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					E l e v a t e d F l a re s
ADVANCED
COMBUSTION
SYSTEMS
       DECLARATION OF THE QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY

       The first engagement for THERMOENGINEERING

       The main principal which inspires the activity of THERMOENGINEERING is to provide the clients with
       solutions, products and services which are coherent to the market maximum standards and in full respect
       to all the defined characteristics and the foreseen periods.

       In order to assure that our responses are aligned with the quality expectation of the customers,
       THERMOENGINEERING has determined a quality management system which intend to incorporate the
       quality itself in all processes which represent the base of the activity and the company life: from the
       preliminary definition of the specifications up to the delivery of the products, the offered services, and
       the supply control.

       Throughout the measurements and the monitoring of the processes, it is intended to obtain a continuous
       improvement of the own performance, following always a major quality.

       Quality, for THERMOENGINEERING, means involving all the management in such a way that all are quite
       engaged to reach the un-renounced targets of safety, reliability, and maintainability of the proposed
       solutions.

       The clients of THERMOENGINEERING will find in the Manual of the Quality Management System of the
       company a reference point which, in addition to testifying our concrete involvement for providing the
       required quality level through well-defined processes, confirm our target of “satisfy the client” as well.


       Making use of methodologies validated by the market, applying controlled processes, defining formally
       the responsibilities, the roles and the necessary skills, THERMOENGINEERING quality could be considered
       a guarantee for whoever have the necessity to obtain for himself an advanced combustion system to get
       rid of the gas of the hydrocarbons.

        The Management
since 1979 is a company specialized in the
combustion technology field.

Our company is capable to deliver complete package
consisting of design, fabrication, field installation
and start up of the supplied equipment.

Thermoengineering is basically an engineering
company that is capable to design combustion
systems to meet clients’ specific requests.

In the design of all our equipment, very special
attention is brought to matters as air pollution,
Nox, noise, safety and energy conservation.

Flares, originally used in the oil and petrochemical
industries, from initial oil and gas exploration,
through transport, storage, refining, processing and
distribution, are also applied in coal gasification
plants, steel     production mills, nuclear power
plants, sewage treatment installations, chemical
plants and offshore.

Besides, computerized programs are available to
help our customers in finding out the best solutions
they are looking for, in a very short time.

The performance of our products is the most modern
and technologically advanced you can find today
on the market and our equipment are generally
realized to meet all European and American rules.

The ability to develop, test, demonstrate and prove
burners, flares, boilers and incineration systems
alleviates many customers concerns
regarding new equipment or applications.

A worldwide organization of our agents and
representatives is at our customers’ disposal for
the quickest and best service or assistance that
might be required.
                                                                has a wide range of advanced Flare Systems products.
                            ADVANCED                            Such products could be classified as per the following scheme
                            COMBUSTION
                            SYSTEMS                             The three basic structural support systems are:
                                                                     • Self supporting
                                                                     • Guy wire
                                                                     • Derrick system

                                EMERGENCY COMBUSTION SYSTEM




                                                            Elevated
                      Self-                                  Flares
                   Supporting

                       This system is applied for flares
                       with a height less than 50 meters.
                       The self-supporting flare
                       is economical and easy to erect,
                       and requires relatively less
                       installation space.




                                                                                  Derrick
                            Guy Wired



                                                            Combined




                                                                                           Flare supported by a derrick structure
                                                                                           can be the optimum arrangement for
Guy wired support systems are designed for flare                                           installations within the confines of
applications having a height up to 150 meters.                                             a plant, where higher elevation is
                                                                                           necessary in order to reduce the
This is necessary for large diameter emergency relief                                      effects of radiation.
flares, requiring extreme height because of high                                           Limited ground space and clearance
radiation levels.                                                                          distances from other equipment,
                                                                                           may also require a derrick type of
Investment for guy-wired flare systems is generally less                                   structure.
than other types of structural support, however the                                        The height of this type of flare can
installation requires a greater ground space.                                              reach 200 meters or higher.
Flare Tip
Flare tips are available in various versions in smokeless and non-smokeless execution.
The following tips are standardized to a large extent.

The Flare Tips main characteristics are :
   • Realized with high-temperature resistant materials
   • Equipped with high-efficiency ignition and flame detection devices
   • Equipped with a special flame retention ring suitable to guarantee the flame stability at very
     elevated exit gas velocities (up to 1 mach)
   • Equipped with a connection flange for an easy substitution.
The flare tips could be classified as per the following scheme :



                                                        FLARE TIPS

Suitable for the low
molecular weight
flared gas
                                                                                               Suitable for medium and heavy
                                                                                               molecular weight flared gas using
                                                                             Smokeless         the system to reduce or avoid
                       Standard                                                                the smoke production


                                                                            Functioning
                                                                             Principals


                                                         Cooling             Kinetically              Forced
                                                          Effect               Effect                  draft




                       Steam                                                 Partialization
                                                                                 Effect

                                                                                                        Air
                                                                              Light gas               Forced
                        Water                                                                          draft

                                                           Air
                                                         Natural
                                                          draft
Standard Flare Tip                                                          Smokeless Flare Tip
SFT Type                                                                    PFT Type




                                                                                    By applying this uniquely
                                                                                    designed flare tip, complete
                                                                                    combustion of high
                                                                                    molecular weight gases,
                                                                                    with a molecular weight
                                                                                    up to 50 is guaranteed
                                                                                    without the use of steam or
                                                                                    additional air.

                                                                                    Maintenance costs are
                                                                                    low due to the special gas
                                                                                    nozzle slot design.
                                                                                    Utility consumption is
                                                                                    low and a smokeless
                                                                                    combustion is achieved.




The emergency flare tip ranges in sizes from 2” to 72” with smokeless
operation on flared gases with a molecular weight up to 27 Kmoli/Kg.
Under emergency conditions this type of flare tip can handle all kind of
hydrocarbons gases.
Thermoengineering SFT flare tip, even not smokeless type, is equipped
with a special drilled windshield realized from perforated plate to avoid
the flame return, for wind effect, on the external part of shell under
wind direction.
                                                                              ADVANCED
                                                                              COMBUSTION
                                                                              SYSTEMS



Smokeless Flare Tip                                                              Smokeless Flare Tip
SSFT Type                                                                        QSSFT Type




                                                                                  lf a flare system has to be located nearby a populated area and
                                                                                  the flare tip should operate under smokeless conditions, this
                                                                                  type of flare tip is strongly indicated.

                                                                                  The tip is executed with an acoustical shield to reduce the noise
                                                                                  production.

                                                                                  This model includes an external and an internal steam delivery
                                                                                  system. The internal steam tips are designed to inject air-steam
                                                                                  mixture into the flare tip improving the smokeless capacity of
                                                                                  the tip, and the saving of steam.




A method to achieve smokeless flaring is the injection of steam.
The external steam ring with its injectors promotes the gas and air
mixing at the top of the tip.

For Flare tips with a size of 24” or larger it is recommended to install an
additional internal steam jet.

The central steam jet produces a turbulence and a steam and gas mixing.

This flare tip is designed to handle all kind of hydrocarbons.
                                                                                 ADVANCED
                                                                                 COMBUSTION
                                                                                 SYSTEMS




Smokeless Flare Tip                                                                 Air Smokeless Flare
PAFT Type




                                                                                                           When smokeless operation and energy
                                                                                                           saving are required, the use of this
                                                                                                           type of flare is recommended for the
                                                                                                           oxidation of gases which normally need
                                                                                                           media as steam, water or high pressure
                                                                                                           gas for a smokeless combustion.

                                                                                                           With this type of flare tips, smokeless
                                                                                                           operation is guaranteed by means of
                                                                                                           an external axial fan suitable to deliver,
                                                                                                           through coaxial flare stacks, part of the
                                                                                                           air necessary to the combustion.

                                                                                                           The design of Thermoengineering Flare
                                                                                                           Tip, through the shape of its arms,
                                                                                                           allows a swirling motion to the flare
                                                                                                           gas providing a high velocity mixing
                                                                                                           and turbulence with the primary air
                                                                                                           generated by fan and the secondary air
                                                                                                           from atmosphere.




The new and particular configuration of this type of flare tip
improve the combustion efficiency and the smokeless effect with all
hydrocarbon flared gas types in all the particular situations when it is
essential to guarantee a good flaring efficiency.

The primary combustion air can be addressed to the flare tip through a              The fan is supplied with variable
concentrical air-gas riser or with a separated risers. The air distributor          speed motor controls to
gaps are strategically located to allow forced air-gas mixing. The air gas          operate automatically at the
mixing is very important for the smokeless effect and for combustion                lowest possible cost.
efficiency. The important factor, for the tip life, is that the air-gas mixing      The low operating costs of this
point is out of the tip top                                                         type of flare are evidenced by
                                                                                    the relative cost of power in
                                                                                    comparison with steam or gas
                                                                                    required by other smokeless
                                                                                    flaring systems.
Ignition and continuous pilot system




The pilot burners are available in various executions,
depending on operation and weather conditions,
availability of utilities and composition of gas.

The number of pilot burners is determined by the
diameter of the flare tip.
                                            ADVANCED
                                            COMBUSTION
                                            SYSTEMS



Labyrintic Seal
The molecular or labyrinthic seal is
a static seal and utilizes the density
differential of the purge gas and air to
create a barrier.

Under static conditions this type of seal
does not require purge gas.




Spiral Venturi Seal
The Spiral Venturi Seal is a dynamic seal, where air
penetration is prevented by the exit velocity of the flare
gases.

Due to the spiral construction the velocity pattern inside
the tip is flattened.

To minimize air penetration and back flow into the flare
system the exit velocity of the flare gases is increased over
the spiral venturi seal.
The allowable pressure drop in the system determines the
size of the Spiral Venturi Seal and thereby also the purge
gas consumption.
                    COMPARISON TABLE FOR SEAL TYPE SELECTION

                            MOLECULAR SEAL                                      VENTURI SEAL                            SPIRAL VENTURI SEAL

Equipment Scheme




Purge gas quality     Fixed-Function of nominal diameter                   Fixed-Function of nominal                    Fixed - Function of nominal
required                                                                   diameter                                     diameter.
                                                                                                                        Due to the diagram of the inside
                                                                                                                        gas velocity distribuction
                                                                                                                        improve the seal functionality.
Needs a constant      NO                                                   YES                                          YES
puge gas flow rate    With normal atmospheric condition.                   The seal configuration,                      The seal configuration, reduces
                      In case of the strongly wind effect,                 reduces the purge gas                        the purge gas quantity needed
                      we suggest to maintain a constant                    quantity needed in function                  in function of the seal restriction.
                      purge gas quality in order to                        of the seal restriction.                     An additional purge gas quantity
                      guarantee the oxygen concentration
                      under 6% in the riser.                                                                            reduction is obtained with the
                                                                                                                        gas swirling effect inducted by
                                                                                                                        the seal.

Combustion            NO                                                   NO                                           YES
efficiency
improvement

Draining line         YES                                                  NO                                           NO
required

Installation type     Between flare riser and flare tip.                   Inside of the tip                            Inside of the tip

Configuration         Vessel flanged type.                                 Welded                                       Welded

Usuall construction   Carbon steel.                                        Stainless steel                              Stainless steel
materials

Maintenance           The seal conformation can produces                   No maintenance required                      NO maintenance required.
                      a retaining of solid and liquid particles.
                      Necesary a periodical inspection
                      and cleaning operation.

Accessories           Platform at handhole level                           NO                                           NO
                      for maintenance operations.



                                                   air                                       air                                       air


                                                                    flare tip                                  flare tip                               flare tip
                                         wind                                         wind                                   wind                      internal gas
                                       direction                                direction                                  direction                   velocity diagram

                                                                   internal gas
                                                                   velocity diagram

                                        air
                                        infiltration




                                                                                             pure gas
                                                   pure gas
                                                                                                                                       pure gas

                                                functioning without seal                functioning with venturi seal        functioning with spiral venturi seal
Knock-out drum

                 Generally a knock-out
                 drum (vertical type) is an
                 integral part of a flare
                 system, located at the
                 base of the flare riser.

                 The equipment, can be
                 realized externally (vertical
                 or horizontal type) as a
                 separate pressure vessel
                 connected to the flare and
                 vent through a pipeline.




                                                                                           vertical knock-out drum




                                                 The objectives of a flare and vent
                                                 knock-out drum are :
                                                 • to separate the liquid from the gas
                                                 before it is relieved to the atmosphere
                                                 • to hold the maximum amount of
                                                 liquid which can be relieved during an
                                                 emergency situation


                                                 The maximum gas relief case not
                                                 necessarily coincide with the maximum
                                                 liquid relief case.

                                                 This means that the size of the knock-
                                                 out drum shall be determined by both
                                                 the maximum gas relief case as well
                                                 as the relief case at which a maximum
                                                 amount of liquid is relieved.




                                                                                           orizontal knock-out drum
                                                                             ADVANCED
                                                                             COMBUSTION
                                                                             SYSTEMS



Water seal drum

Like the knock-out drum, the liquid seal drum (vertical type) normally is
located at the base of the flare stack.

The equipment, can be realized externally (vertical or horizontal type)
as a separate pressure vessel connected to the flare and vent through
a pipeline.




The purpose of the water seal vessel is:
1) to prevent any flashback, initiated from the vent or flare tip and
   propagated further upstream of the water seal vessel;
2) to prevent air ingress due to a sudden temperature change of the
   flare and relief system;
3) to maintain a slight overpressure in the flare system to ensure
   that air will not enter the system and also, this may be necessary
   if a flare gas recovery system is in use.




The design of the water seal vessel normally, shall be based on the
maximum vapor quantity to be released.

The seal vessel shall be equipped with a anti-pulsation device to avoid
the flare intermittent operation.

Where it is possible to foreseen a cold flared gas release, we don’t
suggest to install the water seal drum in order to avoid the creation of
the accidental obstruction in the flare relief system.

An usual water seal application is for two parallel flare systems or
combined Ground/ Elevated Flare Systems that use a liquid seal to
supply the flare gases to the Ground Flare up to a selected system
pressure drop.

In case the supply pressure of the flare gas exceeds the water seal level,
the gas will be directed to the elevated flare.
FLAME FRONT GENERATOR CONTROL PANEL
                                      This panel can be adapted to specific area classification requirements
                                      and is suitable for ignition and control of one or more pilots.

                                      The pilots are ignited through an ignition tube alongside the flare riser.

                                      The tube is filled with a mixture of gas and air, which is spark-ignited
                                      to generate a flame front, that rises through the ignition tube to the
                                      pilot.

                                      The Thermoengineering FFGCP panel can be supplied with automatic
                                      system of ignition and re-ignition of pilots.
                             ADVANCED
                             COMBUSTION
                             SYSTEMS




                             OUR GROUP

                                       is an international group which deals with a wide range of advanced combustion systems
                             for all the applications needed in the petrochemical field.
                             On the basis of a turnkey concept, our supply includes the design, engineering, fabrication, and
                             quality control of the different systems.
                             Our specialization and constantly improving know-how permits us to satisfy even the most
                             particular request of our Clients.

                             Since the foundation of Thermoengineering on 1979 at Milan (Italy), our main philosophy is to
                             spare no efforts to satisfy Clients requirements and try continuously to achieve the Quality/Cost
                             magic formula for international market.
                             Maintaining this policy, Thermoengineering succeed to obtain the absolute confidence of the most
                             major petrochemical firms all over the world operating in this sector.
                             Aiming always for high-technology innovations and laboratory researches, we can always guarantee
                             the utmost degree of efficiency and reliability of our various products. Our organization includes :


                             main managing functions for the whole group


                             technical office, technical and engineering services, mechanical and structural calculations

                             technical and engineering office for our group where all detailed and workshop drawings to be
                             elaborated.

                             associated mechanical and steelwork workshop for the fabrication of all the special items of our group.

                             is the associated electrical and instrumental workshop for the supply, mounting, and assembling of
                             all the control panels and instrumental skids of Thermoengineering group.

                             associated company which is strictly specialized on all plants based on biogas concept.


                             burners and fittings for industrial plants

                             OUR MAIN PRODUCTS
                             Having an elevated and vast experience in designing, fabricating, and supplying a wide range of liquid and
                             gaseous fuel combustion systems worldwide, Thermoengineering products can be classified as follows:
                                                                                                                                • Elevated Flare Systems
                                                                                                                                • Ground Flare Systems
                                                                                                                                • Incinerators
                                                                                                                                • Burning Pits
                                                                                                                                • Burners & Combustors
                                                                                                                                • Flame Arrestors
                                                                                                                                • Snuffing Systems
                                                                                                                                • Molecular Gas Seals
                                                                                                                                • Water Seals
ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                • Knock-Out Drums
                                                                                                                                • Silencers
       Safety Systems                                                                                E l e v a t e d F l a re   • Coal Gasification Units
                                                                                                                                • Venting Systems
                                   G ro u n d F l a re                         ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
                                                                                                                                • Inert Gas Generators
                                                                                                                                • Fuel and utilities supply line systems
                                                                                                                                • Oil pumping and heating units
                                                         Incinerator Systems




                                                                                                                                • Indirect Heater
                                                             Imp. Grafica L. THEVENET - TV - ITALY - Printed in Italy by ARTI GRAFICHE CONEGLIANO




A D VA N C E D C O M B U S T I O N S Y S T E M



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