mote disposition of laptops for students. It does not happen thus to the accounts of electronic mail,
existing more than an account by user. The most deficient aspect is the supply of video conference
rooms (2 per each university). Therefore, physical mobility continues being a necessity for Spanish
universities. However, the video conference rooms are becoming less important, going on to the per-
sonal equipment through webcam. In fact, the video conference would practically be relegated for
team work. The manpower level of support of teaching and investigation is still smaller than the one of
personnel destined to the development of applications (1 of each 6-7 positions TIC). This little man-
power level would explain the "minimum services" of support to teaching, research and management
that are offered, limiting itself in its majority services totally mechanized.

In summary, except for some aspects that are extremely standardized and, as a consequence, regulated
in all universities, the majority does not carry out a planning and a forecast in the areas TIC and E-
learning, since it has been when analyzing other aspects. Four years have already gone by from the
publication of the Bricall Report, in which a lack of a clear strategy for the incorporation from the TIC
the universities is clear. At the moment, the situation seems not to have improved too much in this
sense. In order to correct this deficiency, the European Association of Universities advised the integra-
tion of the TIC in its strategic plans (Bricall, 2000). Nevertheless, and according to the report ‘the TIC
in the SUE’ 64% of the Spanish universities haven’t considered taking this step.

The attitudes of the Universities are normally aimed at the introduction and use of the TIC, but fre-
quently more reactive than proactive and more improvised than planned. The extension of the use of
the TIC requires a detailed planning enough to be able to begin with a strategic level and to be later
translated to a tactical level.

The planning from a strategic level requires as a starting point the consideration of the TIC as a basic
instrument for the institution, which is to take them at sufficient a hierarchic level and an adapted or-

Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                       18
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


ganizational embroider in the university structure; hardly making them dependent on units of second
or third level or without the gear due with the rest on units, they will be able to reach the relevance
due. From the tactical point of view the planning must have as a reference element the opinion of the
own experts in TIC.


8       Standards and quality of eLearning in Spain
G. Ruipérez, president of the Spanish Agency for the Development and Investigation of the Society of
the Information, states in his book “Virtual Education and e-learning” that two important challenges
take place: the homologation and control of quality of the degrees obtained by the Internet and the
costs of this education.

With respect to this last one, Ruipérez points out that challenge for the university authorities is to es-
timate the real cost of the virtualization learning process. After a detailed study it is indicated that in
the case of the current universities, the cost of each student (in 2001) varied between the 3,700 euros
per year of the University of Santiago de Compostela and the 5,100 of the Independent one of Madrid.

Now, the future bet is to harness the experiences of interuniversity campuses in as much as they sup-
pose a reduction of costs, the extension of the learning offer and the development of programmes and
remote courses among different educational teams.

According to the report "TIC in the Spanish university system" (CRUE, 2004) the percentage of uni-
versities that has regulations and norms for the area of TIC or E-learning varies based on the analyzed
section. In general, more than 50% of the universities have had regulations about the use: classrooms
of computer science (71,9%), the electronic mail (62,5%), corporative lists of mail (59,4%) and, fi-
nally, publication in the corporative Web and security LOPD1 (53.1% in each one).

On the contrary, there are other scopes that as soon as they appear regulated in the universities: use of
E-learning and creation of file servers of files and applications (15.6% of universities), plan of contin-
gencies (28,1%), creation of servants of mail (31,3%) and Web servers (34,4%).

A fact that characterizes the universities with a greater preoccupation towards this type of technolo-
gies, is the existence of some organ that controls these activities. Only four out of each ten universities
count on a commission of coordination for the operations carried out in the matter of TIC.

On the other hand, 43.7% affirm to have a centralized purchasing organ. The cost in the development
of this type of technologies is normally high, due to the purchasing of state-of-the-art material. There-
fore, a service of these characteristics, that is centralized, can obtain better prices, being able to negoti-
ate with the suppliers the best deal.

Another factor that works as indicating proxy of the preoccupation and the level of the universities is
the quality evaluations and certifications. Practically 90% recognize to be examined by some quality
plan, although only 15.6% affirm to have some quality certificate.

In summary, although it can be stated that the TIC is more and more important in the economic budg-
ets of the universities, as well as in its groups. However, there isn´t an appropriate organization con-
cerning its functions.




Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                          19
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Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


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Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                   20
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Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


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Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                 21
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther
nml-nib Internationaler Kontext –Länderbericht Spanien


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WEBSITES
AEFOL
http://www.aefol.com/version2004

CONFERENCE OF DIRECTORS OF THE SPANISH UNIVERSITIES
http://www.crue.org

E-LEARNING EUROPE
http://www.elearningeuropa.info
http://www.europa.eu.int/comm

E-LEARNING THE CAMPUS COMPUTING PROJECT
http://www.campuscomputing.net

EUROPEAN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY OBSERVATORY
http://www.eito.com

INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION (ICDE)
http://www.icde.org

LABORATORY OF THE EDUCATION AND NEW TECHNOLOGIES OF THE UNIVERSITY LA
LAGUNA
http://www.edulab.ull.es/campusvirtuales/universidades/mapa.htm

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STATISTIC
http://www.ine.es

REDIRIS
http://edutec.rediris.es

UNED
http://www.uned.es
http://www.uned.es/catedraunesco-ead

UNIVERSIA
http://www.universia.es

UNIVERSITAT OBERTA DE CATALUNYA
http://www.uoc.edu

UKEU
http://www.ukeu.com


Im Auftrag des bm:bwk                                                                 22
Durchgeführt von Daniela Lohner und Silke Kleindienst (FH St. Pölten)
Projektleitung: Johann Günther

								
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