E l e v a t e d F l a re s
DECLARATION OF THE QUALITY POLICY OF THE COMPANY
The first engagement for THERMOENGINEERING
The main principal which inspires the activity of THERMOENGINEERING is to provide the clients with
solutions, products and services which are coherent to the market maximum standards and in full respect
to all the defined characteristics and the foreseen periods.
In order to assure that our responses are aligned with the quality expectation of the customers,
THERMOENGINEERING has determined a quality management system which intend to incorporate the
quality itself in all processes which represent the base of the activity and the company life: from the
preliminary definition of the specifications up to the delivery of the products, the offered services, and
the supply control.
Throughout the measurements and the monitoring of the processes, it is intended to obtain a continuous
improvement of the own performance, following always a major quality.
Quality, for THERMOENGINEERING, means involving all the management in such a way that all are quite
engaged to reach the un-renounced targets of safety, reliability, and maintainability of the proposed
The clients of THERMOENGINEERING will find in the Manual of the Quality Management System of the
company a reference point which, in addition to testifying our concrete involvement for providing the
required quality level through well-defined processes, confirm our target of “satisfy the client” as well.
Making use of methodologies validated by the market, applying controlled processes, defining formally
the responsibilities, the roles and the necessary skills, THERMOENGINEERING quality could be considered
a guarantee for whoever have the necessity to obtain for himself an advanced combustion system to get
rid of the gas of the hydrocarbons.
since 1979 is a company specialized in the
combustion technology field.
Our company is capable to deliver complete package
consisting of design, fabrication, field installation
and start up of the supplied equipment.
Thermoengineering is basically an engineering
company that is capable to design combustion
systems to meet clients’ specific requests.
In the design of all our equipment, very special
attention is brought to matters as air pollution,
Nox, noise, safety and energy conservation.
Flares, originally used in the oil and petrochemical
industries, from initial oil and gas exploration,
through transport, storage, refining, processing and
distribution, are also applied in coal gasification
plants, steel production mills, nuclear power
plants, sewage treatment installations, chemical
plants and offshore.
Besides, computerized programs are available to
help our customers in finding out the best solutions
they are looking for, in a very short time.
The performance of our products is the most modern
and technologically advanced you can find today
on the market and our equipment are generally
realized to meet all European and American rules.
The ability to develop, test, demonstrate and prove
burners, flares, boilers and incineration systems
alleviates many customers concerns
regarding new equipment or applications.
A worldwide organization of our agents and
representatives is at our customers’ disposal for
the quickest and best service or assistance that
might be required.
has a wide range of advanced Flare Systems products.
ADVANCED Such products could be classified as per the following scheme
SYSTEMS The three basic structural support systems are:
• Self supporting
• Guy wire
• Derrick system
EMERGENCY COMBUSTION SYSTEM
This system is applied for flares
with a height less than 50 meters.
The self-supporting flare
is economical and easy to erect,
and requires relatively less
Flare supported by a derrick structure
can be the optimum arrangement for
Guy wired support systems are designed for flare installations within the confines of
applications having a height up to 150 meters. a plant, where higher elevation is
necessary in order to reduce the
This is necessary for large diameter emergency relief effects of radiation.
flares, requiring extreme height because of high Limited ground space and clearance
radiation levels. distances from other equipment,
may also require a derrick type of
Investment for guy-wired flare systems is generally less structure.
than other types of structural support, however the The height of this type of flare can
installation requires a greater ground space. reach 200 meters or higher.
Flare tips are available in various versions in smokeless and non-smokeless execution.
The following tips are standardized to a large extent.
The Flare Tips main characteristics are :
• Realized with high-temperature resistant materials
• Equipped with high-efficiency ignition and flame detection devices
• Equipped with a special flame retention ring suitable to guarantee the flame stability at very
elevated exit gas velocities (up to 1 mach)
• Equipped with a connection flange for an easy substitution.
The flare tips could be classified as per the following scheme :
Suitable for the low
Suitable for medium and heavy
molecular weight flared gas using
Smokeless the system to reduce or avoid
Standard the smoke production
Cooling Kinetically Forced
Effect Effect draft
Light gas Forced
Standard Flare Tip Smokeless Flare Tip
SFT Type PFT Type
By applying this uniquely
designed flare tip, complete
combustion of high
molecular weight gases,
with a molecular weight
up to 50 is guaranteed
without the use of steam or
Maintenance costs are
low due to the special gas
nozzle slot design.
Utility consumption is
low and a smokeless
combustion is achieved.
The emergency flare tip ranges in sizes from 2” to 72” with smokeless
operation on flared gases with a molecular weight up to 27 Kmoli/Kg.
Under emergency conditions this type of flare tip can handle all kind of
Thermoengineering SFT flare tip, even not smokeless type, is equipped
with a special drilled windshield realized from perforated plate to avoid
the flame return, for wind effect, on the external part of shell under
Smokeless Flare Tip Smokeless Flare Tip
SSFT Type QSSFT Type
lf a flare system has to be located nearby a populated area and
the flare tip should operate under smokeless conditions, this
type of flare tip is strongly indicated.
The tip is executed with an acoustical shield to reduce the noise
This model includes an external and an internal steam delivery
system. The internal steam tips are designed to inject air-steam
mixture into the flare tip improving the smokeless capacity of
the tip, and the saving of steam.
A method to achieve smokeless flaring is the injection of steam.
The external steam ring with its injectors promotes the gas and air
mixing at the top of the tip.
For Flare tips with a size of 24” or larger it is recommended to install an
additional internal steam jet.
The central steam jet produces a turbulence and a steam and gas mixing.
This flare tip is designed to handle all kind of hydrocarbons.
Smokeless Flare Tip Air Smokeless Flare
When smokeless operation and energy
saving are required, the use of this
type of flare is recommended for the
oxidation of gases which normally need
media as steam, water or high pressure
gas for a smokeless combustion.
With this type of flare tips, smokeless
operation is guaranteed by means of
an external axial fan suitable to deliver,
through coaxial flare stacks, part of the
air necessary to the combustion.
The design of Thermoengineering Flare
Tip, through the shape of its arms,
allows a swirling motion to the flare
gas providing a high velocity mixing
and turbulence with the primary air
generated by fan and the secondary air
The new and particular configuration of this type of flare tip
improve the combustion efficiency and the smokeless effect with all
hydrocarbon flared gas types in all the particular situations when it is
essential to guarantee a good flaring efficiency.
The primary combustion air can be addressed to the flare tip through a The fan is supplied with variable
concentrical air-gas riser or with a separated risers. The air distributor speed motor controls to
gaps are strategically located to allow forced air-gas mixing. The air gas operate automatically at the
mixing is very important for the smokeless effect and for combustion lowest possible cost.
efficiency. The important factor, for the tip life, is that the air-gas mixing The low operating costs of this
point is out of the tip top type of flare are evidenced by
the relative cost of power in
comparison with steam or gas
required by other smokeless
Ignition and continuous pilot system
The pilot burners are available in various executions,
depending on operation and weather conditions,
availability of utilities and composition of gas.
The number of pilot burners is determined by the
diameter of the flare tip.
The molecular or labyrinthic seal is
a static seal and utilizes the density
differential of the purge gas and air to
create a barrier.
Under static conditions this type of seal
does not require purge gas.
Spiral Venturi Seal
The Spiral Venturi Seal is a dynamic seal, where air
penetration is prevented by the exit velocity of the flare
Due to the spiral construction the velocity pattern inside
the tip is flattened.
To minimize air penetration and back flow into the flare
system the exit velocity of the flare gases is increased over
the spiral venturi seal.
The allowable pressure drop in the system determines the
size of the Spiral Venturi Seal and thereby also the purge
COMPARISON TABLE FOR SEAL TYPE SELECTION
MOLECULAR SEAL VENTURI SEAL SPIRAL VENTURI SEAL
Purge gas quality Fixed-Function of nominal diameter Fixed-Function of nominal Fixed - Function of nominal
required diameter diameter.
Due to the diagram of the inside
gas velocity distribuction
improve the seal functionality.
Needs a constant NO YES YES
puge gas flow rate With normal atmospheric condition. The seal configuration, The seal configuration, reduces
In case of the strongly wind effect, reduces the purge gas the purge gas quantity needed
we suggest to maintain a constant quantity needed in function in function of the seal restriction.
purge gas quality in order to of the seal restriction. An additional purge gas quantity
guarantee the oxygen concentration
under 6% in the riser. reduction is obtained with the
gas swirling effect inducted by
Combustion NO NO YES
Draining line YES NO NO
Installation type Between flare riser and flare tip. Inside of the tip Inside of the tip
Configuration Vessel flanged type. Welded Welded
Usuall construction Carbon steel. Stainless steel Stainless steel
Maintenance The seal conformation can produces No maintenance required NO maintenance required.
a retaining of solid and liquid particles.
Necesary a periodical inspection
and cleaning operation.
Accessories Platform at handhole level NO NO
for maintenance operations.
air air air
flare tip flare tip flare tip
wind wind wind internal gas
direction direction direction velocity diagram
functioning without seal functioning with venturi seal functioning with spiral venturi seal
Generally a knock-out
drum (vertical type) is an
integral part of a flare
system, located at the
base of the flare riser.
The equipment, can be
realized externally (vertical
or horizontal type) as a
separate pressure vessel
connected to the flare and
vent through a pipeline.
vertical knock-out drum
The objectives of a flare and vent
knock-out drum are :
• to separate the liquid from the gas
before it is relieved to the atmosphere
• to hold the maximum amount of
liquid which can be relieved during an
The maximum gas relief case not
necessarily coincide with the maximum
liquid relief case.
This means that the size of the knock-
out drum shall be determined by both
the maximum gas relief case as well
as the relief case at which a maximum
amount of liquid is relieved.
orizontal knock-out drum
Water seal drum
Like the knock-out drum, the liquid seal drum (vertical type) normally is
located at the base of the flare stack.
The equipment, can be realized externally (vertical or horizontal type)
as a separate pressure vessel connected to the flare and vent through
The purpose of the water seal vessel is:
1) to prevent any flashback, initiated from the vent or flare tip and
propagated further upstream of the water seal vessel;
2) to prevent air ingress due to a sudden temperature change of the
flare and relief system;
3) to maintain a slight overpressure in the flare system to ensure
that air will not enter the system and also, this may be necessary
if a flare gas recovery system is in use.
The design of the water seal vessel normally, shall be based on the
maximum vapor quantity to be released.
The seal vessel shall be equipped with a anti-pulsation device to avoid
the flare intermittent operation.
Where it is possible to foreseen a cold flared gas release, we don’t
suggest to install the water seal drum in order to avoid the creation of
the accidental obstruction in the flare relief system.
An usual water seal application is for two parallel flare systems or
combined Ground/ Elevated Flare Systems that use a liquid seal to
supply the flare gases to the Ground Flare up to a selected system
In case the supply pressure of the flare gas exceeds the water seal level,
the gas will be directed to the elevated flare.
FLAME FRONT GENERATOR CONTROL PANEL
This panel can be adapted to specific area classification requirements
and is suitable for ignition and control of one or more pilots.
The pilots are ignited through an ignition tube alongside the flare riser.
The tube is filled with a mixture of gas and air, which is spark-ignited
to generate a flame front, that rises through the ignition tube to the
The Thermoengineering FFGCP panel can be supplied with automatic
system of ignition and re-ignition of pilots.
is an international group which deals with a wide range of advanced combustion systems
for all the applications needed in the petrochemical field.
On the basis of a turnkey concept, our supply includes the design, engineering, fabrication, and
quality control of the different systems.
Our specialization and constantly improving know-how permits us to satisfy even the most
particular request of our Clients.
Since the foundation of Thermoengineering on 1979 at Milan (Italy), our main philosophy is to
spare no efforts to satisfy Clients requirements and try continuously to achieve the Quality/Cost
magic formula for international market.
Maintaining this policy, Thermoengineering succeed to obtain the absolute confidence of the most
major petrochemical firms all over the world operating in this sector.
Aiming always for high-technology innovations and laboratory researches, we can always guarantee
the utmost degree of efficiency and reliability of our various products. Our organization includes :
main managing functions for the whole group
technical office, technical and engineering services, mechanical and structural calculations
technical and engineering office for our group where all detailed and workshop drawings to be
associated mechanical and steelwork workshop for the fabrication of all the special items of our group.
is the associated electrical and instrumental workshop for the supply, mounting, and assembling of
all the control panels and instrumental skids of Thermoengineering group.
associated company which is strictly specialized on all plants based on biogas concept.
burners and fittings for industrial plants
OUR MAIN PRODUCTS
Having an elevated and vast experience in designing, fabricating, and supplying a wide range of liquid and
gaseous fuel combustion systems worldwide, Thermoengineering products can be classified as follows:
• Elevated Flare Systems
• Ground Flare Systems
• Burning Pits
• Burners & Combustors
• Flame Arrestors
• Snuffing Systems
• Molecular Gas Seals
• Water Seals
ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
• Knock-Out Drums
Safety Systems E l e v a t e d F l a re • Coal Gasification Units
• Venting Systems
G ro u n d F l a re ADVANCED COMBUSTION SYSTEM
• Inert Gas Generators
• Fuel and utilities supply line systems
• Oil pumping and heating units
• Indirect Heater
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