International Development

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					Development as
     Craig Jeffrey
    Aims of next two
• To introduce the links between
  colonialism and development
• To explain changes in
  development thinking after WW2
• To describe ideas of
  development as modernization
Structure of lectures
1. Colonialism as Development
2. Key changes in the mid-1940s
And on Monday:
3. Development as modernization
  Section 1

Colonialism and
Origins of Colonialism
• Colonialism = direct political control
  of an overseas territory by a state.
• Began C15 with European
  expansion to Africa, Asia and the
  New World
       Colonialism and
• Edward Said (1978) Orientalism
  West = rational, civilized, enlightened
  East = irrational, savage, dark
• Darwinian idea of people occupying
  fixed evolutionary stages
• Disciplines of geography and
  anthropology supported such ideas
        Colonialism and
        Development II
• BUT: there were theories of
  development circulating in the colonial
  era (Cowen and Shenton, 1996).
• Neoclassical economics: poor nations
  would develop through trade.
 Impact of colonialism
   on development
• Most countries suffered eg India:
  lack of devt. of manufacturing base
• Massive environmental change
  accompanied colonialism
• Sense of cultural, social and
  political loss and insecurity
  Section 2

Key changes in
the mid-1940s
       End of WW2:
       New context
• Decolonisation: US pressure and
  nationalist movements
• Cold War rivalry
• Technological/industrial
  developments: experience of war
  encouraged state-led development
US Economic Dominance
• US responsible for 60% of
  global production in 1945
• Provided basis for US to
  introduce a new system of
  international assistance
Bretton Woods 1944
• Agreement between US and UK
• Created International Bank of
  Reconstruction and Development
  (IBRD) to rebuild economies of
  Japan and Europe
• International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  to promote international monetary
  co-operation and expand trade
     United Nations
• UN established in 1945 to replace
  old League of Nations
• UN charter drafted at a meeting
  between UK, USSR and US at
  Dumbarton Oaks in 1944
• Intended not only to keep the
  peace but promote change through
   Truman Doctrine
• In 1949, President Harry Truman
  gave a speech - announced the
  “birth of a program of development
  based on the concepts of
  democratic fair dealing”
• Based on end to colonialism and
  new program of development
 Rising US confidence
• By 1958, prodn levels in Japan and
  Germany back up to 1939 levels
• JFK 1961: “Within ten years…the
  third world of today will have joined
  the first world”
• 1959, the United Nations
  announced a development decade
       Cultures of US
• Ideas of speed very important: fast
  food, fast cars, fast living
• American dream exported as
  alternative to Communism
• Idea of progress captured in
  literature and drama of the time:
  e.g. Tennessee Williams
          Getting a GRIP on
GEOGRAPHY: How did modernization affect
  geographical change?
REGION: How does „your‟ region reflect the
  history of modernization?
INTERACT: What do others in the class think of
  the whole „modernization‟ idea?
POSITION: How does your family‟s history
  relate to the modernization drive?

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